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Indian Oil Corporation Limited

Mathura Refinery

OPERATING MANUAL
CONTINUOUS CATALYTIC REFORMING
UNIT (CCRU)
UPDATED MARCH 2016

PREPARED BY

REVIEWED BY

APPROVED BY

Sh.BrijeshYadav,

Sh. Suraj Sharma,

Sh. B.S.Pachahara,

DMPN

CPNM

AMPN

FOREWORD
The Continuous Catalyst Regeneration type of Reforming Unit (CCRU)
commissioned on 18th May 1998 at Mathura Refinery Is a new feather in the cap of
Indian Oil Corporation. Its process is based on advanced technology from IFP
(France), which allows continuous regeneration of catalyst unlike in earlier semiregenerative type of CRU s operating with limited cycle length between two
consecutive regenerations.

Installed at the cost of about Rs. 360 crores (inclusive of power plant), the CCRU
is serving us to produce high octane reformate (up to 98 RON) from straight run
(C5145 0C cut) naphtha through catalytic reforming process.

Reformate so

produced is a component used to upgrade (by blending with) lower Octane


streams up to the desired level of Octane number for production of Euro-III and
Premium Grade MS.

Thus, incorporation of CCRU in the process configuration of Mathura Refinery has


made it, in real sense, a GREEN Refinery by way of producing eco-friendly (leadfree) motor spirit.

Date: 31.03.2016

Chief Production Manager


(B.S.PACHAHARA, CPNM)

ADDENDUM 2016
1.

Provision of routing Penex Net gas scrubber off gas to


K-5 for Hydrogen recovery (CRU-02-32*)
2.
Dosing of IPA along with C2CL4(CRU-02-10*)
3. 17DR-1 Heater running indication and Heater failure alarm
on DCS (CRU-02-17*).
4.
Experience Sharing in changeover of Stripper feed/bottom
Exchanger (MISC -21- 02)
5.
Experience sharing in CCRU short shut down(1.9days) due to
Ebara tripping(MISC21-02)

ADDENDUM 2015
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14
15.

Design basis for Side Cut (NSU-01-02)


New Addition for Side Cut (NSU-01-02)
Distillation and Density Table of NSU (NSU-01-03)
Process Modification for Side Cut (NSU-02-03)
Process Parameter for Side Cut (NSU-02-03)
Operational Philosphy for operating HTU Feed
in OMS (NHTU-02-05)
7. Energy saving by stopping 14K-2A/B (NHTU-02-06)
8. 14E-103A/B taken in line due to leak in 14E-3A/B.
(NHTU-14-01)
9. Provision of Bypass line in 14-E-2. (NHTU-14-03)
Opearting Philospy for maintaining Oil/Gas
DP of Ammonia Package (NH3-05-01)
New DMDS Scheme for maintaining Sulphur in CCRU
feed (CRU-02-01*)
Reacceleration Facility for pump 15P-1A/B (CRU-02-01*)
Catalyst Properties of 15-DR-1 (CRU-02-14*)
New CCR Catalyst CR-601 Properties (CRU-03-08)
Ledger of Experience (MISC -21- 02)

ADDENDUM 2014

1. Inclusion of side cut facility.(NSU-01-01)


2. Inclusion of MP BFW for NHTU wash water section.
(NHTU-01-01)
3.Replacement Catalyst CR-401 with New Catalyst CR601(CRU-04-01)
4. Inclusion of Clean Pac system for Ebara Compressor.
(MISC -09-06)
5. Inclusion of ELCM for EBARA Compressor. (MISC -09-06)
6. Inclusion of New parallel Ammonia Condenser.(NH3-03-01)

INDEX

PART A:

NAPTHA SPLITTING UNIT (UNIT 9)

PART B:

NAPTHA HYDROTREATER UNIT (UNIT 14)

PART C:

CATALYTIC REFORMING & CONTINUOUS


CATALYST REGENERATION UNIT (UNIT
15&17)

PART D:

NITROGEN UNIT (UNIT 40)

PART E:

AMMONIA REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (15-X-1)

PART F:

AIR PREHEATER SYSTEM FOR 09F-1 / 15F-4

PART G:

OFF-SITE HYDROGEN STORAGE FACILITY

PART H:

MISCELLANEOUS

PART A
NAPTHA SPLITTING UNIT (UNIT 9)

S NO

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

1.0

Introduction

NSU-01-01

2.0

Process description

NSU-02-01
NSU-02-01
NSU-02-01
NSU-02-02

2.1
2.2
2.3

3.0

Normal operations
3.1
3.2

4.0

Feed Supply
Splitter Section
Re-boiling Heater

Operating Parameters
Process Variables

Start up procedure
4.1
4.2
4.3

Steam Purging And Oxygen Removal


Fuel Gas Back Up
Oil In And Final Adjustment

NSU-03-01
NSU-03-01
NSU-03-02
NSU-04-01
NSU-04-01
NSU-04-01
NSU-04-01

5.0

Shut down procedure

NSU-05-01

6.0

Emergency shut down procedure

NSU-06-01
NSU-06-01
NSU-06-01
NSU-06-01
NSU-06-02
NSU-06-02
NSU-06-02
NSU-06-02
NSU-06-02
NSU-06-03
NSU-06-03
NSU-06-03

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

7.0

Stationary equipment list


7.1
7.2

8.0

Loss Of Feed
Reflux Pump Failure
Splitter Bottom Pump Failure
Heater Tube Failure
Utilities Failure
6.5.1
Power Failure
6.5.2
Steam Failure
6.5.3
Fuel Oil Failure
6.5.4
Cooling Water Failure
6.5.5
Instrument Air Failure
6.5.6
DCS Failure
Stationary Equipment List
PSV List

Interlocks

NSU-07-01
NSU-07-01
NSU-07-02
NSU-08-01

PART B
NAPTHA HYDROTREATER UNIT (UNIT 14)
S NO

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

1.0

Introduction

NHTU-01-01

2.0

Process Description

NHTU-02-01
NHTU-02-01
NHTU-02-01

2.1

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

3.0

Basis Of Design
3.1
3.2

3.3
3.4

4.0

Duty Of The Unit


Feed Specification
3.2.
Naphtha Feed
1
3.2.
Product Specifications
2
3.2.
Yields
3
Battery Limit Conditions
3.3.
Description
1
Normal Operating Parameters

Operating Variables
4.1

4.2
4.3

4.4
4.5

5.0

Feed Supply
2.1.
Off-Sites
1
2.1.
Inside CRU
2
Charge Heater (14F-01)
Reaction Section
Stripping Section
Stripper Reboiler (14F-02)

Reactor Temperature
4.1.1
14-R-2
4.1.2
14-R-1
Space Velocity
Hydrogen Partial Pressure And H2/HC Ratio
4.3.1
14R1
4.3.2
14R2
Feed Quality
Stripper Bottom Temperature

Chemical Reactions
5.1

14-R-1 Reactions
5.1.1
Hydro-refining Reactions
5.1.1.
De-sulfurisation
1
5.1.1.
De-nitrification
2
5.1.1.
Hydro De-oxygenation
3

NHTU-02-01
NHTU-02-02
NHTU-02-02
NHTU-02-04
NHTU-02-05
NHTU-03-01
NHTU-03-01
NHTU-03-01
NHTU-03-01
NHTU-03-06
NHTU-03-07
NHTU-03-07
NHTU-03-07
NHTU-03-08
NHTU-04-01
NHTU-04-01
NHTU-04-01
NHTU-04-01
NHTU-04-02
NHTU-04-02
NHTU-04-02
NHTU-04-02
NHTU-04-03
NHTU-04-03
NHTU-05-01
NHTU-05-01
NHTU-05-01
NHTU-05-01
NHTU-05-02
NHTU-05-02

5.2

5.1.2
Hydrogenation
5.1.3
Elimination of arsenic and metals
14-R-2 Reactions
5.2.1
Hydrogenation of Di-olefins
5.2.2
Iso Di-olefins
5.2.3
Olefin Hydrogenation

S NO

DESCRIPTION
5.2.4

6.0

Catalyst And Chemicals


6.1

6.2

7.0

Catalyst Contaminants
7.1.
Inhibitors
1
7.1.
Temporary poisons
2
7.1.
Permanent poisons
3

Utility Requirement
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

9.0

14-R-1 And 14-R-2 Catalysts


6.1.
LD 145 14R1 Catalyst
1
6.1.
HR 348 14R1 Catalyst
2
6.1.
Inert Alumina balls
3
6.1.
HR 945 14R2 Catalyst
4
Chemicals
6.2.
Corrosion Inhibitor
1
6.2.
Polymerisation Inhibitor
2
6.2.
Dimethyl di-sulphide
3

Catalyst Characteristics
7.1

8.0

Sulfur reaction

Electric Power
Fuel Gas
Cooling Water
Steam
Treated Feed Water
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Intermittent Steam Requirement

Preliminary Operations
9.1

Initial Leak Test


9.1.
General
1
9.1.
Feed section
2

NHTU-05-03
NHTU-05-03
NHTU-05-03
NHTU-05-04
NHTU-05-04
NHTU-05-05

PAGE NO
NHTU-05-05
NHTU-06-01
NHTU-06-01
NHTU-06-01
NHTU-06-01
NHTU-06-02
NHTU-06-02
NHTU-06-03
NHTU-06-03
NHTU-06-03
NHTU-06-03
NHTU-07-01
NHTU-07-01
NHTU-07-01
NHTU-07-02
NHTU-07-02
NHTU-08-01
NHTU-08-01
NHTU-08-01
NHTU-08-02
NHTU-08-02
NHTU-08-02
NHTU-08-02
NHTU-08-02
NHTU-08-02
NHTU-09-01
NHTU-09-01
NHTU-09-01
NHTU-09-01

9.2

9.3

10.0

9.1.
Reaction Section
3
9.1.
Stripper Section
4
Drying
9.2.
General
1
9.2.
Feed section Drying
2
9.2.
Reaction section Drying
3
9.2.
Stripper section Drying
4
Catalyst Loading
9.3.
Preliminary
1
9.3.
14R1 Catalyst Loading
2
9.3.
14R2 Catalyst Loading
3
9.3.
Leak Test
4

First Start Up
10.1

Purging And Oxygen Removal


10.1.1 Feed Section
10.1.2 Reaction Section
10.1.3 Stripper Section

10.2
10.3

Oil In And Stripper Circulation


Pressurization Of The Reaction Section And Hydrogen
Leak Test
Reaction Section Oil In
Catalyst Sulphiding
10.5.1 Introduction
10.5.2 Operation of 14R1
10.5.3 Notes
10.5.4 Operation for 14R2
Feed Change & Final Adjustment

S NO

DESCRIPTION

10.4
10.5

10.6

11.0

Normal Shut Down


11.1
11.2

12.0

Short Duration Normal Shut Down


Long Duration Normal Shut Down

Emergency Procedures
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7

Introduction
General
Loss Of Feed
Recycle Compressor (14k-1) Failure
Hydrogen Rich Gas Make-Up Failure
Stripper Reboiler Pump 14-P-4a/B Failure
Utilities Failure
12.7.1 Fuel Gas
12.7.2 Cooling Water

NHTU-09-02
NHTU-09-02
NHTU-09-03
NHTU-09-03
NHTU-09-03
NHTU-09-03
NHTU-09-03
NHTU-09-04
NHTU-09-04
NHTU-09-05
NHTU-09-07
NHTU-09-08
NHTU-10-01
NHTU-10-01
NHTU-10-01
NHTU-10-02
NHTU-10-02

PAGE NO
NHTU-10-03
NHTU-10-04
NHTU-10-05
NHTU-10-05
NHTU-10-05
NHTU-10-06
NHTU-10-07
NHTU-10-08
NHTU-10-12
NHTU-11-01
NHTU-11-01
NHTU-11-02
NHTU-12-01
NHTU-12-01
NHTU-12-02
NHTU-12-02
NHTU-12-03
NHTU-12-04
NHTU-12-04
NHTU-12-05
NHTU-12-05
NHTU-12-05

12.7.3
12.7.4
12.8

13.0

Restart-Up Of The Unit


13.1
13.2
13.3

14.0

High Delta P In The Reactors


Feed/Effluent Or Feed/Bottom Exchanger Leaks
Chemical Hydrogen Consumption Increase
Presence Of Water Or H2s In Reformer Feed
Presence Of Total Sulfur In Reformer Feed

Safety Devices
15.1
15.2
15.3

16.0

Re-Start After Short Duration Shut Down


Re-Start Up After Long Duration Shut Down
Start Up After, Catalyst, Regen. / Repl.

Troubleshooting
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5

15.0

Power Supply
Instrument Air And/Or Instrument Power
Supply Failure
Major Leak Or Fire

Emergency Sequences
Alarm List
Process Safety Interlock

Catalyst Regeneration
16.1

In-Site Regeneration
16.1.1 Heating The Catalyst Bed
16.1.2 Catalyst Bed Steam Stripping
16.1.3 Pre-Oxidation

S NO

DESCRIPTION
16.1.4
16.1.5

17.0

Catalyst Unloading
17.1
17.2

18.0

Coke Burning
Cooling

Used Catalyst Unloading For Disposal


Unloading For Reactor Inspection

Stationary Equipment List

NHTU-12-05
NHTU-12-06
NHTU-12-07
NHTU-13-01
NHTU-13-01
NHTU-13-01
NHTU-13-02
NHTU-14-01
NHTU-14-01
NHTU-14-01
NHTU-14-02
NHTU-14-02
NHTU-14-02
NHTU-15-01
NHTU-15-01
NHTU-15-03
NHTU-15-04
NHTU-16-01
NHTU-16-01
NHTU-16-01
NHTU-16-01
NHTU-16-01

PAGE NO
NHTU-16-02
NHTU-16-02
NHTU-17-01
NHTU-17-01
NHTU-17-01
NHTU-18-01

PART C
CONTINUOUS CATALYST REGENERATION UNIT
1.O

Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4

2.0

Design Capacity
Feed Specification
1.2.1
Distillation
Product Specifications
1.3.1
C5+ cut
1.3.2
Hydrogen rich gas
1.3.3
Fuel Gas
Utilities

Process Description
2.1

Feed Section

CRU-01-01
CRU-01-01
CRU-01-01
CRU-01-03
CRU-01-04
CRU-01-04
CRU-01-04
CRU-01-05
CRU-01-06
CRU-02-01
CRU-02-01

2.2

2.3
2.4
2.5

2.6

2.7
2.8

Reaction Section
2.2.1
Heaters
2.2.2
Burners
2.2.3
Pilot Burners
2.2.4
Reactors
Re-contacting Section
Debutaniser Section
2.4.1
Stabiliser reboiler
Catalyst Regeneration
2.5.1
Coke Burning
2.5.2
Calcination
2.5.3
Oxy-chlorination
2.5.4
Dryer
Catalyst circulation
2.6.1
Catalyst level control
2.6.2
Sequence transfer
Catalyst Circulation and regeneration
2.7.1
Dryer
Catalyst circulation and regeneration
2.8.1
Catalyst flow control
2.8.2
Isolation of reaction section
2.8.3
Regeneration loop
2.8.4
Catalyst regeneration procedure
2.8.5
Nitrogen lift gas system

S NO

DESCRIPTION
2.8.6
2.8.7
2.8.8
2.8.9

3.0

3.2

3.3

4.2

5.0

Promoting Rxn With Hydrogen Production


3.1.1
Dehydrogenation Of Naphthenes
3.1.2
Paraffin De-hydrocyclisation
Promoting Reactions Without H2 Production
3.2.1
Isomerization Of Linear Paraffins
3.2.2
Isomerization Of Naphthenes
Retarding Reactions
3.3.1
Hydro-cracking
3.3.2
Hydro de-alkylation
3.3.3
Alkylation
3.3.4
Coking

CRU-03-01
CRU-03-02
CRU-03-04
CRU-03-04
CRU-03-04
CRU-03-05
CRU-03-05
CRU-03-06
CRU-03-06
CRU-03-07

Catalyst And Chemicals


4.1

PAGE NO
CRU-02-23
CRU-02-24
CRU-02-27
CRU-02-29
CRU-03-01
CRU-03-01

Chemical Reactions
3.1

4.0

Catalyst replacement
Procedure for Regenerator Cleaning/Repair
Steam Generation System
Process Variables

CRU-02-02
CRU-02-02
CRU-02-02
CRU-02-02
CRU-02-03
CRU-02-05
CRU-02-05
CRU-02-06
CRU-02-07
CRU-02-08
CRU-02-09
CRU-02-09
CRU-02-11
CRU-02-11
CRU-02-11
CRU-02-12
CRU-02-14
CRU-02-14
CRU-02-14
CRU-02-14
CRU-02-15
CRU-02-16
CRU-02-18
CRU-02-22

Catalyst (Cr-201)
4.1.1
CR-201
Chemicals (C2Cl4, NaOH, N2)
4.2.1
Per-chloro ethylene
4.2.2
Caustic soda
4.2.3
Nitrogen

Start Up Of The Unit

CRU-04-01
CRU-04-01
CRU-04-01
CRU-04-02
CRU-04-02
CRU-04-02
CRU-04-02
CRU-05-01

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

6.0

Shut Down Of The Unit


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

7.0

First Start Up Of The Unit


Catalyst Circulation And Drying
Stabilizer Start Up At Total Reflux
Catalyst Heating Up And Reduction
Feed Introduction
High Severity Operation
Regeneration Start Up

Short Duration Normal Shut Down


Normal Duration Normal Shut Down
Normal Shut Down With Catalyst Unloading
Catalyst Circulation And Regeneration Section
6.4.1
Activity Of Partial Shut Down
6.4.2
Activity Of Total Shut Down

Emergency Shut Down Procedure


7.1
7.2

7.3

Introduction
Loss Of Feed
7.2.1
Recycle gas compressor
7.2.2
Absorber feed pump failure
7.2.3
Reboiler pumps
Utilities Failure
7.3.1

Fuel Gas

7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6

Cooling Water Failure


Power Supply
Instrument Air
Major Leak Or Fire
Fire

S No

8.0

DESCRIPTION

Restart Of The Unit


8.1
8.2

9.0

Restart Of The Entire Unit (Including Regenerating


Section)
Restart Of The Regeneration Section Alone
8.2.1
After A Partial Shut Down
8.2.2
After A Total Shut Down

Trouble Shooting
9.1
9.2

9.3

General
Unexpected Decrease In Ron (Research Octane
Number
Leak In The Feed/Effluent Heat Exchanger
9.2.1
Presence Of Nitrogen In Feed
9.2.3
9.2.3
Presence Of Sulfur In The Feed
9.2.4
Presence Of Metals In The Feed
9.2.5
Low Chlorine Content Of The Catalyst
9.2.6
Partial By-Pass Of The Catalyst
Loss Of Reformate Yield
9.3.1
Presence Of Sulfur In The Feed
9.3.2
Presence Of Metals In The Feed

CRU-05-01
CRU-05-02
CRU-05-03
CRU-05-04
CRU-05-05
CRU-05-07
CRU-05-07
CRU-06-01
CRU-06-01
CRU-06-02
CRU-06-03
CRU-06-04
CRU-06-04
CRU-06-05
CRU-07-01
CRU-07-01
CRU-07-02
CRU-07-03
CRU-07-04
CRU-07-04
CRU-07-04
CRU-07-04

PAGE NO
CRU-07-04
CRU-07-05
CRU-07-06
CRU-07-07
CRU-07-08
CRU-08-01
CRU-08-01
CRU-08-02
CRU-08-02
CRU-08-03
CRU-09-01
CRU-09-01
CRU-09-01
CRU-09-02
CRU-09-02
CRU-09-02
CRU-09-02
CRU-09-02
CRU-09-03
CRU-09-03
CRU-09-03
CRU-09-03

9.4
9.5
9.6

9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12

9.13

S No
10.0

Shut Down Of The Refrigeration System

DESCRIPTION
Equipment List
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

11.0

Too High Chlorine Content Of The Catalyst


9.3.3
Unexpected Delta T Reduction The First Catalytic Bed
High Hydrocracking Rate And Risk Of Temperature Run
Away
9.5.1
Hydrocracking Can Be Caused By
High Pressure Drop In The Reactors Or The
Regenerator
9.6.1
Reactors
9.6.2
Prevention
9.6.3
Reactor cleaning
9.6.4
Regenerator
9.6.5
Stop catalyst circulation
Failure Of Regeneration
Failure Of Nitrogen Lift System
Failure Of Chlorine Injection
Failure Of Catalyst Circulation
Washing Suction Default
Difficulties In Controlling The Regeneration Temperature
9.12.1 High Temp. Out Of First Combustion Bed
9.12.2 High Temp. Out Of Second Combustion Bed
9.12.3 Low Temp Out Of Second Combustion Bed
High Temp In The Oxy-chlorination Or
9.12.4
Calcination Bed
9.12.5 Low Temp. In The Calcination Bed

Vessels / Reactors / Regenerator / Filters / Columns /


Furnaces
Exchangers
Pumps
Air Coolers / Electric Heaters
Compressor & Blowers
Stationary Equipment List

Safety Interlocks
11.1 Unit-15
11.2 Unit-17
11.3 Process safety interlocks (Unit 15&17)

CRU-09-04
CRU-09-04
CRU-09-05
CRU-09-05
CRU-09-06
CRU-09-06
CRU-09-07
CRU-09-07
CRU-09-07
CRU-09-07
CRU-09-08
CRU-09-08
CRU-09-09
CRU-09-09
CRU-09-09
CRU-09-10
CRU-09-10
CRU-09-10
CRU-09-10
CRU-09-10
CRU-09-11
CRU-09-11

PAGE NO
CRU-10-01
CRU-10-01
CRU-10-03
CRU-10-04
CRU-10-05
CRU-10-06
CRU-10-06
CRU-11-01
CRU-11-01
CRU-11-02
CRU-11-08

PART D
NITROGEN PLANT
S No
1.0

Introduction

DESCRIPTION

N2-01-01

2.0

Design Basis

N2-02-01
N2-02-01
N2-02-01
N2-02-01

2.1
2.2
2.3

Nitrogen Requirement
Air Requirement
Product Quality

PAGE NO

2.4

Production Pattern

N2-02-01

3.0

Principle Of Operation

N2-03-01

4.0

Process Description

N2-04-01
N2-04-01
N2-04-01
N2-04-02
N2-04-03
N2-04-03
N2-04-03
N2-04-04
N2-04-05
N2-04-05
N2-04-06
N2-04-06
N2-04-07

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

4.5

5.0

Regenerations Of Adsorbers
5.1

6.0

Air Compression Section


Refrigeration Section
Air Purification Section
Liquefaction And Fractionation Section
4.4.1
Cold Box
4.4.2
Exchanger (40-E-1)
4.4.3
Fractionating Column & Vaporiser Condenser
4.4.4
Expansion Turbine (40-D-1)
Product Storage & Supply
4.5.1
Cold Converters
4.5.2
Atmospheric Vaporiser
4.5.3
Nitrogen Booster Compressor
Step Of Regenerations

Air Compressor
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Lubrication System
Control System
Air Compressor Start-Up
Stopping The Air Compressor

6.5

Inter Locks

S No
7.0

8.0

DESCRIPTION
Refrigeration Section
7.1
7.2
7.3

Refrigeration Compressor
Starting Procedure
Stopping Procedure

7.4

Trouble Shooting

Expansion Turbine
8.1
8.2
8.3

9.0

Lube Oil System


Seal Gas System
Procedures

Start Up Of Plant
9.1
9.2
9.3

9.4
9.5
9.6

Preparation Of Adsorbers
Drying Of The Circuits (Cold Box)
Putting In Cold (Before Placing The Insulation)
9.3.1
Start Up Of The Unit
9.3.2
Shut Down Of The Plant
Tightening Of Nut & Bolts Inside The Cold Box
Placing the Insulation Inside The Cold Box
Final Start Up
9.6.1
First Stage
9.6.2
Second Stage
9.6.3
Third Stage

N2-05-01
N2-05-01
N2-06-01
N2-06-01
N2-06-03
N2-06-07
N2-06-08

PAGE NO
N2-06-09
N2-07-01
N2-07-01
N2-07-04
N2-07-04
N2-07-05
N2-08-01
N2-08-02
N2-08-03
N2-08-03
N2-09-01
N2-09-01
N2-09-01
N2-09-02
N2-09-02
N2-09-03
N2-09-04
N2-09-04
N2-09-04
N2-09-04
N2-09-04
N2-09-05

9.6.4

10.0

Liquid Nitrogen Draw Off

Shut Down Of The Plant


10.1

10.2

Planned Shut Down


10.1.1 Short Time Stoppage
10.1.2 Prolonged Stoppage
Emergency Shut Down

N2-09-05
N2-10-01
N2-10-01
N2-10-01
N2-10-01
N2-10-01

11.0

Defrost Of The Plant

N2-11-01

12.0

Danger Of Impurities

N2-12-01
N2-12-01
N2-12-01
N2-12-01

12.1
12.2
12.3

13.0

Dangers Of Acetylene
Dangers Of Oxygen
Dangers Of Nitrogen

Miscellaneous Information
13.1

13.2

Stationary Equipment List


13.1.1 Water Block end
13.1.2 CRU end
13.1.3 CRU Panel end
Stationary equipment list

N2-13-01
N2-13-02
N2-13-02
N2-13-02
N2-13-03
N2-13-03

PART E
AMMONIA REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (15-X-1)
S No
1.0

Introduction

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO
NH3-01-01

2.0

Process Description

NH3-02-01

3.0

Operating Parameters

NH3-03-01

4.0

Equipment Description

NH3-04-01

5.0

Starting & Stopping Procedure

6.0

Shut Down Procedure

NH3-05-01
NH3-05-01
NH3-05-02
NH3-06-01

7.0

Control System For Plc Logic

NH3-07-01

8.0

Lube Oil Pumps Logic

NH3-08-01

9.0

Compressor Start / Stop Logics

NH3-09-01

5.1
5.2

Starting Procedure
Stopping Procedure

PART F
AIR PREHEATER SYSTEM
09F-1 / 14F-1 / 14F-2 / 15F-4

S No
1.0

DESCRIPTION
General Description
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

2.0

Air Pre-heater Instructions


2.1
2.2

3.0

Cast Tube Air Pre-heater


Glass Tube Air Pre-heater
Commissioning Instructions
Maintenance During Operation
Washing Procedure

Design Data
Process Parameters

Interlock And Alarm Set Point


3.1

3.2

Interlock Scheme
3.1.1 FD fan failure
3.1.2 ID fan failure
3.1.3 High arch pressure
3.1.4 High temperature of ID fan inlet
3.1.5 Low combustion Air flow/pressure
3.1.6 Fuel cut-off to furnace
3.1.7 Stack damper
3.1.8 Turndown operation
Set Point

PAGE NO
APH-01-01
APH-01-01
APH-01-02
APH-01-02
APH-01-03
APH-01-04
APH-02-01
APH-02-01
APH-02-01
APH-03-01
APH-03-01
APH-03-01
APH-03-02
APH-03-02
APH-03-02
APH-03-03
APH-03-03
APH-03-03
APH-03-03
APH-03-04

PART G
OFF-SITE HYDROGEN STORAGE FACILITY
S No
1.0

Introduction

DESCRIPTION

H2-01-01

2.0

Hydrogen Storage Bullets

H2-02-01

3.0

Hydrogen Compressor

H2-03-01
H2-03-01
H2-03-02
H2-03-04
H2-03-05
H2-03-05
H2-03-05

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Lubrication System
Initial Start-Up Procedure
Start-Up Procedure
Stopping Procedure
Emergency Stopping Procedure

3.6

Interlocks

PAGE NO

4.0

Cylinder Unloading Facility

H2-04-01

5.0

Hydrogen Transfer To/From Bullets

H2-05-01

6.0

Hydrogen Gas Properties And Hazards

H2-06-01
H2-06-01
H2-06-02

6.1
6.2

Properties
Hazards Involved

PART H
MISCELLANEOUS
S No
1.0

DESCRIPTION
Utility System (NSU, NHTU, CRU, N2 Plant)
1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

Instrument Air
Drinking Water
Steam
1.3.
LP Steam
1
1.3.
MP Steam
2
1.3.
HP Steam
3
Cooling Water
Dm Water (De-Mineralised Water
Boiler Feed Water
Fuel Gas System
Nitrogen System
Plant Air
Service Water
Flare System

PAGE NO
MISC-01-01
MISC-01-01
MISC-01-01
MISC-01-01
MISC-01-01
MISC-01-02
MISC-01-03
MISC-01-04
MISC-01-05
MISC-01-05
MISC-01-05
MISC-01-07
MISC-01-09
MISC-01-09
MISC-01-10

2.0

Standing Instructions

MISC-02-01

3.0

Work Permit System

MISC-03-01
MISC-03-01
MISC-03-01

3.1
3.2

Introduction
Scope

3.3

Types Of Work Permit

S No

DESCRIPTION
3.3.1 Definitions
General Requirement
Responsibilities
3.5.1 Issuing Authority
3.5.2
Executing Authority
Procedures
3.6.1 Issue Of Permit
3.6.2 Explanatory Notes To Permit Forms
3.6.3 Explanatory Notes To Permit At Height
3.6.4 Surveillance And Permit Withdrawal
3.6.5 Surrendering The Permit
3.6.6 Training And Awareness

MISC-03-02

PAGE NO

4.0

Unit House Keeping

MISC-03-02
MISC-03-02
MISC-03-04
MISC-03-04
MISC-03-04
MISC-03-05
MISC-03-06
MISC-03-07
MISC-03-11
MISC-03-13
MISC-03-13
MISC-03-14
MISC-04-01

5.0

Roles And Responsibilities

MISC-05-01

6.0

List Of Various OISD Standards

MISC-06-01

7.0

List Of Safety Interlocks & Trip Set Points

MISC-07-01

8.0

Cause And Effect Diagrams

MISC-08-01
MISC-08-01
MISC-08-06
MISC-09-01
MISC-09-01
MISC-09-01
MISC-09-02
MISC-09-04
MISC-09-04
MISC-09-05
MISC-09-05
MISC-09-06
MISC-09-06
MISC-09-06
MISC-09-07
MISC-09-08
MISC-09-08
MISC-09-10
MISC-09-10
MISC-09-10
MISC-09-12
MISC-09-14
MISC-10-01
MISC-10-01
MISC-10-02
MISC-10-03
MISC-10-04
MISC-11-01
MISC-11-01

3.4
3.5

3.6

8.1
8.2

9.0

Recycle Gas Compressor


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

9.5

9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9

10.0

Introduction
Operating principle
Compressor
Compressor shaft and sealing system
9.4.1
Seal related data
9.4.2
Gas filter system
9.4.3
Leakage gas system
9.4.4
Separation gas system
Turbine
9.5.1
Turbine operating data
9.5.2
Trip & throttle valve
9.5.3
Turbine gland seal system
9.5.4
Lube oil system
9.5.5
Lube oil specifications
Turbine governor
Compressor anti-surge control
Guidelines for start-up
Guidelines for shutdown

Handing Over and Taking Over Procedures


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4

11.0

Compressors
Furnaces

Pumps
Heat exchangers
Vessels
Columns

Check Lists
11.1

Initial furnace start-up

Furnace light-up

11.3

Critical equipments handing over/Taking over check list


11.3.1
Compressor handing over check list
11.3.2
Compressor taking over check list
11.3.3
Pump handing over check list
11.3.4
Pump taking over check list
11.3.5
Furnace handing over check list
11.3.6
Furnace taking over check list
Start up / Shut down check list
11.4.1
Shut Down check list
11.4.2
Start up check list

S No

DESCRIPTION

11.4

12.0

Material Safety Data sheet (MSDS)


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7

13.0
14.0

15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0

MISC-11-03

11.2

AHURULAN (Corrosion Inhibitor)


Ammonia
Per-chloro ethylene (C2Cl4)
Dimethyl di sulphide (DMDS)
Trisodium Phosphate
Hydrogen
Anti-polymerisation agent

PAGE NO
MISC-11-05
MISC-11-05
MISC-11-06
MISC-11-08
MISC-11-08
MISC-11-10
MISC-11-11
MISC-11-12
MISC-11-12
MISC-11-16
MISC-12-01
MISC-12-01
MISC-12-06
MISC-12-10
MISC-12-14
MISC-12-17
MISC-12-21
MISC-12-25

Alarm List

MISC-13-01

Accident / Incident Reporting, Investigation & Analysis


14.1
Introduction
14.2
Scope
14.3
Responsibility
14.4
Definition
14.5
Reporting Procedure
14.6
Guideline for Conducting Investigation
14.7
Cost Analysis
14.8
Corrective and Preventive Action
14.9
Collecting Information on Near miss
14.10 Motivating Personnel to Report Accident / Incidents
14.11 Coordination with External Agency
14.12 Circulation of Lesson learned report
14.13 Major Accident / Incident announcement
14.14 Major Accident / Incident review
14.15 Training on Accident / Incident investigation
14.16 Accident / Incident Analysis
14.17 Problem Solving Project Teams
14.18 Accident Reporting Process Map
14.19 Accident / Incident Reporting Process Map
Sampling Schedule
Inventory levels of hazardous chemicals maintained in field
Standard Blind List
Handing Over Schedules for man Entry
Charge handing over and Taking over Procedures
Emergency Procedures for CRU block
20.1
Cooling water Failure
20.2
Total Power Failure
20.3
Instrument air Failure

MISC-14-01
MISC-14-01
MISC-14-01
MISC-14-01
MISC-14-03
MISC-14-06
MISC-14-09
MISC-14-12
MISC-14-13
MISC-14-13
MISC-14-13
MISC-14-14
MISC-14-14
MISC-14-14
MISC-14-14
MISC-14-14
MISC-14-15
MISC-14-18
MISC-14-18
MISC-14-19
MISC-15-01
MISC-16-01
MISC-17-01
MISC-18-01
MISC-19-01
MISC-20-01
MISC-20-01
MISC-20-01
MISC-20-01

21.0
22.0

20.4
DCS/PLC Failure
20.5
CRU IFP heater tripping
20.6
BFW Failure
20.7
Screen damage in Reactor
20.8
Screen damage in Regenerator
20.9
Runaway Temperature in Regenerator
20.10 Network Hydrogen Failure
20.11 Condensate in FG Header
20.12 Nitrogen Leak
20.13 Ammonia Leak
20.14 Hydrogen Sulphide Leak
20.15 Hydrogen Leak
20.16 14E3A/B tube leak
20.17 Critical pump seal leak
20.18 CRU separator bottom pump Failure
20.19 NHTU Reactor Furnace 14F1 trip
20.20 Stripper reboiler furnace 14F2 trip
20.21 Oil back-up from OW&S
20.22 Nitrogen plant air compressor Failure
20.23 Freon refrigeration Compressor Failure
20.24 Chemical Leakage
List Of Critical Equipments in CRU Unit
NSU, NHTU and CRU Equipment Process Data Sheets

MISC-20-03
MISC-20-03
MISC-20-03
MISC-20-03
MISC-20-04
MISC-20-04
MISC-20-04
MISC-20-05
MISC-20-05
MISC-20-05
MISC-20-05
MISC-20-05
MISC-20-06
MISC-20-06
MISC-20-06
MISC-20-06
MISC-20-06
MISC-20-06
MISC-20-07
MISC-20-07
MISC-20-07
MISC-21-01

NAPTHA SPLITTING UNIT (UNIT 9)


1.0

INTRODUCTION:
Naphtha splitting unit produces feed of required TBP range for the
reforming unit by splitting wide cut naphtha from CDU. The selected cut is
then Hydrotreated before feeding to the Reforming Unit.
This unit has been designed to split SR naphtha (144 MT/hr for BH or 95
MT/hr for AM) to C5-80 oC and 80-115 oC cut. Due to the restriction on
Benzene content in the final product (motor spirit), the IBP of the heavier cut
is raised to approximately 105 oC. The present operating cut range of NSU
for light naphtha is C5-105 oC and for heavy naphtha is 105-160 oC. NSU
can be operated with naphtha directly from AVU (hot feed) and from OM&S
(Cold feed), it can also be operated using both the feed simultaneously.
Light naphtha stream can be routed from splitter to R/D naphtha tanks
through AVU, directly to HGU feed tanks, directly to R/D naphtha tanks
through slop header. The heavier cut is routed to Hydrotreating unit as hot
feed and balance to hydrotreater feed tanks. The off spec naphtha is
routed to R/D naphtha tanks using slop header.
Naphtha Splitting Unit (designed by EIL) comprises of a single column with
on-stream factor of 8000 hours and has an operating flexibility of 50% of the
design capacity.
Naphtha Splitting Unit was commissioned on 08.03.98.
Subsequently Naphtha splitter was revamped during July 2010.
Again Naphtha splitter revamped for inclusion of Side cut facility
during Nov. 2013.
Light naphtha is used as feedstock for penex unit and heavy naphtha for PXPTA and CCRU.For current crude processing capacity of 8.5 9 MMPTA,
NSU needs to be operated at more than design capacity that in turn affects
product qualities.Henceforth, NSU capacity augmentation from 144MT/hr to

200MT/hr in BH case was carried out to maintain product quality and also to
avoid naphtha spillover in AVU.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 01- 01

PART-A

Design Basis for Side Cut:


At 200 Mt/hr feed rate desired C7+(9%max) for Penex feed and Benzene
and Benzene Precursors <3% higher reflux ratio was required for better
fracnation which can be achieved by higher feed temperature with available
reboiler duty of 16 Gcal/Hr. LPS Heater will increase feed temp. 135 deg C
and followed by MPS Heater to heat the feed upto 145 deg C.With higher
reflux ratio (2.3), the condenser duty will be required to be augmented to
around 18 Gcal/hr from the design duty of 14.73 Gcal/hr.
A side cut provision has been considered to meet consistently the
top product & bottom product specification. The side cut will provide the
flexibility of meeting product specification even with variation in feed quality
an well as to get more stringent future specification of Penex and CCRU feed
w.r.t C7+ and Bz+ precursor content respectively.

New additions done to the system were:


1. LP and MP steam heaters for heating feed naphtha.
2. Changes in splitter internal (tray valves were changed/added)
3. Installation of parallel overhead condenser.
4. Installation of additional HN rundown cooler.
5. Installation of LP steam condensate pot, MP steam condensate and
condensate recovery drum.
6. Installation of additional condensate pumps for pumping the condensate
to condensate polishing unit.
For higher feed rate:
1. The feed nozzle size increased from 10 to 14.
2. The bottom nozzle is found to be inadequate for the increased flow.
The nozzle size increased to 18 from existing 14.
For side cut facility:
1. A new nozzle of 10 from tray 12 provided for withdrawal of side cut.
2. A new nozzle of 6 from tray 10 provided for vapour balancing line.
3. For cooling of the side cut , a new heat exchanger 09E-105 provided.
4. A new side cut surge drum (09-V-105) is provided.
5. 09-FV-105 side cut to naphtha pool control valve provided.

6. 09-LV-105 Side cut surge drum control valve provided.


7. 09P-105A/B Side cut Pump Provided.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 01- 02

PART-A

Distillation and Density of NSU Plant:


NSU
FEED(
0
C)

STREAM

TBP at 760MM
HG
IBP
5%
10%
30%
50%
70%
90%
95%
FBP
DENSITY@150C
(Kg/M3)
Bz & Bz
Precursor(%)
C7+(%)

NSU
NSU TOP
NSU
Bottom
Light
Side Cut
Heavy
Naphtha
Naphtha(
Naphtha(
0
0
( C)
C)
0
C)

29
47
63
84
102
122
140
147
150

12
31
36
62
70
78
85
91
93

82
93
98
110
119
134
146
150
152

37
62
69
81
91
99
110
111
118

744.2

705.1

747.1

670.9

<3
<9

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 01- 03

PART-A

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:
NSU splits C5-150 oC cut naphtha into three streams Light NaphthaC5-90
oC cut , Heavy Naphtha 90-150 oC cut and Side Cut Naphtha 40-115 oC.
Heavier cut forms the feed for reformer. Cut pt. of 90 oC has been chosen
to get required octane number with moderate severity and also to exclude
out the benzene precursors from the reformer feed.

2.1

FEED SUPPLY:
For normal operation of the plant, the feed naphtha will be supplied by AVU
stabilizer section at a temperature of about 60 OC. This naphtha is received
directly on tray number #19 of 09-C-1 via 09-FRC-1101 (cascaded with 11LIC-14, stabilizer level control in AVU) after getting preheated to about 100
O
C in 09-E-5. The controller 09-FRC-1101 is being operated by AVU and in
NSU the flow is available. The splitter column bottom product exchanges
heat along with the feed naphtha in 09-E-5, before being routed to rundown
or HTU feed via 9-LIC-1101.
In case of pre-planned AVU shutdown, stabilized naphtha (C5-150 oC) will
be stored in the existing naphtha tanks (101,102 for BH and 103, 104 for
AM) and processed in NSU. New pump 81-P-5A with capacity of 200 M3/hr
is provided in off-sites to supply this cold feed through flow controller 09FRC-1104.This cold feed was joining NSU at the d/s of 9E-05 which was
latter routed via 9E-05 (Process scheme MR/TS/PS/CRU/2009/03). The
stream was routed via 9E-05 for energy conservation purpose.
In order to improve the paraffin quantity in PNCP naphtha, it was proposed
to process 30m3 of BH SRN ex Tk -107 in 9C1 during HS run.BH SRN
stored in Tk-107 will be processed in 9C1 during HS run after reducing the
unit
thrput
by
equivalent
quantity.(Process
scheme
MR/TS/PS/CRU/2009/04

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-A

NSU- 02- 01

2.2 SPLITTER SECTION:


Naphtha splitter 09-C-01 receives feed directly on its 19th tray. The hot feed
ex AVU/cold feed ex tanks after preheating in 09-E-5 goes to 9E101 and
9E-102 for preheating before entering the splitter. In 9E101,the naphtha
temperature is increased to 135 0C by LPS and in 9E-102,the required feed
temperature of 1450C is achieved by MPS. The feed naphtha after
preheating enters the splitter thru the control valve 9PV 1001.The hot feed
flow to the splitter is controlled by AVU and cold feed flow is controlled in
CCRU by 9FC 1104.The control valve 9PV-1001 will acts as back pressure
control valve to maintain pressure at 4.4 kg/cm2. Splitter has a total of 40
trays.
Overhead vapors of 09C-01 are totally condensed in the splitter air-cooler
09AC-01 (Element A to L) and in new overhead condenser 9E-103 before it
is collected in splitter Reflux drum, 09V-01. The new overhead condenser
9E-103 will be in parallel with existing air coolers 9AC01.Flow thru new
condenser will be controlled by the control valve 9HV1001.Two additional
PSVs were also installed on the column overhead section to take care of
the higher feed rate.
Part of the liquid collected in 09-V-01 is sent back as reflux to 09-C-01 by
splitter reflux pumps 09-P-1A/B through 09-FRC-1102 and balance is sent
back to AVU under reflux drum level control 09-LIC-1301 after cooling it in
light naphtha cooler 09-E-01. Light naphtha stream can be routed from
splitter to R/D naphtha tanks through AVU, directly to HGU feed tanks,
directly to R/D naphtha tanks through slop header.
The pressure of 09-C-01 is controlled by throttling the overhead vapors to
09-AC-01 by 09-PIC-1101. A differential pressure controller 09-PDC-1301 is
provided to maintain a pressure difference between 09-C-01 top and 09-V01. 09-V-01 pressure is controlled by a split range controller 09-PIC-1302
with make-up from Fuel gas header and vent to flare.
Boot on 09-V-01 allows the collection of water that may be present in the
feed. It is to be manually drained to OWS. 09-LI-1303 indicates boot level.
Splitter bottom product (90-150 oC) ex 09-E-5 is cooled in splitter Bottom
Air Cooler 09-AC-03 A/B followed by splitter bottom trim cooler 09-E-04 and
9E-104. Then a part of splitter bottom is directly sent to Hydrotreater feed
coalescer 09-V-5 under flow control 09-FIC-1105 and balance quantity is
sent to storage under 09-C-01 level control 09-LIC-1101.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-A

NSU- 02- 02

Process Modification for Side Cut:


Side Cut is withdrawn from tray No. -12 goes to surge drum 09V-105. At I/L
of surge drum 09LC-105 Level Controller maintains the level of 09V-105. A
vapor balancing line returns to tray no. -10. From 09V-105 side cut pump
09P-105A/B takes suction and discharge goes to trim cooler 09E-105 and
from here side cut Naphtha goes to storage tank through flow controller
09FC-105. Side Cut in case of BH run goes to TK-51/52 for HSD pool. In
case of PX-PTA mode during HS run it goes via AVU(for caustic wash) to
TK-105 and During Normal HS run Side Cut Pump stopped and B/V
isolated at NBL.

Process Parameter for Side Cut:


Crude type
HS (PX-PTA
mode)
HS ( normal)
BH
LS

Top temp
range, deg C
90-91
80-83
88-90
83-85

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Side cut flow,


m3/hr
50 ( may vary as per
distillation result)
0
30
30

NSU- 02- 03

PART-A

2.3

REBOILING HEATER:
Splitter re-boiler 09-F-01 supplies the heat necessary for 09-C-01 re-boiling.
It is a six pass vertical cylindrical heater with 6 burners having provision for
combination firing of both fuel gas and fuel oil. However they are designed
for 100 % of fuel gas or fuel oil firing also.
The circulation through 09-F-01 is provided by splitter Bottom pumps, 09-P2 A/B/C and the pass flows are controlled by 09-FIC-1201/ 1202 / 1203 /
1204 / 1210 / 1211.
Desired temperature at outlet is maintained by controlling the fuel firing
through 09TIC-1201A (09-F-1 COT) or by 09-TIC-1103A (09-C-1 36 tray
temperature). HS1201 has been provided to select 09-TIC-1201A or 09TIC-1103A for furnace firing control. HS1203 has been provided for furnace
firing control on F.G. or F.O. The F.O. has not been used in 09-F-1 till now.
Individual temperatures at convection outlet are indicated by 15-TI-138 (A to
F) and at radiation section outlet by 09-TI-1203, 4, 5, 6, 17and 18.
The radiant section of the heater is provided with 12 bare tubes per pass
(CS of diameter 6 NB sch.40). The convection section has studded as well
as bare tubes. The permissible maximum tube skin temperature for the
heater is 253 oC.
This heater is part of Non IFP heaters and integrated in one block with 14F-01, 14F-02, and 15-F-04. ID, FD fans and APH system is also a part of
this block. In the heat recovery system, FD fan supplies hot air for
combustion through APH and hot flue gases are discharged to stack using
ID fan after exchanging heat in APH. Refer to the APH section later in the
manual for detailed information about its operation and construction.

2.3 CONDENSATE RECOVERY SECTION:


Feed naphtha preheating is achieved by LP and MP steam pre-heaters.LP
steam flow in 9 E-101 is measured by flow control valve 9FV-1001.The LP
steam condense in 9E-101 by giving its latent heat for preheating the feed
naphtha goes to LP steam condensate pot,9V-101 under its own pressure.
The LP steam condensate pot is floating with LP steam header thru 1.5 line
at the top. The level in Lp condensate pot is maintained at 50% by level
control valve 9LV101,which transfers the condensate to condensate
recovery drum 9V-103 by it own pressure.MP Steam flow in 9E-102 is
regulated by flow control valve 9FV-1002,which is under cascade control
with 9TC102 i.e. splitter inlet temperature.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 03- 01

PART-A

The MP steams condense in 9E-102 by giving its latent heat for naphtha preheating to Mp steam condensate pot 9V-102 under its own pressure. The
MP steam condensate pot is floating with MP steam header thru 1.5line at
its top. The level in MP condensate pot is maintained at 50% by level control
valve 9LV-102, which transfers the condensate to condensate recovery drum
by 9V-103 by its own pressure.

The total condensate received in the condensate recovery pot is pumped to


condensate polishing unit by condensate recovery pumps 9P-103A/B.Small
quantity flashed steam from 9V-103 will be safely vented to atmosphere.

3.0 NORMAL OPERATIONS:


The Unit is normally operated with hot feed from AVU. The normal
operational parameters and operating variables for the normal operations
are as given below.

3.1

OPERATING PARAMETERS:
The designed operating parameters for the unit in the case of designed
feed quality are given below. Established Operating parameters for all the
three types of feed viz. BH, Nigerian and AM to have Heavy Naphtha IBP of
105 oC are also given as actual operating parameters.

3.2

PROCESS VARIABLES:

3.2.1 COLUMN PRESSURE:


Lower the column pressure, lower would be the required coil outlet
temperature for corresponding vaporization and less would be fuel
consumption at the furnace but higher would be the vapor velocity at the
column trays for the same throughput, which may mean improper
separation between C5-90 and 90-130 oC.
09-PC-1101 controls the Column pressure. A differential pressure controller
is provided to maintain a pressure difference between column and Reflux
drum, but it is not being used. Reflux Drum pressure is controlled by a split
range pressure controller

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 03- 02

PART-A

3.2.2 COLUMN TEMPERATURE:


The variation of splitter top temperature will make the overhead product
(light naphtha) heavier or lighter. The top temperature is maintained by
controlling the reflux and this will be reset to control the end point of light
naphtha.

4.0 START UP PROCEDURE:


All the pre startup activities are completed. Utilities and feedstock are
available.
The sequence of the start-up (after M&I Shut down) is as follows:
Purging and oxygen removal,
Fuel gas back up,
Splitter oil in & final adjustment,

4.1

STEAM PURGING AND OXYGEN REMOVAL:


After flushing is over, steam out the entire system including lines and
equipments using coil purging steam. Open vents on column top and reflux
drum top. Light up one small burner in the 09-F-01 keeping firebox
temperature around 150 oC to avoid cooling & condensation of steam in the
heater. Make the system air free by bleeding out steam from high point
vents. Drain out condensate from low points to avoid hammering in the
system. Removal of air is essential so as to avoid forming of explosive
mixture with hydrocarbons in the system during start up of the unit.
Approximately 12 hrs of thorough steaming shall be sufficient. While
steaming check that cooling water is kept isolated in water coolers with
drain / vent open.

4.2

FUEL GAS BACK UP:


Back-up fuel gas into the system. Cut off steam and maintain positive
system pressure by making it up with fuel gas while draining condensate
from the system.
Before putting any heat into the unit, check to ensure that all necessary
condensers and coolers are in service and water or condensate is drained.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 04- 01

PART-A

4.3

OIL IN and FINAL ADUSTMENT:


Start taking oil feed from CDU / storage to splitter 09C-01 and build level in
the column. Once again check for water at low points of equipments / lines.
Start column bottom pumps 09P-2 A/B/C and maintain circulation through
splitter Re-boiler heater 09F-01.
Operate splitter overhead condenser 09AC-01.
Follow the standard procedure for the start-up of heater. Control the firing
rates such that the column bottoms are heated gradually in steps of 25 oC
per hour.
Vent any non-condensable build-up through throttling of bypass valve on
safety valve until the non-condensable are displaced by hydrocarbon
vapors so that positive pressure is maintained.
Maintain column bottom level by taking fresh feed naphtha as and when
required.
Commission column overhead pressure controller, 09PIC-1101 and reflux
drum pressure controller. When sufficient level is reached in the reflux drum
09-V-1, start reflux to column by starting pump 09P-1 A/B.
Top and bottom products to be sent to naphtha storage tanks via start-up
lines till the products are on spec. When operating conditions are reaching
near normal level, sample from column bottom should be checked. Once
desired specification is met, liquid from bottom of the splitter should be
slowly diverted to storage/Hydrotreater unit.
Fresh feed may be introduced to splitter for maintaining the splitter level.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-A

NSU- 04- 02

5.0 SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE:


Bring down the feed rate to turn down rate (50% of design feed) and
accordingly reduce firing in 09-F-01. Stabilize the conditions at turn down
with on spec product.
Bring down heater outlet temperature slowly. Keep watch on the column
09-C-01 pressure. If the pressure starts falling down, introduce Fuel Gas
into the system at 09-V-1 and maintain the column under positive pressure.
When 09-C-01 top vapor load is reduced, stop feed to the unit and put the
unit under total reflux.
Stop the condenser 09-AC-1 when temperature in the column has dropped
to almost ambient.
Pump out the column bottom material to naphtha tank through slop line until
the low level is reached.
Drain out the column, re-boiler, exchangers and reflux drum to closed blow
down system when preparing for an M&I shutdown.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-A

NSU- 05- 01

6.0 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES:


Emergency must be recognized and acted upon immediately. Most
common emergencies are failure of utilities. Failure of utilities will be
indicated in the control room by appropriate alarms. The steps
recommended to handling different emergencies which are either caused by
utilities failure or equipment failure are given below:

6.1

Loss of feed:
Feed to the unit is normally supplied from Naphtha stabilizer of CDU.
Provision for cold feed ex storage tanks 101,102,103 and 105 by pump 81P-5A, is also available. Interruption in NSU feed supply can be due to
a)

CDU shutdown

b)

Temporary interruption like stabilizer bottom level low etc.

To handle temporary interruption, NSU is to be taken on total reflux with


reduced firing in 09-F-1. However if the interruption is going to be of longer
duration, then shutdown 09-F-1 firing, stop the bottom pumps and keep the
unit under positive pr (0.5kg/cm2)Cut off steam to LP and MP heaters (9E101 & 9E-102 respectively)

6.2

Reflux pump failure:


Start the stand-by pump, if not available, then shutdown the unit.
Cut off firing in 09-F-1 and stop feed to the column.
Stop column bottom pumps when furnace box temp comes down.

6.3

Splitter bottom pump failure:


The unit can run at turn down feed rate with only one out of the three
pumps for bottom service (9-P-2A/B/C). If all the three pumps fail, shutdown
the unit.
09-F-01 firing will get cut off due to pass flow low. Isolate the fuel gas.
Keep the system under positive pr. (0.5 kg/cm2) by fuel gas back up.
Stop reflux pump when drum level comes down.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NSU- 06- 01

PART-A

6.4

Heater tube failure:


In the event of heater tube failure, the immediate actions to be taken are as
given.

6.5

a)

Cut off fuel firing in 09-F-1 (fuel gas and pilot gas) and isolate.

b)

Cut off feed to the column and isolate feed C/V

c)

Reduce system pressure so as to reduce the oil flow from the


failed point.

d)

Stop and isolate splitter bottom pumps.

e)

Isolate all the six passes.

f)

Depressurize system to flare.

g)

Open snuffing steam to 09-F-1 to cool the firebox.

h)

Stop FD / ID fan.

UTILITIES FAILURE:

6.5.1 POWER FAILURE:


If any motor trips due to power dip, the same motor or it's standby should
be started immediately. In case of power failure product withdrawal and
feeding will come to halt. On low flow signal on heater feed inlet, the heater
will automatically trip by shutting of fuel oil & fuel gas. Isolation valve on
each burner must be closed. All oil burners must be purged with steam. In
such a condition follow planned shutdown procedure as closely as possible,
ensuring no vacuum pulling in the column. For further details refer to MISC19 section at the end of the manual.
Incase of non availability of condensate pumps 9P-103A/B condensate can
be temporarily drained in storm water sewer thru the 3 UC stub.
6.5.2

STEAM FAILURE:
NSU operation will not be affected with steam failure as normally gas
burners are kept in line. However, if oil burners are in line then switch over
to gas firing.

6.5.3

FUEL OIL FAILURE:


Upon failure of fuel oil, firing in splitter re-boiler will reduce depending upon
the fuel oil firing. Light up the gas burners and continue with the unit
normal operation.

Fuel oil has not been used in NSU since commissioning.


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-A

NSU- 06- 02

6.5.4

COOLING WATER FAILURE:


When cooling water fails, products cannot be cooled to the storage
temperature of 40oC. Stop feeding to the column and operate the column
under total reflux. For complete details refer to MISC-19 section.

6.5.5

INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE:


When normal instrument air fails, air will be available for short time for the
instruments. Therefore plant should be shut down immediately. When no
instrument air is available, the control valves will go to fail safe positions.
For complete details refer to MISC-19 section

6.5.6

DCS FAILURE:
Total DCS failure, that is console and controller failure, will bring all the
control valves to their fail-safe modes. In that case isolate all the burners
and go for plant shutdown immediately. For complete details refer to
MISC-19 section

6.5.7

LP STEAM FAILURE:
LP steam will not be available for preheating naphtha in 9E-101.LP steam
flow to naphtha pre-heater 9E-101 to be closed and unit t put to be
reduced accordingly to maintain the desired reflux ratio.

6.5.8

M.P STEAM FAILURE:


MP steam will not be available for preheating naphtha in 9E-102.LP steam
flow to naphtha pre-heater 9E-102 to be closed and unit t put to be
reduced accordingly to maintain the desired reflux ratio.

6.5.9

S No
1
2
3
4
5
6

MERGENCY IN OSBL LINE:

Details of action

Action
By

Inform S/I and alert FO about emergency


Inform Unit Incharge and RSM about
failure.
Inform MSQ, OM&S regarding change in
Routing

PO
SI &
PO
SI &
PO

System taken out from APC Mode

PO

LN routing to be changed from R\D(direct


or Via AVU) to Slope or vice versa as per
OM&S requirement
HN Routing to be changed from R\D to
Slope or slope to r\d as per OM&S
requirement
IF problem is there at OM&S for routing
HN to slope & R\D. HN can be routed to
HTU as hot feed via 9V5 by minimising
T'put of NSU to minimum

PO
FO
FO &
PO

9F1 firing to be adjusted accordingly.

FO &
PO

iF problem is also for LN receiving at


OM&S follow NSU bottle up Procedure.

FO &
PO

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-A

NSU- 06- 03

7.0

STATIONARY EQUIPMENT LIST

7.1

EQUIPMENT DETAILS:

Sr. No.

Equipment No.

Equipment Description

9-AC-1A

Splitter overhead Air cooler (1st element from south)

2
3

9-AC-1B
9-AC-1C

Splitter overhead Air cooler (2nd element from south)


Splitter overhead Air cooler (3rd element from south)

9-AC-1D

Splitter overhead Air cooler (4th element from south)

5
6
7
8
9
10

9-AC-1E
9-AC-1F

Splitter overhead Air cooler (5th element from south)


Splitter overhead Air cooler (6th element from south)
Splitter overhead Air cooler (7th element from south)
Splitter overhead Air cooler (8th element from south)
Splitter overhead Air cooler (9th element from south)
Splitter overhead Air cooler (10th element from south)

11

Splitter overhead Air cooler (11th element from south)

12
13
14

9-A C-1K
9-AC-1L
9-AC-3A
9-AC-3B

15

9C1

Naphtha Splitter Column

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

9E1
9E4
9-E-5
9V1
9V5
9F1
9 E 101
9 E 102
9 V101
9 V102
9 V 103
9 E 104
9 E 103
9V-105

Light Naphtha cooler


Heavy naphtha cooler
Feed / Heavy naphtha exchanger
Splitter overhead drum
Heavy naphtha coalescer
Splitter reboiler heater
LP steam Heater
MP steam Heater
LP condensate pot
MP condensate pot
Condensate receiver
HN cooler
Over head trim cooler
Side Cut Surge Drum

30

9E-105

Side Cut Cooler

9-AC-1G
9-AC-1H
9-AC-1I
9-AC-1J

Splitter overhead Air cooler (12th element from south)


Splitter bottom Air cooler (North element)
Splitter bottom Air cooler (South element)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-A

NSU- 07- 01

7.2
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

PSV Details:
PSV Tag No.
9 PSV 1101A
9 PSV 1101B
9 PSV 1101C
9 PSV 1101D
9PSV 101E
9PSV 101F
9 PSV 1102
9 PSV 1301A
9 PSV 1301B
9 PSV 1303A
9 PSV 1303B
9 PSV
101A/B
9 PSV 102
A/B

Set
Pressur
e
Kg/cm2g
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
7.0
3.8
3.8
17.3
17.3

Isolation B/V

On 9V- 101
On 9V-102

PSV Location
On 9-C-1
On 9-C-1
On 9-C-1
On 9-C-1
On 9-C-1
On 9-C-1
On CWR EX 9-E-4
On 9-V-1
On 9-V-1
On 9-V-5
On 9-V-5

I/L

O/L

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y

18

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

TAG NO.

Bellow
Bellow
Bellow
Bellow
Bellow
Bellow
CONV.
CONV.
CONV.

NSU- 07- 02

PART-A

ABNORMALITY

Type

SET VALUE
INTERLOCK

1.

09-F-01 Individual Pass


Flow low-low

09-FD-1201
09-FD-1202
09-FD-1203
09-FD-1204
09-FD-1210
09-FD-1211

20 m3/hr
20 m3/hr
20 m3/hr
20 m3/hr
20 m3/hr
20 m3/hr

Fuel Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off


i.e.
UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed

2.

FG to 09-F-01 Pressure
low

09-PD-1210

0.37
Kg/cm2g

3.

Combustion Air to 09-F01 low flow


Combustion Air to 09-F01 low pressure

15-FD-3101

8000 Kg/hr

15-PD-3110

+20mmwc

5.

Both FD fan not running

XL-3111 &
XL-3114

6.

Furnace Arch Pressure


High

15-PU-3103A
15-PU-3103B
15-PU-3103C
(Combination
of any two
Tags)
HS-1202A

4.

7.

09-F-01 Emergency Stop


(Field)

8.

09-F-01 Emergency Stop


(H / W console)

HS-1202B

9.

Non-IFP Heaters
Emergency Stop (Field)

HS-3119

10.

Non-IFP Heaters
Emergency Stop (H / W
console)

HS-3120

8.0

INTERLOCKS:

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-A

FG Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off i.e.


UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed
Fuel Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off
i.e.
UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed
Fuel Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off
i.e.
UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed

+5mmwc
+5mmwc
+5mmwc

Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off i.e.


UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed

Fuel Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off


HV-1201 (Pilot Gas to 09-F-01) will
get closed and
UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed
Fuel Firing in 09-F-01 will get cut off
HV-1201 (Pilot Gas to 09-F-01) will
get closed and
UV-1201 (FG to 09-F01) will get
closed
FD fan will trip and actuate 15F-4
tripping also

NSU- 08- 01

NAPTHA HYDROTREATER UNIT (UNIT- 14)


1.0 INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of Naphtha hydrotreater is to eliminate the impurities (such as
sulfur, nitrogen, halogens, oxygen, water, olefins, di-olefins, arsenic and
metals) from the feed that would otherwise affect the performance and
lifetime of reformer catalyst. This is achieved by the use of selected catalyst
(nickel, molybdenum) and optimum operating conditions except for water,
which is eliminated in stripper.
The unit is designed to handle a wide range of feed naphtha from very low
sulfur (10.9 PPM in neat BH) to a maximum sulfur content of 1043 PPM so
as to give treated product of sulfur less than 0.5 PPM. Nitrogen is also
reduced to less than 0.5 PPM and water content reduced in the stripper to
less than 4 PPM.
The normal capacity of the unit is such that the capacity of the reforming unit
is 4,66,000 MT/Year based on an On-Stream factor of 8000 hrs per year
(345 days operation) with 120 % over design. Operating flexibility is of 60 %,
same as that of the reforming unit.
Hydrotreatment is a catalytic process based on IFP technology. The
hydrogenation of di-olefins and conversion of mercaptans take place in a
fixed bed axial reactor, 14R2. The hydrogenation of olefins, hydrodesulphurization and hydro-denitrification reactions take place in another
fixed bed axial reactor, 14R1. A middle range temperature is required to
promote the chemical reactions, which improve the product quality. The
hydrotreatment catalysts shall be periodically regenerated to recover its
activity. The liquid product from the reaction section is then stripped to
remove H2S, water and light hydrocarbons.
This unit was commissioned on 19th May 1998.
The Di-ene saturator reactor was commissioned on 23rd January 2005.
Inclusion of MP BFW for NHTU wash water on November 2013

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 01- 01

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


The detailed process description of the plant is as given below. Refer
Process flow diagram as enclosed at the end of this manual.

2.1

FEED SUPPLY:

2.1.1 OFF-SITES:
Feed naphtha (NSU Product) is stored in tanks 105 and 106 each of 10,000
M3 nominal capacities. The low sulfur naphtha is stored in Tank 106 and
high sulfur naphtha is stored in Tank 105. Tank 106 contains neat low sulfur
naphtha, but the interface of high and low sulfur naphtha is received in Tank
105. Three pumps, 602-P-4 A/B/C each having a capacity of 52 M 3/hr and
discharge pressure of 8.8 Kg/cm2 have been provided to supply feed to
Hydrotreating unit. High Sulfur naphtha and Low sulfur naphtha feed will be
supplied to the unit through the flow control valve in OM&S, the controllers
for which are operated from CRU-DCS.
There was a facility to store desulfurised Naphtha in Tank 107, which can be
processed directly to stripper for further processing in CRU. Tank 107 is now
being used in other service and this facility no more existing.
2.1.2 IN-SIDE CRU:
Feed naphtha ex storage tanks enters the feed surge drum 14-V-1 under
level control 14LIC-1401 through filter 14G-1. Filter stops gum compound. A
shutdown valve is provided in the feed line ahead of the filter to shut-off feed
when LAHH 1418 (14V1 high level) and PAHH1451 (2/3 of PT 1451 A/B/C)
get actuated. Surge drum pressure is maintained by fuel gas and controlled
by split controller 14-PIC-1401; excess pressure is released to flare.
VBN is taken directly from VBN R/D through 14-FC-1434; there is a facility to
receive VBN from OM&S through 14-FC-1440 and Heavy FCC Gasoline
from FCC Gasoline splitter through 14-FC-1433. The VBN and Heavy FCC
Gasoline joins the feed surge drum u/s of S/D valve UV-1415.
From surge drum 14V-01, feed is pumped by 14-P-1A/B under flow control
of 14FIC-1402 and is mixed with make-up gas ex 14K2A/B before being preheated in Reactor Feed / Effluent Exchangers 14-E-1 D/E/F. The shell side
outlet of 14E1D is taken to the Di-ene saturation reactor 14R2. The 14-R-2
effluents enter the shell side of 14-E-1A/B/C and further heated in heater 14F-1 before reaching the main hydrotreater reactor 14R1. The recycle gas
after exchanging heat with reactor effluent in 14-E-1G enters the shell side of
14-E-1 A/B/C.
OHCU heavy naphtha is taken directly thru FCC gasoline line via FC1433.
In case of emergency like feed failure from OM&S NTHU feed can be
managed directly from 9V5 outlet. Before doing so ensure the quality of the
feed.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-B

NHTU- 02- 01

A 10% weight solution of Anti polymerization agent (APA) in reformate is


stored in 14-T-1. It is injected in the HTU feed pumps (14-P-1 A/B) suction
line @ 20 ppm, through pumps 14-P-08 A/B. This is required while
processing cracked naphtha stream to avoid polymerization of unsaturated
hydrocarbons.

2.2

CHARGE HEATER (14F-01):


It is a vertical cylindrical heater to heat reactor feed charge to the desired
reaction temp. It has four passes and four gas burners. Individual pass flow
controls as well as indications are not envisaged due to feed in vapor phase.
Only the outlet temperatures are to be monitored. The normal operating duty
of the heater is 3.26 MMKCal/hr, which corresponds to inlet temperature of
273oC and outlet temperature of 340 oC. However the heater is designed for
heat duty of 4.0 MMKCal/hr, which accounts for +5% of feed effluent
exchanger duty and an inlet temperature of 256 oC. During regeneration,
maximum O/L temperature shall be 510 oC with lower flow rate. Heater is
designed for a pressure of 27.3 Kg/cm 2g with allowable pressure drop of 2.0
Kg/cm2. Design flow rate is 72.2 MT/hr.
Preheated feed ex 14E-1 enters convection section of 14F-1. Convection
O/L temperature are measured by 15TI-102 A, B, C, D and radiation O/L by
15 TI-105 A, B, C, D. 14TIC-04 controls the heater O/L common temperature
for reactor inlet by adjusting FG firing. TAHH 1473 a new interlock trips the
furnace when the COT increases to 330 oC.
This furnace is induced draft furnace and is a part of Non-IFP heaters block.
It uses atmospheric air for combustion but flue gases are routed to common
stack of non-IFP heater for exchanging heat in APH. Heater tubes are made
up of SS-321 due to presence of H2S and traces of H20 and HCl. Maximum
skin temperature allowed for the heater tubes is 393 oC.

2.3

REACTION SECTION:
The saturation of di-olefins takes place in the diene saturator reactor 14R2.
Reactor contains HR-945 catalyst (22 m3). The catalyst is NickelMolybdenum oxide impregnated on Alumina. Inert alumina balls are used
above and below the catalyst bed.
The Reactor inlet temperature is maintained at 160 oC (195 oC at EOR) and
is controlled by the temperature controller TC1443, which has a selector
switch for SOR and EOR. During SOR mode temperature is controlled with
the operation of TV-1443 A/B and during EOR mode temperature is
controlled with the operation of TV-1444 A/B. TV-1443 A/B has been
provided at the tube side of 14-E-1 D/E/F and its bypass line respectively,
whereas TV-1444 A/B has been provided at the tube side of 14-E-1 A/B and
its bypass line respectively.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 02- 02

The rector pressure is maintained at 25.6 Kg/Cm 2g on the outlet through 14PC-53. The reactor bed temperatures are measured by 20 nos
thermocouples along the height of the reactor.
Hydrorefining and hydrogenation reactions are conducted in the
Hydrotreater Reactor 14R-1.It is cylindrical vessel of dia 2.5 meters, height 4
meters and is made up of 1-1/4 Cr. and 1/2 Mo with SS type 321 cladding on
shell and heads.
Two catalyst beds, upper of 475-mm height (1.90 m 3) of LD-145 and lower of
3935-mm height (19.1 m3) of HR-348 catalysts are used. Above the upper
layer and below the lower layer of catalyst, Alumina balls are used.
Reactor inlet temperature is maintained at 290 oC (340 oC at EOR) and is
controlled by 14-TIC-1404, which resets the fuel gas firing in feed heater.
Reactor pressure is to be maintained at 20 Kg/cm 2g. However due to low
Sulfur level in the feed, lower H2 partial pressure and hence lower system
pressure can be maintained.
14-R-1 inlet temperature is indicated by 14TI-1403 and outlet by 14TI-1406.
Reactor bed temperature are measured by 14TI-1405 A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H.
14PDT-1406 indicates the pressure drop across catalyst bed.
The reactor effluent is cooled down successively in 14-E-1 A/B/C/D/E/F,
followed by the recycle gas pre heat exchanger 14-E-1G and the stripper
feed preheat exchanger 14-E-7 before getting cooled in the air cooler 14AC-1 (A To C) and water cooler 14-E-2. It is then routed to separator drum
14-V-02.
Make up hydrogen gas from the Hydrogen network is supplied at a pressure
of 15.58 Kg/cm2g through a pressure reducing valve 14-PCV-85, to the
suction of make up compressor 14-K-2 A/B. The purity of Hydrogen is
99.9%. In case of non-availability of hydrogen from the network there is a
facility to line up hydrogen bullet through 14-PC-86 to supply hydrogen at
constant pressure of 15.6 Kg/cm2g.
Water Injection is done (@ of 5% of hydrocarbon flow) in the process line at
air cooler inlet in order to wash the chlorides, sulphides and ammonium
salts, which may deposit in solid form when the temperature is low. A makeup of deaerated water (10% of water recycle equivalent to 365 kg/hr) and the
circulation of water is achieved at constant flow by separator water recycle
pumps 14P-5 A/B. 14-P-5 takes suction from 14V-2 boot and injects at 14E1F inlet and 14AC1 A/B/C inlet. Sour water from 14V-2 boot is taken out
under level control 14LIC-1406. For water injection HP BFW(T=110Deg. and
P=80Kg/cm2) was available with manual control. This may lead water
carryover. To avoid this MP BFW(T=110Deg.and P=30kg/cm2) provided for
NHTU wash water section with new HIC to Control water injection.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 02- 03

Hydrocarbon Vapours from 14V-2 which mainly contains H2 (98%V/V) are


recycled to 14E-1C shell side by the hydrotreater recycle compressor 14K-1
A/B through pre-heat exchanger 14E1G (shell side). A part of the gas called
as separator purge may be sent under flow control 14FIC-1406 to fuel gas
through H2S scrubbing unit (Amine wash unit), at the rate of 3 to 18 kg/hr if
the H2S content in the recycle gas is more than 5%. Additionally one 6"
emergency depressurization line to flare is given which is operated by HV1404.
Hydrocarbon Liquids of 14V-2 with-drawn under flow control 14FIC-1407
which is reset by 14V-02 level controller 14LIC-1405 is sent to the stripper
14-C-01 by stripper feed pumps 14P-2 A/B through 14E7 and 14E3 A/B.

2.4

STRIPPING SECTION:
The function of the stripper is to eliminate the light ends and the impurities
hydrogen sulphide and moisture from the reformer feed.
Stripper feed ex 14P-2A/B is preheated in 14-E-7 against 14-R-1-reactor
effluent and then in 14-E-3 A/B (Feed / Bottom exchanger). Pre-heated feed
enters a 27 tray stripper at tray #08 at a temperature of 174 oC. Stripper is
operated at a pressure of 14 Kg/cm 2g and top temperature of 172 oC (127 oC
for feed II i.e. Arab Mix). Its overhead vapors are condensed and cooled in
Stripper Air Condenser 14-AC-2, Stripper trim cooler 14-E-4 A/B and
collected in stripper reflux drum 14-V-4. Corrosion inhibitor solution (10PPM
by wt.) is injected by pumps 14-P-7 A/B to the overhead products at column
outlet. A 10% weight solution of Corrosion inhibitor is prepared with
reformate and stored in 14-T-3.
A gas purge of 283 Kg/hr with H2S of 2.28 kg/hr is done from 14V-4 under
pressure control 14PIC-1411 to H2S scrubbing unit (Amine wash unit). The
stripper is operated on total reflux using reflux pump 14-P-3 A/B. Sour water
recovered in 14V-4 boot is taken out under level control 14LIC-1415 for sour
water treatment.
Stripper bottom product after cooling in feed / bottom exchanger 14E-3 A/B
is sent to Reforming unit through temperature controllers TC1453 A/B, to
maintain the CRU feed temperature at 110 oC. Another stream goes to
storage tank 107 under 14C-1 level control 14LIC-1412 through stripper
bottom water cooler 14E-05. Due to change in service of Tank 107 the R/D
line has been kept blinded. There is a facility to divert off spec R/D to storage
tanks 105 and 106.
A new line has been installed to route the excess DSN FROM 14V4 TO
14V1/AVU.This line to be used only during acute emergency in order to
maintain 14V4 level.This line has been provided with a C/V.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 02- 04

2.5

STRIPPER REBOILER (14F-2):


The heat necessary for stripper reboiling is supplied by stripper reboiler 14F2. 14-F-2 is a four-pass vertical cylindrical induced draft furnace and is a part
of non-IFP heaters block. It has four fuel gas burners. It uses atmospheric air
for combustion but flue gases are routed to common stack of non-IFP heater
for exchanging heat in APH.
14C-1 bottom product is circulated to 14F-2 by pump 14P-4 A/B. Feed flow
to each pass is controlled by 14FIC-18 A, B, C, D. Convection O/L
temperatures are indicated by 15TI-110 A, B, C, D and radiation O/L by 14TI1437 A, B, C, D. Reboiling is controlled by 14-C-1 tray #25 temperature by
controller 14TIC-1423 or 14TIC-1431 (reboiler outlet temperature) which
resets 14PIC-1442 to regulate the Fuel Gas firing in 14-F-2 burners. HS1409 selector switch is provided for selecting the temperature control point.
Partial vaporization occurs in 14F-2, Reboiler heater is designed to vaporize
50% by wt. of its feed of 164 MT/hr with temperature rise from 242.7 to
246.1 oC. Absorbed heat duty for above condition will be 3.90 MMKCal/hr.
However the heater is designed for 110% duty equal to 4.30 MMKCal/hr. The
allowable maximum skin temperature of 14-F-2 is 305 oC.
Note:A modification was carried out to route stripper bottom to diesel pool,so
as to ensure PGA w.r.t flash point.This routing was done on the NHTU R/D
line (used during cru s/d) and hooked up to the VBU cold feed line (OSBL).

Operational philospy for operating HTU feed pump:


*Out of three pumps 602-P-4A/B/C, two pumps run at a time one for High
Sulphur naphtha and Other for Low Sulphur naphtha. However third pumps
remains standby. Total Discharge flow(Pump discharge+spillback) of pump
should not exceed 52 M3/hr as due to high thermal load pump may trip.
In this case in any delay of starting running pump or stanby pump, for
avoiding feedout of HTU directly heavy naphtha can be routed from
Coalescer(09V-5) to HTU feed via Control valve 09FC-1105.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 02- 05

Energy saving by stopping 14-K-2


IOCL Mathura refinery is running the 014-K-2 compressor to generate high
pressure for 014-R-2 reactor. However, this reactor is currently not being
used. The hydrogen is being sent directly to 014-R-1 reactor which does not
need high pressure hydrogen. So, 014-K-2 can be stopped.
Stop the 014-K-2 compressor to avoid wastage of 30 KW power.

Total Saving by Stopping 14K-2A/B:

Attributes
Compressor amps
Power consumption by
compressor
Saving by reducing 1
KWH of electricity
Total saving
(considering
compressor used to run
at 30% of load)

Quant
ity
50
30

KW

11.3

Rs

2.7

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

Unit
Amps

Rs Crore. Assuming 8000


hours of operation

NHTU- 02- 06

3.0

BASIS OF DESIGN

3.1

DUTY OF THE UNIT


The purpose of the naphtha hydrotreatment unit is to produce a clean desulfurised naphtha cut able to be processed in the reforming unit after
removal of all impurities which are currently poisons for the catalysts (sulfur,
nitrogen, water, halogens, diolefins, olefins, arsenic, mercury and other
metals).
The new reactor 14R-2 is added to the existing naphtha hydro treatment unit
so that visbroken naphtha @ 3.5 MT/hr and Heavy FCC gasoline @ 11.0
MT/hr can be processed with straight run naphtha. The new reactor ensures
saturation of diolefins.

3.2

FEEDS SPECIFICATION:

3.2.1 NAPHTHA FEED:


The unit is designed for a 90/10 blend of straight run Arab mix naphtha and
vis-breaker naphtha. The design capacity is 70 T/Hr of the design feed; the
turndown ratio is 0.5 while keeping 7 T/Hr of VB naphtha.
Feed specifications are as follows:
Origin (naphtha)

AM

VB

BH

SPGR

0.7327

0.7318

0.710

70.3 wt%

44 vol%

35.5 wt%

---

32

---

18

13

32.6

11.7

Diene value g/100g :

---

---

Bromine number

---

50

---

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

11

31.9

NHTU- 03- 01

Origin:

AM naphtha

VBU naphtha

BH naphtha

TBP Distillation (ASTM D86)


IBP

89

45

56

10

92

75

70

30

101

89

90

50

119

102

106

70

129

115

119.5

90

145

134

139.5

FBP

154

161

148

Max Impurities content:


Origin

AM naphtha

VB naphtha

BH naphtha

Sulfur

(wt ppm)

270

3000

10.9

H2S

(wt ppm)

NIL

40

NIL

Nitrogen

(wt ppm)

1.5

50

1.5

Arsenic

(wt ppb)

10

-----

10

Heavy metal (wt ppb)

50

-----

50

Lead

(wt ppm)

20

-----

20

Copper

(wt ppb)

20

-----

20

Nickel

(wt ppb)

20

-----

20

(wt ppb)

NIL

-----

Nil

Others

(wt ppb)

NIL

-----

Nil

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 03- 02

Finally, the combined


operation/turndown):

feed

specifications

are

as

follows

Sp gr.

0.7326

0.7325

P wt%

65

64

O wt%

N wt%

18

17

A wt%

12

12

Diene value

0.2

0.4

Bromine number

10(*)

(normal

Max. impurities content: (normal operation/turndown)


Sulfur (wt ppm)

1043 /

1816(*)

Nitrogen (wt ppm)

Arsenic (wt ppb)

11

12

Heavy metals (wt ppb)

50 max

Lead (wt ppb)

23

26

Copper (wt ppb)

58

96

Nickel (wt ppb)

23

26

V (wt ppb)

10

H2S (wt ppm)

5 max /

Others

nil

10 max

(*) The design has been checked so that the unit is able to handle a feed
containing 10% VB naphtha with the following properties (Diene value: 4;
IBr: 90; Total Sulfur content: 1200 wt ppm; H 2S content: 40 ppm wt). This
case is the controlling case for stripping section.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 03- 03

Detail composition in % wt:


FEED

Normal Operation

PARAFFIN

OLEFINS

NAPTHENES

AROMATIC

Turndown

C4

0.07

0.14

C5

0.50

0.99

C6

0.70

1.40

C7

25.08

23.83

C8

28.07

26.12

C9

12.94

11.86

C10+

0.08

0.16

O4

0.00

0.00

O5

0.27

0.54

O6

1.15

2.30

O7

1.05

2.10

O8

0.56

1.13

O9

0.07

0.13

O10

0.10

0.20

N5

0.01

0.02

N6

0.21

0.42

N7

4.82

4.98

N8

10.21

9.61

N9

2.30

2.10

N10

0.00

0.00

A6

0.03

0.05

A7

3.40

3.43

A8

6.84

6.88

A9

1.55

1.59

A10

0.00

0.00

--------------------100.0

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

--------------------100.00

NHTU- 03- 04

MAKE-UP GAS

This gas is produced outside the battery limits of the unit.


The H2 make-up gas has the following composition (vol. %)
H2

99.5

C1

0.5

Flow rate Kg/Hr

136

MAX. IMPURITIES

CO + CO2

50 ppmv max

HCl

1 ppmv max

PROCESS WTAER

A water stream is foreseen at the inlet of the reactor effluent air cooler
De aerated water must be used for this service
The process water recycle rate is around 5% of the hydrocarbon feed flow
rate
The water make-up flow rate is 10% of the water recycle rate
Water make-up: 364 Kg/Hr

CASE STUDIES

In this design, SOR and EOR operations have been considered. SOR and
EOR referring to start of run and end of run (or cycle) of the hydrotreating
catalyst. These cases are reviewed throughout the design for their impact
on equipment size and operating severity.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 03- 05

3.2.2

PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS:
All the detailed compositions are given in the section:

Hydrotreated naphtha to reforming unit (stripper bottoms)

The maximum contaminant levels are as follows:


By wt ppm
Sulfur

0.5

Nitrogen

0.5

Water and oxygenated products 4


Arsenic

1 wt ppb

Olefins

Diolefins

Metals

5 wt ppb

Halogens

Sour off gas stream from the stripper reflux drum

This stream contains H2S and is preferably sent to an H2S scrubbing unit
(amine unit)
Normal Operation

Turndown

Flow rate
Kg/H

283 Kg/H

161

MW

19.8

21.2

H2S
%

27 wt %

24.2

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 03- 06

wt

3.2.3

YIELDS:
They are expressed in wt%
Origin:

Normal Operation

Turndown

H2S/NH3

0.112

0.194

Hydrogen

-0.080

-0.156

Methane

0.016

0.026

Ethane

0.017

0.032

Propane

0.020

0.035

Isobutane

0.0085

0.016

N-butane

0.0085

0.016

C5+

99.899

99.838

----------------------------100.0

3.3

BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS:

3.3.1

DESCRIPTION:

100.00

Pressure Kg/cm2
Feed stock -SR naphtha

----------------------------

Temperature C

5.0

40

6.0 to 8.0

40

19.5(1)

40

40 to 17

40

7.0

46

-Hydrotreater purge to AU

7.0

43

-Reformer feed

12.9

110

4.5

45

-VB naphtha
-H2 from network
(Make-up)
-Hydrogen from bullets
(Start-up)
Products

-Fuel gas to amine unit


(Stripper purge)

-Hydrotreater naphtha storage

(1) MU gas compressor inlet is designed for 15.6 Kg/cm2g suction pressure to suit the
new duty conditions with a suction pressure reduction valve 14-PCV-85.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 03- 07

3.4

NORMAL OPERATING PARAMETERS:


The design operating conditions for the unit (for feed rate of 69.9 T/hr.) are
as given below.
S. No.

STREAM

UNITS

FEED

Kg/cm2g

NAPHTHA FROM STORAGE PR.

VBN FLOW TO UNIT

T/Hr

3.5

FCC GASOLINE FEED TO UNIT

T/H

11

HYDROGEN EX NETWORK

Kg/cm2g

15.58

FEED SURGE DRUM (14-V-1) PR.

Kg/cm2g

1.5

14P-1 A/B DISCHARGE FLOW

MT/hr.

69.9

RECYCLE COMP. DISCH. FLOW

KG/hr.

2306

RECYCLE COMP. DISCH TEMP.

Deg. C.

84

14R-2 INLET TEMP.

Deg. C.

165

10

14R-2 INLET PR.

Kg/cm2g

25.6

11

14R-2 OUTLET TEMP.

Deg. C.

169

12

14R-2 OUTLET PR.

Kg/cm2g

25.2

13

14F-1 OUTLET PR.

Kg/cm2g

22.7

14

14-F-1 OUTLET TEMP.

Deg. C.

290/340

15

14R-1 OUTLET TEMP.

Deg. C.

290/340

16

14K-2 A/B SUCTION PR.

Kg/cm2g

18

17

14-K-2 A/B DISCH. PR.

Kg/cm2g

27

18

14-K-2 A/B DISCH.TEMP.

Deg. C.

75

19

14-K-2 A/B DISCH. FLOW.

Kg//hr.

169

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 03- 08

20

RX. EFFLUENT EX 14AC-1 TEMP.

Deg. C.

65

21

SEPARATOR DRUM, 14V-2 PR.

Kg/cm2g

17.5

22

SEPARATOR DRUM, 14V-2 TEMP.

Deg.C.

43

23

SEPARATOR 14V-2 PURGE GAS

Kg/hr

15

24

FEED TO STRIPPER TEMP.

Deg. C.

165

25

FEED TO STRIPPER

M3/hr.

91

26

14C-1 TOP TEMP.

Deg. C.

150

27

14AC-2 O/L TEMP.

Deg. C.

65

28

REFLUX DRUM TEMP.

Deg. C.

47

29

REFLUX DRUM PR.

Kg/cm2

14

30

REFLUX FLOW

M3/hr.

10.8

31

REFLUX DRUM (14V-4) PURGE

Deg. C.

47

32

REFLUX DRUM (14V-4) PURGE

Kg/hr

283

33

14C-1 BOTTOM TEMP.

Deg. C.

236

34

STRIPPER REBOILER O/L TEMP.

Deg. C.

239

35

STRIPPER BOTTOM PR.

Kg/cm2g

14.9

36

STRIPPER BOTTOM TO CRU FEED TEMP.

DEG C

110

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 03- 09

4.0

OPERATING VARIABLES:
The independent variables, which can be fixed by the operator with in the
operating range of the equipment, are:

4.1

REACTOR TEMPERATURE:

4.1.1 14R2:
Thermodynamics for selective hydrogenation of di-olefins are very favorable.
Di-olefin hydrogenation to olefins is completed even at a relatively very high
temperature and low H2 content
The Hydrogenation reaction rate is increased at higher temperature.
Hydrogenation selectivity however is favored by lower temperature. For
catalyst stability the operation must take place at a lower temperature to
prevent polymerization of gum precursor compounds.
Lower operating temperature keeps the reactants in the liquid phase by
minimizing vaporization.
The reactor exotherm is a function of the di-olefins content of the fresh feed
and make-up hydrogen rate.
4.1.2 14-R-1:
The hydrotreating reactions are favored by an increase of temp. But at the
same time this increase of temperature increases the coke deposit on the
catalyst.
The chosen range of temperature is a compromise between long catalyst
life, optimal quantity of catalyst and an hydrotreatment as complete as
possible. The optimum reactor inlet temperature is between 290 (new
catalyst) to 340 oC (At the end of the cycle) for the designed feed cut. In case
of lower sulfur content, the values can be reduced.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 04- 01

4.2

SPACE VELOCITY:
Space velocity is defined as:
Hourly feed flow rate in M3/hr at 15 OC
------------------------------------------------------Volume of catalyst in M 3

LHSV =

It is a kinetic parameter linked to an average residence time of the feed on


the catalyst. Space velocity is proportional to the inverse of the residence
time. A low liquid hourly space velocity favors hydrogenation reactions in
14R1 and decreases di-olefin conversion in 14-R-2.
A change of feed quantity will change the space velocity and so the reactor
inlet temperature must be changed to maintain the same severity.
To avoid coke formation decrease reactor temperature before lowering feed
rate and increase feed rate before increasing reactor temperature.
Space velocity for HR-348 bed is 5.0 and for LD-145 is 50.0
Space velocity of HR 945 bed in 14R2 is 4Hr-1

4.3

HYDROGEN PARTIAL PR. AND H2/HC RATIO:

4.3.1 14R1:
An increase in hydrogen partial pr. favors the hydrogenation reactions and
reduces polymerization reactions and coke deposits. As the unit pr. is fixed,
the only way to modify the hydrogen partial pr. is either by increasing recycle
gas flow rate of by modifying hydrogen purity by increasing the make up gas.

H2/HC ratio

H2 in recycle gas (NM3/hr.)


---------------------------------------------------Total naphtha feed (M3/hr at 15 oC)

With regard to recycle flow, the philosophy is to keep it at maximum value


whatever the feed rate. However if the feed rate is far below design, the
recycle gas flow can be decreased for energy savings, but keeping the
recycle ratio equal to or above design. Hydrogen partial pr. at reactor outlet
is 10 kg/cm2.
4.3.2 14R2:
The important criterion for a liquid phase hydrogenation is the content of
dissolved hydrogen. The dissolved hydrogen depends on the total pressure,
the make-up hydrogen flow and the make-up hydrogen purity. A minimum
H2/HC ratio is necessary to meet the required di-olefin hydrogenation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 04- 02

Higher operating pressure gives the following benefits:


Improves di-olefin Hydrogenation
Reduces the polymerization reactions/coke deposits and increases catalyst
cycle length
Increases hydrogen dissolved in the liquid phase
Improves liquid distribution in the reactor and reduces pressure drop due to
vaporization
However, as the reactor operating pressure is fixed at the design stage, the
only possible action for operators is to vary the make-up hydrogen flow.
4.4

FEED QUALITY:
Although the feed is not an operating variable, knowing its properties allows
the adjustment of operating conditions to meet the specifications. In case of
high impurities or olefins in the feed, or higher final boiling point, the severity
of the operation needs to be increased.
Higher olefin content in the feed will result in higher exothermicity across the
catalyst bed and coke deposits on the catalyst will increase. It is desired to
control the olefin content to limit the exothermicity. If the feed stays too long
into the storage, the dissolved oxygen content in the feed increases and
thereby increased risk of gum formation leading to the fouling of the
exchanger. Anti-polymerization inhibitor thus must be used.

4.5

STRIPPER BOTTOM TEMPERATURE:


Too low temperature at stripper reboiler or insufficient reboiling rate can lead
to higher H2S and H2O in the stripper bottom product. To avoid H 2S and H2O
slippage, stripper temperature should be maintained as specified.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 04- 03

5.0 CHEMICAL REACTIONS:


5.1

14R1
The different kinds of Reactions that occur in hydrotreating are:
Hydro refining reactions
Hydrogenation reactions

5.1.1

HYDROREFINING REACTIONS:

5.1.1.1 DESULFURIZATION
Mercaptides, sulfides and disulfides easily react, leading to the
corresponding saturated or aromatic compounds:

R-SH + H2

RH + H2S

R-S-R' + 2H2

RH + R'H + H2S

R-S-S-R' + 3H2

RH + R'H + 2H2S

Sulfur combined into cycles of aromatic structure, like thiophene, is more


difficult to eliminate. In that case the main reaction involves the opening of
the hetrocycle giving either a phenyl mercaptide or more easily the ultimate
product: hydrogen sulfide.

+ 4H2

C4 H10 + H2S

S
Thiophene

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 05- 01

5.1.1.2 DE-NITRIFICATION:
Nitrogen compounds inhibit considerably the acidic function of the
reforming catalyst. They are eliminated by production of ammonia. The
nitrogen compounds of SR naphtha are methylpyrol and quinoline.
HC

CH

HC

4H2

C5H12 + NH3

C-CH3
N

Methyl pyrrol

n-Pentane

HC CH
HC

CH
CH

HC

CH

+ 5H2
HC

Ammonia

CH

+ C3H8 +
HC

NH3

CH

HC N CH

CH

Quinoline

Benzene

Propane

Nitrogen elimination is practically complete. The total Nitrogen content in


the product is less than 0.5 PPM

5.1.1.3 HYDRO-DEOXYGENATION:
Oxygen or oxygen compounds modify the acidic function of the reforming
catalyst. They are eliminated by production of water. The oxygen
compounds of straight-run are peroxides and phenols.
Oxygen is almost completely transformed into water. It is then necessary
to adjust the conditions of the stripper column so as to limit to 4-PPM wt
water content of the treated naphtha product.
HC
HC

CH
C-OH

HC

CH

+ H2
HC

CH
HC

Phenol

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

+ H2O
HC

CH
CH

Benzene

NHTU- 05- 02

PART-B

5.1.2

HYDROGENATION:
1)

Olefinic hydrocarbons at high temperature provoke coke deposit on


the reformer catalyst as well as in the furnace coils. If present in small
quantities, they are eliminated by transformation to paraffins. The
reaction is highly exothermic.
Olefinic compounds are normally
absent in straight run products.
Olefins and Di-olefins are converted into saturated compounds;
Cn + H2n

2)

5.1.3

Cn H2n+2

(highly exothermic)

Aromatic hydrogenation occurs as a consequence of temperature and


hydrogen partial pressure. But combined with the H2S partial pr., the
use of selected catalyst allows the limitation of these hydrogenation
reactions. Less than 1% wt. of aromatics of the feed are
hydrogenated in the hydrotreater.

ELIMINATION OF ARSENIC AND METALS:


Arsenic, lead, mercury, sodium and to lesser degree Cu, Ni, Fe damage
permanently the reforming catalyst. These compounds are adsorbed on
the catalyst. The adsorption occurs on the upper layers of the catalytic
beds and progressively extends down to the lower part. For all the
catalyst affected by these compounds, the activity is drastically reduced.

5.2

14R2
The VB naphtha contains the following unsaturated components:

Di-olefins

Olefins

Aromatics
Several chemical reactions can take place during the diolefin
hydrogenation. The most important reactions are as below:

The hydrogenation of Di-olefins

The conversion of light mercaptants

The isomerisation of olefins

The Hydrogenation of olefins

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 05- 03

PART-B

5.2.1 HYDROGENATION OF DI-OLEFINS


Di-olefins are hydrogenated
hydrogenation to paraffins

into

corresponding

olefins

with

some

A) Cyclodiolefins
A typical example is cyclohexadiene, which is hydrogenated into
cyclohexene with no further hydrogenation with the catalyst and the
operating conditions.

+ H2
Cyclohexadiene

Cyclohexene

B) Normal or Iso-Diolefins:
Normal Di-olefins:
Their hydrogenation produces several isomers, for example:

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=CH2
CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH2 + H2

1-Heptene

1,2-Heptadiene

CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
2-Heptene (cis & trans)
5.2.2

ISODIOLEFINS
Isodiolefins hydrogenation produces also various isomers. Moreover, double
bond migration can also occur within the new generated isomer.
Diolefins are very unstable compounds, which polymerize easily into gums.
Therefore conversion of diolefins to olefins, improves the product quality.
These reactions are highly exothermic. The differemce between the diene
value (DV) or the Maleic anhydride value (MAV) of the feed and the diene
value or MAV of the product measures the extent of these reactions and this
could be related to the hydrogen consumption. Refer, to section Operation
of the unit.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 05- 04

PART-B

Isomerisation of Olefins
CH2=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
1- Hexene

CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH3
2- Hexene

This reaction, thermodynamically enhanced at low temperatures (T<210 deg


C), takes place when diolefins are almost completely eliminated. It offers the
advantage of leading to internal olefins that are more stable towards
hydrogenation than external olefins. Thus the selectivity is improved.
5.2.3

OLEFIN HYDROGENATION:
The Hydrogenation of diolefins is faster than olefin hydrogenation. This
reaction is also exothermic.
The difference between the feed bromine number (BrN) and the product
bromine number measures the conversion rate of this reaction and is related
to the hydrogen consumption.
Thermal and catalystic polymerization of unstable compounds:
These reactions are undesirable because polymer deposits reduce both the
catalyst activity and cycle duration.
The catalytic polymersiation of olefins and even diolefins remains negligible
in the range of the selected operating condition when the appropriate
catalyst is used.
Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis:
The hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is characterized by an
important heat release (exothermic reaction) and a reduction of volume.
Consequently from a thermodynamic viewpoint, these reactions are favored
by low temeperature and high pressure.
From a kinetic view point with a proper catalyst, and temperature in the
range of 160 deg C, the rate of diolefin hydrogenation is high enough for
almost complete hydrogenation.

5.2.4

Sulfur reaction:
In cracked naphtha the principal sulfur compounds include
mercaptants(RSH), aliphatic sulfides (RSR), aliphatic disulfide and
thiophenes. In the presence of selective hydrogenation catalyst, light
mercaptants and light sulfides are converted to heavier sulfur species. In
addition, H2S is also converted to heavier sulfur compounds. The
combination of selective hydrogenation and VBN fractionation allows the
production of a gasoline stream with very low sulfur content provided that
thiophene carry over in the system is controlled. The sulfur shift reactions
are faster reactions than the diolefin hydrogenation reactions.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 05- 05

PART-B

The heavy sulfur compounds produced over the selective


hydrogenation catalyst are essentially heavy sulfides and heavy
mercaptants. The following mechanism is believed to take place
1. Conversion of light mercaptans to heavy sulfides
2. Conversion of light mercaptans to heavy mercaptans
3. Conversion of sulfides to heavy mercaptans
4. Conversion of H2S to mercaptans
Although some of these mechanisms involve the production of some H2S,
the H2S addition reaction is a very fast reaction. Therefore no H2S exits the
reactor, App. 95-98% of light mercaptans are converted in the selective
hydrogenation reactor, COS and CS2 will also converted to near extinct.
Dimethyl sulfide and ethyl methyl sulfide conversion is limited approximately
at 50-70%.
Following are examples of the reactions that occur
Conversion of light mercaptans to heavier sulfides
RSH + (R-C5 TO C7 OLEFIN)

RSR

Conversion of Light mercaptans to heavier mercaptans


Step 1
RSH + H2

RH + H2S

Step 2
H2S + (R- C5 TO C7 OLEFIN)

RSH

Conversion of sulfides to heavier mercaptans


CH3-S-CH3 OR

+H2

CH4 AND C2H6 + H2S

C2H5 S-CH3
H2S + (R-C5 TO C7 OLEFIN)

RSH

Conversion of H2S to Heavier mercaptans


H2S + (R c5 to c7 olefin)

RSH

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 05- 06

6.0 CATALYST AND CHEMICALS:


6.1

CATALYSTS : 14R1 & 14R2

6.1.1 LD 145 ( CATALYST )


Manufacturer

PROCATALYSE

Presentation

High purity Alumina beads impregnated with


nickel and molybdenum oxides.

Particle size

3 mm (dia. )

Bulk density

0.80 + 0.05 g/cm3

Pore Volume

0.45 cm3/g

Surface area

140 m2/g

Quantity

1.9 m3

Packing

217 litre steel drums (Net weight 130 Kgs)

The use of the LD 145 as the top of the catalytic bed achieves a total
selective hydrogenation of the minor proportion of diolefins (coming with
cracked material). This leads to longer cycles at lower operating pr.

6.1.2 HR 348 ( CATALYST )


Manufacturer

PROCATALYSE

Presentation

Alumina content impregnated with nickel and


molybdenum oxides.

Particle size

Dia : 1.2 mm, Average length : 4 mm

Loading density

0.77 + 0.05 g/cm3

Pore volume

0.42 cm3/g

Bulk crushing strength

1.2 MPa

Composition (wt%)
Loss on ignition

MoO : 16.5 , NiO3 : 2.7


0.5 % at 550oC

Quantity

19.1 m3

Packing :

217 litre steel drums (Net weight 130 Kgs)

HR 348 catalyst is for the hydro refining of naphthas, kerosenes, gas oils,
and either straight run or from thermal treatments.
The specific property of this catalyst is a very high activity in de-nitrification
and aromatic hydrogenation, besides desulfurization.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 06- 01

6.1.3 INERT ALUMINA BALLS :


This material is used in the top and the bottom of the reactor in order to
avoid any disturbance:
Type

Shamwa Mullite or equivalent

Void fraction

0.3

6 mm diameter

0.55m3

20 mm diameter

1.45m3

6.1.4 CATALYST HR 945 (14R2)


Catalyst characteristics
Manufacturer
Type
Presentation

AXENS PROCATALYSE
HR 945
Alumina content impregnated with
Nickel and Molybdenum oxides
2 to 4 mm
0.77 +-0.05 g/cm3
22m3 for HR945

Particle Size
Loading Density
Quantity Volume

Inert Alumina balls loaded in 14R2


This material is used in the top and bottom of the reactor in order to avoid
any disturbance
Manufacturer
(ALCOA T-162 currently used),
Shamwa mullite or equivalent
Void Fraction

0.3

Quantity in m3
6 mm diameter (1/4)

0.4 m3

20 mm diameter (3/4)

0.46 m3

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 06- 02

6.2

CHEMICALS:

6.2.1 CORROSION INHIBITOR


NALCO 5164 (NALCO CHEMICAL COMPANY)
A solution of inhibitor 10% by weight in reformate is to be prepared in Tank
14T-3. This tank made up of SS steel having a capacity of 0.4 M3. Each
batch will last over a period of 7 days. Inhibitor injection will be done in the
stripper 014-C-1 vapour line by the dosing pumps 14P- 7 A/B.
Dosing pump capacity: 3.0 litres/hr.
The injection rate will be 10 ppm wt.
Estimated annual consumption: 0.8 tons.

6.2.2 POLYMERIZATION INHIBITOR:


DUPONT 22
A solution of inhibitor 10% by weight in reformate is to be prepared in tank
14T-1. This tank made-up of SS steel has a capacity of 3.7 M3 and its batch
will last over a period of 7 days. Dosing pumps 14P-08 A/B are used to inject
this inhibitor to 14P-1 suction line.
Dosing pump capacity : 25 litres/hr.
Injection rate will be 20 ppm wt.
Estimated annual consumption : 12 tons.

6.2.3 DIMETHYL DISULPHIDE:


Consumption : 1650 kg
14-T-2 tank is made up of Stainless steel having a capacity of 2 M 3 is
provided with mixer. 14P-6A/B each of capacity of 200 litres/hr is provided
for dosing the DMDS at 14P-1 suction line during sulphiding operation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 06- 03

7.0

CATALYST CHARACTERISTICS:
Cobalt-molybdenum and Nickel molybdenum catalysts are used to
promote the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrification reaction.
Active form of the catalyst are their sulphided state. Metals are
deposited on high purity, high area alumina. The active sulphide form is
maintained, in normal operation, by the H 2S partial pressure in the
reactor. Before start-up a special procedure allows to transform the
metal oxides into sulfides.
The choice of the catalyst and the associated operating conditions are
essential for the performance of any catalytic process.
Catalyst to be used in VB naphtha hydrogenation must meet the
following criteria:
A hydrogenation activity to fully hydrogenate the diolefins and other gum
precursor compounds at the lowest possible temperature
A low polymerization activity to reduce gum formation to a minimum and
to allow long enough operating cycles even with highly polymerizable
feeds. The HR 945 is a mix of Nickel and Molybdenum oxides on a
special support

7.1

CATALYST CONTAMINANTS
Catalyst contaminants are classified in three categories:

Inhibitors or Activity Moderators


Temporary poisons.
Permanent poisons.
7.1.1

INHIBITORS OR ACTIVITY MODERATORS:


Inhibitors are compounds which compete with the reactants for the
catalyst active sites, resulting in a reduction of the available active
surface. They adsorb strongly on the catalyst metal but this adsorption is
perfectly reversible. When the feed no longer contains the said
contaminants, activity recovers without specific treatment. Carbon
monoxide is a typical activity moderator.
Note: For a new plant, the design (namely LHSV) takes into account the allowable
amount of contaminant stated in the design basis

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 07- 01

7.1.2

TEMPORARY POISONS:
Temporary poisons are contaminants, which are so strongly adsorbed
that they accumulate over the active surface. Specific treatment
applicable either in-situ or ex-situ is needed to remove the temporary
poisons and restore activity. Free water is a typical temporary poison and
hot hydrogen stripping enables recovery of the catalyst activity.

7.1.3

PERMANENT POISONS:
Are those which induce a loss of activity which can not be recovered,
even with regeneration and catalyst must be replaced. The most
common permanent poisons are metals like silicon, lead, sodium etc .
i)

Arsenic :

the catalyst can fix up to 3% wt and the catalyst


activity is recovered by the regeneration.

ii)

Silicon

the catalyst can fix up to 3% wt but the catalyst


activity cannot be recovered by the regeneration.

iii)

Lead

is also a permanent poison for the catalyst and the


activity is not recovered by the regeneration.

iv)

Sodium: the catalyst can fix up to 0.6 wt% and the activity is not
recovered by the regeneration.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 07- 02

8.0

UTILITY REQUIREMENTS
UTILITY FOR NORMAL OPERATION IN SOR

8.1

ELECTRIC POWER (KWh/h)


PUMPS
14P1

127.0

14P2

11.0

14P3

6.0

14P4

70.0

14P5

2.5

AIR COOLERS
14AC1

39.0

14AC2

19.0

COMPRESSORS

8.2

14K1

361.0

14K2

53.0

TOTAL (KWh/h)

688.5

FUEL GAS (MMKcal/h)


Heat absorbed on process side:
14F1

3.643

14F2

3.918

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 08- 01

8.3

8.4

COOLING WATER
Inlet temperature

35 deg C

Maximum outlet temperature

45 deg C

14E2 (DELTA T=6 DEG C)

189 m3/Hr

14E4 (DELTA T=10 DEG C)

16 m3/Hr

14E5 (DELTA T=10 DEG C)

105 m3/Hr

14E8 (DELTA T=2.5 DEG C)

14 m3/Hr

TOTAL (m3/Hr)

324

STEAM

There is no steam production, and no steam consumption during normal


operation

8.5

TREATED FEED WATER


HDT separator make-up

0.4 m3/h

INTERMITTENT CONSUMPTIONS (ESTIMATED FIGURES)

8.6

Nitrogen
Start-up:

20 x volume of reaction section:

Reaction section estimated volume


8.7

112 m3

Hydrogen
Start-up:

8.8

2240 m3

35 x volume of reaction section:

3920 m3

Steam
MP steam:

Catalyst regeneration:
Decoking operations:

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

14 T/Hr
32 T/Hr (16 T/Hr for each
heater)

NHTU- 08- 02

PART-B

9.0

PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS:

9.1

INITIAL LEAK TEST:

9.1.1

GENERAL:
The initial leak test can be performed using air. The test pressure will be
the air system pressure or the unit (or section of unit) design pressure,
which ever is lower.
Unit is isolated with blinds from adjacent sections containing hydrocarbons
(liquid or gaseous) and from utilities systems where pressure is lower than
air pressure.
The pressure change must be checked on several manometers. Leaks
must be carefully located and tightened. Their location must be recorded.
The leak test is satisfactory when the pressure decrease is lower than 0.2
Kg/cm2 / hour during 4 hours.
For the purpose of leak tests the unit will be divided into sections of approx.
the same design pressure. Air will be injected at different locations.
For the reaction section, the tests can be followed by a vacuum test at
maximum vacuum. The pressure increase must be lower than 25 mm
Hg/hour.
The unit is divided into following sections for the purpose of leak testing.

9.1.2

FEED SECTION :
Naphtha surge drum (14-V-1) with its connected piping. The section is
isolated at pressurisation line (B/L), at water drain lines, at feed pumps
suction and discharge, at feed FCV's, at start-up lines to stripper feed, at
polymerization inhibitor line.
The tightness test shall be performed with air at the operating pressure of
2.0 Kg/cm2g.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 09- 01

9.1.3

REACTION SECTIONS :
Reactor heater (14-F-1), Reactor (14-R-1), Reactor (14-R-2), Feed / effluent
exchanger (14-E-1 A to F), Air cooler (14-AC-1A/B/C), Trim cooler(14-E-2),
Separator drum (14-V-2), Recycle compressor KO drum(14-V-3).
The section is isolated at feed pumps discharge, at separator purge gas
lines to fuel gas, flare and ejector, at separator liquid feed to stripper, at
separator water drain, at recycle compressor KO drum drain line, at recycle
compressor suction and discharge valves, at H 2 rich gas makeup gas line,
at regeneration inlet and outlet valves or blinds, at N 2 connection to
process.

The tightness test can be performed with nitrogen at 7 Kg/cm 2g.


9.1.4

STRIPPER SECTION:
Stripper feed / bottom exchanger, Stripper feed preheat exchanger (14-E7), stripper column, stripper heater reboiler, overhead air cooler, overhead
trim cooler, Reflux drum.
The section is isolated at stripper feed line (FCV), at start-up line, at MP
steam, at pressurisation lines, at corrosion inhibitor pumps discharge
valves, at reflux pumps suction and discharge valves, at reboiler pumps
suction and discharge valves, at separator purge gas lines to flare and fuel
gas, at separator water LCV, at stripper bottom line FCV.
The tightness test can be performed with air at 7 Kg/cm 2g or with N2 if the
test is to be performed at higher pressure (12 kg/cm 2g).
NOTE: Even though pumps & compressors shall be isolated during
tightness test ,they must be submitted to the test pressure prior to the test
period.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 09- 02

9.2

DRYING :

9.2.1

GENERAL :
Reaction section must be dried out prior to catalyst loading to avoid
damaging the catalyst with water. Free water shall be removed from the
column to avoid damaging the trays during heating period.
FOR GENERAL PROCEDURE ON HEATERS REFRACTORY DRY OUT,
PLEASE REFER GENERAL DRYING PROCEDURE IN LICENSOR
MANUAL PAGE 52, AND FOR SPECIFIC GUIDELINES, REFER
MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTION.

9.2.2

FEED SECTIONS DRYING :


It is carried out by successive air pressurisation to 2 kg/cm 2g for the feed
section and depressurisation from all low points. This operation is
considered satisfactory when no more free water is coming from the low
point drains.

9.2.3

REACTION SECTION DRYING :


It is carried out by successive air pressurisation to 7 kg/cm 2g and
depressurisation from all low points . This operation is considered
satisfactory when no more free water is coming from the low point drains.

9.2.4

STRIPPER SECTION DRYING :

It is also carried out by successive air pressurisation to 7 kg/cm 2g and


depressurisation by all low points. The operation is considered satisfactory
when no free water is coming from the low point drains.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 09- 03

9.3

CATALYST LOADING :

9.3.1

PRELIMINARY :
If nitrogen has been used for initial leak test, the reactor shall be blown with
air before loading. Breathable atmosphere into the reactor shall be checked
using a portable oxygen analyzer.
Check that the reactor is properly isolated (blinds in closed position)
Open the top manhole. Aerate and check that the atmosphere inside the
reactor is suitable for entering
Remove the reactor inlet elbow. Check the good conditions of the mesh on
the outlet collector. Check again the catalyst dumping nozzle is equipped
with its closure device, that the K wool plug has been installed and that the
internal pipe is well fixed
Make sure that the catalyst and alumina drums are gathered in a sheltered
place close to the reactor
Alumina balls and catalyst levels are marked-up in the reactor
Catalyst baskets with their wood covers and their retaining rings and inlet
distributor are made available in the vicinity of the reactor
Check that all the internal parts to be installed during loading are available.
Check their conformity to the drawings and numbering done during
preliminary assembling.
All the reactor internals are made of parts, which can be dismantled in order
to allow passage through the manhole.
Check the quality of the alumina balls. If they are broken, they must be
sorted and fines must be removed
Ensure that all necessary safety and personnel protection equipment is
available as well as means of communication.
Before loading the catalyst drums must be stored in a safe place and
protected from rain.
A final check on cleanliness of the inside of the reactor is made and
cleaning is performed if necessary.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 09- 04

9.3.2

Catalyst Loading of 14R1 with LD-145 and HR-348


The catalyst to be loaded is the LD-145 and HR-348 manufactured by
PROCATALYSE
The catalyst will be sock loaded and the expected bulk density in reactor is
0.80 and 0.77 respectively. The estimated quantity to be loaded is 1.9 m3 of
LD-145 and 19.1 m3 of HR-348.
The catalyst loading period shall be as short as possible to minimize the
entry of moisture in the reaction system.
Catalyst is fragile and shall be handled with care. Catalyst drums must
never be rolled and the maximum catalyst free fall in the reactor shall be
limited to 1 metre.
During the catalyst loading all precautions shall be taken to avoid contact of
catalyst with moisture or free water. The loading operation must be
interrupted in case of rain and the fixed hopper shall be covered with plastic
sheet as well as the mobile hoppers and the catalyst drums. Strict safety
rules shall be taken during this operation. The personnel entering the
reactor during the catalyst loading shall wear air masks goggles and gloves.
They shall also be secured with a safe harness while using the rope ladder.
Loading of the reactor
o Bring on top of the reactor the 20 mm alumina balls to be loaded at
the reactor bottom
o The mobile hopper is equipped with a sleeve allowing a free fall of the
balls equal to 0.1 meter above the final balls level
o Load the estimated quantity of 20mm alumina balls, then send one
rigger to equalize the level. Adjust the level if necessary.
o Remove from the top manhole platform excess of 20mm alumina
balls
o Bring on top of the reactor the 6mm alumina balls
o Shorten the fixed hopper loading sleeve
o Load the estimated quantity of 6mm balls then send one rigger to
equalize the level. Adjust the level as necessary.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 09- 05

PART-B

o Remove from the top manhole platform excess of 6mm alumina balls
o Adjust the length of the loading sleeve to allow a catalyst free fall
equal to 1 meter
o At ground level fill-up one of the mobile hoppers with catalyst and lift it
above the fixed hopper
o Load the mobile hopper catalyst into the reactor, modulating the
catalyst flow with the mobile hopper slide valve. One man, provided
with an air mask and a walky-talky will monitor the sleeve to equally
level the catalyst. During this operation the second mobile hopper is
filled-up with catalyst
o When the first mobile hopper is empty it is sent to the ground level for
refilling then the second one, full of catalyst is installed above the
fixed hopper and the loading into the reactor is resumed
o When the loading of HR348 catalyst (2 nd bed) is complete, then send
one rigger to equalize the level
o Load a quantity of LD145 equivalent to the level lower than 400mm
below the final catalyst level. Adjust the loading sleeve to allow
always a catalyst free fall lower than 1 meter
o The baskets covered with wooden covers are then carefully installed
and secured with rings by stainless steel wire. After that the catalyst is
loaded manually to reach the normal level
o The 20mm alumina balls loading can now take place. The balls will be
loaded with a bucket. The rigger in the reactor will receive the buckets
full of balls and spray the balls above the catalyst bed, leveling and
loading in the same time until the upper level has been reached.
Note: All the above mentioned operations must be witnessed by an IFP
representative.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 09- 06

PART-B

9.3.3

Loading of 14R2 with HR-945 catalyst


Check that the quality of the catalyst and the amount available are as
specified
The following guideline for the reactor loading assumes one single catalyst
bed. The bottom collector has been installed and inspected as well as the
catalyst draw-off pipes. All catalyst draw-off nozzles are closed with the
ceramic plug and cover in place.
Inside the reactor, measurements will be taken from the bottom tangent
weld line. This weld line is often slightly above the actual vessel tangent line
and so a small adjustment can be made to accommodate this. Mark the
various levels with chalk on the reactor wall. Refer to vessel specification
sheets 2RE510 and 2RE732 for measurements.
o During the following operation note and record the volumes of
alumina balls, catalyst loaded and other data such as manpower,
loading time and problems encountered.
o Load the required volume of balls to reach the first level mark and
level off the surface of the balls carefully. Then load the alumina
balls to the required level and then level the surface carefully.
Personnel entering the vessel should stand on a suspended platform
or planks so as not to disturb the layers.
o Start loading the catalyst bed with the sleeve. The person inside the
reactor shall move the sleeve around to build a level of catalyst as
uniformly as possible. Stop loading every 3 feet and if possible, level
the material to ensure uniform packed density. The sleeve when
retracted can be shortened by 3 feet at this point.
o Take care not to dislodge or bend the thermocouple sleeves
o Complete the catalyst loading up to the level indicated on the general
assembly drawing.
o Add the layers of and alumina balls
o Check the gap between the top level of the alumnia balls to the top
tangent line of the vessel

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 09- 07

o Remove any blind flanges around the reactor (except on main


process inlet and outlet lines, which remain in place until after air
purging operations are complete)
Note: During the catalyst loading, a sample will be taken in each drum in
order to prepare a composite sample of the reactor load. Half this sample,
1-quart minimum, will be for the unit owner and half for Axens.

9.3.4

SECOND LEAK TEST:


Another leak test (similar to 8.3) is to be carried out after the catalyst
loading to check the flanges, which were opened for this operation. It will be
carried out for the reaction section. After the test, the reaction section is
kept under a pressure of 3.0 kg/cm 2 of nitrogen/air.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 09- 08

10.0

FIRST START UP
The sequence of the first start-up is as follows:
Purging and oxygen removal and gas back-up
(O2 content is reduced to < 0.2% vol. for all the sections)
Receiving oil in feed section and establishing circulation in stripper
(reaction section bypassed) with total reflux.
Pressurization of the reaction section with H2-Tightness test.
Reaction section oil-in with desulfurized naphtha.
Catalyst sulfiding.

Feed change by SR naphtha and final adjustments .

10.1

PURGING AND OXYGEN REMOVAL:

10.1.1 FEED SECTION:


The section is isolated from the rest of the unit by closing
valves at:

block

Feed Control Valve (downstream valves),


Feed in BL,
Start-up line,
Pressurization PCV's (downstream valves).
The following valves are opened:
Feed pumps minimum flow valve,
Feed pumps block valves.
(A) Connect N2 hose to Naphtha lines in battery limit. (B) Drain air to
atmosphere until the O2 content at all points of the unit is < 0.2 vol.
%.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 10- 01

10.1.2

REACTION SECTION:
The section is isolated from the rest of the unit by closing B/V's at:
Feed control valves,
H2 make-up,
Separator liquid HC,
Seperator gas to FG
Separator liquid water,
Separator gas to flare,
Water make-up discharge.
The recycle compressor is isolated (air will be removed only by
nitrogen sweeping).
A.

Connect the ejector suction to the reaction section. Check


that the valve from the reformer reaction section is closed.
Commission steam to the ejector and pull a vacuum of 150 mm
Hg absolute. Keep the vacuum for one hour. The pressure
increase should be contained at 25 mm Hg/hour.

B.

Break the vacuum with nitrogen and increase the pressure up


to 0.3 kg/cm2g. Nitrogen shall be introduced slowly, upstream
the reactor, so as to avoid to upset the catalyst bed.

C.

Start again the ejector and pull again vacuum of 150 mm Hg


abs.

D.

Break the vacuum with N2 and increase the pressure upto 0.3
kg/cm2 g.

E.

Repeat once again vacuum and nitrogen injection up to 3.0 bar


gauge: the O2 content in the nitrogen contained in the unit
should be lower than 0.2% vol.

The section is ready for hydrogen injection.


10.1.3

STRIPPER SECTION:
Open vent on top of the column and on top of the reflux drum. Through
the steam out connection inject very slowly LP steam at the bottom of the
column. Also inject LP steam at the bottom of the reflux drum through a
hose connected to a drain point.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 02

Start the pilots of the reboiler heater to avoid steam condensing.


When steam appears on top of the column and on top of the reflux drum keep
the conditions for 1 hour.
Note : When all the sections are under nitrogen/ steam, the blinds
on feed and product lines, fuel gas, flare and PSV's can be removed
Then shut-off the two steam injections, cut fuel gas to pilots, and
replace immediately steam by fuel gas. Raise the pressure up to 2
kg/cm2g.
The column will cool down and the steam will condense. Drain all the
low points and maintain the pressure at 2 kg/cm2g.
The column is ready to receive hydrocarbons.

10.2

OIL IN AND STRIPPER CIRCULATION :


Two main operations are processed during this step:
Oil circulation in stripper by-passing the reaction section
Stripper start-up at total reflux
Oil circulation in stripper by-passing the reaction section
Start the naptha feed pump and through the by-pass of the
reaction section feed the stripper
As soon as the level increases in the stripper bottom, begin to
return the bottom product to the feed tank through the start-up line
Stripper start-up at total reflux
o The section is under pressure of Nitrogen or Fuel gas according to
the de-aeration mode used. Water has been purged at all low points.
Increase the pressure to 3Kg/cm2 g by injecting fuel gas
o The reaction section feed valve being well isolated by block valves,
start the feed charge pump and through the start-up line, fill the
stripper bottom up to 80% with de-sulfurised naptha/Sr naptha from
the start-up tank.
o Then start the reboiler pump for 15 minutes and stop the reboiler
circulation. Let water if any to settle down and drain the stripper
bottom
o Start the reboiler pump again and adjust the stripper bottom level at
80% by injecting additional desulfurised naptha/Sr naptha
o Start the fan of at least one of the air coolers, louvers full open and
commission water to the trim coolers

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 10- 03

o Light up pilots and one or two burners of the reboiler furnace in order
to increase the stripper bottom temperature at a rate of 30deg C/Hr
o Let the pressure increase in the column, and follow the temperature
increase until a level appears in the reflux drum. If necessary, makeup some desulfurised naptha/SR naptha, to maintain the bottom level
between 60 and 80%.
o When the reflux drum level reaches 50%, start the reflux pump and
start the reflux to the column
o Compensate for the cooiling effect of the reflux by increasing the firing
in the reboiler heater, stabilize the unit and set the temperature
control in auto mode
o Keep the column in these conditions until hydrogen rich gas is
available, then through the pressurization line increase slowly the
pressure upto the design value and increase top and bottom
temperatures as close as possible to the design values.

10.3

PRESSURIZATION OF THE REACTION SECTION AND


HYDROGEN LEAK TEST:
This step will start in parallel with Oil in and circulation step
The reaction section is under a pressure of nitrogen (3.0 kg/cm 2g). The
reaction section is isolated from the stripper section.
Recycle
compressors are isolated.
Introduce slowly the hydrogen gas from H2 bullet through start-up line
(2"P-014-043-B5A) joining in the Recycle compressor discharge line.
Raise the pressure up to 7kg/cm2 then stop the hydrogen injection.
Perform a first tightness test of 2 hours at this level of pressure. Look for
leaks with an explosive meter. The pressure drop shall not exceed
0.2kg/cm2/hour.
When all leaks have been attended, resume the hydrogen rich gas
injection and increase the pressure, up to the operating pressure.
Perform second tightness test of 2 hours at operating pressure, using the
same criteria.
When all the leaks are attended, purge the recycle compressors with
hydrogen and pressurise to operating pressure, keeping by pass valve
open, then one is isolated while the second is left with suction and
discharge valve open.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 10- 04

10.4

REACTION SECTION OIL IN


If an external source of hydrogen is available the catalyst sulfiding and
pretreater start-up can be carried out before the reformer start-up and in
such a case the desulfurized naphtha will be produced by the pretreater
for the initial reformer start-up.
o Straight

run

and

desulfurized

naphtha

available

as

per

specification.
o Oil circulation, by-passing the reaction section, is in service and the
reformer is in early operation (low severity operation at reduced
capacity).
o Start recycle compressor 14-K-1A/B at 100% capacity.
o Start to introduce desulfurized naphtha in the reaction section at 60%
of the design value.
o When level reaches 50% in the separator drum 14-V-2, start 14-P2A/B to feed the stripper from separator drum.
o Stabilize the stripper conditions. Never forget that during this
operation and during the sulfiding operation the pretreater product
feeds the CCR reformer.
o Prepare a solution of 10wt.% corrosion inhibitor in desulfurized
naphtha. Then start the pump 14-P-7A/B and inject this solution to
the stripper overhead line.
The unit is now ready for catalyst sulfiding.

10.5

CATALYST SULFIDING

10.5.1

INTRODUCTION:
It is for transforming the metals from their oxide form (new catalyst) to
sulfide form (active form). It is required after catalyst replacement or after
catalyst regeneration. The safest and easiest way for sulfiding the
catalyst is the use of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is thermally
cracked to H2S and methane according to the following reaction:

CH3 - S - S - CH3 + 3H2


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-B

2CH4 + 2H2S

NHTU- 10- 05

The H2S combines with the metal oxides to form sulfides according to
the following reactions:

3 NiO + H2 + 2H2S

Ni3S2 + 3H2O

MoO3 + H2 + 2H2S

MoS2 + 3H2O

DMDS decomposition and H2S adsorption are exothermic and there


will be a small temperature rise through the catalyst beds during the
sulfiding.
The sulfiding operation with circulation of gas and Naphtha feed gives a
better distribution of H2S throughout the catalyst. Note that it is
compulsory to use hydrotreated naphtha as the reformer is in operation.
H2S is removed on top of the stripper and the product at stripper bottom
is ON-SPEC even when the catalyst is not under its active form and
when the temperatures are low at the beginning of the operation.
The amount of sulfur necessary to sulphide the catalyst is
equivalent to 8 wt% of the catalyst weight.
The DMDS solution is prepared in 14-T-2. The DMDS will be injected by
pump 14P-6 A/B to the suction of the naphtha feed pump, 14P-1 A/B.
10.5.2

OPERATION FOR 14R1:


The reaction section is under hydrogen at operating pressure. The
hydrogen leak test at operating pressure has been carried out and found
satisfactory. Naphtha is fed to the reaction section at 60% of design
throughput..
The stripper column is in operation.
service.

One recycle compressor is in

Light-up the reaction heater pilots, then one burner. Increase the
temperature at reactor inlet upto 180oC at a rate of 30oC/hr.
At 180oC, start to inject DMDS at a rate to give 0.5wt.% sulfur in
the feed and keep increasing the temperature at reactor inlet up to
220oC.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 10- 06

Keep 220oC at reactor inlet for at least 6 hours or until H 2S


appears in the recycle gas, most of the H 2S is fixed on the
catalyst.
Start then to increase the reactor inlet temperature up to 350 oC at
a rate of 20oC per hour. Keep a small DMDS injection as to
maintain the H2S in recycle gas between 0.5 and 2.0 vol.%.
Keep 350oC at reactor inlet for 4 hours, then stop the DMDS
injection if still in service.
The temperature at reactor inlet is then decreased down to 290oC
in 2 hours.
10.5.3

NOTES:
1.

During the sulfiding operation the hydrogen make-up is kept at the


minimum, just enough to maintain the pressure constant. At least
twice during the sulfiding operation, the recycle gas will be
analyzed for H2 purity which must always be maintained higher
than 40 vol%.

2.

H2S in the recycle gas will be monitored by Dragger tube tests (0


to 1000 vol ppm and 0 to 3 vol% tubes to be used).

3.

H2S concentration in the recycle gas (after the 6 hours step)


should never drop below 0.1 vol%. If so, stop the temperature
increase until 0.1 vol% H2S is re-established. Normally the DMDS
injection shall be set to keep 0.5 vol% minimum in the recycle gas.

4.

During the step at 220oC the total sulfur in the feed shall be
analyzed one time to check if the DMDS injection rate is correct.
5. During the sulfiding operation the delta T of the reactor should be
limited to few deg.C. If the delta T exceeds 30 oC reduce the
DMDS injection.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 10- 07

6.

During the sulfiding operation the gas contained in the unit is


highly toxic and flammable. It must not, for any reason, be purged
to atmosphere. The operators shall be equipped with H 2S gas
protective masks and they must wear these masks while checking
the H2S content in the recycle gas. Access to the unit shall be
forbidden to all personnel except the operating person.
7. Obviously, DMDS can be replaced by H 2S if available. But due to
the large quantity of sulfur needed for catalyst the quantity of H 2S
necessary for the operation is very high and the danger linked to
the handling of H2S containers or bottles not to be neglected. In
addition, H2S can be injected only at feed pump discharge to
avoid possible pump cavitation.

10.5.4

OPERATION FOR 14R2:


The sulfiding of HR945 catalyst in the diene saturator is performed
separately from the hydrotreater reactor 14R1
The sulfiding flow scheme for the di-ene saturator catalyst is as
shown in the attached drawings
Only straight run type naptha shall be used to perform the following
steps (no Vb naptha)
Either the naptha from the pre-treatment is sent back to storage in
which case raw naptha feed can be used, or the naptha from pretreatment feeds the stripper and the reformer in which case
desulfurised naptha feed shall be used
Naptha in
The recycle compressor is operating with hydrogen gas at lower
pressure(15 Kg/cm2 g) than normal pressure. The hydrogen gas is
circulated at its normal operating flow through the following circuit:

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 08

PART-B

14K1 discharge, lines P-014-041, P-014-085, exchangers 14E1


D/E/F shell side, lines P-014-166, 14R2 by-pass line (P-014-165),
P-014-169, 14E1 A/BC

shell

side, line

P-014-014,

14F1

hydrotreater reactor feed heater, lines P-014-015, P-014-178, P014-167, 14R2 diene saturator, lines P-014-170, P-014-016,
exchangers 14E1 A/B/C/D/E/F, tube side, lines P-014-171, P-014017, exchanger 14E1G tube side, lines P-014-179, exchanger
14E7 tube side, lines P-014-180, and then to the 14V2
hydrotreater seperator drum via the 14AC1 reactor effluent air
cooler and 14E2 reactor effluent trim cooler.
The reactor 14R1 is isolated as follows:
-Blind on the inlet line P-014-015 and on the outlet line P-014-016
Inert raw naptha at 60% of operating flow circulates through the
reaction section bypass to the stripper
Crack open the feed control valve to 10% of design rate and start
feeding raw naptha to the reactor. The hydrogen gas is mixed with
naptha at the inlet of the exchanger 14E1F, shell side
As the level increases in the 14V2 hydrotreater seperator drum,
commission level controller, to feed naptha to the stripper. Pinch
back on the reaction section by-pass.
Continue increasing the naptha to the reactor in 10% increment
and cut back on the strat-up reaction section bypass until closed.
Stabilise the unit at 60% capacity while circulating through the
reactor and stripper.
Catalyst Sulfiding:
Light the reactor feed heater and increase the reactor inlet
temperature up to 180 deg C at a rate of 20 deg C/Hr
Start the sulfiding agent injection at 180 deg C. Adjust the
injection flow rate. A moderator temperature rise should be
noticed in the reactor.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 09

PART-B

Increase the reactor inlet temperature up to 220 deg C in 2


hours
Keep these conditions for 3 hours at 220 deg C. Check the
H2S content of the recycle gas at least every hour. Normally,
H2S appears after 3 to 5 hours from the beginning of the
sulfiding agent injection.
When the H2S breakthrough occurs (H2S>0.2 vol%) or after 4
hours at 220 deg C whichever is later, continue the sulfiding
agent injection and increase the reactor inlet temperature upto
300 deg C at a rate of 20 deg C per hour.
Hold this temperature for a minimun of 12 hours
During Sulfiding:
o The reactor delta T must not exceed 30 deg C. Should
this happen, decrease the sulfiding agent injection
o The H2S concentration at reactor inlet should be within
0.3% to 0.5% volume. If required. Adjust the sulfiding
agent injection to match the range.
o The sulfiding reactions produce water. The amount of
water recovered in the seperator confirms the progress
of the sulfiding procedure. Drain the seperator when
necessary. Proceed with caution. The water is
saturated with H2S.
o In addition to H2S, the decomposition of the sulfiding
agent generates methane, which accumulates in the
recycle gas. A purge of the reaction section and a makeup of hydrogen may be necessary to keep the recycle
gas hydrogen purity above 50% volume.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 10

PART-B

o Stop the sulfiding agent injection when the required


amount is reached. However, proceed to intermittent
injections if the H2S content in the recycle gas falls
below 0.3% volume
o Check that the inlet and outlet H2S content of the
reactor are equal
o Check that the injection of sulfiding agent results in an
instantaneous increase of the H2S content in the
recycle gas
o Catalyst sulfiding is then considered as completed
o Remark: During the sulfiding operation, the recycle gas
is highly toxic and flammable due to its H2S content. It
must not be vented to the atmosphere
o The reactor must be cooled down

To 150 deg C at a rate of 20deg c per hour

At 150 deg C, the reactor feed heater is shut


down and the reactor is further cooled down to
the minimum possible temperature

At 100 deg C stop the recycle gas compressor

Depressurise the section as to allow safe lining


out of equipment prior to the next sulfiding
operation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 11

PART-B

10.6

FEED CHANGE & FINAL ADJUSTMENT:


The unit is in the following conditions:
The sulfiding of both the reactors is complete
Inert naptha and recycle gas hydrogen are flowing through the HDT
reactor and sulfiding circuit
Recycle gas is set at 100% of design value with the purge gas flow
rate at FC1406 set at 25% of design value. Purge is going to flare.
Feed at 60% of design throughput.
Unit set at operating pressure i.e 17Kg/cm2 through PIC 1408
Temperatures at reactor inlets are set at SOR temperatures.
Stripper column is in service and the bottom is re-circulating to feed
through the feed tanks.

Lining-up of the unit at 60% capacity:


The line-up of the unit is as below;

Commission the pressure controller, PIC-1453, at the outlet of the


reactor 14R2. Put on auto mode at set point of 25.6 Kg/cm2g

Commission the pressure controller, PIC-1411, situated on the


stripper purge to amine wash unit. Put in auto mode at 14 Kg/cm2g

Pressurize 14V1 hydrotreater feed surge drum using fuel gas and put
PIC-1401 pressure control loop on auto mode at 1.5 Kg/cm2g

Check that all instrumentation, control valves and pumps are


functioning properly

The pressure in HDT reaction section separator drum, 14V2 is


maintained at 17Kg/cm2g by the make-up hydrogen gas. The recycle
gas compressor is operating at full load.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 12

PART-B

Light the burners of the HDT reactor feed heater, 14F1 and
commission all control loops on reactors including:

TIC-1401: inlet temperature of reactor 14R1, controlling firing in the


heater, 14F1

TIC-1443: inlet temperature of reactor 14R2, controlling the bypass


around the 14E1 A/B/C/D/E/F hydrotreater reactor feed/effluent
exchanger

Gradually increase the operating temperature in all reactors by


increasing the heater, 14F1, outlet temperature at a rate of 30 deg C
per hour in order to reach the required SOR temperatures.

Introduction of VB naphtha feed:


After establishing smooth operating conditions with inert naphtha, the unit
is ready for introduction of VB naphtha feed.

Start introduction of VB naphtha at approximately 10% of the normal


flow rate at FIC1434

Adjust the make-up hydrogen gas necessary to keep the pressure in


the reaction section and di-ene saturator at the design values

Gradually increase the flow of VB naphtha to the unit by increments of


10% of the normal flow rate

Stabilize operating conditions after each increase of VB naphtha in


the feed

Watch carefully the temperature gradient on the reactors. Decrease


the inlet temperature of the reactors if the temperature rise is too fast.

If there is no more temperature rise in the reactors, increase the


reactor inlet temperature in steps of 2 deg C maximum

Monitor the temperature rise on each catalyst bed

Adjust the operating conditions according to the analysis of the


product (MAV)

Send off-spec hydrotreating gasoline to feed tank until it is on-spec.


When the product is on specification slowly increase unit feed flow
rates in steps of 5% up to 100%.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 10- 13

PART-B

11.0

NORMAL SHUTDOWN:
Shut-down planned long time in advance or due to unexpected event
which is not of emergency nature leads to normal shut down.

11.1

SHORT DURATION NORMAL SHUTDOWN:


Before initiating any planned shutdown, review all records to determine
what inspections and repair work must be accomplished during the
shutdown. Prepare a shutdown schedule including plans for prearranging feed and product inventories during turnaround time. Notify all
services and other dependent operating units of the schedule so that all
activities can be properly co-ordinated. Arrange for all required parts,
tools and services in advance, in particular adequate nitrogen for
purging.
When shutting down, steps should be taken to prevent catalyst or
equipment damage from expansion, contraction, thermal shock or
unusual pressure surges. Purge with care all vessels, using inert gas and
steam until all equipment is free of hydrocarbon liquids and gases. Purge
thoroughly and check the atmosphere in the vessels before entering or
starting repairs. Rigorously apply all safety precautions.
This planned shutdown can be due to a problem of the upstream unit,
and does not imply a complete shutdown of the unit. (Note that CCR
reforming unit shall be shut down simultaneously with shutdown of
the pretreater).
(i)

Decrease the reactor inlet temperatures to SOR values at the rate


of 30oC per hour. Route the desulfurized naphtha to feed tank.

(ii)

Then decrease the feed to the reactor, FIC-1402 down to 50% of


its design capacity (i.e. 35 MT/hr, which is approx. 50 M3/hr.).

(iii)

H2 rich gas stays in automatic control and will get reduced


accordingly. Stop water injection and circulation, isolate the level
control valves (LV - 1406).
These conditions are kept until the positive delta T, if any,
disappears in the reactor catalytic bed. Then shut down the feed.
Close also the FCV-1402 block valves and stop pump 14-P-1A/B.
Stop the polymerization inhibitor injection pump 14-P-8 A/B.
When the level start to decrease in the HP separator isolate the
FCV-1407 block valves & stop pump 14P-2A/B.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 11- 01

PART-B

(v)

Decrease the reactor inlet temperatures down to 180 0C.

(vi)

Set the stripper column 14-C-1 at total reflux conditions. Stop the
corrosion inhibitor injection pump 14-P-7 A/B.
The unit is now in the following stand-by conditions:
i. Recycle compressor in service at 100% capacity.
ii. Reactor inlet temperatures are at 180oC.
iii. Minimal make-up to maintain the section pressure (purge gas
closed).
iv. Stripper column at total reflux conditions.

11.2

LONG DURATION NORMAL SHUTDOWN:


(i)

Decrease the reactor inlet temperatures to SOR value, at the rate


of 30oC per hour. Route the desulfurized naphtha to feed tank.

(ii)

Then decrease the feed to the reactor, FIC-1402 down to 50% of


its design capacity (i.e. 35 MT/hr which is approx. 50 M3/hr.).

(iii)

H2 rich gas stays in automatic control and will get reduced


accordingly. Stop water injection and circulation, then isolate the
level control valves (LV - 1406).

(iv)

These conditions are kept until the positive delta T, if any,


disappears in the reactor catalytic bed. Then shut down the feed.
Close also the FCV-1402 block valves and stop pump 14-P1A/B.Stop the polymerization inhibitor injection pump 14-P-8 A/B.
When the level starts to decrease in the HP separator isolate the
FCV-1407 block valves & stop pump 14P-2A/B.

(v)

Decrease the reactor inlet temperature down to 150 oC at a rate of


40oC per hour, then shut-down the heater 14F-1 and follow the
cooling down of the catalytic bed of 14R1 with the recycle gas.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 11- 02

PART-B

(If the catalyst shall be regenerated, decrease the reactor inlet


temperature down to 260oC, then keep this temperature for 4
hours to strip-off the hydrocarbons from the catalyst. After this
decrease the reactor inlet temperature down to 200 oC, then cut-off
fire to heater 14F-1 and stop the recycle compressor 14K-1 A/B.
The catalyst shall be kept hot enough to avoid steam
condensation during the first phase of the regeneration).
(vi)

Empty completely the separator 14V-2 by sending all the


hydrocarbons to the stripper and drain the low points to blow
down. Keep the unit under hydrogen or nitrogen.

(vii)

Cool down the stripper column 14C-1, Stop reflux pumps 14-P-3
A/B the reboiler heater 14F-2 and circulation pumps 14-P-4A/B.
Unless maintenance is to be carried out, the column is kept with
its hydrocarbon level under 2kg/cm 2 of fuel gas or nitrogen.

(viii)

If the maintenance is planned for the reaction section or if the


catalyst is to be regenerated the following procedure applies:

Isolate hydrogen make-up and separator purge gas. Depressurize


the unit to flare.
By successive pressurization with nitrogen and depressurization to
flare, replace hydrogen and hydrocarbons by nitrogen until the
H2+HC content in the reaction section is lower than 0.2% vol.
Drain all the low point to displace any liquid hydrocarbon left.
Isolate the reaction section for the rest of the unit by blinds.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 11- 03

12.0

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES:

12.1

INTRODUCTION :
The objective which will govern the steps to be taken in such a situation
are :
To protect the operating personnel.
To protect the catalyst.
To protect the equipments.

Typically the following measures must be taken in an emergency


situation
o Shut-off the liquid feed to the reaction section involved
o Stop the reactor feed heater
o Try to cool the reactor down by circulating hydrogen
o When possible, the hydrogen circulation is maintained
o As a last resort, partial or total de-pressurisation can be used to coole
the reactor down
Concerning the catalyst preservation, operators must avoid :
An excessive catalyst grain temperature, which can change the
structure of the alumina (over 700 oC). However catalyst bed
temperature must never exceed reactor design temperature.
The pressure of hydrocarbons without a sufficient partial
pressure of hydrogen which results in rapid coke deposit and
the possible formation of catalyst cakes which increase the
delta P and favour chanelling.
The quick depressurization of the reaction section should be
avoided, except in case of reaction runaway (unlikely), major
leak or fire, because it can damage the alumina support and
induce the formation of catalyst scales and fines.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 12- 01

Most likely shutdown causes are handled by AUTOMATIC


SHUTDOWN SEQUENCES/TRIPS. These SEQUENCES/TRIPS MUST
ALWAYS BE OPERATIONAL, but in case of failure or by-pass of
these devices, all these steps must be carried out manually by
operators.
For detailed descriptions on various emergency handlings refer to
MISC-19 section at the end of the manual.

12.2

GENERAL :
The general course of actions to be followed in an emergency situation is
summarized hereunder:
Cut-off fire to reaction heater 14-F-1
In the same time shut off the liquid feed
Route the products to feed tank / slop
Isolate by block valves, the control valves at the bottom of the
vessels
Keep the stripper column in total reflux

Note :

12.3

1.

Recycle gas compressor shall be left running as long as


possible.

2.

Hydrotreater shutdown will result in a shutdown of the


reformer with a consequent loss of hydrogen.

LOSS OF FEED:
The occurrence can be due to either a failure of the upstream unit or to
the failure of the two naphtha feed charge pumps :
Decrease immediately the reactor inlet temperature of 14R1
down to 180oC at a rate of 50 oC per hour, keeping the recycle
compressor at full capacity.
Close the separator purge gas FIC-1406 but keep the
hydrogen rich gas make-up in service to maintain the reaction
pressure at design value.
Stop water injection and circulation pump 14-P-5 A/B,
polymerization inhibitor injection pump 14-P-8A.
Isolate separator bottom block valves of FIC-1407 when the
level LIC-1405 reaches 50%.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 12- 02

PART-B

Same for stripper bottom products. Set the column at total


reflux conditions. Stop the corrosion inhibitor injection pump
14-P-7A/B.
At this point, conditions are identical to the ones of the normal shutdown
for a short stand-by and the subsequent restart-up procedure will apply.

12.4

RECYCLE COMPRESSOR (14K-1) FAILURE :


The feed pre-heater 14-F-1 will cut-off by interlock. Isolate the
block valves on fuel gas to heater. The heater firing is to get
cut-off on Recycle gas low flow (FSLL-1411).
Shut down feed charge pumps 14-P-1 A/B and close the FCV1402. Feed pump can be stopped from control room by HS1401.
Fully open the separator purge gas valve FV-1406 to sweep
hydrocarbon from the catalyst. Maintain the reaction section
pressure through 14K2
Stop water injection and circulation pump (14-P-5A/B),
polymerization inhibitor injection pump (14-P-8A/B).
Isolate separator 14-V-2 bottom block valves, when the level
reaches 50% on LIC-1405.
Same for stripper bottom set the column at total reflux
conditions. Stop the corrosion inhibitor injection pump 14P-7.
Try to start the second recycle compressor 14-K-1 A/B.

If it starts, bring the reactor 14-R-1 inlet and catalyst bed


temperatures at 150oC and start-up again as for start-up
after stand-by operation.

If the second compressor is not available, close the


separator purge gas valve FIC-1406 and keep the pressure
of the reaction section.

Restart-up of the unit will depend upon the temperature of


the catalytic bed. Above 150 oC same procedure as after
stand by. Under 150oC initial start-up procedure without
catalyst sulphiding.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 12- 03

PART-B

12.5

HYDROGEN RICH GAS MAKE-UP FAILURE:


Presuming that no external source of hydrogen is available.

Shut down feed charge pumps 14-P-1A/B and close FCV-1402 if makeup gas flow is not restored till the system pressure reduces less than
80% operating pressure. Stop the polymerization inhibitor injection
pump 14-P-8 A/B.

Close the separator purge gas block valve of FIC-1406 as well as


make-up gas. Keep the recycle gas in service as long as possible.

Decrease the 14R1 reactor inlet temperature down to 180 oC @ 50 oC


per hr.

Close the separator bottom, block valves on FIC-1407 when the level
reaches 50% on LIC-1405.

Same for the stripper bottom products, set the column at total reflux
conditions. Stop the corrosion inhibitor injection pump 14-P-7 A/B

If the hydrogen rich gas is expected to be available soon, keep these


stand-by conditions. Watch the pressure of the reaction section, which
will decrease due to the section temperature decrease and the
hydrogen loss at the compressor.

Of the hydrogen rich gas failure is expected to be of long duration,


decrease the reactor bed temperature to 150 oC, shut-off the fuel gas to
heater and cool down the catalyst beds. Note that as the pressure will
decrease the recycle compressor 14-K-1 discharge temperature will
tend to increase. Stop this compressor either because the catalyst bed
is cold enough or because of high temp at the compressor discharge,
whatsoever is occurring first.

12.6

STRIPPER REBOILER PUMP 14-P-4A/B FAILURE:


Route the stripper products to feed tank / slop.
If the second pump cannot be started within minutes, shut down the feed
charge and follow the procedure described above.
Note that a failure of both reflux pumps 14-P-3A/B will also lead to a
shutdown.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU-12- 04

12.7

UTILITIES FAILURE:

12.7.1

FUEL GAS
Reaction and columns heaters 14F-1 / 14F-2 will shut down and the
temperatures will decrease in reaction and stripper section:

12.7.2

Route the products to slop.

Shut down the feed charge and follow the procedure described
12.3 above

COOLING WATER
For this unit, essentially the reaction and column trim cooler will be
affected and the separator and reflux drums temperature will increase to
about 50-60oC. But upstream and down stream unit will be shut down
which will lead in our case to feed and hydrogen rich gas failure:
Shut down the feed charge pumps 14-P-1A/B and follow the procedure
described at 12.3 above.

12.7.3

POWER SUPPLY:
This failure will immediately stop the recycle compressor 14-K-1A/B, the
feed pumps 14-P-1A/B water injection and circulation pumps 14-P-5A/B,
the inhibitors pumps 14-P-7A/B, the stripper reboiler and reflux pumps
14-P-4A/B / 14-P-3A/B reaction and columns air coolers fans and
interrupt the H2 rich make-up gas.
This emergency shutdown cumulates the inconvenience of loss of
compressor plus loss of hydrogen rich make-up gas.

Cutoff fire to all heaters 14-F-1/14-F-2. Isolate FG block valves.

Route the products to slop/feed tank.

Watch the tube skin temperatures in the heater. If there is an increasing


trend, open the air damper and inject snuffing steam.

Maintain pressure in the reaction section. If necessary inject nitrogen in


the 14C1 stripper to maintain pressure.

Close block-valves on hydrogen rich make-up gas, purge gas FIC-1406,


feed FCV-1402, separator drum FIC-1407, stripper bottom LIC-1412.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 12- 05

There is a potential danger for increased hydrocracking in the reactors


which are idle with no flow of hydrogen to strip the hydrocarbons. If
power outage is suspected for a long time, depressurise the reaction
section to flare.

In addition, the general philosophy is to restart the equipment in the


following order

The compressor, in order to resume the hydrogen circulation and cool


down the reactors or to maintain the reactor inlet temperature after
restarting the heater

The reflux pump of the column in order to bring under control the
overhead temperature and pressure
This shutdown can be rather long as the upstream and downstream units
shall be restarted and stabilized.
The initial start-up procedure, without catalyst sulphiding shall apply.

12.7.4

INSTRUMENT AIR AND/OR INSTRUMENT POWER SUPPLY FAILURE:


All control valves will take their fail-safe position by air failure. All
instruments reading will be affected. All safety devices should be
activated except the HP separator quick depressurization valve equipped
with an instrument air tank.

Shutdown feed charge pumps 14-P-1A/B, stop the polymerization


inhibitor injection.

Route the product to feed tank.

Close block valves on the fuel gas to heaters.

Close separator purge gas and H2 rich make-up gas block valves.

Isolate by block valves separator bottom and stripper bottom.

Stop the corrosion inhibitor injection and the reflux pump.

Let the recycle compressor 14-K-1A/B in service to cool down the


catalytic bed.

Stop water injection and circulation.

The shutdown can be rather long as the upstream and downstream


units shall be restarted and stabilized.

The initial start-up procedure, without catalyst sulphiding shall apply.


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-B

NHTU- 12- 06

12.8

MAJOR LEAK OR FIRE:


The following is only an overview of the steps to be taken during the
discovery of a leak resulting in a fire. The following steps are described
from a process point of view, mainly aimed at avoiding temperature
excursions in the reactors and protecting the equipment and catalyst.

Shut-off fuel to both heaters by activating the fuel gas emergency


shutdown system from the control room

Shut the naptha feed pump, close the stripper feed and block-in

Isolate the unit. Block the feed, product and make-up hydrogen gas
lines

Isolate the reaction section from the feed and stripper sections

Depending on the severity of the leak and its location, shutdown the
hydrogen recycle compressor immediately, block-in and depressurise
the reaction section to flare.

Depressurise the stripper section to the flare

Drain all the vessels to the hydrocarbon blow down

As the depressurized hot vessels cool down, watch the pressure and
inject nitrogen as necessary to avoid vacuum

Nitrogen purging and steam out should be considered for the stripper
circuits
If a fire has occurred, then all the steps above will be taken while the fire
fighting is taking place. Note, however, that the de-pressurising step may
be needed sooner than described above depending upon the gravity of
the situation. If a small leak occurs in the heater, the hydrocarbons will
ignite immediately in this confined area. Open the snuffing steam and the
damper and maximize the draft to keep the fire under control within the
heater box.
In the case of an extreme emergency, the reaction section can be
depressurized to the flare using the quick de-pressurisation valve. This is
typically part of the I-1404 system, which is activated by push button in
the control room (HS-1404).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 12- 07

12.9 Emergency on the OSBL line:


S No
1
2
3
4

Details of action
Inform S/I and alert FO about emergency
Inform Unit Incharge and RSM about disturbance
Inform MSQ, OM&S regarding change in Routing
System taken out from APC Mode

Action By
PO
SI & PO
SI & PO
PO

HTU r\d to be lined up and routed to startup line

FO & PO

15FC01\02 to be isolated

FO & PO

Follow CRU Feed Out Procedure

FO & PO

Incase of emergency in NHTU r/d line to OMS


NHTU to be taken on circulation for 2 hrs as DSN
may leach shulphur from NHTU catalyst

13.0

SI & PO

RESTART- UP OF THE UNIT:


Any unit restart-up procedure derives from the first start-up procedure.
The only difference results from the unit status after the shutdown, which
dictates the point where the general start-up procedure can be resumed.
It may be noted that a shutdown of the reformer unit will lead to
Hydrotreater unit shutdown except if an external source of hydrogen is
available.
Also a shutdown of the pretreater implies a shutdown of the reforming
unit, except if the naphtha pump is available and de-sulfurised naphtha
feed can be sent directly to the stripper by-passing the reaction
section.

13.1

RE-START AFTER SHORT DURATION S/D:


The stand-by conditions of the unit will be:

Feed pumps stopped.

Recycle compressor in service at 100% capacity.

Heater in service to keep the reactor inlet temperature at 180


oC.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 13- 01

Possibly a small hydrogen make-up from an external source to


maintain the reaction section pressure.

Water washing (injection and circulation) stopped.

Stripper column at total reflux conditions.

In this specific case restart-up will consist essentially, as soon as


hydrogen make-up can be resumed, in increasing reactor inlet
temperature to 150oC and feeding naphtha to the reaction section.
Then, routing the product to feed tank until the required operating
conditions are re-established and the reformer feed is ON-SPEC.

13.2

RE-START UP AFTER LONG DURATION S/D:


Generally, in most cases of normal or emergency shutdown of relatively
long duration, the stand-by conditions are as follows:

Feed and heaters are shutdown. The reaction section is isolated,


cooled down and under hydrogen (or nitrogen if necessary).

Recycle compressors are stopped and isolated under nitrogen.

Stripper section is shutdown, isolated, and kept under fuel gas.


In this case, the re-start up procedure will be resumed at "Stripper at total
reflux". As the catalyst has been kept under hydrogen or nitrogen, the
sulfiding is not needed and after cold desulfurized feed injection the
temperature will be increased at 40 to 50 oC/hr, up to 150oC at reactor
inlet.
At this temperature SR Naphtha shall replace desulfurized naphtha.
Obviously, the reformer is started up as soon as the "circulation bypassing the reaction section" is established.

13.3

START-UP AFTER CAT. REGEN. / REPLACEMENT


Finally, an extreme case of unit re-start is when the catalyst has been
regenerated or replaced by a new one. In this case, the re-start
procedure will start all over again from the beginning, i.e. "purging and
oxygen removal" and catalyst sulphiding.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 13- 02

14.0

TROUBLESHOOTING
The main causes of concern related to process besides failures of
equipment or utilities (which have been covered under emergency
procedures) for the Naphtha Hydrotreater are:
High pressure drop in the reactors
Feed/.effluent or feed/bottom exchanger leaks
Chemical/Hydrogen consumption increase
Presence of water or H2S in the Reformer feed
Presence of total Sulfur in the Reformer feed

14.1

HIGH PRESSURE DROP (DELTA P) IN THE REACTORS


The unit is designed for a given maximum reactor pressure drop. During
normal operation the pressure drop will be approximately as indicated in
the process data book. The reactor pressure drop indicator is transmitted
to DCS and the trend data will allow the operator to predict when the unit
needs to shutdown for catalyst skimming.
Delta P is strongly dependent on the feed quality. That is why a special
attention to the feed quality must be taken.
The pressure drop of the 14-R-1, hydrotreater reactor, specifically the
first bed LD-145, is also dependent on the performance of the diene
saturator, 14-R-2.

14.2

FFED/EFFLUENT OR FEED/BOTTOM EXCHANGER LEAKS


Since the feed in both the cases is at higher pressure, the higher sulfur
content feed may leak into the effluent or bottoms contaminating the
hydrotreated gasoline. When sulfur shows up in the stabilizer bottoms
and all the proper corrective actions have been taken with no
improvement, it is highly likely that a leak exists in either the reactor
feed/effluent exchanger or stabilizer feed bottom exchangers. These
leaks can be easily detected through sampling upstream and
downstream.
In October 2014 14E-3A/B leaked. Due to this sudden decrease in delta T
of 15R-1 and increase in 15R-2 observed. Sampling from exchanger
O/L(Tube side) and 14P-4A/B (Stripper bottom pump) done which
confirmed leak. Luckily we have standby New exchanger (14E-103A/B)
installed in 2010 S/D. New exchanger taken in line and 14E-3A/B
isolated for attending leak.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-B

NHTU- 14- 01

14.3

CHEMICAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION INCREASE

Make up hydrogen gas to the diene saturator 14R2

In normal operation, the hydrogen supply to the diene saturator 14R2 is


under pressure control. Increased hydrogen consumption may result
from excessive olefin saturation or higher diolefins content.
The hydrogen consumption can be controlled, by decreasing the reactor
severity without impacting the product quality.

14.4

PRESENCE OF H2O OR H2S IN THE REFORMER FEED:


This is due to bad operation of the Stripper. Check the operating
conditions, mainly the bottom temperature and the interface levels in the
boots of HP separator and reflux drum.

14.5

PRESENCE OF TOTAL "S" IN THE REFORMER FEED:


This is caused due to either a too low temperature at the reactor inlet or a
low activity of the catalyst or to a poorer quality of the feed.
If the catalyst activity loss is not suspected, increase the reactor inlet
temperature by 3 deg C and after 2 hours, check again the total sulfur in
the reformer feed. If there is no change at all, a leak on the reaction
section feed/effluent exchangers or in the stripper feed/product
exchangers is possible.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 14- 02

Provision of Bypass in 14-E-2 (Reactor effluent Cooler) in NHT


In December 2013 after S/D Trim cooler(14-E-2) of NHTU suspected of
having leaks, it is NHTU reactor effluent vs. CW. The function of this Trim
cooler is to cool the gas entering the separator, on which gas & liquids gets
separated where the gas is used for recycle via 14K-1 and liquid for further
polishing.
Due to leak the CW side of 14E-02 kept isolated which leads to a higher
temperature at separator inlet 55 deg C against the normal value of 35 deg C. On
absence of Trim cooler, separator temperature wholly dependent on air cooler
14AC-1A/B/C & 14AC-2. Stoppage or tripping of these air coolers will lead to
stoppage of CCRU & NHTU.
So it was decided to store DSN in TK-107. DSN stored utilised for operating
CRU while NHTU was under shutdown for attending leak in 14-E-2. Also a
bypass line provided for on HC side of 14E-2. Exchanger isolated and HTU
plant started from bypass line. After attending leak 14E-2 taken in line and
bypass isolated.
In future if 14E-2 leaks, exchanger can be taken on bypass and after attending
leak exchanger can be taken in line without disturbing HTU palnt.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 14- 03

15.0

SAFETY DEVICES:

15.1

EMERGENCY SEQUENCES:

FEED HEATER 14-F-1:


An emergency S/D sequence will shut-off the fuel gas valve, in case of:

Low low flow of recycle gas, FSLL-1411.

Low low pressure of fuel gas, PSLL-1422.

Low low flow of regeneration steam, FSLL-1404.

High High outlet temperature of 14F1, TAHH-1473

RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR 14-K-1 A/B:


An emergency S/D sequence will shut of power to the recycle compressor
14-K-1 A/B in case of high high level LSHH-1409 in K.O. drum 14-V-3.

STRIPPER REBOILER PUMP14P-4 A/B:


An emergency sequence will start the standby pump in case of low low flow
FSLL-1416 of the stripper reboiler 14-F-2.

HYDROTREATED NAPHTHA TO STORAGE


An emergency sequence will shut off the S/D valve LV-1413 of the stripper
bottom to hydrotreated naphtha storage by LSLL-1413.

STRIPPER REBOILER 14-F-2


An emergency sequence will shut off fuel gas to reboiler heater, in case of:
Low low flow in heater pass FSLL-1419 A/B/C/D.

Low low pressure of fuel gas PSLL-1442

High High pressure in line P-014-009 will trip the naptha feed pumps and
feeds to NHTU will be cut off.

High level in feed surge drum UV1415 will cut the feeds to naptha
hydrotreating unit at the surge drum inlet (14V1)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 15- 01

HAND SWITCHES:
Dedicated hand switches are provided for following actions:

Shut off of the feed heater main F.G & pilot HS-1421.

Reaction section depressurization HS-1404.

Power shutoff to recycle gas compressor motor HS-1405.

Power shutoff to make up gas compressor motor HS-1406.

Shut off the stripper re-boiler main F.G & pilot HS-1431.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 15- 02

15.2

ALARM LIST:

SN
O

ITEM

SIGNAL
FROM

SERVICE

ALARM
VALUE

FAL 1402

FIC 1402

NAPTHA FEED

25 T/Hr

FAL 1407

FIC 1407

14P2A/B OUTLET

25 T/Hr

FAL 1411

FI 1411

RECYCLE GAS

1500
Kg/Hr

FALL 1411

FSLL 1411

14 K1 A/B OUTLET

767.7
Kg/Hr

FAL 1435

FI 1435

14K2A/B DISCHARGE

100
Kg/Hr

FALL 1416

FSLL 1416

STRIPPER REBOILER
FLOW

15 m3/Hr

FAL 1416

FIC 1418

14 F 2 INLET

15 m3/Hr

FALL 1419

FSLL 1419

14 F 2 INLET

14 m3/Hr

LAH 1401

LT/LTC 1401

14 V 1

45%

10

LAHH 1401

LT 1418

14 V 1

40%

LEVEL

PRESSURE
11

PAH 1450

PT 1450

NAPTHA FEED

30.5
Kg/cm2

12

PAHH 1451

PT 1451

NAPTHA FEED

31.5
Kg/cm2

TEMPERATURE
13

TAH 1443

TIC 1443

REACTOR 14R2 INLET

160 oC

14

TAL 1443

TIC 1443

REACTOR 14R2 INLET

210 oC

15

TAH 1445

TT 1445

REACTOR 14R1 OUTLET

130 oC

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 15- 03

15.3 SWITCHES & PROCESS SAFETY INTERLOCKS (Unit 14)


SL.
NO.

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

SOFT SWITCHES
1.

HS1401 (S.W.)

S.W. SWITCH IN PANEL. STOP 14 P1 A/B

2.

HS1404 (S.W)

OPEN OR CLOSEHV 1404 14V2 DEPRESSURISING TO


FLARE. S.W. SWITCH IN PANEL.

3.

HS1405 (S.W.)

14K1A/B REMOTE TRIP S.W. SWITCH.

HARDWARE SWITCHES
4.

SSPOS2 (H.W.)

14R1 SELECTION REMOVED.

5.

HS1421 (H.W.)

H.W. SWITCH FOR CLOSING 14F1 (FG+PG) CLOSE


UV1401+HV1421 (14F1 REMOTE TRIP)

6.

HS1431 (H.W.)

14F2 REMOTE TRIP. CLOSE UV1411 + HV 1431

7.

SSPOS1(H.W.)

14R1 REGENERATION SELECTOR SWITCH

8.

HS 1441

RESET SWITCH FOR 14V1 HH LEVEL I.LOCK

9.

HS 1442

RESET SWITCH FOR 14P1 HH DISCHARGE PRESSURE


2/3 VOTING I.LOCK

BY-PASS SWITCHES
10.

PSLL1442 (H.W.)

14F2 FG PR V LOW TIRP BY PASS SWITCH

11.

PB-4B BY PASSED (H.W.)

14F1 HIGH ARCH PR. TRIP BY PASS H.W. SWITCH

12.

PB4CPSH3102
PB-4(C)

14F2 HIGH ARCH PR. TRIP. BY PASS H.W. SWITCH

13.

PB-24

14F2 PASS FLOW V LOW TRIP BY PASS H.W. SWITCH

INTERLOCKS, EFFECTS AND VALUES


14.

FSLL1404 (14FD04)

14R1 MP STEAM CUT-OFF (3 T/Hr)

15.

14FD11

14F1 FG CUT-OFF ON LOW RG FLOW (767.7 Kg/Hr)

16.

14-PD22

14F1 FG CUT-OFF ON LOW FG PRESSURE (0.4 Kg/cm2)

17.

14LD13

14C1 NAPHTHA LEVEL V. LOW CLOSE LV1413 (30%)

18.

14FD16

AUTO START OF STAND-BY REBOILER PUMP(15m3/hr)

19.

14FD19 A, B, C, D

TRIP 14F2 ON LOWLOW PASS FLOW OF 14F2 (14m3/Hr)

20.

14PD42

14F2 FG PRESS V. LOW TRIPPING 14F2 (0.4 Kg/hr)

21.

PSH 3101

14F1 HIGH ARCH PR. TRIPPING 14F1 (+2 MMWC)

22.

PSH 3102

14F2 HIGH ARCH PR. TRIPPING 14F2 (+2 MMWC)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 15- 04

14K-1A/B EQUIPMENT SAFETY INTERLOCK


SL.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

PD1002 A/B
PSL1001 A/B
LSHH 1409
PSLL 1004 A/B
TSHH 1002 A/B
TSHH 1004 A/B
PSLL 1006

FRAME OIL PRESS V. LOW 14 K1 A/B TRIP


14K1A/B A.O.P. AUTO CUT IN
14V3 LEVEL HIGH (COMMON)
GAS SUCTION PR LOW 14K1A/B TRIP
CYCL 1 GAS DISCH TEMP VERY HIGH 14K1A/B TRIP
CYCL 2 GAS DISCH TEMP VERY HIGH 14K1A/B TRIP
C/W HDR PRESS. LOW (COMMON)

14K-2A/B EQUIPMENT SAFETY INTERLOCK


SL.
NO.

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

1.

HS1406 (S.W.)

14K2 A/B REMOTE TRIP. S.W. SWITCH

2.

PSLL1474A

14K2 A SUC PRESS. V. LOW 14K2A TRIP

3.

PSLL1474B

SUC. PRESS. V. LOW 14K2B TRIP

4.

PSLL2007

C.W. I/L PR V. LOW 14K2 A/B TRIP

5.

TSHH1477A

DISCH. CYLINDER TEMP V. HIGH 14K2A TRIP

6.

TSHH1477B

DISCH. CYLINDER TEMP V. HIGH 14K2B TRIP

7.

PAHH1476A

DISCH. PRESSURE VERY HIGH 14K2A TRIP

8.

PAHH1476B

DISCH. PRESSURE VERY HIGH 14K2B TRIP

9.

PSLL2002A

FRAME OL PR. V. LOW 14K2A TRIP

10.

PSLL2002B

FRAME OL PR. V. LOW 14K2B TRIP

11.

PSL2001A

14K2 A A.O.P. AUTO CUT IN

12.

PSL2001B

14K2 B A.O.P. AUTO CUT IN

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

16.0 CATALYST REGENERATION:

NHTU- 15- 05

Over a period of time, if the unit has not experienced frequent operating
problems, the catalyst will slowly deactivate as carbon or coke builds up. It
will become necessary to remove this carbon to restore the activity. There
are two alternative ways to regenerate.
Exsitu:
location.

the catalyst is safely removed and is to be regenerated at another

Insitu:

the regeneration procedure is carried out in the reactor.

This second way has been selected for our catalyst.

16.1

IN-SITU REGENERATION:
Regeneration refers to coke burning-off by injecting a controlled amount of air
into a flow of steam through the catalytic bed.
Shut down the unit as for a long duration normal shutdown.
Line-up the regeneration circuit and isolate the reactor from the reaction
section by swinging the blinds. Purge the air circuit. Heat-up the steam
header to avoid water going on the catalyst. Air injection shall be lined to the
heater inlet.

16.1.1

1ST STEP, HEATING THE CATALYST BED:


In order to avoid condensation of water on the cold catalyst, the temperature
of the catalytic bed is first increased to the minimum temperature of 150 oC
(maximum 200oC) by a nitrogen stream heated in the regeneration heater.
For this purpose the normal operation circuit is blinded off and the
regeneration circuit is lined up.

16.1.2

2ND STEP, CATALYST BED STEAM STRIPPING :


At this temperature, the nitrogen gas is cut-off and replaced by steam in order
to sweep the hydrocarbons from the reactor. Bleed off all the low points
upstream of the reactor to remove any condensate that may be present in the
steam line.

16.1.3

3RD STEP, PRE-OXIDATION:


Steam flow rate is kept at 3T/Hr and temperature at 150 deg C. Air is admitted
in order to progressively reach 0.3% volume of oxygen content. Airflow rate is
controlled to limit the catalytic bed temperature rise below 60 oC.
When the temperature rise does not exceed 20 oC any more, slowly increase
the reactor inlet temperature up to 400oC at the rate of 20 deg C/Hr.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-B

16.1.4

4TH STEP, COKE BURNING:

NHTU- 16- 01

Slowly increase the air flow rate to achieve 3% volume oxygen content,
keeping the temperature below 60 deg C
When the reactor temperature rise drops below 20 deg c begin to slowly
increase the reactor inlet temperature to 460 deg C
The coke burning is monitored by the thermocouples located inside the
reactor and by analyses at reactor outlet (CO 2 content).
Oxygen content is gradually increased up to 8% vol. during 4 hours, the
reactor temperature being set to 490oC min (500oC max.).
16.1.5

5TH STEP, COOLING:


Air injection is cut and the catalyst bed cooled down to 250 oC with steam.

16.1.6

6TH STEP, COOLING:


In order to avoid condensation, steam is replaced by nitrogen to further cool
the reactor. Flow rates and duration's as indicated in the attached table.
It is essential that regenerated catalyst be sulfided before starting
normal operation

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-B

NHTU- 16- 02

REGENERATION CONDITIONS FOR 14R1 AND 14R2


HEATING

STRIPPING

N2

STEAM

PRE-OXY

BURNING

STEAM

STEAM

+AIR

+AIR

O2 = 0.3
VOL%

O2 UPTO 3
VOL%

3 T/HR
PER M2
OF
SECTION
AREA

3 T/HR
PER M2
OF
SECTION
AREA

18.2

250 DEG C

GAS
COMPONEN
TS
SPECIFICAT
IONS
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

FLOW RATE
FOR EACH
REACTOR
(KG/H)
GAS
MOL.WT

3 T/HR
200
PART-B
PER M2
NM3/HR
OF
PER NM3
SECTION
OF CAT
AREA
28

18

UPTO 200
DEG C

UPTO 250
DEG C

COOLING 1

COOLING 2

STEAM

N2

NHTU- 16- 03
3 T/HR
PER M2
OF
SECTION
AREA

200
NM3/HR
PER NM3
OF CAT

19.6

18

28

FROM 400
TO 460
DEG C

DOWN TO
250 DEG C

50 DEG C

TEMP
DEGC
REACTOR
CATALYST
BULK
REACTOR
OUTLET
PRESSURE

SUFFICIENT TO ROUTE EFFLUENT TO FLARE OR DE-COKING DRUM

(BARG)
EFFLUENTS
DIRECTED

FLARE

DECOKIN
G DRUM

DECOKIN
G DRUM

DECOKIN
G DRUM

DECOKIN
G DRUM

FLARE

8 TO 10

8 TO 10

8 TO 10

8 TO 10

TO
TIME IN
HRS AT
PROPER
TEMP
ESTIMATED
DURATION

17.0

2 DAYS

CATALYSTS UNLOADING:
Catalysts may be unloaded for various reasons:
The catalyst is used (not regenerable).
The catalyst is unloaded for an ex-situ regeneration.
The catalyst is still active but must be dumped for the
reactor.

17.1

USED CATALYST UNLOADING FOR DISPOSAL:

inspection of

Prior to unloading, the catalyst must undergo hot H2 stripping and cooling
steps. When dumped, if the catalyst warms up due to ambient air oxidation, it
can be watered.
If there is no need to enter the reactors, they will be left under nitrogen
pressure. Otherwise a man equipped with a adequate breathing apparatus
must enter to clean the reactor from the remaining catalyst prior to aerating.
17.2

UNLOADING FOR REACTOR'S INSPECTION


For reactor inspection, since the catalyst is still active, one must proceed
first, prior to unloading:

Either to a full regeneration, if the catalyst is dumped in an ambient


atmosphere with no special precaution against its oxidation outside
the reactor.

Or to a thorough stripping and cooling procedure. Unloading must


take place under nitrogen, with caution because of the catalyst
activity.

Someone equipped with a special breathing apparatus must enter the


reactor to remove any residual catalyst prior to aerating. The usual safety
measures, including safety harnesses and man in attendance with a spare
breathing equipment must be taken when operation takes place.
Then the reactor is aerated and inspected after the atmosphere in the vessel
meets the entry permit regulations.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 17- 01

PART-B

18.0 STATIONARY EQUIPMENT LIST


Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Equipment No.
14AC1A
14AC1B
14AC1C
14 AC 2
14 C 1
14 E 1A/B

Description
REACTOR EFF. AC (SOUTH ELEMENT)
REACTOR EFF. AC (MIDDLE ELEMENT)
REACTOR EFF. AC (NORTH ELEMENT)
STRIPPER AIR CONDENSER
STRIPPER
FEED/ EFF. EXCHANGER (A-TOP, B-BOTTOM)

7
8
9
10

14 E 1C/D
14 E 1E/F
14 E 1G
14 E 2

11

14 E 3 A/B

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

14 E 4A
14 E 4B
14 E 5
14 E 7
14 E 8
14 F 1
14 F 2
14 G 1
14 RX 1
14 RX 2
14 V 1
14 V 2
14 V 3
14 V 4
14 V 5
14 VT 1
14 VT 2
14 VT 3

FEED/ EFF. EXCHANGER (C-TOP, D-BOTTOM)


FEED/ EFF. EXCHANGER (E-TOP, F-BOTTOM)
RECYLCE GAS PRE HEAT EXCHANGER
REACTOR EFFLUENT TRIM COOLER
STRIPPER FEED/BOTTOM EXCHANGER (B-TOP, ABOTTOM)
STRIPPER TRIM CONDENSOR
STRIPPER TRIM CONDENSOR
HYDROTREATED NAPHTHA COOLER
STRIPPER FEED PRE HEAT EXCHANGER
MAKE UP GAS COMPRESSOR BY PASS COOLER
HYDROTREATER REACTOR FEED HEATER
STRIPPER REBOILER
HYDROTREATER FEED FILTER
HYDROTREATER REACTOR
DI-ENE SATURATOR REACTOR
HYDROTREATER FEED SURGE DRUM
HYDROTREATER SEPERATOR DRUM
RECYCLE COMPRESSOR KNOCK OUTDRUM
STRIPPER REFLUX DRUM
MAKE UP GAS COMPRESSOR KNOCK OUTDRUM
ANTI POLYMERISATION AGENT TANK
DMDS TANK
CORROSION INHIBITOR TANK

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 18 - 01

PART-B

Sr.
No.

PSV No.

14 PSV 1412 B

Location

Isolation B/V
I/L
O/L

Set
Pressure

Type

14 PSV 1411 A

ON 14-K-2B DISCHARGE
ON 14-K-2A SUCTION

32
17.23

14 PSV 1411 B

ON 14-K-2B SUCTION

17.23

14 PSV 1414

ON 14-P-7A

21.5

14 PSV 1415

ON 14-P-7B

21.5

14 PSV 1416

ON 14-V-4

16.4

BELLOW

14 PSV 1417

ON 14-C-1

16.1

BELLOW

14 PSV 1423 A

ON 14P1A/B DISCHARGE

32.0

14 PSV 1423 B

ON 14P1A/B DISCHARGE

32.0

10

14 PSV 1424 A

ON 14R1 OUTLET

22.1

11

14 PSV 1424 B

ON 14R1 OUTLET

22.1

12

14 PSV 1425 A

ON 14R2 INLET

32.0

13

14 PSV 1425 B

ON 14R2 INLET

32.0

14

14 TSV 1418

ON CWR EX-14E-2

7.0

CONV.

15

14 TSV 1419

ON CWR EX-14E-6

7.0

CONV.

16

14 TSV 1420

ON CWR EX-14E-5

7.0

CONV.

17

14 TSV 1421

ON CWR EX-14E-4B

7.0

CONV

18

14 TSV 1422

ON CWR EX-14E-4A

7.0

CONV.

19

14 PSV 1401

ON 14-V-1

3.5

BELLOW

20

14 PSV 1402

ON 14-P-8B

4.9

21

14 PSV 1403

ON 14-P-8A

4.9

22

14 PSV 1404

ON 14-P-6B

4.9

23

14 PSV 1405

ON 14-P-6A

4.9

24

14 PSV 1406

ON 14-M-1

-----

25

14 PSV 1408

ON 14-V-2

18.7

BELLOW

26

14 PSV 1409

ON 14-K-1A DISCHARGE

30.0

BELLOW

27

14 PSV 1410

ON 14-K-1B DISCHARGE

30.0

BELLOW

28

14 PSV 1412 A

ON 14 K 2A DISCHARGE

32

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NHTU- 18 - 02

PART-B

CONTINUOUS CATALYST REGENERATION UNIT


1.0 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of Continuous Catalyst Regeneration type of Reforming Unit is to produce
high Octane reformate as component of lead-free Motor Sprit.

1.1

Design Capacity
The normal capacity of the CCR Unit is 466,000 MT based on a stream factor of
8000 hours/year with 120% over design factor.
The normal operating flexibility of the CCR is 60% of 466,000 MT.

1.2

Feed Specification

Naphtha from Bombay high crude oil 80 1400C TBP cut (Feed I)

95/5 blend of naphtha from Arab mix (80-145 0C TBP cut) and visbroken
Naphtha (Feed II)

***

After the commissioning of the diene saturator reactor in NHTU in jan


2005, a blend of VBN and FCC gasoline, along with SRN is being
processed in HTU/CRU, with the design tput of VBN being 7 T/Hr and
that of FCCG being 11 T/Hr.

Composition:-wt%
Feed

Feed I

Feed II

PARAFFIN
iC5

0.20

0.00

nC5

0.3

0.04

iC6

3.80

4.29

nC6

4.98

5.61

C7

20.76

9.88

C9

5.88

5.55

C10+

0.89

0.27

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 01 - 01

PART-C

NAPHTHENE
N5

0.26

0.24

N6

7.97

8.91

N7

13.33

13.07

N8

3.81

7.78

N9

2.39

2.55

N10

0.00

0.00

A6

6.87

8.14

A7

7.85

12.38

AROMATIC

A8

4.21

11.39

A9

0.32

0.07

A10

0.00

0.00

TOTAL

100.00

100.00

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 01 - 02

PART-C

1.2.1 Distillation

B.H.

A.M.

VBN

TBP Cut 0C

60-145

80-145

Sp. Gr 15 0C
TBP distillation

0.7703

0.7327

B.H.

A.M.

VBN

TBP distillation (vol %)

Deg. C

Deg. C

Deg. C

IBP

56

89

39.5

5%

63

90

0.7057

10%

70

92

66

30%

90

101

78

50%

106

119

100

70%

119.5

129

120

90%

139.5

144.5

141

95%

140.5

146

FBP

148

154

167

B.H.

A.M.

VBN

35.47

70.31

35.7

32.55

17.99

15.1

31.98

11.70

15.4

33.8

PONA wt %

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 01 - 03

PART-C

1.3

PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
1.3.1 C5+ cut:
This product is taken as stabilizer bottom and sent to storage.
FEED

CASE I

CASE II

(SOL)

(EOL)

(SOL)

(EOL)

63486

62487

65453

64450

78.9

77.6

80.3

79.1

Sp gr at 15oC

.805

.805

.815

.815

RVP

<0.4

<0.4

<0.4

<0.4

RON

98

98

98

98

Flow rate (kg/h)


(M3/hr)

1.3.2 Hydrogen rich gas


This gas is the hydrogen production of the reformer purified in the re-contacting
drum at -100C. A small part is sent to the regeneration loop and the rest is sent
as H2 rich gas to HGU PSA. The gas after purification enters the Hydrogen
network header. The minimum purity is 89.5% and maximum purity is 94%.
FEED

CASE I

CASE II

Vol%

(SOL)

(EOL)

(SOL)

(EOL)

H2

92.3

89.5

93.7

90.3

C1

2.2

3.2

2.0

3.2

C2

2.5

3.5

1.9

3.1

C3

1.6

2.2

1.3

1.9

C4

0.8

1.1

0.6

0.9

C5+

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

TOTAL

100

100

100

100

M.WT

4.6

5.4

4.1

5.1

3802

4145

FLOW RATE(Kg/Hr)

5190

5547

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 01 - 04

PART-C

1.3.3 Fuel Gas


In the normal operation, the gas produced at the LPG absorber drum is routed to
the fuel gas system.
DEBUTANIZER OPERATION:
FEED

CASE I

CASE II

Vol%

(SOL)

(EOL)

(SOL)

(EOL)

H2

45.7

50.0

23.9

33.3

C1

12.5

16.5

6.8

14.0

C2

25.7

21.0

32.9

31.5

C3

11.8

8.8

30.9

16.0

C4

3.8

2.6

3.2

3.6

C5+

1.3

1.1

2.3

1.6

TOTAL

100

100

100

100

M.WT

18.7

16.3

28.7

22.9

57

44

160

90

FLOW RATE(Kg/Hr)

STABILISER LIQUID DISTILLATE:


FEED

CASE I

CASE II

Vol%

(SOL)

(EOL)

(SOL)

(EOL)

C2

8.7

8.9

6.6

8.6

C3

45.5

40.2

67.2

48.0

C4

45.8

50.9

26.2

43.4

C5+

TOTAL

100

100

100

100

1092

1747

458

1190

FLOW RATE(Kg/Hr)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 01 - 05

PART-C

1.4

Utilities
1.4.1 Steam

Pressure / Temp
(Kg/cm2)

Cons/Gen

HP Steam (T/Hr)

65

420

25.3

MP Steam (T/Hr)

10

250

00.8/12.5

LP Steam (T/Hr)

150

03.0/25.3

1.4.2 Cooling Water (M3 /Hr)

1300

1.4.3 DM water (M3 /Hr)

24

1.4.4 Raw Water (M3/h)

460

1.4.5 Compressed Air (NM3/h)

350 (normal), 1670 (intermittent)

1.4.6 BFW (Kg/cm2)/(0C)

106/125

1.4.7 Fuel Gas (T/hr)

3.3 (consumption)
0 (Generation)

1.4.8 Fuel Oil (T/hr)

nil

1.4.9 Hydrogen Nm3 (for initial start up) 14420


1.4.10 Nitrogen (nm3)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

15000

CRU- 01 - 06

PART-C

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


2.1

FEED SECTION:

Feed for the Reforming unit (94 m3/hr at 14 kg/cm2g and 110 oC) is received directly
from Hydrotreater stripper after heat exchange in 14E-3A/B. Feed is filtered in 15G-1
A/B to remove any foreign particles. Each filter is designed for flow of 106 M3/hr to
remove particles larger than 0.8 mm. Maximum allowable pressure drop across the filter
is 1.0 kg/cm2 and is indicated by PDI-1501. At the D/S of the feed filter, chloriding
agent and water injection facilities are provided. C 2Cl4 solution of 1% in reformate is
prepared in tank 15T-2 (capacity 2M3) and is dosed by pump 15P-9 A/B, (capacity 9.5

litres/hr). Dosing @ 1 ppm wt C 2Cl4 in feed is done when continuous Regeneration unit
is down.

DM water injection can be done through tank 15T-1 by 15P-8A/B. 15T-1 has a capacity
of 100 litres. Water injection is done to maintain Cl - OH equilibrium on the catalyst
when regenerator is out of service. But, water injection is generally not done, as feed
moisture content is sufficient to meet design requirements.

15FIC-01 and 15FIC-02 controls feed to unit. Two control valves are provided for better
control. Downstream of the control valves joins together and enters in feed/effluent
exchanger 15E-1. It is a shell and tube exchanger, with the shell fluid moving in a helical
pattern guided by helical baffles from top to bottom. The feed is distributed through
4280 tubes from bottom to top. There is an expansion bellow at the bottom of the tube
side to take care of the thermal expansion. The heat duty of the exchanger is 26.965
MMKcal. Because of helical motion of shell fluid and its height, it is called as HeliTower.
Along with the feed, recycle H2 stream ex 15K-1 is mixed in the 15E-1-inlet nozzle.
Recycle H2 stream (38000 NM3/hr. at a pr. of 5.8 kg/cm2g and temp. of 123 oC) has
84% H2 (C1-2%, C2-2%, C3-2%, C4-2%, C5-1.5% and C6+ of 6.5%). Combined feed
gets preheated from about 100 oC to 430 oC by the effluent from 3rd Reactor, which gets
cooled down from about 455 oC to 105 oC. Feed ex 15E1 is in total vapour phase at a
pr. of 5.0 kg/cm2g.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 - 01

PART-C

2.2

REACTION SECTION:
Due to the endothermic nature of the reforming reactions, the overall reforming is
achieved in stages with inter stage heater provided to raise the temperature.
2.2.1 HEATERS:
There are three Reactors (15R-1,R-2 & R-3) each provided with reaction heater
namely 15F-1, F-2 & F-3. These heaters have been included in a simple shape
common firebox and are designed by IFP of FRANCE. For 15F-2, preheating of
1st reactor effluent is provided in the common convection section so as to have
radiant heat duty close to that of 15F-1. Crossover between the convection and
radiant section of the reforming heaters is of 30" dia pipe designed for low pr.

drop. Process coil of 15F-2 convection is shielded by steam generation coils


named as 15F-7 consisting of two rows of bare tubes.
In order to avoid metal dusting on the heater tubes DMDS dosing was
started. It is required to maintain S level of 0.2 to 0.3 PPMW on the feed to
prevent carburization and thereby metal dusting.
2.2.2

BURNERS:

The heaters are provided with John Zink PSFFG series burners. These
burners are floor mounted, vertical upshot flat flame style burners capable
of lower emission. Staged fuel technology with central primary gun and
staged tips is used to achieve lower NOX emission. This is achieved by
putting a small percentage of fuel gas through the staged tips, which
lowers the initial flame temperature without reducing the heat released
from the burners.
2.2.3 PILOT BURNERS :
Pilot burners of self-inspiriting type are provided which requires FG
pressure of 0.35 kg/cm2g with a heat release of 20,000 Kcal/hr.
For pilot burners lighting, portable HE (high energy) igniter are provided
which works on 2000 volts. The firing tip provided is suitable for
continuous temperature of 900 oC. Draft at burners should be 12 mmwc so
as to have draft at bridge wall around 25 mmwc. The excess air to be
controlled at 10%.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 02

PART-C

DMDS Dosing facility in CCRU:


Description of work: DMDS Dosing as per the scheme No. MR/TS/PS/CRU/2012/06.
Existing DMDS Solution Drum(14T-2) provided for sulphiding of NHDT Catalyst used for
proposed DMDS dosing facility.
Reason for Change: As per M/s Axens RLA Report of catalyst sample(collected
in Aug12), Sulfur in CRU feed should be between 0.25ppm to 0.35ppm wt to
prevent metal dusting of heater coils and metallic coke accumulation in the
reactor. Axens recommended for maintaining required feed sulfur injecting DMDS
in feed.
Modification:

(1) 2 No. of New pumps 15P-101A/B (one operating + one standby pumps)
installed. Existing P/F of 14P-6A/B extended to place new pumps. New electrical
connection provided for new pumps.
(2) 14T-2 Vessel, Sulphiding vessel for NHDT used for DMDS dosing.
(3) 15FC-01 LPD Converted to Sample point.
(4) Vessel which is opened to atmosphere, connected to flare header
with N2 blanketing.
(5) For proper mixing of DMDS with Reformate N2 bubbling started.

Strength of New DMDS solution:

Add 10 lt of DMDS in 14T2


Fill 14T2 with reformate up to 90 % level.
Pump stroke rate with CCRU tput is tabulated below :

T'put , TPH
40
45
50
60

PUMP stroke rate, %


80
80
90
100

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

Scheme to provide DMDS facility:

S injection, ppm
0.35
0.31
0.31
0.31

CRU- 02 01*

15P-101A/B

Hazop Study for DMDS dosing facility:


Guide
Word

Deviation

Possible Cause

Consequences

Safe Guard

Flow

Less flow of
DMDS

Pump Strainer
Chock

S Content in
CRU feed will
decrease

FI provided in
dosing line with
alarm<1 L/h

No Flow of
DMDS
Solution

Pump trip due


to mechanical
failure

Back flow of
Reformer feed
may occur

NRV provided

No Flow of
CCRU Feed

Emergency
situation

DMDS pump
will continue
pumping the
solution

Pump trip logic


provided when SOV
actuates to closed
15FC01 and
15FC02

More flow of
DMDS
solution

Stroke
adjustment
problem

S content in
CRU feed will
increase

Pump trip logic


provided on high
flow> 6L/h

Low Pressure

Pump strainer
chock

Back flow of
reformer feed
may occur

NRV provided

High Pressure

Operational
Requirement

No significant
impact

PG provided

Pressur
e

Reaccelration Scheme for 15P-1A/B:


Reacceleration facility has been installed in 15P-1A/B. In case of
LT failure
within 3sec same pump will start. Due to this 15V-1 level will not increase and
operational reliability will increase.
To stop the pump it is required to press the stop button for more than 3 secs .
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 02 01*

15F-1

15F-2

15F-3

INLET TEMP.

ATTRIBUTE

DEG. C.

UNITS

425/451*

406/443*

451/482*

OUTLET TEMP.
DUTY
INLET PR.
OUTLET PR.
TUBE PASSES
LENGTH OF TUBE
EXPOSED SURFACE AREA
TUBE SIZE

DEG. C.
MMKcal /HR
KG/CM2
KG/CM2
NUMBER's
METERS
SQ. M.

520/540*
8.98
4.8
4.6
36
20
201
3"SCH 40

520/540*
8.00 / 1.90**
4.15
3.9
36/32**
20/17**
201/155**
3"SCH 40

520/540*
6.15
3.65
3.5
36
13.7
138
3"SCH 40

DESIGN PR.
BURNERS IN CENTRALROW
DUTY OF CENTRAL BURNERS
BURNERS IN SIDE ROW
DUTY OF SIDE ROW BURNERS
FLAME DIMENSION (L X W X D)

KG/CM2 ***
NUMBER's
MMKcal /HR
NUMBER's
MMKcal /HR
METERS

8
6
1.45
12
0.73
2.5X0.8X0.45

7.4
6
1.25
12
0.63
2.5X0.8X0.45

6.8
6
1
12
0.5
2.0X0.8X0.45

- END OF THE RUN

**

- CONVECTION SECTION OF 15F-2

*** - DESIGNED FOR FULL VACUUM CONDITION ALSO.

2.2.4

REACTORS:
In the reactors 15-R-1 / R-2 / R-3 the feed contacts the reforming catalyst
which is divided approximately in the ratio 15: 30: 55. In the CCR process,
the catalyst circulates continuously:
o In reactors, in the space between the external grid and the central pipe
from the top to the bottom,
o From one reactor bottom to the top of the next one,
o From the last reactor to the regeneration unit for regeneration,
o From the regeneration unit, the regenerated catalyst returns to the 1st
reactor.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 - 03

PART-C

Each reactor is a vertical cylindrical vessel with spherical heads. It is equipped


with one I/L & one O/L nozzle for feed & effluent respectively. Catalyst enters the
reactor through 12 nos. of 3" pipes, flows through the space between external
grid and the central pipe from top to bottom and exits through 12 nos. of
2"pipes. External grid is made of vertical wires having a slot opening of 0.7 mm
and these wires have a perfectly smooth side in contact with the catalyst. These
features along with catalyst tight joints in the reactor internals, ensure that
catalyst flow takes place in the designated path smoothly. The external grid &
central pipe are designed to resist a D.P. of 0.5 kg/cm2 plus catalyst static
pressure at rector design temperature. In each reactor feed enters at the top,

flows radially over a slow moving bed of bimetallic catalyst and exits through the
O/L nozzle at the bottom. The radial flow of feed is achieved by directing the
flow through external grid to catalyst bed & exit is made to central outlet
collector pipe. Gas tight baffle is provided on the outlet pipe to avoid shortcircuiting of the feed to outlet pipe at the entrance. SCALLOP were installed
inside the reactors during July 2010 s/d.
Reactors data is furnished in the following table:
REACTORS
PR (OP. / DESIGN)
TEMP (OP. / DESIGN)
I.D (SHELL), MM
I.D (GRID), MM
O.D (CENTER PIPE)
LENGTH, TL to TL

15-R-1

15-R-2

15-R-3

4.6 / 7.6
520 / 540
1900
1550
750
4925

3.9 / 6.9
520 / 540
2250
1850
750
6317

3.5 / 6.5
520 / 540
2650
2200
750
7725

Material of construction for shell & heads is 1.25 Cr & 0.5 Mo and for internals is
SA 240 type 321. Reactor vessels are designed for full vacuum.
In the regeneration unit, the catalyst is regenerated by means of an automatic
regeneration loop system. Catalyst circulation is achieved either by gravity flow
or by gas lift system and is discussed later on.
Effluent leaving 15-R-3, after heat exchange in 15-E-1, is cooled in air cooler 15AC-1 A/B/C/D/E/F to 65 deg.C and then by trim cooler 15-E-2 A/B to 45 deg.C
before entering the separator 15-V-1.
Separator is operated at a pr. of 2.3 kg/cm2 .The separated gas is compressed
in the recycle gas compressor 15-K-1 and a part is recycled to the reactors. The
remaining gas, which constitutes the hydrogen production gas, is routed to a
recontacting section to improve hydrogen purity and recover liquid yield.
The separated liquid is pumped by 15-P-1 A/B from 15-V-1 under level control
15LIC-1501 to recontacting section.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 04

PART-C

2.3

RECONTACTING SECTION:
The balance hydrogen gas (27,800 NM3/hr at 5.8 kg/cm2g and 123 oC) is
recontacted with the separated liquid (67 M3/hr) from 15-P-1 A/B.
The recontacted mixture is then cooled to 10 oC (pr. 4.8 kg/cm2 g) in following
stages for a high recovery of C 3+ contained in the hydrogen and a high
concentration of hydrogen in the hydrogen rich gas product.

In water cooler 15-E-3 from 69 deg.C. to 43 deg.C.

In exchanger 15-E-4 by 15-V-2 vapour effluent from 43 to 35 deg.C.

In exchanger 15-E-5 by 15-V-2 liquid effluent from 35 to 19 deg.C.

By refrigeration with chilling medium in exchanger 15-E-6 (15-E-6 shell


side level is controlled by LIC-1504 by incoming refrigerant line from
refrigeration unit).

Then the stream is fed into recontacting drum 15-V-2, the high-pressure absorber
at - 10oC at 4.8 kg/cm2g.
Hydrogen rich gas from 15V-2 (25,000 NM3/hr, having a composition of H2-90%,
C1-2.5%, C2-3.0%, C3-2.0%, C4-1.0%, C5+ -0.5%) after heat exchange in 15E4 at a temp of 36 deg.C and pr. of 5.3 kg/cm2 is routed to either H2 unit PSA for
purification or to FG/Flare through PIC -1507.
The separated liquid in the recontacting drum 15V-2 after heat up in 15-E-5 is
pumped by 15-P-2 A/B under level control 15 LIC-1505 to the LPG recovery and
stabilisation section. A part of 015 V-2 vapour effluent after heating in 15E4 may
be used in the dryer which is detailed later on. Facility to route V2 bottom
products directly to reformate r/d line, upstream of r/d shutdown valve 15LD12 is
also available.

2.4

DEBUTANISER SECTION**:
The cooled separated liquid from 15-V-2 is contacted with stabilizer off gas
(5000 NM3/hr, which contains H2=2%, C1=4%, C2=33%, C3=45%, C4=13%,
C5=3%) and allowed to separate in LPG absorber drum 15 V-3 which is at a pr.
of 15.8 kg/cm2 g. The purpose of this step is to recover the maximum quantity of
LPG i.e. C3 and C4's from the stabiliser overhead vapour.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 05

PART-C

Vapour from 15V-3 (68 NM3/hr.) is routed to fuel gas under pressure control 15
PIC-1509. This stream is predominantly light ends i.e. C1 and C2' (H2-46%, C112%, C2-26%, C3-12%, C4-3%, C5-1%) and this controls the stabiliser operating
pressure. Separated liquid from 15V-3 is pumped by 15P-3 under level control
15 LIC-1506 and is preheated in stabiliser feed-bottoms exchanger 15E-7 to a
temp. of 131 deg.C. This feed enters 44 trays stabiliser 15 C-1 on its tray no.17.
The stabiliser is operated at 17 kg/cm 2g to reduces the C4 and lighter fraction in
the reformate to have a vapour pressure less than 0.4 kg/cm 2.
15-C-1 overheads, at a temp of 62-66 deg.C, are condensed and cooled to a
temp. of 45 deg.C in water coolers 15-E-8 A/B/C/D and collected in the stabiliser
reflux drum 15-V-4. The uncondensed vapours are routed back to 15-V-3 for

LPG recovery. Excess pressure of 15V-4 is released through PIC-1514 to fuel


gas or to flare depending upon the line-up. Separated liquid from 15-V-4 is
pumped by 15-P-4 A/B under flow control 15 FIC-1511 to 15C-1 as reflux
(46m3/hr.) to its top tray to control 4th tray temp through TIC-1564. The pumps
minimum flow line is provided with field flow indication FI-1513.
Rest of LPG (3m3/hr) withdrawn from 15 V-4 under its level control 15-LIC-1509
and measured by FI-1510 is routed to storage. In case of low - low level in 15V-4,
LV-1510 will get actuated to avoid gas break through to LPG. Stabiliser has been
provided with pressurization lines of Nitrogen, Fuel gas and Hydrogen each of 2"
size.
2.4.1 STABILISER REBOILER**:
The stabiliser bottom is reboiled in vertical cylindrical heater 15-F-4 using
circulating pumps 15-P-5 A/B. In the heater temperature is raised from 224
deg.C to 237 deg.C (with circulation of 190 m3/hr) with 50 % vaporisation. 015-F4 pass flows are controlled by 15FIC-1564 A/B/C/D. Pass flow control valves are
provided with minimum flow stopper as well as hand-wheels and thus the bypass
B/V's and isolation valves are not provided. 015-F-4 fuel gas firing is controlled
by 15-TIC-1539 ( or 15-TIC-1541 ) through 15PIC-1581 for controlling 42 nd tray
temperature of 015-C-01 ( or 15-F-4 coil outlet temperature ). The above
selection can be made by HS-1504. Heaters coils made of carbon steel are
designed for 20.9 kg/cm2 pr. with allowable pressure drop of 2.0 kg/cm2.
Required heat duty for the operation is 5.1 MMKCal/hr but the heater is designed
for 6.2 with further 10 % overdesign.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 06

PART-C

This heater is a part of Non IFP heater block which is operated in balance draft
mode with ID and FD's fan in operation. Heater has been provided with low pass
flow firing cut off as detected by FSLL-1505A/B/C/D. Stabiliser reboiler pump
auto start facility has also been provided to start the stand-by pump in case if low
flow is detected by FSLL-1514 at pump 15P-5 discharge.
Bottoms product from the stabiliser at 224 deg.C. after partial cooling in the
stabiliser Feed/Bottom exchanger 15-E-7 to 123 deg.C. is further cooled in the
reformate air cooler 15-AC-4 A/B to 65 deg. and finally in trim cooler 15-E-11 to
45 deg. for routing to storage. Reformate rundown flow is controlled by 15LIC1511 which is actuated by 15LIC-1507. In case of low-low level in stabiliser
LSLL-1508 will shut down the shut-down valve LV-1512. For chemicals batch

preparation Reformate u/s of LV-1511 is taken to 14T-1/2/3 and to 15T-2 by two


independent 1" lines.
**
The de-butaniser section comprising of the LPG absorption drum, stabilizer and
its reboiler, are not in operation since commissioning due to the negligible LPG
production because of the very low hydrocracking reactions in the reactors.
**
After MSQ commissioning, a second discharge line with NRV and block valve
was provided on the discharges of both 15P5 A and B to supply reformate to RS unit in
MSQ at a higher pressure. The new discharge line is hooked up at the inlet of 15E7
tube side through double block valves. An additional block valve on the existing tube
side inlet ex 15P5 A/B suction is provided to avoid pressure drop through the suction
side while operating through the new line. A minimum circulation loop with C/V is also
provided to sustain 15P5 A/B minimum flow in case of Feed cut-off in MSQ.

2.5

CATALYST REGENERATION:
It is achieved in two steps. Coke combustion is followed by an oxychlorination
and calcination step where optimum amount of chlorine level is restored. Design
capacity of the regeneration loop is 30 kg of coke burnt per hour. Accordingly
catalyst flow rate is around 500 kg/hr. In case of high level of coke on the catalyst
(>6%), the catalyst flow rate through the regenerator must be limited in order to
not exceed this maximum value of coke burnt per hour. The flexibility of the
regenerator will allow a smooth operation with only 30% of coke capacity.
The catalyst regeneration procedure includes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Complete removal of coke


Ox chlorination of catalyst to readjust the chlorine level
Calcination of catalyst.
Cooling and sweeping of remaining oxygen from the regenerated
Catalyst.
Reduction of catalyst prior to re-introduction in the reaction section.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 07

PART-C

The first three steps are performed inside the Regenerator 17R-1 which is
explained below.
2.5.1 COKE BURNING:
Regenerator receives catalyst from its lock hopper 17V-2 in batches. Each batch
is equivalent of one hour of catalyst circulation. Top of the regenerator is swept
by small flow of N2 (from dedicated N2 header II) supplied by PDIC-1704 which
prevents oxygen from combustion zone to come up in the storage volume. From
this zone, catalyst enters in the 1st regeneration bed through eight legs.
During this catalyst flow, it gets preheated to a temperature of 440 deg. due to
the heat of the inlet regeneration gas (7420 NM3/hr) which enters at 470 deg C

and at a pr. of 5.4 kg/cm2. Regeneration gas is an inert gas used as heat and
reactant carrier in the catalyst regeneration loop and is supplied by Regeneration
loop compressor 17K-1 A/B.
Compressors 17K-1 A/B is reciprocating dry piston type with capacity of 8500
NM3/hr with electric driver of 250 KW rating. Compressor is operated at suction
pr. of 3.2 kg/cm2 g and delivers discharge pr. of 6.2 kg/cm2 g and temperature of
80 deg.C. Loaders for 75% capacity have been provided. While starting the
compressor ensure no pressure surge on the screen inside the regenerator.
Ensure the opening of compressor spill back C/V FC16.Also ensure there is min
flow thru the oxy-calcination zone by FC05. Permanent suction filter 17G-3 to
trap particle (possibly alumina or desiccant) size bigger than 5 microns has been
installed. Pressure drop across this filter in clean condition should be 0.05
kg/cm2 and the maximum allowable pr. drop before cleaning is 0.5 kg/cm2.
Compressor discharge flow is divided in two parts, main flow of 7420 nm3/hr
used in combustion zone and the balance 650 nm3/hr used in calcination and ox
chlorination zone. The composition of the gas is in the following range (N2= 82100%, CO2=17-0%, O2=1-0%, traces of Cl2, HCl). O2 % is limited to 0.5 - 0.7 %
for the controlled combustion in the 1st bed.
Main flow is preheated to 440 deg.C. in the feed effluent exchanger 17E-1. Final
temperature adjustment to 470 deg.C is done in electrical heater 17EH-1
(designed for a maximum temperature of 550 deg. with maximum heating
equivalent to 185 KW, minimum 50 and design 215 KW. 17EH-1 outlet
temperature is controlled by TIC-1751. This gas at a pr. of 5.4 kg/cm2 and
temperature of 470 deg.C enters the regenerator and flows through two radial
beds. All the oxygen of this regeneration gas will be consumed in the first
combustion bed and heat produced will be absorbed by the regeneration gas,
which is collected in the centre pipe.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 08

PART-C

Catalyst which still contains some coke is collected and transferred by an other set of 8
pipes into the 2nd combustion bed at a temperature of 480 oC. For the complete
combustion of coke, Air (133 NM3/hr) is introduced under flow control FIC-1702 so as to
have 0.4 - 0.6 vol. % oxygen in the 2nd bed.
The 2nd bed produces less heat than the 1st. O2 in the regeneration outlet gas is
monitored by oxygen analyser AIC-1703 and is maintained between 0.2 - 0.3 vol. % by
adjusting FIC-1702 through cascaded loop. Catalyst, which arrives at the bottom of the
second bed, is and must be free of coke. This is essential as otherwise temperature
runaway could occurs and damage the catalyst in the oxychlorination zone. Catalyst
regeneration is checked by:

Amount of coke burnt per hour (by calculation based on the O2


consumption.)

The temperature difference between inlet and outlet on both combustion


beds.

Catalyst flow through the regenerator.

2.5.2 CALCINATION :
Calcination gas is introduced in the bottom part of the regenerator. FIC-1705,
three way valve controls the flow of 17K-1 discharge gas (650 nm3/hr) for the
calcination operation ( Rest of the 17K-1 discharge will be going to combustion
side through the same three way valve FV-1705). This is mixed with air (182
nm3/hr) supplied by FIC-1701 in order to reach O2 level of 4-6 % as measured
by O2 analyser AIC-1706 which resets FIC-1701. FI-1705 is gives total of gas to
calcination plus the air. This calcination gas is heated from 70 to 430 deg.C in
feed / effluent exchanger 17E-2. It is further heated to a controlled temperature of
540 deg.C. in electrical heater 17EH-2 by TIC-1752. This 50 KW heater supplies
34 KW of absorbed duty. Calcination gas enters at pressure of 5.7 kg/cm2,
circulates up flow in the axial bed and is collected at the outlet. On the calcination
zone new spike tray was installed for better cl- fixation during July 2010
shutdown.
2.5.3 OXYCHLORINATION :
Catalyst from combustion zone is collected by 6 pipes and sent to axial bed
where oxychlorination takes place. Gas from the calcination zone at a
temperature of 510 deg.C. flows upwards and is mixed with chlorination agent.
C2Cl4 injection is done by pump 17P-4 A/B. Dosing tank 17T-2 of 1500 litres is
made up of stainless steel. Daily estimated maximum consumption of C 2Cl4 is 62
kg. Oxygen level of 4 - 6 % is maintained in this zone.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 09

PART-C

OVERALL OXYGEN CONTROL:


Oxygen level in the regeneration inlet (0.5-0.7 %) is the result of mixing of gas
coming from ox chlorination (630 NM3/hr having 4 - 6 % oxygen) and from 2nd
combustion zone (7600 NM3/hr having 0.2 % oxygen). By adjusting oxygen level
of ox chlorination gas, the desired oxygen level in the regeneration inlet gas can
be achieved.
COMBUSTION CONTROL:
The combustion mechanism is controlled by O2 concentration, catalyst flow and
heat supplied by the the electric heaters.O2 concentration needs very careful
attention as analyzer can mislead. Care should be taken so as to ensure the

performance of analyzer. Flexi thermocouples (8 nos) has been provided on the


first combustion bed to track the rate and degree of combustion. Maximum limit
for these flexi thermocouples is 560 0 C.Interlock has also been provided on flexi
reading at 5600C which will cut off air, lift (PDC11) and electric heaters (17EH1
&17EH2).
Flexi thermocouple indications are also provided in oxy chlorination zone.
EFFLUENT FROM COMBUSTION AND OXYCHLORINATION ZONE:
Combustion zone outlet effluent at temperature of 500-515 deg.C and pr. of 5.2
kg/cm2 g exchanges heat in 17E-1. Effluent ex 17E-1 joins with the spill back of
17K-1 A/B and is cooled in 17AC-1 from 154 to 70 deg.C. Effluent from
oxychlorination zone after heat exchange in 17E-2 (outlet temp. 142 deg.C.) joins
the 1st stream and is sent to washing drum 17V-5. In washing drum acid gases
(due to chlorine compound) are neutralised with diluted caustic soda solution to
eliminate corrosion problem. Caustic circulation is achieved by 17P-1 A/B
(caustic recycle pumps), which takes suction from 17V-5 and after cooling in
17E-3, injects caustic through a spray nozzle 17SM-01. Contacting is performed
in static mixer 17SM-01 right after the injection point. Fresh caustic injection to
the suction of 17P-1 A/B is done by caustic dosing pump 17P-3 A/B. Caustic
solution of 10% is received in tank 17T-1 (capacity - 5 M3) from Merox.. In order
to prevent the contamination of caustic outside the B/L separate caustic line was
installed ex merox 21P1A/B. Normal expected Caustic consumption per hr will
be 60 kg of 10 deg Be. with 200 litres/hr of DM water make up through FI-1719.
Final washing and cooling is done in washing drum 17V-5 by contacting water on
bubble cap trays. Washing drum is made of killed carbon steel with 5 nos. of
bubble cap trays. Line from 17AC-1 to 17V-5 is internally epoxy lined. At its

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 - 10

PART-C

bottom on caustic side compartment, epoxy coating has been provided. Water injection
is done by pump 17P-2 A/B at the rate of 3 m3/hr. Liquid discharge from caustic side
approx. 200 kg/hr. will have Na2CO3 / NaOH / NaCl and NaOCl to a max. of 4 % wt and
shall be routed to drain system of Merox through LIC-1721. Water side effluent (3000
kg/hr) having traces of Na2CO3 / NaOH / NaCl and NaOCl shall go to OWS / drain of
Merox unit through LIC-1720.
Washing drum pressure is controlled by PIC-1761 A/B (split range, A is vent to
silencer and B is Nitrogen make up) which is resetted by the pressure of the 1st
reactor (PI-1727). Continuous exhaust of 150 - 350 NM3/hr is expected.

IPA Dosing along with C2CL4 in Oxychlorination zone


In Axens New CCR design a separate water injection facility is provided to inject
water in Oxychlorination zone to maintain the required amount of Chloride and
moisture balance and to improve the chloride fixation and help improving Ptdispersion on the catalyst.
At present as no water injection facility exist in oxychlorination zone at IOCL MR ,
it is recommended to dose Iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) along with PerChloroethylene in the oxychlorination zone. Combustion of IPA will provide
necessary moisture required in the oxychlorination section to control the chloride
and help improving Pt- dispersion. Moreover combustion of IPA will help in
improving temperature conditions in Oxychlorination zone.
It is advised to prepare a solution of C2Cl4 and IPA in the ratio of 70:30 (Volume)
in the chloriding agent dosing vessel, 17T2.
Detail calculation, considering 2 drums of C2Cl4 and 30% level in 17T2, is given
below :
Description
Quantity
Unit
Quantity of C2CL4 in one drum ( PO 24473119)
318
kg
0.196
M3
196
L
Quantity of IPA in one drum ( PO 24461575)
205
L
Two drums of C2CL4 ( 30% level)
391
L
Considering C2CL4 and IPA in 70:30 ratio, IPA
168
L
consumption shall be
Change in level after adding 168 L of IPA
12.8
%
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 10*

PART-C

On basis of above calculation, it is requested to dose IPA in regenerator as per


following steps :

Increase level of C2Cl4 in the vessel to 30%

Add 168 L of IPA in the vessel by observing level rise from 30% to 42.8 %.

Start dosing solution of IPA and C2CL4 with minimum rate @ 8 cm/min.
Critical parameters to be observed :

Temperature of oxychlorination zone bed and all 6 nos of flexi


thermocouple of oxychlorination zone.

C2CL4 Pump Auto stopping facility on Regenerator interlock

1.
2.
3.

During Regenerator
interlock(High temp. of Combustion/Oxy zone,Low
regeneration gas flow and high combustion O2 percent) C2CL4 pump to be
stopped immediately from field to save catalyst. Due to dealy in stopping C2CL4
pump overchlorination of C2CL4 in Oxy zone may lead to hydrocracking when
catalyst enters in reactor section. Also some time in Regenerator lift stop
condition if C2CL4 runs for long time then catalyst may agglomerate with each
other and it may chock the spider legs of Regenerator bottom.
Therefore its stopping interlock
provided for any of the below
parameters/interlocks:17-AU-01( High combustion zone O2 percent)
17-FD-31 (Low regeneration gas flow)
17-TU-01/2/3/4 (high temperature of combutsion /calcination /oxy-chlorination)
After normalization of Regenerator parameter C2CL4 pump again to be started
manually from field.
Auto stopping facility will increase catalyst life and Regenerator lift operation
reliability will improve.

C2CL4 Pump(17P-4A/B) Running indication on DCS.


Now after providing Auto stop facility pump will stop if Regenerator
parameters upsets. Stoppage of C2CL4 pump for longer time will result lower
chloride fixation and will affect acidic function of catalyst.
If dosing pump trips on any of the interlock, then dosing pump running condition
can been known from DCS and pump can be started after normalization of
regeneration. This will help in uniform fixation of chloride on Pt based catalyst.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 10*

PART-C

2.5.4 DRYER :
Gas coming out of the washing drum is saturated with water at a pressure of 3.6
kg/cm2. Dryer package unit includes two drums, one in operation and one in
regeneration. Dryer ensures water content in the outlet to be less than 50 ppm
vol. Dryer will have a cycle time of minimum 6 hours. Allowable pressure drop is
0.3 kg/cm2 with maximum limit of 0.5 kg/cm2.goes through a dryer 17DR-1 and
then through filter 17G-3 before to compressor 17K-1.

2.6

CATALYST CIRCULATION :
The total flow rate of the lift gas must remain as steady as possible because any
change in this flow will affect the velocity of the catalyst in the lift line. This flow
rate must be checked carefully because a too high velocity may lead to too high
catalyst attrition rate.

This nitrogen gas ex 17-K-3 A/B going to the lift pot 17-V-34 is divided into two
flows:
a. The primary gas through FIC-1711, which initiates the lift operation.
b. The secondary gas through PDV-1711, which governs the catalyst flow.
Within the proper operating range, the rate of catalyst flow is proportional to
the secondary flow rate of gas. When the secondary gas is stopped, no
catalyst can move in the lift. The pressure drop measured between the lift pot
and the next upper hopper indicates the catalyst flow. Nearly equal to zero
when there no catalyst flow, this pressure drop will increase to about 100
gr/cm2 when there is catalyst flow. This measure is used as indication of
catalyst flow in the control used for the follow-up of the operation of the lifts.
2.6.1

CATALYST LEVEL CONTROL

Catalyst surge vessels (upper hoppers) 17-V-10/12/13 are provided at the top
of each reactor in order to compensate for differences in catalyst flow between
the lifts. It is also a protection against variations of void fraction of the catalyst
in the reactors. Each upper hopper is equipped with gamma-ray level sensors.
One level sensor gives a continuous information for the control, the other gives
on-off information for catalyst lift cut-off. The level will be adjusted at 50% and
the measure will be used through a cascade to modify the set point of the
PDIC used to monitor the catalyst flow.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 - 11

PART-C

In case of low level, detected by a cut-off, the PDICV will be automatically closed until
the defect disappears.
Following Gama ray detection systems are provided:17-V-1 Upper Surge Drum

LT 1701, LSHH 1701

17-V-2 Lock Hopper

LSH-1702, LSL-1703

17-R-1 Regenerator

LT-1702, LSLL-1704

Catalyst circulation is carried out by means of gas lift system, which carries
the catalyst from the bottom of each reactor to the top of the following reactor.
The catalyst then flows downward through each reactor bed by gravity
hydrogen rich gas is used as carrier in the regeneration system.
Between reaction system and regeneration loop, the catalyst is carried by a
specific Nitrogen circulation loop. Catalyst batches are transferred periodically
to the regenerator for regeneration.
2.6.2

SEQUENCE TRANSFER:

Spent catalyst (at approx. 200 deg C.) is stored in the regenerator upper
surge drum 17V-1, which is at a pressure of 2.9 kg/cm2 slightly lower than the
pressure of the last reactor 15R-3 (3.3 kg/cm2). When upper surge drum is
full of catalyst, this amount of catalyst is transferred to the lock hopper 17V-2
and then from lock hopper to regenerator in batch operation. Transfer is
carried out transfer sequence UC-1701, which is explained as below. The
sequence is divided into two main operations Load and Unload.
Load operation transfers batch of catalyst from upper surge drum to lock
hopper in approximately 20 minutes and is carried out automatically as given
below:
1. Verify the conditions are good to start the load operation i.e. valves UV1701, 1702, 1703, 1704 and 1708 are close and that enough place is
available in lock hopper 17V-2 (LAL-1703 ON)
2. Open valve UV-1707 to equilibrate pressure between the upper surge
drum and lock hopper.
3. Wait for the pressure equilibrium {ABS(PI1701-PI-1702)<0.3 kg/cm2}
4. Wait for enough catalyst in the upper surge drum level.
5. Open valve UV-1702 and UV-1701. The catalyst will fill up the lock hopper.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 12

PART-C

6. Wait for high level in lock hopper (LAH1702 ON). The lock hopper is full
now.
7. Close valve UV-1701.
8. Wait for 10 secs.
9. Close valve UV-1702 and UV-1707.
10. Go to UNLOAD.
Unload operation transfer a batch of catalyst from lock hopper to the regenerator
and will take approximately 20 minutes and is carried out automatically on the
completion of load operation as given below:
1. Wait for the conditions are good to start the unload operation i.e. valves UV1701,1702, and 1707 are close. Enough place in the regenerator top head is
ensured.
2. Open valve UV-1708 to equilibrate pressure between the lock hopper and
regenerator 17R-1.
3. Wait for the pressure equilibrium [ABS (PI1702-PI-1703)<0.3 kg/cm2]
4. Open valve UV-1704 and UV-1703. The catalyst will be unloaded from the
lock hopper into the top of the regenerator.

5. Wait for low level in lock hopper (LAL1703 ON). The batch of catalyst has
been transferred to the regenerator.
6. Close valve UV-1703.
7. Wait for 10 seconds.
8. Close valve UV-1704 and UV-1708. The lock hopper is empty and ready for
a new catalyst batch.
9. Go to LOAD.
The catalyst is achieved by means of a gas lift system. Hydrogen rich gas is used
as carrier in the reaction section, Nitrogen is used as carrier between the reaction
and the regeneration section.
The catalyst is lifted from the bottom of the regenerator to the top of the 1st
reactor by nitrogen lift, flows downward in the reactor by gravity, from bottom to
the next by hydrogen lift and from bottom of the last reactor to the regenerator by
nitrogen lift.
The catalyst is transferred periodically from the upper surge drum to the lock
hopper and from the lock hopper to the regenerator. Catalyst surge vessels are
provided at the top of each reactor in order to compensate for differences in
catalyst flow between the lifts.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 13

PART-C

The lift gas controls catalyst flow. It is achieved by Primary gas, which initiates the lift
operation (FIC control). Secondary flow, which governs the catalyst flow (PDIC control)
When the total gas flow is constant, the rate of catalyst flow is proportional to the
secondary gas flow rate. The total gas flow is controlled by action on primary gas. When
secondary gas is stopped no catalyst can move in the lift. The pressure drop measured
between the lift pot and the next upper indicates the catalyst flow. This will be nearly
equal to zero when there is no catalyst flow and will increase to 100 gm/cm2 when there
is catalyst flow.

2.7

TRANSFER SEQUENCE:

2.7.1 DRYER
The Dryer 15-DR-1 can be used during the start-up operations. According to the
actual design, it is estimated that this dryer has to be regenerated three times
during a unit startup.
In drying service, part of the recycle gas goes down stream through 15DR1. The
regeneration of the dryer is performed in two times:
Heating by a part of the produced hydrogen gas. The gas is heated in 15-EH-1
(controlled by TIC-1558), goes through the dryer and is cooled in cooler 15-E-12
before feeding into the KO drum 15-V-6.

Cooling down. One part of the produced hydrogen gas is introduced


downstream in 15-DR-1 and is cooled in 15-E-12. During the regeneration, the
water from the is condensed in 15-E-12 and separated in Knock out drum, 15V-6.
2.7.2 Use of 15-DR-1 as Chloroguard for removing Chlorides :
** In S/D 2010 this Dryer (15-DR-1) was loaded with New Alumina based catalyst
(Chloroguard). Top and Bottom loaded with Ceramic balls(Top for reducing
impact on catalyst and bottom acts as support). and Now it is used for purifying
15-V-2 overhead gases. Hydrogen rich gas from 15-V-2 (25,000 NM3/hr, having
a composition of (H2-90%, C1-2.5%, C2-3.0%, C3-2.0%, C4-1.0%, C5+ -0.5%)
after heat exchange in 15E-4 at a temp of 36 deg.C and pr. of 5.3 kg/cm2 is
routed to Dryer. Rich gas enters on top of Dryer and chlorides presents in Rich
Gas (H2+HC) is adsorbed on the catalyst. From Dryer gases comes in
downstream of 15-E-4 and from here it goes to either H2 unit PSA for
purification or to FG/Flare through PIC -1507.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 14

PART-C

DRYER(15-DR-1) CATALYST PROPERTIES:


TRADE NAME: FCR-91
1. CATALYST IDENTIFICATION
Synonyms:

Chloride removal catalyst

Chemical Name:

Activated alumina.

Molecular Weight:

N/A

Chemical Formula:
Chemical Family:

Al2O3
Modified Alumina

2. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS


Ingredient

Percent

Hazardous

Specially Prepared Alumina


with promoters

90-95

No

Moisture

Balance

No

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


Appearance
White Off white extrusions.
Size
3 mm extrusions.

Odor
Solubility
Bulk Density

Nil
Insoluble in water.
0.80 0.1 kg/L.

STABILITY AND REACTIVITY


Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage.
Corrosive to metals
Yes
Hazardous Decomposition
Products

NA

Hazardous

Polymerization Will not occur.

Incompatibilities

Keep away from acid /alkali contact.

CATALYST USE:
Removal of chlorides from hydrocarbons.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 14*

PART-C

2.8

CATALYST CIRCULATION AND REGENERATION


2.8.1

CATALYST FLOW CONTROL

The catalyst flow / level is controlled by


17-V-10 1st upper Hopper
LT-1710, LSLL-1710
17-V-12 2nd upper Hopper
LT-1712, LSLL-1712
17-V-13 3rd upper Hopper
LT-1713, LSLL-1713
2.8.2

ISOLATION OF REACTION SECTION


An important point is to prevent hydrocarbons from entering the nitrogen lift
gas system. Therefore, above the first reactor and under the last reactor, the
following protection system are provided:
a. Between reduction chamber 017-V-11 and upper hopper 017-V-10: these 2
drums are connected by a 2" line fitted with an special automatic valve
(UV-1705).
the drum 017-V-10 is kept at a higher pressure than the reduction

chamber, checked by a DP cell. (PDT-1730).


a permanent make-up of seal gas (fresh nitrogen), under flow control,
FIC-1703 is continuously added.

the valve will be automatically closed by interlock I-1701 in case of :


low pressure of the seal gas
(PSLL-1751)
low delta P between the two drums
(PDSAL-1730)
low flow of seal gas
(FSLL-1732)

high O2 or H2 level in the

(ASHH-1704/1705)

nitrogen lift gas


the valve (HS-1701) may also be closed at operator request.
b. The same arrangement is used under the last reactor. The last lower
hopper 17-V-23 is at a higher pressure than the reactor by a seal flow of
fresh nitrogen under flow control FIC-1704.
A special automatic valve UV-1706 is installed on the seal line between
the last lower hopper and the last lift pot, 17V-33.
The valve on the seal line between the last lower hopper and the last lift
pot will be automatically closed by interlock action I-1702 in case of:
low pressure of the seal gas
(PSLL-1751)
low delta P between the two drums
(PDSLL-1731)
low flow of seal gas
(FSLL-1733)
high O2 or H2 level in the nitrogen lift gas
(ASHH-1704/1705)
The valve (HS-1706) may also be closed at operator request.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 02 - 15

An automatic isolation valve (HS-1715) is also installed on the seal leg under
the regenerator in order to isolate it from the reaction section in case of large
perturbation in the pressure balance of the unit, for example recycle
compressor shutdown. The interlock I-1703 closes the automatic isolation
valve in case of: the high regeneration temperature (TSHH1701/1702/1703/1704) high O 2 content in regenerator inlet (ASHH-1701), low
flow to regenerator (FSLL-1731)
Remark:
The pressure balance is made through small pipes 2" full of catalyst and so a
very small flow of gas is enough to create very large pressure drop.
If the delta P falls quickly to zero, it means that there is no more catalyst in the
pipe, and in this case the best solution is to close the valves and also the seal
gas flow to allow for a proper filling of the pipe by catalyst.
2.8.3

REGENERATION LOOP
(A) The regeneration loop unit
Inert gas is used as heat and reactant carrier in the catalyst regeneration loop.
A compressor 17K-1 A/B ensures the gas circulation. At the discharge of 017K-1, the gas is split into two flows.
The main flow, used in the two combustion zones, is preheated in the feed
effluent exchanger 017-E-1. Electrical heater 017-EH-1 will allow for a precise
adjustment of the regenerator inlet temperature 420-440 oC.
The gas, after preheating the spent catalyst in the top of the regenerator, will
flow through the two radial beds.

The Regeneration of CRU catalyst needs dry air with minimum dew point of
-40 deg C.Around 360Nm 3/hr of dry air ex air purification units is being
consumed from ccru N2 plant.
During the non availability of dry air from ccru N 2 plant due to various reasons
like Freon system failure, air compressor failure etc, a new 4 dry air line ex
New N2 plant has been laid down. This .line also improves the reliability of the
regeneration
and
was
implemented
via
process
scheme
(MR/TS/PS//CRU/2005/06). After coke burn off, the re-action heat which is at
about 400oC is recovered in the feed-effluent exchanger 017-E-1, then the gas
is cooled down by the air-cooler 017-AC-1 before it is routed to washing drum
017-V-5 along with calcination gas. The secondary flow, used successively for
calcination and oxychlorination is mixed with air from N 2 plant (FIC-1701) in
order to reach a concentration of around 4 to 6% of oxygen, (AE 1706) then
heated through feed/effluent exchanger 017-E-2 and electrical heater 017-EH2 to about 500oC.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 - 16

PART-C

The calcination gas circulates up flow in an axial bed, is collected at the outlet, mixed
with a chlorination agent through 017-P-4 A/B then circulates down flow through the
axial oxychlorination bed. The chlorination agent is added when the calcination
temperature reaches to about 470oC.
After heat recovery in the feed effluent exchanger 017-E-2, this gas is mixed with the
main flow, and sent to the washing drum 017-V-5, where the acid gases are neutralised
with 10% caustic soda solution.(To eliminate corrosion problems due to the chlorine
compounds in the regeneration effluent, a gas washing section is provided in order to
keep constant the quality of the regeneration gas.) The regeneration effluent gas is
washed by contacting with a caustic solution pumped by 17-P-1 A/B and cooled in a trim
cooler 17-E-3 to get the lower possible temperature in the washing drum. The liquid is
injected through a spray nozzle 017-SM-2 in the line located after the air cooler.
Contacting is performed into a static mixer 017-SM-1, right after the injection point.
Final cooling is done in the washing drum 017-V-5. Final washing is done in the washing
drum 17-V-5 by contacting water on bubble cap trays. The water (Process water/DM
water) has two functions, washing of the gas and cooling. The gas coming out from the
washing drum goes through dryer 017-DR-1 then through a filter 017-G-3 where the
eventual particles are trapped and finally back to the regeneration loop compressor 017K-1. Pressure is controlled by means of gas purge from washing drum 017-V5. The
pressure of the regeneration loop is reseted by the pressure of the first reactor PI-1727.

17DR-1 mist eliminator level indication on DCS

Earlier only level switch was provided at mist eliminator. At high level swich actuates the
solenoid valve provided at drain line for removing moisture from 17DR-1 circuit.
However some time SOV malfunctions and chances of water carryover to adsorber bed.
Water carryover affect the performace of catalyst bed and moisture will slip from
adsorber bed. High moisture gas will also affect Regenerator(17R-1) catalyst. At high
moistur fixation of chloride on Pt catalyst(acidic function of catalyst) will be affected and
in combustion zone chances of hdydrothermal sintering.
By providing level indication of mist eliminator on DCS performace of adsorption has
been improved and dew point of Regeneration gas at adsorber bed outlet has been well
maintained within the limit. Hence catalyst life of 17DR-1 adsorber(Alumina based) and
17R-1(Pt based) both has been improved.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 02 - 17

17DR-1 Heater timer delay for increasing life of heater


In 17-DR-1 heater rating 530 KW, Heating cycle of for around 5 hours and cooling cycle
is for around 4.5 hours. Gas flow rate went to zero at the end of heating mode, heat
remains entrap in heater coils during cooling mode with out gas flow rate..
As gas flow and heater supply gets off at the same time after heating cycle, heater skin
temp doubles for 4 minutes as there is no medium to transit heat of heater elements.
This reduces the life of heating elements in long term.
Two minute delay provided in operation of 3 way valve SDV 2005 after heating cycle of
17-DR-1 heater. Giving two minute delay in gas flow cut off after heater power supply
cut off shall restrict the skin temperature from rise. This will increase the life of heater
elements

Ramping logic for 17DR-1 heater output


During change over to cooling mode to heating mode the 17-DR-1 heater output(MH)
value remains equal to its previous heating cycle value and heater starts at full load.
After heating cycle heater output (17-TIC-2003) to be reduced to manual mode and
minimum output, and during the start of next heating cycle TIC-2003 should go in auto
mode so that heater loading starts gradually with in 5 minutes.
This ramping logic will prevent the sudden loading of 17-DR-1 heater. This will increase
the life of heater elements

17DR-1 Heater Running indication and Heater failure alarm on DCS


17DR-1 Heater running indication has been provided on DCS. During Heating cycle at
any time we can check running status of heater . Also if Heater output does not
achieved in ramping time then Heater failure alarm will come on DCS indicating Heater
has not started. With help of S/staion and electrical testing we can find the reason of not
starting and after solving problem heater can be started without time delay.

By providing running indication and Heater failure alarm of 17DR-1 Heater on DCS
Adsorber bed Regeneration during Heating cycle has been improved and moisture
slippage can be avoided and we are able in maintaining moisture < 50ppm at Adsorber
outlet.

Provision of New drain line and control valve from level troll of
Moisture separator of 17DR-1
New drain line along with control valve has been provided from level troll of
moisture separator and control valve has been cascaded with level indication of mist
eliminator. New control in Auto mode very efficiently removes the moisture from
17DR-1 circuit. Also some time manually by operating this control valve moisture can
be removed.
By providing new control valve performace of 17DR-1 adsorption has been
improved and dew point of Regeneration gas at adsorber bed outlet has been well
maintained within the limit. Hence catalyst life of 17DR-1 adsorber(Alumina based) and
17R-1(Pt based) both has been improved
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 02 17*

Activated Alumina for 17DR1 Technical Specification


1. The activated alumina drier consist of 2 beds each consists of 11 MT of activated
Alumina, which operates in continuous cycle to reduce the moisture in the process gas to
the desired value of less than 50 ppm.
2. During normal operation one bed is under adsorption mode and second bed is under
regeneration bed.
3. Each drier bed is loaded with 11000 Kg of activated alumina. Total Quantity of Activated
Alumina Required is 23000 kg.

Specification of the Activated Alumina :S. No


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

11

Specifications
Product
Particle Form
Size in mm
Water static adsorption at 60% relative humidity, %
Surface area, m2/gm
Pore Volume cc/100gm
Bulk density, gm/lit
Particle crushing strength, daN
Attrition resistance AIF 5 min, %
Chemical properties:
Al as Al2O3, %
Na as Na2O, ppm
Loss on ignition at 300-1000Deg C, %

Typical Value
AxSorb D 2-5
Spheres
2-5
20(min)
300 (min)
44
760-860
14 (min)
99 (min)
93.8(min)
5000(max)
7.0(max)

Process gas specification and operating condition of the drier bed :-

S.No Specifications

Value

1
2
3

Process Gas flow rate, Kg/hr


Operating Pressure , Kg/cm2g
Adsorption Temperature, deg c

10700
3.7
45

Regeneration drier Temperature, deg c

Process Gas composition, Vol %

180 (Normal)
200 (Max)

N2
O2
CO2
Cl2
HCL
H2O
H2S

82-100%
3-8%
Balance
2 ppm *
2 ppm *
Saturated
1 ppm

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 17*

PART-C

(B) Operation at full severity


COMBUSTION
In order to proceed to a complete coke burn-off, it will be necessary to operate
at a high oxygen level in the two beds.
First bed

O2 level 0.5 to 0.7% vol.

Inlet temperature : 440 deg C

Regenerator inlet temp.

450 deg C (for catalyst preheating)

Second bed

O2 level 0.4 to 0.6%

inlet temperature : 480 deg C

495 to 515 deg C according to the coke


burnt.

Outlet temperature

(C) Calcination and Oxychlorination.


These two steps are made at about 4 to 6 % of oxygen.
Inlet temperature

530 deg C

2.8.4 CATALYST REGENERATION PROCEDURE


(A) General Desciption
To perform a good regeneration of the reforming catalyst, the following
operations must be achieved:

Complete removal of the coke

Oxchlorination of the catalyst to readjust the chlorine level

Calcination of the catalyst

Cooling and sweeping of the remaining oxygen from the regenerated


catalyst
Reduction of the catalyst prior to reintroduction in the reaction section.

The 3 first steps are performed in the regenerator 017-R-1, the step 4 is
performed in the first lower hopper 017-V-3, the last step is performed in the
reduction chamber 017-V-1.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 18

PART-C

(B)

General arrangement
The regenerator 017-R-1 works at a pressure slightly higher than the one of
the first reactor 015-R-1. Spent catalyst is stored in the upper surge drum 017V-1 at a pressure slightly lower than the pressure of the last reactor 015-R-3.
Upper surge drum 017-V-1 and the top of the regenerator are both under
nitrogen pressure, so only a pressure adjustment is needed, this will be made
in the lock hopper 017-V-2 through PI-1702.
The equivalent of one hour of catalyst circulation is stored in the upper surge
drum 017-V-1. When high level is reached, an automatic operation begins as
follows.

Check that 017-V-2 is empty and at the same pressure than 017-V-1.

Open gas tight (UV-1701) and catalyst tight valves (UV-1702) between the
two drums.

Unload the catalyst from 017-V-1 until high level is reached in 017-V2.

Isolate the two drums.

Then the same operation is made between the top of the regenerator and 017-V-2

Check that there is enough room in the top of the regenerator.

Open equilibrium valve to increase the pressure of 017-V-2 to the same


pressure than 017-R-1

Open gas tight and catalyst tight valves between the two drums

Unload the catalyst from 017-V-2 until low level is reached in 017-V-2

Isolate the two drums.

Re-open equilibrium valve between 017-V-1 and 017-V-2

This operation is done by US-1701.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 19

PART-C

C)

Catalyst Heating
The top of the regenerator is swept by a small flow off fresh nitrogen gas
through 17 PDIC-1704, which prevents oxygen from the combustion zone to
come up in this storage volume.
In this part and in the 8 legs, which allow the catalyst to enter the first
regeneration bed, the catalyst is smoothly preheated by the regeneration gas
inlet.
(D) Coke burn off
The catalyst then flows through the first combustion bed, which is designed in
the same way as the former reactors. The combustion gas is as follow:
All the oxygen will be burnt and the heat produced will be absorbed by the
regeneration gas, which is collected in the centre pipe.
Then the catalyst, which still contains some coke is collected and transferred
by another set of 8 pipes into the second combustion bed. Air is introduced
under flow control (FIC-1702) IN ORDER TO GET AROUND 0.2% of oxygen
at regenerator outlet.
The second coke burn off produces less heat than the first one, the design is
made in such a way that there is too much oxygen introduced compared to
the coke remaining on the catalyst.
O2% is 0.2 to 0.3 vol. at the regenerator outlet, Gas outlet temperature
between 500 - 515 oC
The catalyst, which arrives in the bottom of the second bed is and must be
free of coke. This key item will be adjusted by the two air injection in the
combustion zones, and if necessary by decreasing the catalyst flow rate in the

regenerator (for example in case of upset of coke on the catalyst: more than
7%).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 20

PART-C

(E)

Regeneration Checking

The panel operator can always check the following information in order to
run the unit correctly

The amount of burnt coke in 1 hour (calculation based on the oxygen


consumption).

The temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet on both
combustion beds.

The catalyst flow rate through the regenerator.

A safety sequence closes automatically both air injections and stops


catalyst circulation in case of

Low oxygen content in the gas at the outlet of the combustion zone.

High temperatures in the combustion beds.

Low flow rate in the regenerator.

(F) Oxychlorination
The catalyst is then collected by 6 pipes and sent to an axial bed where
Oxychlorination takes place.
Oxychlorination gas is the gas previously used for the calcination. This gas is
hot, and flows from top to bottom. Chlorine is injected in this zone.
Oxygen

4 to 6% vol.

Temperature

510 oC

(G) Calcination
Calcination gas is introduced in the bottom part of the regenerator. This gas
contains 4 to 6% of oxygen. It flows from bottom to top before being collected
and then sent to the Oxychlorination zone.
Oxygen

4 to 6% vol.

Temperature

520 oC

Water

less than 50 ppm

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 21

PART-C

(H)

Cooling
The catalyst is then collected by 6 pipes and flows into the lower hopper 017V-3, which is under slight over pressure of nitrogen. The pipes are not
insulated in order to allow for a natural cooling by convection.
Catalyst flows from there down to the lift pot, 17-V-34 where it's entrained by
a flow of nitrogen gas into the first upper hopper 17V-10.
This hopper 17 V-10 is only a storage under nitrogen where catalyst is
accumulated before to be introduced in the reduction chamber 17-V-11.
The gas used for the lift operation is recovered from the first upper hopper,
cooled, and filtered in a catalyst fines filter 17-G-2.
Remark:
When catalyst make up is needed in the unit, a drum is added to the hopper
017-V-4, which is pressurised at the pressure of 017-R-1, and after the valve
opening, fresh catalyst will be smoothly added into the calcination bed.
(I) Reduction
Reduction of the freshly regenerated catalyst in 17-R-1 is done in the
reduction chamber 17-V-11, which is provided above 15-R-1. The hydrogen
rich gas from 15-K-1 is heated in hydrogen rich gas exchanger 17-E-4 and
then in reduction heater, 17-EH-3 (Electric heater) before using in 17-V-11 for
reduction of the catalyst.
This operation is slightly exothermic and the inlet temperature is thus adjusted
in order to have hydrogen rich gas around 450 deg C at the 17-EH-3 outlet. In
case of high temperature, which is indicated by TSHH-1711, electric supply to
the heater will be cut-off. This operation is continuous.
The residence time in the reduction chamber is 2 hours. After reduction, the
gas is cooled down first in the feed/effluent exchanger, 017-E-4 then in the air
cooler, 017-AC2 and sent to fuel gas under PDIC-1702 control.
The heated hydrogen rich gas ex 17-E-4 is also used in 17-V-21/22 and 17-V31/32.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 22

PART-C

Note: while starting the reduction heater after long shutdown it is advisable to drain the
heater shell so as to ensure the no condensate is present inside the system.Drain line
via process scheme (MR/TS/PS/CRU/2007/02) has been provided for draining facility.
2.8.5 NITROGEN GAS LIFT SYSTEM
(A) Description
Nitrogen lift gas is used for the first and the last lifts.
After separation of the lift gas and the catalyst in the elutriator, the gas flows
through the fines filter 17-G-1/2 where the catalyst dust is recovered.
The gas flow enters in the middle of the drum. In the top of the drum several
cartridges off filtering elements are fixed. The gas flows through, the catalyst
dust is trapped on these cartridges, which are cleaned, when the DP
increases, by a counter flow of nitrogen.
After cooling, the gas is re-circulated by means of compressors 017-K-3 A/B
(B) Safety
The quality of the gas is controlled continuously by two analysers:

O2 analyser

H2 analyser
In case of O2 or H2 contaminates the lift gas, there are two levels of operation:

If the percent is more than 0.4% vol., a software (UC-1702) sequence


opens the valve UV-1710 to introduce fresh nitrogen until the value falls
under 0.3% vol.

If high level is reached, the reaction section and the nitrogen lift gas are
isolated by closing the safety valve UV-1705 and 1706.
When the quality is recovered, the catalyst circulation may restart.

(C) Seal System


The regeneration loop and the reaction section are connected by the catalyst
circulation system. The catalyst is lifted between these two sections by using
nitrogen lift gas.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

In addition, a seal system increases the safety of the operation.

CRU- 02 23

Nitrogen sealing: a controlled flow of inert gas is used to keep the drums
connected with the reaction section at a slightly higher pressure than the
reaction section.

Safety valves: if the nitrogen sealing fails for any reason the valves will be
closed automatically, isolating the two sections.

In case of problem a safety valve is also provided to isolate the regenerator


from the nitrogen lift gas system.

These valves are actuated by air and air pressure to actuators is controlled by
solenoid valves.
In addition to the normal control system, an independent, dedicated system
comprising hardware, software interlocks prevents any mis- operation or
accidental opening of valves.
A push button in control room also allows to close of the three automatic
valves in case of problem on the unit.
2.8.6

CATALYST REPLACEMENT

This can be done by two different ways:

On-line replacement without shutting down the unit.

Unit shut-down, reactors inspection and catalyst unloading.

On line replacement::
This operation is performed in the lock hopper. Every time this drum is full of
old spent catalyst, it is isolated and depressurized to atmosphere. Then, the
catalyst is withdrawn out from the unit by the way of the side connection
located in between the 2 valves underneath the lock hopper. The spent
catalyst goes down to the ground through a 3" temporary line and it is
collected and stored into drums, previously filled-up with nitrogen.
The fresh new catalyst is introduced in the lock hopper, then transferred as
usual down to the regenerator where it will be dried before entering the
reaction section.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

Shutdown replacement:

CRU- 02 - 24

This operation is carried out after the normal procedural shutdown and cooling of the
reactor/regenerator sections. It is ensured that the catalyst bed temperature as shown
by skin indications is not more than 80 deg C. Two to three purges with Nitrogen to
remove hydrocarbon traces is done through 15PC05, each time pressurizing up to 2.0
Kg/cm2 and de-pressurising up to 0.2 Kg/cm 2(g). All vessels in the system are drained
out to CBD before purging with Nitrogen. All the necessary blinding jobs are released
after checking for LEL for <2% in CRU gas through 15PC05. The spools from the
reactor and regenerator bottoms, between pearlo valves are dropped with the first
pearlo valve in closed position. Unloading elbows 3 size, are connected and flexible
hoses are connected to the elbow ends. Empty drums are arranged at the bottom of the
reactors and regenerators. The drums are properly numbered in sequence to facilitate
re-loading. Unloading rate can be controlled by the first pearlo valve opening. One
running nitrogen hose is provided inside the catalyst drums being unloaded to avoid any
sparks due to coked catalyst attrition. The filled drums are sealed under nitrogen
atmosphere and stacked under cover.
2.8.7 PROCEDURE FOR REGENERATOR CLEANING & REPAIR:

Regeneration shutdown

Stop C2Cl4 dosing to regenerator

Reduce 17EH1 and 17EH2 temperatures @ 35 deg C/Hr to 300 deg C

Stop water circulation in 17V5 and drain out

Flush caustic side with DM water for 2 hours

Stop 17DR1 and de-energise

Cut-off 17EH1 and EH2 and de-energise heaters

Continue running 17K1 to cool regenerator till bed temperature equals


discharge temperature

Stop 17K1, 17K3 and 40 NC1

Isolate external Nitrogen make-up lines to 17K1 and 17K3

Isolate atomizing lines block valves

De-pressurise the system through 17V5


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 02 - 25

Blind the nitrogen lines to regeneration system at locations shown in


table below;

S.NO

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

LOCATION

17PDC04 at 17R1 nozzle flange


17PDC05 at 17V3 nozzle flange
UV1707 inlet line break flange
UV1708 inlet line break flange
17V4 nitrogen inlet line nozzle flange
17PC61 C/V D/S flange
17PC62 C/V D/S flange
17PC62 SDV D/S flange
External make-up to 17K3 at break flange
External make-up to 17K1 at break flange

17R1 MH No 2 to be opened to check for catalyst spillage

Unloading elbow to be fixed in place of spool

Catalyst unloading to be done in drums with nitrogen hose inserted

MH 3 to be opened to check for catalyst spillage

After catalyst unloading MH 4, 5 and C2Cl4 hand hole to be opened

Combustion and Oxy-chlorination outlet line strainers to be opened and


cleaned

MH1 top spool to be removed and manhole opened

Catalyst reservoir bottom to be cleaned

China hat to be opened

First combustion bed sector plates to be opened

First Johnson screen to be pulled out, cleaned

17FC02 inlet elbow to be removed

Second combustion bed sector plates to be opened

Second bed Johnson screen to be pulled out and cleaned

First and second bed external grid to be cleaned

Regenerator oxy-chlorination grid to be cleaned


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 02 - 26

MH4 and MH5 internal cleaning to be done

Second combustion screen to be fixed back and sector plates to be


fixed

First combustion screen to be fixed back and sector plates to be fixed

Catalyst to be loaded into MH5 and MH5 to be boxed-up

Catalyst to be loaded into MH4 and MH4 to be boxed-up

C2Cl4 hand hole to be boxed up

China hat to be boxed up

Catalyst to be loaded into MH1 through flexible hose

MH1 to be boxed-up

MH2 and MH3 to be boxed-up

Combustion and oxy-chlorination zone outlet line strainers to be boxedup

Catalyst unloading elbow to be removed and spool to be fixed

Nitrogen line de-blinding to be done as per list

Regenerator section to be lined up

Leak checking of all flanges opened to be done

Leaks to be attended

System to be pressurized and compressor to be run

17EH1/2 and DR1 to be energized

Temperatures to be increased in EH1 and 2 @ 35 deg C/Hr

At 300 deg C water and caustic circulation to be started

Hot bolting to be done in all flanges opened

Black burning to be started


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

2.8.8 STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM:

CRU- 02 - 27

Flue gases of the reformer furnaces 15F-1, 15F-2 & 15F-3 exit at a temp of 615
Considering the immense heat recovery potential of these flue gases, a steam
generation facility has been laid. Steam is generated at M.P. level. Originally HP
steam was generated from the system to cater to the needs of the Ebara
compressor that consumes HP steam in its turbine and exhausts LP steam. Later
the steam generation system was modified to generate MP steam and the HP
steam requirement of the RGC compressor is met from the better quality HP
steam from TPS header.
The BFW is supplied to CRU from TPS .The BFW supplied & MP steam
generated shall meet following specifications:
STREAM

B.F.W.

TDS ,ppm

STEAM
<1

Total hardness (max)

Not detectable

Silica as SiO2

< 0.02 mg/l

Dissolved Oxygen

< 0.005 mg/l

0.02 ppm (max)

Dryness

>99.9%

Na + K

0.01 ppm (max)

Fe

0.02 ppm (max)

Fe + Cu

< 0.01 mg/l

Cu

< 0.005 mg/l

Cl ,ppm (max)

nil

Conductivity, umho/cm
pH
Oil , ppm (max)

0.2 @ 20 C

<1

7-10

>8

Not detectable

The BFW is made available the CRU B/L from TPS at 106 kg/cm 2 pr. & 125 C.
The steam will exit the desuperheater at 16 kg/cm 2 g and 2500 C.
The BFW is dosed with TSP @ 1 ppm in steam drum. Blow down rate is kept at
3% of the steam generation rate, which is 16740 kg/hr normal.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 28

PART-C

PROCESS DESCRIPTION:
The Steam generation system is designed for a forced type circulation for proper
distribution of flow through the steam generation coils. The BFW from TPS is fed

to the steam drum (15V-16) through 15 EE-191 (coil submerged in the steam
drum) & then BFW preheater furnace coils 15 F-8.The steam drum level control
is through a separate 2" line bypassing the above flow circuit & BFW comes
directly through LIC-1901. BFW temp at B/L is 120 0 C, at 15 EE-191 O/L is 135 0
C & at 15 F-8 O/L is 2330 C. The steam drum temp is 2820 C.
BFW circulating pump 15 P-15 A/B takes suction from steam drum (15-V-16) &
its discharge is passed through two steam generation coils 15 F-5, 15 F-7
through FIC 1902 & FIC 1903 respectively. Water vaporisation occurs in the coils
as a result of the heat pick-up by the circulating liquid, which then flashes in the
steam drum. The generated steam leaves the drum under pressure control via
PIC-1901 to the super heater coil 15 F-6.
The superheated steam temp control is done in the de-superheater 15-X-191 by
BFW injection in the steam via TIC-1909.
The BFW coil, steam generation coils & the superheater coil cannot withstand
dry run conditions. To avoid any chance of the dry running of the coils, the standby BFW circulation pump will take start in case of low flow detection (below 50 m 3
/hr) through any of the two steam generation coils. The fuel gas to the reformer
furnace will be cut-off in case the low flow condition persists for more than 30
seconds.
Trisodium Phosphate is continuously injected in the steam drum directly. TSP
solution is stored in the plant in 15-V-17 as 10 % by wt. solution .15-V-17 tank is
equipped with mixer 15-MX-1 for preparing homogeneous solutions. TSP is
dosed @ 1ppm in steam drum by reciprocating pumps 15-P-16 A/B. Normal
dosing rate is 0.2 LPH.
Steam drum blow down rate is kept at 3% of the steam generation rate. The
blow down is made to the blow down vessel 15-V-15 from which it is let out after
flashing out & cooling by mixing with service water.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 29

PART-C

2.8.9 PROCESS VARIABLES:


The main process variables in the catalytic reforming unit, which can be played
upon to achieve desired results, are:

1)Pressure: All the hydrogen producing reactions i.e. dehydrogenation,


dehydrocyclisation are enhanced by low pressure. The lower the pressure,
the higher the yield of both reformate and hydrogen for a given octane no.
This is the reason for minimizing the unit pressure drop for having lower
average reactor pressure and operating at lowest possible pressure. Low
pressure however increases coke make. As the operating pressure has to
be set within the equipment design pressure and the recycle gas
compressor design power and design intake volume, there is little
flexibility for varying the operating pressure.
2)Temperature: The reforming reaction rates are directly related to reactor
temperature. Just by raising or lowering the temperatures, the reformate
octane number can be raised or lowered. Thus Reactors inlet temperature
is the single most direct variable available for adjusting the unit
performance.
The most representative parameter used for the reactor inlet temperatures
is Weighted Average Inlet Temperature (WAIT). An increase in WAIT
results in increased dehydrocyclisation of paraffins to aromatics, increased
cracking and coking, consequently causing increased octane no.,
decreased reformate yield, decreased H2 purity, increased coke deposit.
3)

Space Velocity: Weight hourly Space Velocity (WHSV) is the amount of


liquid (expressed in weight) which is processed per hour divided by the
amount of catalyst (in weight). The inverse of the space velocity is directly
related to the residence time in the reactors. The lower the Space velocity,
the higher is the contact time, higher is the severity. The lowering of the
space velocity has the same effects as increasing the reactor inlet
temperatures. It results in:
a) Increase in octane
b) Decrease in product yields
c) Decrease in H2 purity
d) Increase in coke deposit

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 30

PART-C

4) Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon ratio: The H2/HC ratio is the ratio of pure H2 in


the recycle (mole/hr) to the feed flow rate (mole/hr). The recycle H2 is
necessary for the catalyst stability. The recycle H2 sweeps the reaction
products and other condensable materials from the catalyst and supplies the
catalyst with H2. An Increase in H2/Hc ratio moves the naphtha through the

reactors at a faster rate and supplies a greater heat sink for the endothermic
heat of reaction. Also the hydrogen partial pressure is linked to the H2/HC
ratio.
5) A lower H2/Hc ratio decreases the H2 partial pressure and increases coke
formation. The H2 partial pr. is mainly adjusted through recycle flow because
there is very little flexibility in varying total pressure. Within typical operating
range, the H2/HC ratio has little influence on product quality or yields. For a
given unit, it is set by design based on economic considerations.
6) Quality of feed: The quality of reformer feed, once pretreated, is mainly
expressed by its chemical analysis and its distillation range.
a) Chemical Analysis: The reformer feed consists of Paraffins, Naphthenes,
Aromatics (or PNA). As dehydrogenation of naphthenes into aromatics. An
index (A+0.85N), where N and A are the liquid volume percent of
naphthenes and Aromatics in the feed is used to characterize the feed. The
higher this index, the lower is the severity required to attain the reformate
octane. The lower this index i.e. the higher the paraffins content, the higher
the severity of operation required to meet the same product specifications.
b) Distillation Range: The reformer feed distillation range is as follows:
IBP = Between 70 100 deg C
FBP = Between 150 180 deg C
A feed with a low IBP generally contains more C6 and lighter paraffins and
has a poor naphthenic and aromatic content. Consequently it requires
higher severity to obtain the same octane number than a feed with a higher
IBP. Another consideration while selecting IBP of reformer feed is that of
eliminating benzene precursors from the feed to meet the recent benzene
content restrictions on gasoline. Feed with IBP above 82 deg C is selected
to eliminate cyclohexane, which readily forms benzene in reformer.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 31

PART-C

Heavier feeds (i.e. feed with higher FBP) have a high naphthenic and
aromatic content, thus they need lower severity to obtain good yields. But
the heavier fractions contain polynuclear aromatics, which are coke
precursors.

**Stop gap arrangement to route 15V-3 gases to FG Header

In the present system, gas path ex 15V-3(LPG Absorber) via Control valve
15PC-09 goes to FG Header or Flare Header. LPG absorber section of
CCRU is not in line as gas path ex 15-V-3 to FG header is blocked due to
mechanical problem in the seat of gate valve (2 nos). Due to this slippage
of LPG Component in FG Header takes place.
As a stop gap
arrangement, it is proposed to route gases ex LPG absorber(15-V-3) to
FG header via FG line of stabilizer reflux drum(15-V-4) as a scheme no
MR/TS/PS/CRU/2015/3.
In scheme from HPV of 15V-3 a new line hooked between two Block
valve of FG line of 15V-4 and 15PC-09 shifted in New line .Kindly note that
original system to be revived after replacing gate valves in FG line of 15-V3 in the next available opportunity and this temporary line is to be blinded.
After commissioning of this scheme, 15-V-3 taken in line and stabilizer off
gases routed to fuel gas header after LPG absorption in 15-V-3. It will
reduce the slippage of LPG component to FG header.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 32

PART-C

Temporary scheme for provision of pure hydrogen to


Reduction chamber
Recycle gas from Ebara discharge goes to reduction chamber for reducing catalyst.
Platinum oxide is reduced to platinum. A right operation in the reduction step needs
1. right oxychlorination and calcination

2. right hydrogen gas flow rate, a right residence time


3. right hydrogen gas quality and a right temperature level
An increase of delta temperature into the reductor, is a sign of hydrocraking, showing a
reduction in hydrogen purity (high C2+).
Bad quality of hydrogen for reduction will impact directly on catalyst performances
Ebara Recycle gas has H2 purity 87 90% rest other components are C1, C2,C3 and
C4. So a temporary scheme issued for addition of pure H2 . In our unit 15PC-87 C/V is
used for taking pure H2 from network. Now for reduction chamber a new line fabricated
with new C/V 15PC-87N, B/V and NRV and hook up done in U/S of 17E-4. Now pure
H2 along with recycle gas can be used in reduction chamber for reduction of platinum
catalyst. It will improve catalyst activity and stability.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02 32*

PART-C

Provision for routing Penex Net gas Scrubber off gas to


K-5 for Hydrogen Recovery
Hydrogen Rich gas stream ex CCRU(92 vol% H2) is routed to PSA-140 for Hydrogen
recovery via rich gas compressor(06-K-5) located at HGU-1. 06-K-5 compressor is

having a capacity of 25000nm3/hr and normally runs in the range of 20000


22000nm3/hr suction flow with spill back opening of 10-30%. Also, CCRU rich gas ex
06-K-05 compressor can be directly routed to the refinery hydrogen header bypassing
the PSA-140 normally 7000nm3/hr of CCRU rich gas is being fed directly to hydrogen
header.
Penex Stabiliser is provided to separate any dissolve hydrogen, HCL and cracked
gases(C1,C2,C3) from isomerate. Stabiliser off gas is routed through the net gas
scrubber to remove hydrogen chloride. Scrubbed gas (flow of 2000 m3/hr) with
hydrogen purity 80-82% leaves from top of scrubber and goes to the fuel gas on back
pressure control. Huge Hydrogen potential (160kg/hr) in the Penex scrubbed gas which
is presently going into the refinery fuel gas header and the same can be routed to the
PSA-140 along with CCRU hydrogen rich gas.
Hook up point is at the downstream of CCRU rich gas contro valve (15PC-78) and the
line between CCRU B/L isolation valves. From this hook up point CCRU rich gas and
Penex scrubbed gas will be routed to 06-K-5.
Precaution: In case of CCRU S/D we have to ensure isolation of 15PC-78 and isolation
at CCRU B/L B/V

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 02-32*

PART-C

3.0 CHEMICAL REACTIONS


The fundamental reforming reactions can be split into two parts:
Promoting reactions
Reactions, which lead to an octane increase, these are the reactions to be promoted.

Restarting reactions
Reactions, which not only can lead to an octane reduction but also to a loss of
reformate yield. These reactions are obviously the ones to be avoided.

3.1

PROMOTING REACTION WITH HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

3.1.1 Dehydrogenation of Naphthenes


The final step in the formation of an aromatic from naphthene is
dehydrogenation:

+3 H2

NaphtheneAromatic

The reaction is rapid and highly endothermic. It is promoted by the metal catalyst
function and is favored by high temperature and low pressure. Naphthenes are
obviously the most desirable feed components because in addition to being easy to
promote they produce by-product hydrogen as well as the aromatic hydrocarbon.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 03 01

PART-C

The speed of reaction increases with temperature and is not effected by the
hydrogen partial pressure.
3.1.2 Paraffin dehydrocyclisation
This is a several step process, which applies either to normal or iso paraffins. It
involves dehydrogenation with the release of one hydrogen mole followed by

molecular rearrangement to form


dehydrogenation of the naphthene.

naphthene

and

the

subsequent

Paraffins dehydrocyclisation is the most difficult reforming reaction to promote.


The reaction can be summarised as follows:
CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

CH2
+H2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH

C7 H16

CH

CH2

CH3

C7 H14

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2
CH

CH3

CH

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH

CH
CH

H2C

CH

CH2

CH2 CH

CH CH3

CH2

HC

CH3

CH

C
+

CH3+3H2

CH

Toluene
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 03 02

PART-C

This reaction leads to a significant increase in octane number. It is very


endothermic and due to its relative low rate, operating conditions must be more
severe for this reaction to occur, resulting in increased coke formation. The
paraffin cyclisation step becomes easier as the molecular weight of the paraffin
increases.
Dehydrocyclisation is favoured by low pressure and high

temperature. Both metal and acid catalyst functions are needed to promote this
reaction.
Thermodynamics dictates the equilibrium, which could be theoretically reached
(i.e. if the time was infinite). Kinetics dictates the rate of Rx. I.e. possibilities to
reach a state close to equilibrium in a finite time.

Increase of

Effect on dehydrogenation due to


Thermodynamics

Kinetics

Pressure

decreases

non affected

Temperature

increases

increases

H2/HC ratio (1)

decreases

decreases

(1)

Ratio of pure hydrogen (mole) to hydrocarbon feed (mole).

Effect of parameters on paraffin dehydrocyclization

Increase of

Effect on dehydrocyclisation due to


Thermodynamics

Kinetics

Pressure

decreases

decrease

Temperature

increases

increases

H2/HC ratio

decreases

decreases

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 03 03

PART-C

3.2

PROMOTING REACTIONS WITHOUT H2 PRODUCTION


3.2.1 Isomerization of linear paraffins

Paraffin isomerization occurs readily in reforming reactions. This reaction leads


to an increase in octane when rearranging to the corresponding branched
isomer.

C7 H16

C7 H16

The reaction is slightly exothermic and does not affect the number of carbons. It
is limited by the thermodynamics i.e. the equilibrium reaction of branched to
normal paraffins decreases as the molecular weight increases. Isomerization
reactions result from carbonium ion intermediate reactions. These reactions are
promoted by the acidic functions of the catalyst. These reactions depends
mainly on temperature and pressure has no effect.
From kinetic viewpoint high temperature favours isomerization but hydrogen
partial pressure is indifferent.
3.2.2 Isomerization of napthenes
The isomerization of a cyclopentane to a cyclohexane must occur as the first
step in converting the C5 naphthene to an aromatic.

Alkylcyclopentane

Alkylcyclohexane

This isomerization involves ring rearrangement and the probability of ring


opening to form paraffin is high.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 03 04

PART-C

Theoretically at Reforming operating temperature (about 500 deg C), the


thermodynamics limits the alkylcyclohexane formation. But the subsequent
dehydrogenation of the alkylcyclohexane into an aromatic shifts the reaction

towards the desired direction. This type of reaction is also easier for higher
carbon number.

3.3

RETARDING REACTIONS
3.3.1 Hydrocracking
Due to the difficult ring formations and isomerization reactions that the alkylcyclopentanes and paraffins must undergo coupled with the acid function of the
catalyst, the possibility of acid promoted hydrocracking reactions occurring is
very strong.

+H2
Paraffin

+H2

+
+H2

This reaction leads to LPG production.


+H2
C1+
Paraffin

or

C2+

This reaction leads to light ends plus lower molecular weight paraffins.
Paraffin hydrocracking is relatively rapid and is favoured by high temperature and
high pressure. The higher molecular weight paraffins i.e. those, which most
easily dehydrocylise tend to crack first.
These reactions are exothermic, consume hydrogen and should be avoided.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 03 05

PART-C

3.3.2 Hydrodealkylation
Hydrodealkylation is the breakage of the branched radical (-CH 3 or CH2H5) of an
aromatic ring.

Xylene (two radical groups) can be dealkylated into toluene (one radical group)
which in turn can be dealkylated to benzene.
The standard representation is:

+H2

Xylene

+CH4

Toluene

+H2

Toluene

+CH4

Benzene

Hydrodealkylation consumes hydrogen and produces methane. It is favoured by


high temperatue and high pressure and promoted by the metallic function of the
catalyst. At Reforming operating conditions and with the Reforming selected
catalyst, this reaction is not significant.
3.3.3 Alkylation
Alkylation is a condensation reaction which adds an olefin molecule on an
aromatic ring. It results in an aromatic with an increased molecular weight. The
reaction writes as follows:
CH3
+CH2 = CH-CH3

HC
CH3

Benzene

Propylene
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Isopropylbenzene

CRU- 03 06

PART-C

This reaction, promoted by the catalyst metallic function, is not hydrogen


consuming. But it leads to heavier molecules, which may increase the end point
of the product. In addition the high molecular weight hydrocarbons also have a
high tendency to form coke. This reaction must be avoided.

Dismutation
Two toluene rings (one branched CH3 radical) can dismute to produce one
benezene ring (no branched radical) and one xylene ring (two rranched radicals),
as shown:

Toluene

Toluene

Benzene

Xylene

This reaction, promoted by the catalyst metallic function, occurs only in very
severe conditions of temperature and pressure. This reaction is negligible with
the selected catalyst at the conditions of reforming.
3.3.4 Coking
Coke formation on the catalyst results from a very complex group of chemical
reactions, the detailed mechanism of which is not fully known yet.
Coke formation is linked to heavy unsaturated products such as polynuclear
aromatics (or polycyclics which can be dehydrogenated) resulting either from the
feed or from the polymerisation of aromatics involved in some of the reforming
reactions (dehydrocyclisation, dismutation ). Traces of heavy olefins or diolefins
may also result from the reforming reactions (dehydrocyclization, alkylation, for
instance) and promote coke formation.A high-end boiling point of the feed likely
means greater amount of polyaromatics and then a higher coking tendency.
Since polymerization is promoted by high temperature, poor distribution in a
reactor favors local high temperatures and coke build up.
Coke deposit on the catalyst support reduces the active contact area and greatly
reduces catalyst activity.
Low pressure unfortunately favors coke formation. This is why low pressure
reforming requires a continuous regenerated catalyst. In reforming the
continuous catalyst regeneration loop allows to maintain a controlled low level
coke content on the catalyst while operating at low pressure.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 03 07

PART-C

As the naphtha feed contains a wide range of paraffins and naphthenes and as
the reaction rates vary considerably with the carbon number of the reactant, all
these reactions occur in series and parallel to each other producing a
complicated reaction scheme. However in an effort to simplify the scheme
according to the reaction rate the reactions take place in the following order;

1st REACTOR

Isomerization, Dehydrogenation

2nd REACTOR

Isomerization, Dehydrogenation,
Dehydrocyclisation, Cracking

3rd REACTOR
:
Dehydrocyclisation, Cracking
As dehydrogenation is easily promoted, highly endothermic and more
predominant in the first two reactors, the temperature drops across the reactors
diminish from reactors one through four. Dehydrocyclisation which is favored by
high temperature is therefore easier to promote in the last of the reactors which
have an overall higher weight average bed temperature.
CR-401 replaced by New Catalyst CR-601 in November 2013.
CR-601 Fresh Catalyst Properties:
Physical Properties
Surface Area, m2/gm

206.0

Chemical Analysis
Carbon, wt%
Chlorine, wt%
Sulfur, ppm
Gamma alumina, %
Alpha alumina, %
Fe, ppm

NA
1.04
0
*
*

Na, ppm

2240

Pb, ppm

<1

Cu, ppm

<1

LOI

Average crushing strength

PSD, wt%
>1.7 mm
1.7-1.4 mm
<1.4 mm

CRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

4.0 CATALYST AND CHEMICALS


4.1

275

CATALYST

4.1.1 CR-201

99.292

0.708
0

CRU- 03 08

MANUFACTURER:

PROCATALYST

Presentation

High purity Alumina impregnated with 0.3% platinum and tin.

Particle size, diameter.

1.8 mm

Bulk density

0.67 0.05 g/cm3

Pore Volume
Surface area

0.60 cm3/g
200 m2/g

Quantity:
15R-1

7.5 m3

15R-2

15.0 m3

15R-3

27.5 m3

Out side of reactors

10.72 m3

CR-201 has been developed to suit continuous regeneration reforming process. High
Selectivity offering maximum C5+ and Hydrogen yield at very low pressure. High
Mechanical strength offering minimum abrasion in catalyst transfer through lifts between
reactors. High Regenerability based on a very low surface area decrease after
numerous regenerations.
Packing:
217 litre non-returnable steel drums, 120 kg net/drum
Inert alumina balls:
This material is used in the top and the bottom of the reactor in order to avoid any
disturbance.
Type

Shamwa Mullite or equivalent.

Void fraction

0.3

Quantity
6mm diameter (1/4)

0.67M3

20mm diameter (3/4)

2.19M3

Activated Alumina Balls.


23.4M3

Quantity
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

4.2

CHEMICALS

CRU- 04 01

4.2.1 Carbon Tetrachloride


Molecular wt.

154

Chlorine wt %

92

Specific gravity @ 200C

1.595

Viscosity @ 200C

1.0 M Pas

Freezing point

-22.60C

Boiling point

76.80C

Vapour pressure @ 200C 90.9mmHg


@ 380C 200mmHg
Vapour density

5.32(air=1)

Estimated consumption

300kg/year max.

C2CL4 is injection into the liquid feed when the continuous regeneration unit is
shut down. Injection rate 1PPM wt C 2CL4 injection fluid is a mixture of 1 wt %
C2CL4 in reformate.
4.2.2 Caustic soda
Estimate consumption of pure NAOH:
Daily consumption based on 100 Be solution

6.0kg/hr.
1440kg

4.2.3 Nitrogen
Sufficient nitrogen for one shutdown and one startup be kept on hand at all times.
Generally nitrogen requirement is 10x vol. of plant.
Distribution of nitrogen

(one startup and one shutdown)

Two purges for plant dry out from 125mm Hg ab to 0.35Kg/cm 2g


One purge for plant dry out from 0.35kg/ cm2g to 0.56 kg/ cm2g
Two start-up purges from 125 mm Hg ab to 0.35 kg/ cm 2g
Three shutdown purges from 125 mm Hg ab to 0.35 kg/ cm 2g
Allowance for leakage and contingencies.

The above is in addition to that required for the catalyst regeneration section.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

5.0 START-UP OF THE UNIT


5.1 FIRST START-UP OF THE UNIT

CRU- 04 02

This section describes the procedure to be followed for starting up the unit for the
first time after erection or after a plant turnaround. Before proceeding for the start
up, the following steps should have been completed in the order shown:
1) Each section should have been leak tested (initial leak tests) and dry out
carried out for catalyst loading.
2) Catalyst has been loaded in the reactors and regenerator and the relevant
sections have been leak tested again and partially entered to residual O2
content between 2 to 5%. The residual O2 is necessary to avoid catalyst
sintering during the catalyst drying stage.
3) The unit is kept blinded at battery limits on the feed and product lines and
on fuel and flare gas headers.
4) The PSVs releasing to flare are to be kept blinded.
5) The PSV on separator drum to atmosphere is kept lined up.
6) The PSVs in regeneration section, N2 lift section are kept in normal lineup.
The sequence of first start-up (after the catalyst is loaded in the unit) is as
follows:
1) Circulation of catalyst and drying of catalyst under an atmosphere with a
residual O2 content.
2) Complete inerting of all sections with N2, to O2 content less than 0.2%
volume. This is done to prepare the unit for pressurization with hydrogen.
3) Stabiliser start-up at total reflux.
4) Pressurization with H2 of the reaction section and the absorber section.
5) Heating up and reduction of the catalyst.
6) Oil in.
7) Operation of the unit at low capacity and low severity.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 05 01

PART-C

8) Operation of the unit at low capacity and high severity.


9) Operation of the unit at normal capacity and high severity.

10)Start of the catalyst circulation.


11) Start of the catalyst regeneration.

5.2 CATALYST CIRCULATIONS AND DRYING:


The catalyst is dried by a mixture of Air and Nitrogen. Air is used to prevent
sintering of the metals of the catalyst. The O2 content must be kept between 2
and 5%. Following steps are followed for catalyst drying:
1.

Pressurize the reformer loop with N2 upto 3.0 kg/cm2g and inject air to
achieve 2 to 5% O2.

2.

Start the recycle gas compressor, 15-K-1 as per the standard procedure.
Start regeneration loop compressor, 17-K-1 and N2 lift gas compressor,
17-K-3.

3.

Establish catalyst circulation.

4.

Fire the reforming furnaces. Start reduction gas heater. Increase the
temperatures in the reactors and regenerator beds at the rate of 20 deg C
per hour upto 250 deg C.

5.

Again raise temperatures @ 20 deg C per hour upto 480 deg C in reactors
and 450 Deg C in the reductor and to 350 deg C in the regeneration
section. When temperature is above 300 deg C. start to drain water at all
low points of the sections and keep record of the amount drained. Keep
these conditions for about 8 hours. After 8 hours, maintain the same
conditions if the drained water stays above 0.2 liter per hour.

6.

When the total amount of water drained at all low points is lower than 0.2
liter per hour, decrease the bed temperatures to 300 deg C at a rate of 40
deg C per hour. Stop the fired heaters and electrical heaters.

7.

Stop the catalyst circulation. After elapsing one or two hours, stop 15-K-1,
17-K-1 & 17-K-3.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 02

FINAL INERTING: The purpose of final inerting is to reduce the O2 content in all
the sections below 0.2 % volume prior to the hydrocarbon introduction. During
the final inerting stage, the following steps are carried out:
a) All the compressors are stopped, isolated and purged with N2.
b) Remove blinds on all process lines between the sections, to/from the
battery limits (except liquid feed line).
c) Remove blinds on safety valves to flare.
d) Blind the safety valves previously to atmosphere during the drying stage.
Also blind the 15-V-1 PCV to atmosphere and line it up to flare.
For the inerting, depressurize the reaction section to 0.1 bar g, then
pressurize the reaction section with N2 introduced at 15-K-1 discharge,
upto 4 bar g. Depressurize upto 0.1 bar g, through 15-V-1 drain and also
through all low points and dead legs. Repeat this procedure till the O2
content is below 0.2% volume. Now leave residual pressure of about 0.1
bar g. Do the same for the HP absorber section and for the regeneration
section. Generally the required O2 content is achieved in about 3 to 4
cycles of pressurization and depressurization.

5.3

STABILISER START-UP AT TOTAL REFLUX:


After inerting of the stabilization section, fill up the stabilizer column bottom with
desulfurised naphtha from storage through the following line-up:
Start-up line to 15-V-2.
Start 15-P-2.
15-P-2 discharge to LPG absorber, 15-V-3.
To 15-C-1 via stabilizer feed/bottom exchangers.
Take level in 15-C-1 upto about 80% and then stop the naphtha make-up and:
Establish 15-C-1 bottom circulation through the reboiler pump, 15-P-5 and
set the pass flows at normal values.
Start 15-C-1 overhead air cooler and trim condenser.
Light up stabilizer bottom reboiler furnace and slowly raise the column
temperature.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 03

Maintain the column pressure around 6 to 7 bar g. When the level in the
reflux drum reaches 50%, send reflux to the column. Operate the column
at total reflux.
Pressurization of the Unit:
After inerting, all the sections are left with some residual N2 pressure.

Pressurize N2 lift gas circuit with N2 upto 3.5 bar g at 17-V-6 (17-K-3
suction K.O. drum).

Pressurize regeneration gas circuit with N2 upto 4.5 bar g at the suction of
the regeneration loop compressor, 17-K-1).

Commission all the N2 seal gas lines.

Pressurize the reaction and absorber section with pure H2 (of the required
specifications) via the H2 pressurisation line at the recycle gas line to 15E-1. Set the pressure of the separator drum, 15-PC-1505 at around 3.5
bar g.

After achieving pressurization of unit, start H2 recycle compressor, lift gas


compressor and regeneration loop compressor. Commission all O2 analyzers.
Start regeneration gas dryer, 17-DR-1.

5.4

CATALYST HEATING UP AND REDUCTION:


The catalyst needs to be reduced to bring it to its active state. During the
reduction step:
Additional leak test can be carried out with H2 in the reaction section.
Light the burners of the reforming furnaces and increase the temperatures at
the inlet of reactors up to 400 deg C at the rate of 40 deg C per hour.
Start H2 to reductor and start the reduction gas heater. Increase the
reduction heater O/L temperature to 400 deg C at the rate of 40 deg C per
hour. The Hydrogen gas ex reduction chamber is routed to the FG header
after cooling in 17AC2. Provision has been made to route the reduction gas
back to 15V1 after drying in 15DR1.
Some water will be released from the catalyst. The water will be collected in
15-V-1.
When the temperature is 400 deg C, start catalyst circulation. Circulation of
catalyst during this step shall be maintained for at least so much of time that
all the catalyst contained in the upper and lower hoppers gets reduced.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 04

Raise the reactors inlet temperatures and the reductor inlet temperature to
480 deg C at the rate of 40 deg C per hour. Maintain this temperature for at
least 12 hours or more if the total water drained at low points is more than
0.2 liter/hr.
Decrease reactor inlet temperatures and reductor inlet temperature to 360
deg C at the rate of 40 deg C per hour.
Stop catalyst circulation.
OIL IN:
After the catalyst reduction, the reaction section is ready for feed introduction.
The first start-up of the reformer should be done with desulfurised naphtha
(DSN). Prior to feed introduction, just ensure that the unit status is as follows:
a) The stabilizer is running at total reflux.
b) All the process lines are deblinded
c) 15-K-1 is running at full capacity.
d) 15-PC-1507 is lined up.
e) Catalyst circulation is stopped and UV-1715, UV-1705, UV1706 are kept
closed. Also all Pearlo valves on catalyst lines are closed.
f) Regeneration loop is stopped, electric heaters are switched Off and 17-K1 kept stopped.
g) 17-K-3 is kept running with normal discharge set pressure.
h) Reactor inlet temperatures are steady at 360 deg C i.e. the temperature at
which oil in is to be done.
i) Cooling water is in use in all water coolers/condensers and air coolers are
in service.
j) Blinds from the reformer feed filters are removed.

5.5

FEED INTRODUCTION:
The reformer feed is introduced in 10 minutes at 60% capacity i.e. 40 Ts/Hr, with
20 Ts/Hr in each of the two feed flow controllers, FC-1501/1502. Feed injection
must be done quickly enough to insure a minimum flow on the fresh catalyst.
After oil in, stop the H2 injection to the reformer loop and set the pressure
controller on15-V-2 gas (PC-1507), in Auto at design conditions.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 05

When liquid appears in separator drum (15-V-1) & level is 50%, start 15-P-1 and
send liquid to 15-V-2. When level in 15-V-2 reaches 50%, start 15-P-2 and send
liquid to LPG absorber drum, 15-V-3. When level in 15-V-3 reaches 50%, start
15-P-3 and feed the stabilizer as smoothly as possible. Route LPG to OffSpec(not under production due to low hydrocracking reactions)
The unit operation is continued at low severity. The low severity operation allows
to lower the water and H2S content in the recycle gas without any harm to the
catalyst.
The low severity operation is characterized by:
1) A higher than design H2/HC ratio (with feed at 60% and recycle gas
compressor at full capacity).
2) Separator drum pressure higher than normal.
3) Temperature, which is increased step by step as water content in the
recycle gas drops.
Follow the below mentioned steps for raising the severity of operation:
A) Raise the temperature to 400 deg C at the rate of 20 deg C per hour. Start
C2Cl4 injection with the reformer feed @ 5 ppm wt. Stabilise the unit
conditions at this temperature.
B) Raise the temperature to 450 deg C at the rate of 25 deg C per hour. Keep
this temperature as long as the water content in the recycle gas is higher
than 200 ppm vol. Establish normal gas flow to the reduction chamber and
bring the reduction gas heater outlet temperature to 430 deg C.
C) When the water content in the recycle gas drops below 200 ppm, increase
the reactor inlet temperatures to 460 deg C in one hour. Maintain these
conditions till the recycle gas moisture is higher than 100 ppm vol.
D) When the water content in the recycle gas drops below 100 ppm, increase
the reactor inlet temperatures to 470 deg C in one hour. Maintain these
conditions till the recycle gas moisture is higher than 50ppm vol.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 06

E) When the water content in the recycle gas drops below 50 ppm, increase
the reactor inlet temperatures to 480 deg C in one hour. Maintain these
conditions till the recycle gas moisture is higher than 30 ppm vol. Now also
reduce the chlorine injection with reformer feed to 2 ppm wt. Decrease the
separator drum pressure to 3.0 kg/cm2 g in two hours.

5.6

HIGH SEVERITY OPERATION:


After the unit has been stabilized at 480 deg C at 60% capacity and the moisture
content has come down to less than 30 ppm, the severity can be increased
further to the design temperature for the reduced capacity. The temperature is
increased @ 3 deg C/hr. After stabilizing the unit at high severity at 60% capacity,
the feed rate can be increased by step of 10% and after each step change in
feed rate, raise the temperature (2 deg C/hr step) in order to maintain reformate
RON. A flow increase must always be achieved prior to the temperature increase.
Stabilize the unit and then measure the RON.

5.7

REGENERATION START-UP:
Regeneration of CRU catalyst is started when the coke content is higher than at
least 3%. Below 3% coke level on the catalyst, the regeneration is unsteady and
can be unsafe. For checking the coke content of the catalyst, catalyst sample is
taken from the lock hopper after transferring at least 3 or 4 batches of catalyst.
By this means, we can be sure that we get a true representative sample of
catalyst from the last reactor. After the coke on the catalyst is found more than
3%, catalyst regeneration can be started.
Procedure for the catalyst circulation start-up and regeneration is as:
a) Start N2 lift loop. Set the bias between the separator drum pressure,
15PC-05 and the N2 compressor K.O. drum pressure, 17PC-62 at 0.02
bar.
b) Start regeneration loop compressor with pure N2 and establish normal
flows through the burning and calcination zones in Auto mode. Pressure of
the regeneration loop, 17PC-61 is set with bias of 0.7 Kg/cm2 over the first
reactor pressure, 17PI27.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 07

c) Inlet temperatures to the burning and calcination zones are increased


through the heaters, 17-EH-1 & 17-EH-2 upto 300 deg C. Start the
operation of dryer, 17-DR-1.
d) Prepare a solution of caustic about 3% wt. Concentration in the bottom of
washing drum, 17-V-5. Line up the drain LCV to caustic sewer. Start
caustic circulation pump and water make-up pump, 17-P-1 & 17-P-2. Set
the water & caustic make-up rates and caustic circulation rate at their
normal values.
e) Ensure that the N2 seal gas on the regenerator lower hopper and seal gas
on the last reactor lower hopper are in service.
f) Establish normal flows through all the four primary lift gas flow orifices.
Presently keep all lift DPCVs closed till catalyst movement is to be
started.
g) Set recommended pressure differentials in the catalyst circulation system
i.e. set 17PDC-01/02/03 each at 0.150 bar in Auto mode.
h) Increase further the temperatures of 17-EH-1 & 2 to 450 & 490 deg C
respectively.
i) Start catalyst circulation. Also ensure that H2 reduction flow and
temperature are set to the recommended operating values.
j) In the start, the catalyst contained in the calcination/oxychlorination zone
has a coke content same as that of catalyst contained in the burning zone,
the air from 17FC-01 is routed to the burning zone via start up line and
kept isolated to the calcination zone.
k) This is done to avoid too high temperatures in the calcination zone. The
air is slowly introduced through 17FC-01 in order to achieve 0.4% vol of
O2 in the burning zone inlet gas.
l) At the conditions being maintained in the burning zone, all the O2 gets
consumed. Check first bed delta T which must not exceed 40 deg C. Then
inject air through 17FC-02 in order to reach 0.2% vol. O2 as shown by
17AC-03. Stabilise the conditions and set in Auto-Cascade AC-1701 to
FC-1701 and AC-1703 to FC-1702.
m) Air can be switched from 1st burning zone to the calcination zone only after
all the catalyst in the calcination zone is replaced by regenerated catalyst
of which all the coke has been burnt off. It is safe to switch air only after
more than 5 batches have been transferred.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 05 - 08

n) In case after switching over the air, temperature rise is observed in the
calcination zone, immediately switch back the air to the burning zone. This
action
o) should be very fast otherwise the temperature rise is very fast and can be
dangerous.
p) Check carefully the operation of the loop trim cooler, washing drum,
caustic solution circulation etc. The circulating caustic solution should be
analysed for total sodium concentration (to be kept higher than 3%) and
pH between 8.5 & 9.5. The operation of 17DR-1 should be ensured to be
on normal conditions.
q) The O2 content in the calcination zone should be between 4 to 6% vol.
Ensure that the temperature in oxy-chlorination zone is above 470 deg C
and then start C2Cl4 dosing to the regenerator at recommended dosing
rate. The dosing rate of C2Cl4 is adjusted in proportion to the catalyst
circulation and to the chlorine level of the spent catalyst in the upper surge
drum. Catalyst samples should be periodically taken to regeneration and
the chlorination conditions.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 - 09

REFORMING AND CCR UNIT


CATALYST ACTIVATION
PROCEDURE

Proposed by AXENS

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 10

1.

Scope

This document presents detailed information regarding the activation that is to be performed
for freshly loaded reforming catalyst in its oxide state, before start-up (feed-in).
To ensure that all the catalyst in the Aromizing and CCR units is dried and reduced, catalyst is
circulated through the reactors and regenerator. Instructions and guidelines for the catalyst
circulation are provided in a separate procedure SOG - Reforming and CCR unit catalyst
circulation procedure.
2.

Safety precautions

Personal protective equipment as per Owners Standard Operating Procedures for field
operators / common field tasks.
3.

Reference document

Reforming Unit + CCR Unit Operating Instructions manual.


4.

Manpower

1 supervisor,

2 field operators o 1 board operators

5.

Procedure

5.1. Final inerting


Final inerting purpose is to reduce the oxygen content in all the sections below 0.2% volume
prior to hydrocarbons introduction. This is achieved by successive pressurization and
depressurization with dry nitrogen meeting following maximum impurities:
N2
O2
H2O
H2 + HC
CO + CO2
Chlorine
SO2

99.5 % vol.
0.1% vol
50 ppm vol
0.2% vol
100 ppm vol
1 ppm vol
20 ppm vol

Each section as defined in AXENS Operating Instructions has been leak tested previously.
The reaction section of Reforming and the nitrogen and regeneration sections of CCR unit
have been dried out in accordance with AXENS procedure SOG - Reforming and CCR unit
initial dry-out

procedure.
Catalyst has been loaded in Reforming reactors and in the regenerator and the catalyst
circulation vessels of CCR unit in accordance with AXENS procedure SOG - Reforming
and CCR unit catalyst loading procedure.
Compressors have been isolated; purged with N2 and left under an atmosphere of pure N2.
Blinds have been removed on all process lines between the sections (if any remain) - with the
exception of Recontacting and Stabilization sections.
Blinds have been removed on all safety valves to flare.
Hydrogen lift gas exchanger PSV and Reduction exchanger PSV are routed to flare
Swing elbows have been turned to the flare :
o

on separator drum PSV

o on separator drum pressure control valves


5.1.1. Reaction section
Depressurization/pressurization cycles of reaction section to reach O2 content below 0.2
vol% have been performed. Depressurization to 0.1 bar g prior introducing N2 at recycle
compressor discharge to pressurize up to 4.0 bar g prior to depressurize again to 0.0 bar g
through all the low points dead legs, etc. Vent and drain the special heat exchanger (Packinox
exchanger). Typically, the required O2 content (0.2 vol%) is achieved after 3 cycles
(pressurization/depressurization).
Note: The welded plates heat exchanger (feed/effluent) feed side pressure must always
exceed the effluent side pressure. Consequently:
o
the exchanger must be pressurized only from the feed inlet (recycle compressor
discharge).
o

the exchanger must be depressurized only from the effluent outlet (separator drum).

Depressurization/pressurization cycles of HP absorber drum section to reach O2 content below


0.2 vol% have been performed.
Depressurization/pressurization cycle of Regeneration section to reach a O2 content below
than 0.2 vol% have been performed.
5.1.2. Regeneration section
Repeat same steps as per reaction section: Pressurize/depressurize the regeneration
section with nitrogen.
5.1.3. Recontacting section
Repeat same steps as per reaction section: Pressurize/depressurize the recontacting section
with nitrogen introduced at the recontacting compressor discharge.

5.1.4. Stabilization section


The stabilization section can be inerted either with nitrogen or with steam. The choice must
take into consideration the effect of water on downstream units (if any). The initial status of
the stabilization is: isolated from the recontacting section, blind flanges on safety valves to flare,
on PV to fuel gas and flare, and on products to battery limits.
If inerting is performed with nitrogen the same process of depressurization / pressurization
applies. Once the O2 content is lower than 0.2%, remove the blinds on:
o
o

Safety valves to flare.


Pressure control valve to fuel gas and flare from LPG absorber drum.

Products to battery limits.

If inerting is performed with LP steam:


vent air from the high points and drain condensate from the low points.
Steam the column from the feed lines and through the reboilers. HP steam should be
circulated through the reboiler to keep steam from condensing.
Steam each drum separately. Continue steaming for one hour minimum after steam appeared at
all vents
o

Remove the blinds as above.

Shut-off the steam and immediately pressurize the section with fuel gas or hydrogen to
prevent vacuum as steam condenses. Dedicated lines are provided for this purpose,
connected to the upper section of the stabilizer respectively for fuel gas and
hydrogen. The fuel gas/hydrogen is admitted, the system will cool down, and
condensate can be drained off. The column is now ready for charging with naphtha.
5.2. Catalyst drying out
o

The same nitrogen specification will apply during drying out step. Maximum impurities level
shall be confirmed before introducing nitrogen into the system:
N2
O2
H2O
H2 + HC
CO + CO2
Chlorine
SO2

99.5 % vol.
0.1% vol
50 ppm vol
0.2% vol
100 ppm vol
1 ppm vol
20 ppm vol

5.2.1. Recycle gas compressor


Set pressure in the separator drum to 3.5 bar g using nitrogen (or to the maximum
permitted by the compressor manufacturer for operation of the machine, if less than 3.5 bar g).
Start recycle compressor in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and adjust
flow to the maximum acceptable with nitrogen.

5.2.2. Nitrogen lift gas compressors


Use the start-up line to send nitrogen gas from recycle compressor suction to nitrogen
lift gas compressor suction.
Set pressure in the nitrogen compressor K.O. drum to 3.5 bar g, (or equal to the pressure of the
separator drum).
Start one of the nitrogen compressors in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Control pressure on the discharge side of nitrogen compressors to design figure.
Line up lifts 1 and 5, and establish nitrogen circulation through lift pots.
Start the second nitrogen compressor in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Use the start-up lines between nitrogen lift gas compressors discharge and hydrogen lift gas
exchanger to direct nitrogen from the nitrogen compressors to hydrogen lift pots and to the reduction
chamber.
Line up lifts 2, 3 and 4, and establish nitrogen circulation through lift pots.
Override safety interlock hydrogen
circulation to the reduction chamber.

system

shutdown

and

establish

nitrogen

Load up the nitrogen compressors as required, up to 100% if necessary for obtaining the
required lift gas flow rates to lifts 2, 3 and 4 for catalyst circulation during the catalyst dry-out
see AXENS procedure SOG - Reforming and CCR unit catalyst circulation procedure.
For each of the five lifts, the total nitrogen gas flow must be set according to relevant
calculation block result, using the following calculation parameters (to be entered by the board
operator):
o

Lift gas molecular weight = 28 kg/kmol (N2)

Catalyst velocity = 2 m/s (startup)

Note: The aforementioned parameter values are valid for this particular catalyst
circulation before startup only.
Capacity of the nitrogen compressors permitting, increase the nitrogen flow rate to the
reduction chamber maximum achievable.
If necessary, decrease the set point of nitrogen compressor K.O. drum pressure below 3.5 bar
g, to avoid discharging nitrogen from separator drum pressure control. While lowering the
pressure, make sure that compressor discharge temperatures remain below alarm settings.
Then, commission nitrogen compressor K.O. drum differential pressure controller with the
prevailing pressure difference as the set point. Once tuning of the controller is satisfactory it
can be left in AUTO mode.
Commission the Elutriation blower and operate it at 80% of design capacity.
Tune pressure and flow controllers for the nitrogen compressors and lifts as required
before leaving them in AUTO mode.

5.2.3. Regeneration loop compressor


Pressurize the regeneration section to 5.0 bar g.
Start the regeneration loop compressor in accordance with the manufacturer's operating
instructions. Put in service the regeneration loop driers.
Adjust pressure in regeneration section to keep the differential pressure between regenerator
R-and first reactor above 0.7 bar g. Once tuning of the controller is satisfactory it can be left in
AUTO mode.
Adjust flows to the different sections of the regenerator to 80% of the normal operation flow
rates:
o first burning bed o oxychlorination zone o calcination zone
Keep the differential pressure between the 2nd burning bed and the oxychlorination zone of
regenerator to 0.1 bar. Once tuning of the controller is satisfactory it can be left in AUTO mode.
Open the nitrogen purge control valve for the catalyst storage zone of regenerator to 30%
in MAN mode.
Tune pressure and flow controllers for the regeneration recycle compressor and regenerator as
required before leaving them in AUTO mode.
5.2.4. Catalyst circulation
Catalyst circulation can now be started and stabilized at ~ 25% of the design circulation
rate see AXENS procedure SOG - Reforming and CCR unit catalyst circulation procedure.
5.2.5. Catalyst heating and drying
Light pilots in the Reforming heaters.
Start electrical heaters for the Regenerator.
Increase temperatures for the Reforming reactors at a rate of 20C/h up to 180C.
Increase temperatures for the regenerator 1st burning bed inlet, oxychlorination inlet and
calcination inlet at 20C/h up to 180C.
Check all equipments and lines for thermal expansion as they heat up. Check for leaks,
and start to perform hot bolting when deemed necessary around 180C.
Once achieved, start to drain water at all low points of the sections and keep a record of
the amount drained. Flush regularly the drains with clear water as the drained water may be
acidic.
Keep these temperatures for at least 4 hours, or more if the total amount of drained water
stays above 0.05 wt% of the total catalyst inventory per hour.
Circulate at least 3 catalyst batches.
Stop the catalyst circulation by closing the secondary gas control valves (PDV valves) for
the five lift pots. Close the catalyst-tight valves under the fifth lower hopper and below the first
upper hopper.

Stop primary gas flow for the lift pots 2, 3 and 4. Unload the nitrogen compressors as
required.

Stop firing for the Reforming heaters, then stop the recycle compressor.
Stop seal gas flows for the lower hoppers 2, 3 and 4.
The reaction section and the hydrogen and hydrogen rich gas sections can now be prepared
for the introduction of hydrogen, to perform the reduction of the Reforming catalyst.
5.3. Catalyst reduction
5.3.1. Preparation
Close double block valves on the following lines.
o

Between recycle compressor suction and nitrogen lift gas compressor suction

Between nitrogen lift gas compressors discharge and hydrogen lift gas exchanger

Electrolytic hydrogen shall be used for the reduction of the catalyst metal oxides. The quantity
of hydrogen necessary to perform the reduction step is N times the volume of the reaction and
recontacting sections, N being 1.3 times the start-up operating pressure. This quantity takes into
account maintain of the pressure in reaction section up to the oil-in. As an alternative, hydrogen
produced by a steam reforming + PSA unit (99.9 vol% of H2, H2O < 100 vol ppm and CO +
CO2 < 20 vol ppm) can also be used. Both of them being dry and hydrocarbon free will allow
reducing the metals oxides in a proper way. In several cases, as to ease the operation of recycle
gas compressor reluctant to operate with low molecular weight, it is possible to add nitrogen to
the pure hydrogen to adjust the molecular weight of the recycle gas. In such a case the hydrogen
purity must remain higher than 60 vol%. If none of the above mentioned hydrogen gas is available
it is possible to use hydrogen rich gas from a reformer unit, mixed with nitrogen. Hydrogen purity
must stay higher than 75 vol% and C2+ content shall be limited to 2 vol% maximum.
Set pressure controller of the separator drum at 3 bar g.
Increase the pressure of the separator drum up to 2.8 bar g: Nitrogen is displaced by
hydrogen from recycle gas compressor discharge to separator (compressors are isolated and
purged separately).
Perform a 2 hours leak test then start-up the recycle gas compressor.
Check again all the flanges for leaks using an explosimeter.
All interlocks related to catalyst circulation are made operational.
5.3.2. Operation
Start the recycle compressor. Increase the capacity up to the maximum and circulate
hydrogen gas in reaction section. Due to nitrogen dilution that increase molecular weight of
the circulated gas, recycle compressor transient operating conditions are closed to normal
ones. Particular precautions shall be taken to keep a minimum of 60 vol% of hydrogen in the
circulated gas.
Commission the hydrogen purity on line analyzer.
Start the H2 rich gas compressor at 50% capacity and increase the HP absorber drum pressure
recycling all the gas to the separator drum through the spill back.

All H2 users and lines to fuel gas are isolated, except:


o the flow control valve on reduction gas, the differential pressure controller at the tube
side outlet reduction exchanger and the hand valve at the tube side outlet of the
hydrogen lift gas exchanger are closed but block valves are open.
o the hydrogen lifts
Maintain the pressure by addition of hydrogen.
5.3.3.

Catalyst

heating-up

and

reduction Please refer to here below


temperature curves. During this reduction
step:
Additional leak tests can be made when the reaction section temperature is increased;
The pressure must be maintained by make-up of hydrogen or nitrogen. Nitrogen
content in the circulating gas must not exceed 40 vol%.
o Some water will be released from the catalyst. This water will be collected in the separator
drum.
o
o

Light on the burners of the pre-heater and inter-heaters and increase the temperatures at
the inlet of reactors up to 300C at the rate of 40C/h.
Set the flow control to reduction chamber at 80% of design capacity and pressure
difference control between reduction chamber outlet and first reactor at 0.1 bar.
Switch on the reduction chamber electrical heater and increase its outlet temperature up to
300C at the rate of 40C/h.
When the temperature of 300C is reached in the reactors, start catalyst circulation. Set
the catalyst circulation flow at the maximum compatible with the P in the reaction section. If
not possible, catalyst circulation flow should be performed by batch.
Increase the temperature up to 480C at the reactors inlets and at the reduction chamber inlet
at a rate of 40C/h.
Stabilize the temperatures until the difference between inlet and outlet of the reactors is
lower than 30 C.
Maintain this temperature for a minimum of 2 hours until the total water drained at the low
points is lower than 0.05 wt% of the catalyst weight per hour.
Drained water quantity during the reduction step must be strictly recorded by field operators.
Owing to the difficulty of sustaining a steady catalyst circulation when the reaction section
is under hydrogen (low DP in reactors), this step shall be maintained long enough to ensure
that the catalyst contained in the upper and lower hoppers has been reduced.
Decrease then temperatures at reactors inlets down to oil in temperature 440C at the rate of
40C/hour.
Decrease reduction chamber inlet down to 400 C at the rate of 40C/hour.
Stop catalyst circulation: isolate the manual catalyst tight valves under the lower hoppers.

Close the remote operated ON/OFF valves on the catalyst pipes:


Between first upper hopper and reduction chamber
Between first lower hopper and lift pot
Between fourth reactor lower hopper and lift pot
Keep in service the Nitrogen compressor and the regeneration loop compressor at 80%
capacity at burning oxychlorination and calcination beds with the 3 electrical heaters in
service (180C outlet temperature).
reduction heater is kept in service (400C outlet temperature).
The unit is now ready for oil in.
Notes: During the reduction period the pressure indicated in the procedure must be
maintained in the reaction section, by H2 make-up and in the regeneration section or
N2 lift section, by N2 make-up.
Depending the nitrogen content in the loop, the orifice flowmeter coefficients shall be
adjusted regarding the R/G molecular weight (roughly estimated to 9.8 if N2 content is
30 vol%) .
(End of procedure)

500
40C/h
Oil In

400

STOP CATALYST CIRCULATION


STOP HEATERS FIRING
STOP RECYCLE COMPRESSOR
DEPRESSURIZATION TO 0.1
BAR G

300

WATER DRAW-OFF < 0.05%


OF CATALYST INVENTORY MINIMUM 2 HOURS
AT 480C
OUTLET TEMP. > 450C

H2 PRESSURIZATION TO 2.8

BAR G

START CATALYS
T

200

40C/h

40C/h

CATALYST CIRCULATION
STARTED

CIRCULATION

REACTION SECTION DRY OUT DIAGRAM

500

400

300

200

Regeneration start-up

20C/h
100
2h

0
hours

REGENERATION SECTION DRY OUT DIAGRAM

REFORMING AND CCR UNIT


OIL IN
PROCEDURE

Proposed by AXENS

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 05 - 11

1.
Scope
The purpose of this procedure is to oil-in the Reforming unit from low severity conditions up to high
severity and start the catalyst circulation.
2.
Safety Precautions:
Personal protective equipment required
3.
Manpower:
2 board operators in the control room, 1 supervisor, 1 Axens supervisor in the control room,
4.
Prerequisites:
The status of the Reforming unit is as follows:
o Reaction section is under H2 at start-up pressure.
o Check that blinds have been removed: at separator bottom pumps (suction and discharge), and
at LPG absorber pumps (suction and discharge).
o Level with heavy hydrotreated naphtha into separator drum has been performed at 20% above
LAL.
o Separator bottom pumps are commissioned and started, circulation is performed through the
mini-flow line, strainers have been cleaned after a short cold close loop circulation,
o

The recycle gas compressor is operating at full capacity.

H2 rich gas compressors are operating with spill back valves full opened, o

Catalyst

circulation is stopped.
o The regeneration loop is in stand-by: electrical heaters are in service (maximum 300C
outlet temperature), the regeneration loop compressor is in service, air injection being closed.
o

The N2 lift gas compressor is in operation, running on the spill back.

The following ON/OFF valves on catalyst are also closed:

between first upper hopper and reduction chamber.


between first lower hopper and first lift pot.
between 5th lower hopper and fifth lift pot.
Manual valves on all seal legs are closed.

Reactors inlet temperatures are steady at 440C in auto mode.

Outlet temperature of the reduction heater is maintained at 400C, and the flow is set to

design figure. o Air coolers fans are in service.


o

Cooling water is in service on all users.

Differential pressure between the reduction chamber and the first reactor is set at 10 kPa.

All instruments of the recontacting section are commissioned. A last check of all other
instruments in the reaction section and nitrogen section is made, including flowmeter orifice
correction.

Moisture analyzer on the recycle gas has been commissioned.

H2 analyzer on the recycle gas has been commissioned

Batch of chlorine solution (20 wt% of chloriding agent in hydrotreated naphtha) has been

prepared o Chlorine pump for injection in the feed has been commissioned
o

Blinds from the feed filters have been removed

Note: During the oil in and until the reaction section operating conditions are stabilized, the water
content in the recycle gas must be recorded every hour.
5.

Feed specifications

A batch of desulfurized naphtha will be used as start up feed for the Reforming unit. All possible
precautions must be taken to ensure this naphtha batch is free of water. Then it is strongly
recommended to treat desulfurized Naphtha from storage through HDT Stripper Column.
When the Stripper bottom products reach water content lower than 10 wtppm switch it to the
reformer reaction section.
The specifications of the feed acceptable for the startup are: o feed with similar ASTM distillation than
design feed
o impurities according to the following:
Poisons

Max. level (wt)

Source

Arsenic

5 ppb max

Cracked Naphthas

Lead

5 ppb max

Recycled slops

Copper

< detection limit 5

Corrosion

Mercury

ppb max

Naphtha - condensates

Iron Silicon

< detection limit <

Corrosion

Nickel

detection limit <

Additives (foaming)

Chromium

detection limit <

Corrosion Corrosion

Organic nitrogen

detection limit 0.5

Total sulfur

ppm max 0.5

Halogens

ppm max

Water
and 1 ppm max
oxygenated products
lower
than
(start up only)

10

ppm

6.

Stabilizer startup on total reflux

If the stabilization section was inerted with steam it has been subsequently pressurized with fuel gas.
_ If the stabilization section was inerted with nitrogen, purge nitrogen to vent or to flare,
then pressurize with fuel gas.
Fill-up the bottom of the stabilizer with desulfurized naphtha from storage through:
_ Start-up line to the discharge of the separator bottom pumps (by-pass of the recontacting section),
_ Open valve to allow separator drum filling up. Commission and check the level
measurement instruments. Establish a level around 40%.
_ Start the separator bottom pump through the mini-flow line. Switch from one pump to the
other to check pumps operation and clean the strainer. After this checking, the level of the
vessel can be decreased to 10% and the pumps can be shutdown.
_ Route the hydrotreated naphtha from the bypass line to LPG absorber drum
_ When LPG absorber drum level is established at 40%, start LPG absorber bottom
pump, _ Then route hydrotreated Naphtha to Stabilizer.
_ Switch from one pump to the other to check pumps operation and clean the strainer.
When the stabilizer bottom level indicates 40%, route bottom of the column to HC dry slop tank
until liquid is clear. Then fill-up for dilution the sulfiding agent drum and chloriding agent drum,
then stop the naphtha make-up and:
_ Close flow control valves
_ Establish a close loop around the stabilizer reboiler through the stabilizer reboiler pump
(if any).
_ Set the flow at design conditions.
_ Start the stabilizer air cooler with the manual louvers fully opened. _ Commission cooling
water to the overhead trim condenser
_ Light the stabilizer reboiler burners and slowly warm up the column (or line up steam in
case of steam reboiler)
_ Commission Reformate trim cooler Pressure should stay around 0.6 to 0.7 MPa g.
_ When the level of the reflux drum indicates 50%, start stabilizer reflux pump and send
reflux to the column.
_ Operate stabilizer on total reflux and establish normal operating conditions.
Note: Depending on the composition of the naphtha circulated to the stabilizer, it may not be
possible to bring the column to total reflux mode nor reach stable operation. In that case the
column shall be heated up and reflux will be set up after oil in only.

7.

Stabilizer chloride guard bed filling-up.


The stabilizer feed chloride adsorbers can be filled up with liquid at any time. Nevertheless
filling of the stabilizer feed chloride adsorbers is a time consuming process requiring
significant field operator attention, so in the frame of reformer start-up, it is best made ahead
of the feed-in to the reactor section.
8.
Feed introduction
_ Ensure the level instruments of the separator drum are commissioned.
_ Filling of the chemicals injection piping has been anticipated to ensure that the piping
has been flushed and injection can be carried out immediately once the pumps start.
_ Reaction section by-pass being closed, Feed is introduced in 10 minutes at 60% capacity.
Injection must be done quickly enough to insure a minimum flow on the fresh catalyst.
_

When liquid appears in the separator drum, and the level starts to increase, route the
product to the recontacting drum section (control valve in manual mode) by using separator
bottom pump.
_ When liquid appears in the recontacting drum and the level is above 50%, start to feed
the LPG Absorber drum via level control valve.
_ When level start to increase through the LPG absorber, start the LPG absorber pump and
feed the stabilizer column (control valve in manual mode) going through stabilizer feed
chloride adsorber (Lead-lag Position).
_ When stabilizer column bottom level start to increase, start to route Reformate to off spec
tank until it reaches specification to be routed to on spec tank / downstream units.
_ Maintain sufficient duty at reboiler to maintain reflux conditions until reaching LPG
specification at Reflux Drum.
_ Start chloriding agent with injection pump to feed, starting rate 25 wtppm of pure component
related to feed. Dilution in the chloriding agent drum must be 20 wt% during this step.
Duration of this step is difficult to estimate so operation team can prepare daily a mixture
according to the moisture of recycle gas to save chemicals. Maintain HCl content in the
Recycle gas at a minimum value of 2 volppm and possibly below 5 volppm to avoid
excessive chlorination.
Note: Chloriding agent injection rates as well as HCl content in the recycle gas provided in this
procedure are estimated values. The purpose of this injection is to avoid excessive chlorine
elution from the catalyst as long as recycle moisture content is high. The injection rates
may be adjusted based on recycle/catalyst chlorine equilibrium, measured as HCl content
in the recycle gas (using draeger tubes). In case no HCl is detected in the recycle gas,
chlorine injection rate shall be increased until HCl detection.
_ Commission the H2 rich gas chloride adsorbers.
_ As soon as the pressure control to flare on the separator drum start opening, increase the
pressure at H2 rich gas compressor discharge to close the spill back valves by increasing
pressure of recontacting drum.
_ At the beginning of the operation, send H2 rich gas (pressure controller in auto mode) to
the FG network.

After the oil-in, the LPG production will start to increase slowly. Stabilizer being
stabilized and having reflux drum level around 50%,

_ When reflux drum is full of on-spec LPG and level is adequate, route LPG to fractionation.

9.
Low severity operation at reduced capacity
The low severity operation allows to lower the water content in the recycle gas, without
damage to the catalyst. It also enables a check of the operation of the catalyst circulation and to
carry out the reduction of this fraction of the catalyst which was at the very beginning in the
regenerator, and has not been contacted by H2 gas.
The low severity operation is characterized by:
o H2/HC ratio higher than 2.5 (feed at 60% and recycle compressor at full capacity).
o

A pressure higher than normal (Typically 0.07 MPa)

Temperatures which will be increased first to 480C and then to 495C as the water
content in the recycle gas drops.
During the different steps the water content of the recycle will be determined by lab analysis
until it falls within the range of the on line moisture analyzer. During this time, the water content
in the recycle gas must be recorded every hour.
o

To check the chlorine in the recycle gas it is necessary to foresee HCl Drger tubes or
equivalent (range 1 volppm to 10 volppm).
IMPORTANT: From the moment when feed is introduced do not stop the recycle compressor
since this would favour a quick build up of coke on the catalyst. In case of emergency shut
down of the recycle compressor, shut-off heaters and feed immediately (refer to Emergency
shutdown).
9.1. Step at 480C
_ After the unit conditions are stabilized at RITs = 440C, in 4 hours, increase the
temperature at the reactors inlet to 480C at 20C/h. Stabilize the unit and keep this
temperature as long as the water content in the recycle is higher than 200 volppm.
_ Commission the purification unit (Refer to vendor procedure),
_ Set the reduction chamber inlet temperature to 430C. Set HV at tube side outlet of hydrogen
lift gas exchanger opening and PDV at tube side outlet of reduction exchanger set point at
10 kPa. When flows are stabilized, then increase reduction chamber inlet temperature to
480C (20C/h).
_ Set differential pressure between 1st upper hopper and reduction chamber at 15 kPa.
_ The HCl content in the recycle gas will be checked with Drger tubes. According to the HCl
content, the chlorine injection shall be adjusted with a injection target of 10 to 25 wtppm
depending on the moisture content in the recycle gas and measured HCl content.
_ Set differential pressure between fourth reactor bottom and nitrogen compressor suction
at 0.105 MPa g,
_ Set differential pressure between first reactor top and calcination inlet at 70 kPa.
_ Decrease the pressure at the separator drum down to normal operating pressure over a
two hours period.

Check that differential pressure controllers are operational and that pressure in both
regeneration section and nitrogen lift loop decreases in parallel.

_ Start the catalyst circulation in order to perform the reduction of the catalyst included
in the regeneration system as soon as reduction chamber is operating steadily at design
conditions.
_ After reduction of the total inventory of catalyst contained in the regeneration system, the
catalyst circulation rate is increased to fill the lock hopper in about 3 hours.
_ Take sample of catalyst every day in order to analyse carbon and chlorine contents. The
regeneration will be started when the coke level of the circulating catalyst reaches 3 wt%.
9.2. High severity operation
High severity at 60% capacity Step 1
_

Until now the unit is operated at 60% capacity, with maximum recycle gas flow.
Reactors inlet temperatures are stabilized at 480C.
_ When the moisture content of the recycle gas falls under 200 volppm, increase RITs up to
495C at the rate of 3C/h.
_ Reduce chlorine injection to 5 wtppm related to feed, by decreasing pump flowrate. (Same
diluted product at 20 wt% or change dilution and the flowrate accordingly).
Note: Feed rate may be increased from this step, at the rate of 2% per hour. Higher feed
rate helps decreasing recycle gas moisture faster. However the temperature being still
limited to 495C, operator must bear in mind that product quality main not be sustained
while increasing feed rate. Any product quality drop shall not be compensated by
temperature increase until next step.
High severity at 60% capacity Step 2
_ When the moisture content of the recycle gas falls under 30 volppm, increase RITs
up to the required temperature to meet aromatics specifications at the rate of 3C/h.
_ Stabilize the unit under these conditions.
_ Modify the chloriding agent tank dilution to get a dilution at 1 wt%.
_ Reduce chlorine injection down to 1 wtppm related to feed, with a chloriding agent
dilution at 1 wt%.
_ Check HCl content in the recycle gas. If HCl content is higher than 2 volppm, then stop
chlorine injection.
_ Start DMDS injection to feed as to have sulfur content in feed equal to 0.3 wtppm, having a
DMDS diluted at 1 wt% in hydrotreated naphtha. Maintain the H2S in the recycle gas below
1 volppm.
_ Check H2S content in the recycle gas. Value must remain below 1 volppm.
High severity at nominal capacity
_ Increase the feed by increments of 5% per hour. After each increment of feed, raise the
RITs by 2C.
_ Allow the unit to stabilize. A flow increase must always be achieved prior to temperature
increase.

Water content in recycle


(volppm)

Chlorine injection (wtppm


of pure chlorine in feed)

Below 30

30 to 200

(temperature = 495C)

25

(temperature = 480C)

above 200

CHLORINE INJECTION TO THE FEED VS WATER CONTENT IN R/G

C
RECYCLE MOISTURE < 30 VOLPPM
RECYCLE MOISTURE < 200 VOLPPM

Capacity
3C/h

500

increase

495C stabilization
480C stabilization

3C/h

OIL IN AT 60% CAPACITY


20C/h
440

stabilization

CL INJECTION 5 WTPPM

CL INJECTION 1 WTPPM

20C/h
START CATALYST CIRCULATION

START CL INJECTION 25 WTPPM


START S INJECTION 0.3 WTPPM

400
REACTORS TEMPERATURE
REDUCTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE
PURIFICATION UNIT COMMISSIONED

REACTION SECTION OIL IN DIAGRAM

2h

6.0 SHUT DOWN OF THE UNIT


6.1

SHORT DURATION NORMAL SHUT DOWN


a) Start lowering reactors inlet temperature to 470 oC @ 5oC /Hr.
b) One hour after the start of lowering reactors temperature, Start
reducing feed flow rate (FRC-1501/1502) in step so as to reach 60%
of the design capacity at 470 oC. Adjust flow increments in order to
keep the product quality on specification. At the same time feed to
the pretreater is proportionally reduced and the reaction temperature
adjusted.
c) Simultaneously with the preceding step increase the reaction section
pressure to approximately 3.5 Kg/Cm2 (at separator drum 15V-1).
During this pressure keep watch carefully the catalyst circulation, the
N2 lift PDCVs opening and adjust the bias if required to maintain
catalyst circulation.
d) Stop the catalyst circulation and the regeneration loop as described in
partial shut down procedure.
e) Stop the feed to pretreater and when the level in pretreater stripper 14
C-1 starts to decrease, stop the feed to the reforming unit, close FCV1501/1502. Line up the run down products to slop tanks. Shut off the
reduction heater 17 EH-3 and close FCV-1710 and DPCV-1702 inlet
and outlet of reductor.
f) Immediately after the feed cut off start lowering reactor inlet temp @
35oC /Hr.
g) When the level starts to decrease in the separator drum 15V-1 stop
the feed pump 15-1 A/B to the HP absorber section and isolate the
block valves of the LCV-1501.
h) When the level starts to decrease in the HP absorber 15V-2, isolate
the block valves of the LCV-1505 to the LPG absorber drum 15V-3.
i) When the level starts to decrease in the LPG absorber drum 15V-3,
stop the pump 15P-3A/B to the stabilizer 15C-1 and close the block
valves of the LCV-1506 (FIC-1509).
j) Then isolate the bottom run down LCV-1509 of 15C-1 and LPG
rundown LCV-1507 by closing block valves. Keep column at total
reflux.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 06 - 01

k) Simultaneously the reactor inlet temperature, have been lowered from


470oC to 400oC in two hours. Maintain this temperature 400 oC for 4
hour to allow the recycle gas to sweep the residual hydrocarbons
from the catalyst. During this period if separator drum 15V-1 level
increases above 60% drain the liquid to CBD.

STAND BY STATUS
Feed pump shut down.
Catalyst circulation and regeneration partially shut down (i.e. Cat
circulation stopped, Regeneration compressor 17 K-1 A/B and N 2
compressor 17K-3 A/B still on.
Air compressor running but air injection valves FCV-1701 & 1702
closed and blocked.
Recycle compressor 15K-1 is operation.
Heaters on and reactor inlet temperature at 400 oC.
Separator drum PCV to flare.
Reaction section and HP absorber section pressure maintained by H 2
make up from storage.
Stabilizer isolated, at total reflux.

6.2

LONG DURATION NORMAL SHUTDOWN


Proceed as per short duration shutdown steps
Stop catalyst circulation and regeneration
Proceed as per short duration shut down.
After two hours of hydrogen sweeping at 400 oC allow the catalyst bed
to further cool down while decreasing reactor inlet temperature
progressively to 200oC, then cut off the fired heaters 15F-1/F-2/F-3.
Continue circulating hydrogen with the recycle gas compressor until
the temperature in the reactor beds is 50 oC. Shut down recycle
compressor 15K-1.
Close the suction and discharge valves.
Depressurize to flare, pressurize with nitrogen.
Maintain reaction section pressure by injecting hydrogen make up
from bullets. Drain all low points and vessel to CBD.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 06 - 02

Decrease progressively the temperature of stabilizer 15C-1. Shut off


reboiler heater 15F-4, when the temperature is below 120 oC, stop the
reflux pump and the stabilizer cool down by circulating through the
reboiler pump 15P-5A/B.

6.3

NORMAL SHUT DOWN WITH CATALYST UNLOADING


a) Catalyst may be unloaded either for Inspection of Reactors or
Regenerator or for replacement.
b) First section is to be free from Hydrocarbons. Then the Catalyst will
be unloaded as follows.
i)

Either under atmosphere of nitrogen

ii)

Or after decoking.
c) First all the steps are to be carried out for the long duration shut
down.
d) HP absorber Section is to be depressurized. Positive isolation is to
be done as follows;
i) Hydrogen make-up.

ii.

Feed to reaction section.

iii.

Bottom of HP absorber.

iv.

Hydrogen rich gas to users.

v.

Fuel Gas
e) Section is to be pressurized up to 4Kg/ cm 2 with N2 (Recycle
compressor) was isolate & under N2 pressure) and unit is to be
depressurized to flare & low points.
The above operation is to be repeated till (Hydrogen + Hydrocarbon)
content comes down to 0.2 or less than 0.2 volume %.
f) Now positive isolation between reaction section & HP absorber
section at the separation drum bottom.
PSVs & PCV & their by pass to flare are to be blinded. Remove the
blind of the separation drum PSV to atmosphere.
g) Ejector suction line is to be de-blinded & pull the vacuum of the
reaction section down to 0.5Kg absolute. Now break the vacuum by
Injecting N2 upto 0.1Kg (Guage).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 06 - 03

Note: Nitrogen lift loop & regeneration section are already under Nitrogen.
Take care for Nitrogen sweeping or vacuum. Also care should be
taken to avoid stress corrosion for the stainless steel equipment.
h) If the catalyst is at end of life, it shall be replaced by new one. The
coked catalyst will be dumped from the bottom of reactors and
regenerator under nitrogen atmosphere into the drums.
i) If the catalyst is to be reused after unloading, the alternate procedure
(Coarse decoking) must be used prior to unloading.
NOTE:
catalyst

6.4

For coarse decoking procedures for catalyst see in chapter for

CATALYST CIRCULATION AND REGENERATION SECTION


Regeneration shut down shall always lead to a simultaneous Catalyst
circulation Shut down in order to avoid coked Catalyst entering the
Calcinating zone.Two levels of shut down are considered

Partial shut down


Total Shut down
Partial shut down is undertaken when the reason is specific to the
regeneration loop & expected not to exceed 24 hrs.
Total shut down of regeneration and Catalyst circulation can be caused.
Problem in regeneration section.
Problem in Catalyst Circulation

Total shut down caused by other section.


6.4.1 Activity of Partial Shut Down
Stop the catalyst circulation while closing FCVs 1711 to 1714 and
DPCVs 1711 to 1714.
Close the two FCVs 1701 and 1702 on air injection.
Stop the chlorination agent injection pump 17-P-4 A/B.
Keep regeneration compressor 17K-1 A/B running.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 06 - 04

Keep the washing drum 17-v-5, caustic recycle pump 17-P-1 A/B
water injection pump, 17-P-2-A/B in normal operation.
Remarks: if the shutdown is to last a few hours, a more efficient fines
filters 17-G-1/G-2 back flushing can be performed, by decreasing lifts
A-D gas flows to 50%.

6.4.2 Activity of Total Shut Down


Stop the catalyst circulation.
Close the two air injection FCVs 1701 & 1702.
Stop the chlorination agent injection pump 17-P-4 A/B.
Close the special tight valves below 1 st and 2nd reactor and UVs 1705,
1706, 1715.
Decrease both electric heaters 17-EH-1& 17-EH-2 outlet temperature
to about 250oC. Then keep the regeneration loop compressor 17K-1
A/B running to maintain about 300 oC in burning, oxychlorination and
calcination beds.
Maintain the pressure in regeneration loop.
When burning and calcination beds temperature are about 300 oC,
then:
Stop the caustic make-up (stop 17-P-3A/B).
Stop the caustic soda circulation by stopping 17-P-1 A/B.
Stop the WATER make-up to caustic circulation.
Stop the washing water injection (stop 17-P-2 A/B).
Stop regeneration loop compressor 17-K-1 A/B.
Close block valves on LCVs 1720 and 1721 (washing drum bottom
outlet).
Keep the regeneration loop under N2 pressure.
Isolate the caustic recirculation pumps 17-P-1 A/B, drain and wash
them with BFW.
Let the catalyst cool down.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 06 - 05

Regeneration section is now fully under shut down


Note: IF reformer is under operation, reduce operation severity, drop reactor
inlet temperature to 480oC or less also feed rate can be reduced as
requirement product octane.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 06 - 06

7.0 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES


7.1

INTRODUCTION
The objectives, which will govern the steps to be taken in such a situation,
are;
To protect the operating personnel.
To protect the catalyst.
To protect the equipment.
Concerning the catalyst preservation, we must avoid.
An excessive gain in temperature which can change the structure of
the Alumina (>700 oC). To keep grain temperature below 7000c,bed
temperature, must never exceed the E.O.L. operating temperature.
The presence of hydrocarbons without a sufficient pressure of
hydrogen results in a rapid coke deposit and the possible formation of
catalyst cakes, which hampers the catalyst circulation and favours
channeling.
The quick depressurization of the Alumina support induces the formation of
catalyst dust and fines.
NOTE: SHUTDOWN CAUSES ARE HANDLED BY AUTOMATIC SHUT
DOWN TRIPS. THESE TRIP DEVICES MUST ALWAYS BE
OPERATIONAL.
BUT IN CASE OF FAILURE OR BY PASS OF THESE DEVICES, THE
PROCEDURES BELOW INCLUDE ALL THE ACTIONS TO BE
UNDERTAKEN BY THE OPERATORS ASSUMING NO ACTION BY THE
AUTOMATIC DEVICES.
The general course of actions to be followed in an emergency situation is
summarized here under:
Cut fire to all reaction heaters.
At the same time shut-off the liquid feed.
Maintain the reaction section pressure.
Isolate the reaction section from the HP absorber section.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 07 - 01

Close hydrogen control valve/block valves.


Stop the catalyst circulation.
Stop the catalyst regeneration.
Isolate the D/D, control valves at the bottom of the vessels.
Keep the stabilizer in total reflux.
NOTE: THE RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR SHALL BE LEFT RUNNING
AS LONG AS POSSIBLE.

7.2

LOSS OF FEED
A loss of feed may result:
Either from a feed pump failure coupled with an unexpected delay in
starting the spare pump.
Or more likely from leaks or other difficulties in the feed line which
require to interrupt momentarily the feed.
When the feed is not available any more, the following steps must be
taken:
The recycle compressor 15k-1 being kept at its maximum capacity,
decrease the reactors inlet temperature to 400 0C (500c/hr), then
maintain these conditions in order to sweep hydrocarbons from the
catalyst.
At the same time, isolate reaction section from the HP absorber
section then PCV1507 on HP absorber 15V-2 then close block valves
on the hydrogen rich gas lines to users and fuel gas.
Shutdown the catalyst circulation and the regeneration.
Increase

the

separator

drum

15V-1

pressure

to

the

value

recommended for startup/shut down.


Shutdown the reduction heater 17-EH-3 and close the H 2 rich gas
FCV-1710 to reductor 17-V-11 and the outlet DPCV-1702.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 07 - 02

When the levels start to decrease in the separator drum, HP and LP


absorbers and stabilizer, shut down the related pumps and isolate the
control valves by block valves. Keep the stabilizer at total reflux
conditions and maintain these conditions until the feed is available
again. If possible maintain the pressure of the reaction section by
injection H2 rich gas from the H2 storage.

7.2.1 RECYCLE COMPRESSOR 15-K-1 FAILURE (HP STEAM FAILURE)


The recycle compressor is HP steam drive. The measures below apply also
to HP steam failure.

IFP furnaces will trip on low recycle flow interlock. If stabilizer furnace
is on line cut off firing and close 15FC09.
At the same time shut-off the two feed FCVs 1501/1502 and close
the corresponding block valves.
Watch the heaters tube skin temperatures. If there is a runaway trend,
open air dampers and inject snuffing steam.
Increase the separator drum pressure to the value recommended for
start up/shutdown.
Isolate the reaction section from the HP absorber section while
closing the PCV-1507 on the HP absorber 15-V-2, then close block
valves on the H2 rich gas lines to users and fuel gas.
Shutdown the reduction heater 17-EH-3 and close the H2 rich gas
FCV-1710 to reductor 17-V-11 and the outlet DPCV-1702.
Shutdown catalyst circulation and regeneration.
When the levels start to decrease in the separator drum 15-V-1, HP
absorber 15-V-2, LPG absorber 15-V-3, and stabilizer 15-C-1, Shutdown the related pumps and isolate the control valves by block
valves. Keep the stabilizer 15-C-1 at total reflux conditions.
Let the reactors cool down. This could take several days because of
the lack of hydrogen circulation.
Keep the pressure of the reaction section by injection H 2 rich gas from
the header or from H2 storage.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 07 - 03

Note for restart: Start the recycle compressor 15-K-1 as soon as it is


available. Assuming the temperature in the reactors has dropped
below 4250C, start the fired heaters again and adjust the inlet
temperature to the different reactor at 425 0C, then proceed as per oil
in (in the reformer).
If, at restart, the temperature in one or several reactors is still above
4250C, cool reactors first to 4250C (through the recycle gas before
firing the heaters again. Then proceed as per oil in (in the reformer).

7.2.2 ABSORBER
FAILURE

FEED

PUMPS

OR

STABILIZER

FEED

PUMP

This situation requires the same actions as for FEED LOSS to the unit.
7.2.3 REBOILER PUMPS 15-P-5A/B FAILURE
As it is impossible to send to storage or to other users un-stabilized
gasoline, this is equivalent to the loss of feed, as the feed charge must be
cut-off immediately and same action is to be taken as for FEED LOSS to the
unit.

7.3

UTILITIES FAILURE
7.3.1 Fuel Gas:
All burners (reactor preheater and heaters, reboiler heater) will shut down.
Cut off feed immediately and proceed as per FEED LOSS with however the
following difference: in order to ensure the highest possible temperature for
hydrocarbon sweeping with the recycle gas, air to reactor heater burners
(primary and secondary air) must be closed.
The recycle compressor 15-K-1 is shut down when the reactor temperatures
fall below 2500C.
7.3.2 Cooling water failure:
In case of partial cooling water failure, it should be sufficient to reduce the
severity and the fed flow rate to the reaction section as to maintain
reasonable vessels and products temperatures. Watch carefully pumps and
compressors for possible overheating.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 07 - 04

In case of total cooling water failure the unit must be shut down:
Cut-off fire to all the reactors heaters.
Feed control valve FCVs 1501/1502 to be closed and down stream
block valve is to be isolated.
Keep the recycle gas compressor 15-K-1 in service as long as it is
possible without risks for the machine, in order to cool down the
heaters tubes and the catalyst.
Simultaneously with the heaters and feed cut-off:
-

Isolate H2 rich gas delivery to users and fuel gas.

Raise separator drum 15-V-1


recommended for shut down.

Cut-off reduction heater 17-EH-3 power supply.

Close FCV-1710 on reduction gas inlet, close DPCV-1702 on


reduction gas outlet.

Close block valves on separator drum bottom HP and LPG


absorber bottoms.

pressure

to

the

valve

Whenever possible keep stabilizer at total reflux (if reflux is air


cooled).
Shut down catalyst circulation and regeneration.
7.3.3 Power supply:
DCS is connected also to the emergency power supply and is fully
redundant.
The DCS remain operational in case of power failure. All other electric
motors (pumps, compressors, coolers, fans and electric heaters) are
stopped.
The following actions must be taken:
Close FCVs 1501/1502 on the feed line and close the associated
block valves.
Shut-off fuel to all heaters (reactor heaters and reboiler heater).
Isolate reaction section from the HP absorber section while closing
the PCV-1507 on the HP absorber 15-V-2.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 07 - 05

Close block valves on the H2 rich gas delivery.


Catalyst circulation will stop by itself, owing to lack of N 2 lift gas and
H2 lift gas.
Isolate the reductor 17-V-11, close FCV-1710 at inlet and DPCV-1702
at outlet.
Keep the recycle compressor 15-K-1 running as long as possible.
Note however that the absence of cooling (air cooler fans down) will
cause the temperature to rise and the machine to trip. Stop the
compressor before the temperature trip.
The pressure will also tend to increase, open the PCV-1505 to flare on the
separator drum 15-V-1 and the PCV-1507 to fuel gas on the HP absorber 15V-2.
7.3.4 Instrument Air
All the control valves and emergency safety valves (U/V valves) will
fail to their safe position.
The recycle compressor 15-K-1 will stop. Other compressor (N2 lift
gas 17-K-3 A/B, regeneration air compressors) are likely to stop also.
In case of power failure, all other motors (compressors, pumps, fans)
will stop. Electrical heaters will shut down.
Ensure that all fired heaters are effectively shut down and the block
valves on fuel gas lines to heaters are closed.
Watch heaters tube skin temperature: open dampers and inject
snuffing steam if required.
Isolate the reaction section from the HP absorber section-close block
valve on HP absorber PCV-1507.
Stop the pumps.
Close block valves on all fail safe control valves mainly but not limited
to the following:

Feed FCVs 1501/1502.

PCV on H2 delivery to users.

PCV 1505 to flare on separator drum 15-V-1.

PCV 1507 to fuel gas on HP absorber 15-V-2.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 07 - 06

PCV 1509 to flare on LPG absorber drum 15-V-3.

LCV 1501 on separator bottom.

LCV 1505 on HP absorber drum 15-V-2 bottom.

LCV 1507 on stabilizer bottom.

LCV 1509 on LPG to battery limit.

Check that catalyst circulation is stopped and that the following safety
valves are properly closed:

UV 1706 3rd reactor bottom.

UV 1701, 1702, 1703, 1704 Lock hopper in, out

UV 1715 Regenerator bottom

UV 1705 Reductor inlet

Close block valves of air injection FCV,S -1701/1702.


Stop chlorination agent Injection pump 17-P-4 A/B.
Stop caustic recycle pump 17P-1A/B, Caustic Injection pump 17P3A/B, water injection pump 17-P-2-A/B.
If regeneration gas circulation cannot be continued (most likely case)
shut down electric heaters.
As soon as instrument air is restored, start the recycle compressor 15K-1 to cool down the heaters tube and the catalyst beds to 400 0C. Then
proceed for start up.
7.3.5 Major leak or fire
The following action must be taken
Cut-off fuel to all heaters by actuating from the control room the fuel
gas emergency shut down system.
Close the stack damper of all heaters, stop draft fan units, if any, and
inject snuffing steam.
Close the feed FCVs to the Reforming unit, close block valves and
stop the feed pumps.
Depressurize the stabilizer column and the HP absorber section to
fuel gas.
Stop air to the regeneration section.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 07 - 07

Keep the recycle compressor running as long as possible to cool


down the heaters coils and sweep the hydrocarbons from the catalyst,
then shut the compressor down.
Depressurize reaction section to flare.
Decrease the liquid level of all vessels to the minimum, then stop all
pumps and isolate all the units effluents by closing the control valves.
When hot vessels are depressurized, watch the pressure and inject
N2 as necessary to avoid vacuum, as required.
7.3.6 Fire
Generally speaking, all precautions to be taken and operations to be carriedout, are the same as above while the fire fighting is taking place.
Note that if the leak occurs in one of the heaters, the hydrocarbons will ignite
immediately in this confined area. In such as case, open the stack damper,
maintain the draft fan units in service to keep the fire under control in the
heater box.
7.3.7 Emergency on the R/D line:

S No
1
2
3

Details of action
Inform S/I and alert FO about emergency
Inform Unit Incharge and RSM about
disturbance
Inform MSQ, OM&S regarding change in
Routing

Action By
PO
SI & PO
SI & PO

CRU r\d to be lined up and Reformate to be


routed via 15V2

FO & PO

15P3 to be stopped after achieving low level in


15V3

FO & PO

15F4 burner to be minimized to keep stabilizer in


Hot circulation as per disturbance severity.

FO & PO

If problem is also at OM&S for taking Reformate.


reformate can be lined up to HTU feed tank via
jump over at NBL.

SI & PO

Incase of problem for routing reformate to NHTU


fed tank shutdown CCRU after consultation with
P&C
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

SI & PO

CRU- 07- 08

8.0 RESTART OF THE UNIT


8.1

Restart of the entire unit (including regeneration section)


Any unit restart procedure derives from the first start-up procedure. The only
differences result from the unit status after the shut down, which dictates the
point where the general start-up procedure can be resumed.
Assume a shut down of the feed pump of short duration. The unit will be
kept on stand-by with the recycle compressor running, the heater still on, the
reactor temperature lowered, HP absorber section blocked and possibly
(depending up on the expected duration) the regeneration loop and catalyst
circulation stopped (Refer Emergency Shutdown). In this specific case,
operator will have to resume the first start-up at 10.10, oil in, including if
required the restart of the regeneration section.
More generally, in most cases of normal or emergency shut down of
relatively long duration, the stand-by conditions are as follows:

Feed and heaters are shut down, catalyst circulation and regeneration
sections are stopped. The reaction section is isolated from the HP
absorber section and cooled down under an atmosphere of hydrogen.
Recycle compressor is stopped and isolated under nitrogen.
The stabilization section is isolated from the HP absorber section.
Both are under an atmosphere of hydrogen or fuel gas.

Then, the restart procedure will be resumed at stabilizer total reflux or


catalyst heating up and reduction. However the reduction step of 12 hours
at 4800C for water removal is not required.
Also the feed can be introduced again at a temperature of 425 0C, no need
for steps at 3600C and 4000C (no or very little water is expected).
Note: also that the Reformer shutdown, results (in the general case where
no independent H2 supply is available) in the shutdown of the pretreater unit.
The Reformer will be restarted with desulfurized dry naphtha. An extreme
case of unit restart is when the catalyst has been regenerated, or the
reaction section was aerated (for inspection), in this case the restart
procedure will start all over again from the beginning i.e. leak test and partial
inerting, catalyst circulation heating and drying until oil in.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 08 01

8.2

RESTART OF THE REGENERATION SECTION ALONE


8.2.1 After a partial shutdown
In some cases of operating problems which affect the regeneration section
only, and are expected to be corrected in a couple of days the regeneration
sections alone plus the catalysts lifts may be partially shut down. This
means that the regeneration section is isolated from the reaction section and
air to burning zones cut off, but regeneration and air compressors may still
be running.
Then the restart procedure is as follows:

Make sure that the previous shut down sequence was correct i.e. the
circulation of catalyst has been stopped first and then air to burning
zone and calcination. If yes proceed to the next step.
Start regeneration loop compressor, if required, control flow in manual
mode through FCV-1716, switch to auto.
Adjust flows to the combustion beds and to calcination through PDV1706 A and B respectively.
Set bias between first reactor top and regeneration loop pressure at
0.7 bar-if required i.e., if compressor has to be restarted.
Start air compressor if required.
Check O2 analyzers are ready for use.
Set burning gas heater outlet TIC-1751 at 450 0C.
Set calcination heater outlet TIC-1752 at 530/535 0C.
Check that first burning zone inlet temperature is approximately
4150C.
Make sure caustic recycle pump, water injection pump and washing
system operates satisfactorily.
Open the FV 1701 and FV 1702 (air flow to 2 nd burning zone and to
calcination) and adjust set points to the previous ones.
Switch on cascades between oxygen analyzers and FCVs when the
required O2 content has been reached.
Open ON/OFF remote operated valves UV 1715 on regenerator
bottom pipe.
Start the catalyst lifts. First from last reactor to regenerator etc.
Set PDC-1715 on the lift from the last reactor to the regenerator at its
design figure.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 08 02

When delta T in the first burning zone increases, adjust burning


heater temperature at 4400C.
When the oxychlorination zone reaches 4500C, start chlorine injection.
Adjust TIC-1751 set point (burning heater outlet) to maintain the inlet
temperature to the first burning zone between 415 and 420 0C.

If at the previous shutdown, the air injection was stopped prior to stopping
the catalyst circulation, some coked catalyst has entered the calcination
zone. Special caution must be taken at restart. At the beginning air must be
directed exclusively to the burning zone and none to the calcination zone.
Only when the catalyst contained in the calciation / oxychlorination zone has
been replaced with catalyst from the burning zone air can be directed to the
calcination zone again.
8.2.2 After a total shutdown

If the regeneration section has been fully shut down:


Either alone.
Or as a result of a shut down of the entire unit.
Then operators must refer:
Either to Regeneration start up.
Or to Oil in

Note:
In normal steady conditions and design feeds, the unit normally operates
with a coke content on the catalyst between 4 to 6% wt.(12.).
However the Reforming unit can be maintained on stream without the
regeneration section for some period of time.
In this case the limiting factor being the coke deposit, the lower the severity,
the longer this period. It is then recommended to reduce reactor
temperatures to approximately 4800C and flow to approximately 60% with
maximum recycle rate in order not to significantly exceed the 6% wt coke
deposit. The period without regeneration might then last up to two weeks.
However regeneration with coke deposit higher than 6% wt have been
carried out. In this case, operators must bear in mind that the coke burning
capacity (kg/hr) of the unit is limited. Consequently upon restart of the
regeneration they must adjust the catalyst circulation rate taking account of:
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

a)

the maximum coke burning capacity.

CRU- 08 03

b)

the actual wt % coke deposit

Moreover they must carefully watch the temperature increase in combustion


zones.
Example :

Coke burning capacity

80 Kg/hr

Actual coke deposit

10%

Maximum catalyst circulation

Qcata (kg/h)

wt

Qcata = 80/10 X 100 : 800 kg/hr


It is recommended to start with a lower circulation rate (say 640 kg/hr) and
increase progressively according to the temperature increase in combustion
zone.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 08 04

Scheme for provision of Trim cooler at the Suction of


Regeneration compressor

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 08 04*

9.0 TROUBLE SHOOTING


9.1

GENERAL
The main causes of concern related to process and utilities for the reformer
unit are:
Unexpected decrease of octane number.
Loss of reformate yield.
Unexpected delta T reduction in the first catalytic bed.
High hydrocracking rate and risk of a temperature run away.
High pressure drop in the reactor or regenerator.
Besides above, mechanical troubles or failures, which hopefully do not result
in immediate shutdown, must also be considered. The most frequent are:
Failure of regeneration.
Failure of the nitrogen lift gas system.
Failure of chlorine injection.
Failure of catalyst circulation.
Washing section default.
Difficulties in controlling the regeneration temperature.

9.2

UNEXPECTED DECREASE IN OCTANE NUMBER


An unexpected decrease of the octane number may be caused by one or
several of the following reasons apart from due to change in feed stock
quality (more paraffins), lowering of the reactor inlet temperature and
increased feed flow rate.

Leak in the feed-effluent exchanger.


Presence of nitrogen in the feed.
Presence of sulfur in the feed.
Presence of metals in the feed.
Low chlorine content of the catalyst.
Partial by-pass of the catalyst.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 09 01

9.2.1 Leak in the feed/effluent heat exchanger


Since the feed is at higher pressure than the effluent, it may leak through
the exchanger. Relatively small leaks can lower the product octane
number.
Exchanger leaks can be detected by injecting tracers in the feed. An easy
tracer is methylcyclohexane, which is present in the feed and not in the
product. Another way is also by measuring the octane number on the
product side upstream and downstream the exchanger.
9.2.2 Presence of nitrogen in the feed
The maximum allowable nitrogen content in the Reforming feed is 0.5
ppm wt expressed as NM3.
The effect on the catalyst, the causes and the remedies have been
described in process description.
9.2.3 Presence of sulfur in the feed
The maximum allowable sulfur content in the Reforming feed is 0.5 ppm
wt expressed as sulfur.
It is worth mentioning that the sulfur affects primarily the reformate yield.
The octane number is also affected by high sulfur level (up to 10 ppm wt).
The effect, the causes and remedies have been covered in Process
description.
9.2.4 Presence of metals in the feed
The presence of metal induces a permanent catalyst poisoning which
results in a quick and noticeable drop in the octane number. It shows
mainly through a shift in the delta T across the reactors. Thus it will be
discussed under that item.
9.2.5 Low chlorine content of the catalyst
If the chlorine content is too low, the catalyst activity is reduced and the
octane number will be lower than expected.
There are sampling points, which enable to keep track of the chlorine
content. The optimum figure is between 0.9 to 1.1% wt of pure chlorine
on the catalyst. This figure can be momentarily increased to make up for
excessive chlorine losses, due to ammonia, for instance. The injection
rate formula of Chlorination agent rate.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 09 02

[1.1-actual% wt for Cl on spent cat.) + 0.2] Cat Circulation rate


(kg/hr)
l/h
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

100 X Cl fixation rate (0.85) x wt. of Cl agent x sp. Gr. Of Cl agent(1.465)

9.2.6 Partial by-pass of the catalyst


If for any reason, part of the catalyst is by-passed, the actual space
velocity is higher than expected and the octane will drop. A higher
temperature would be required to make-up for the octane loss.
The causes of bypassing can be multiple; damaged internals, build-up of
fines or scales at various places in the catalyst bed etc.
It may develop into an hazardous situation because of channeling and risk
of exothermic hydrocracking reactions taking place in the area where
space velocity is very low.
Bypassing and channeling are generally identified by an increased
pressure drop and uneven and odd temperature profile.

9.3

LOSS OF REFORMATE YIELD


A loss of Reformate yield may be caused by one or several of the
following:

Presence of sulfur in the feed.

Presence of metals in the feed.

Too high chlorine content of the catalyst.


9.3.1 Presence of sulfur in the feed
The Sulfur affects primarily the product yield. Any increase in sulfur above
0.5ppm wt reflects immediately in a lower product yield and a reduced
delta T across the reactor.

9.3.2 Presence of metals in the feed


This will be discussed in the item related to decreased delta T in the first
reactor.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 03

9.3.3 Too high chlorine content of the catalyst


A too high chlorine content (above 1.1 % wt of pure chlorine) promotes
hydro cracking reactions which result in a lower products yield, a lower
hydrogen purity, a lower hydrogen yields but a higher octane.
A too high chlorine content will be detected through an increased yield of
stabilizer overhead gas and lower hydrogen recycle purity.
To correct it, chlorine injection must be reduced.

9.4

UNEXPECTED DELTA T REDUCTION IN THE FIRST


CATALYTIC BED
The temperature difference T (inlet-outlet) in the various reactors is a very
good indication of the catalyst condition.
Obvious reasons for a delta T decrease are:
Feedstock quality: naphthene dehydrogenation is highly endothermic. A
lower naphthene content shows up immediately on the delta T in the first
reactor.
H2 /HC ratio increase (increased recycle). An increased recycle acts as a
larger heat sink for the heat of the reaction.
Other reasons of a delta T decrease are the consequence of upsets
mentioned earlier, such as:

Presence of sulfur in the feed.

Presence of nitrogen in the feed.

Too high chlorine content (which favours hydrocracking-exothermic


reaction).
The loss of delta T in the first reactor generally results from a sulfur upset
in the Reforming feed. Poor operation of the pretreatment reactor or of
the stripper can then be suspected. Severity must be reduced, according
to H2S content in the recycle (for H 2S 5 ppm volume, reduce temperature
to 4800C).
In case of low delta T in reactors 2 and 3, hydrocracking can be
suspected. If such is the case, H2 purity drops and LPG production
increases.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 04

Generally hydrocracking does not occur in the first reactor because the
average temperature is lower.
But the most worrying aspect of a decreased delta T is when it cannot be
related to one of the above reasons and results from a permanent
poisoning with metals.
Lead, arsenic and other metals are very severe catalyst poisons.
Due to the very high poisoning activity of the metals, the catalyst in the
first reactor is affected first, and the delta T through this reactor
decreases. The endothermic reactions (naphthenes dehydrogenation)
move then to the 2nd reactor, which exhibits an unexpected high delta T.
Heavy metals generally result either from the crude processed or from a
poor operation of the upstream hydrotreating Unit. Reprocessing leaded
gasoline (not a common occurrence to day) can also cause catalyst
poisoning.
Metals poisoning requires the dumping of the catalyst load.

9.5

HIGH HYDROCRACKING RATE AND RISK OF TEMPURE


RUN AWAY
Hydrocracking will be suspected when H2 purity drops, the amount of
LPG and stabilization off-gas increases with a simultaneous decrease of
product yield.
9.5.1 Hydrocracking can be caused by:

i.

A fresh catalyst (too active) or an excessive acid function of the catalyst


(i.e. high chlorine).

ii.

A too high severity (either a too high temperature at reactor inlet or a too
low space velocity).

iii.

Poor distribution (channelling ) in the reactor which results in local high


severity conditions.
The following precautions may be taken to avoid hydrocracking;

i.

Not to operate at capacity below the design turn-down ratio.

ii.

Not to introduce feed for the first time on a fresh catalyst, at temperature
higher than 3600C. For a subsequent restart, the temperature limit can be
increased to 4250C.
When increasing throughput, increase flow first and increase temperature
afterwards.

iii.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 05

iv.

When lowering throughput, reduce temperature first and throughput


afterwards.

v.

Increase temperature cautiously; it is better to proceed @ 2 0 C/hr.


Watch differential pressure in reactors. An increased differential pressure
is the sign of poor distribution.
If hydrocracking is suspected:

i.

Lower the reactor inlet temperature down to 400 0 C.

ii.

Increase the feed rate to full capacity (to increase space velocity).

iii.

Keep (or set) the recycle gas flow to the maximum.

9.6

HIGH PRESSURE DROP IN THE REACTORS OR THE


REGENERATOR
9.6.1 Reactors
This problem is linked to an excessive catalyst attrition (broken particles,
fines and dust). Excessive catalyst attrition is almost always associated
with a too high velocity in the catalyst lift pipe.
Operators attention is drawn to the fact that the increased pressure drop
will show days or weeks after operating conditions have deteriorated and
the situation cannot be improved. The best, one can expect, while
restoring the right operating conditions, is a pressure drop status quo.
Hence, it is advised to perform regular checks of the catalyst velocity;
once a week on a routine basis when there is no change in operating
conditions and each time operating conditions are changed (P.T. hydrogen
gas molecular weight).
The process of the increase of the pressure drop is the following:

i.

Broken catalyst particles are being trapped between the vertical wires of
the central pipe and obstruct the open area. Then lines and dust also
accumulate and dust starts building a cake around the centre pipe. At this
point the pressure drop starts to increase significantly. Depending upon
the amount of dust the pressure drop increased more or less quickly.

ii.

It can take between one to six months to reach about 1 Kg/cm2. The
maximum allowable pressure drop is dependant upon the required
severity of the operation and throughput, as the recycle gas rate decrease
significantly.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 -06

9.6.2 Prevention
The best prevention is to record, on a periodic basis, the lift conditions
and the reactor pressure drop. The lift gas velocity must be adjusted to
the recommended velocity as calculated in 11.5.3. One must keep in
mind that when an excessive pressure drop occurs, it is already too late to
correct the cause. This is why maintaining the recommended catalyst
velocity in the pipe is so important.
9.6.3 Reactor cleaning
The only way to reduce the pressure drop when it becomes unacceptable
is to shut down the unit, unload the affected reactor and screen the
catalyst with a 1.7MM x 7MM mesh with a screening machine. The
catalyst must be stored in drums under an atmosphere of nitrogen.
Depending upon the time available for this unplanned shutdown and also
of the time to run until the next planned shutdown, the reactor may be
inspected and cleaned. Special attention must be then given to the
cleaning of the central pipe.
Then the screened catalyst will be loaded again. Generally a catalyst
make-up of 3 to 4 % is required.
9.6.4 Regenerator
An excessive pressure drop may also develop in the regenerator by the
same process as for the reactors(s).
9.6.5 Stop catalyst circulation
As soon as the pressure drop reaches 1.0kg/cm 2 Instead of normal figure
of 0.2kg/ cm2 a cleaning of regenerator is recommended. This operation
can be conducted without shutting down the feed to reforming unit.

Isolate the regenerator from the reaction section

Let the regeneration loop cool down: cut electric heaters and
continue nitrogen circulation if applicable

Depressurize the regenerator

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 07

Unload the catalyst under the lower hopper

Screen the catalyst

Depending upon he downtime available and the time to run until the next
planned shutdown, decision may be taken to inspect the regenerator or not,
prior to reloading the catalyst.

9.7

FAILURE OF REGENERATION
Regeneration may have to be shut down if :

Both compressors failed (unlikely).

A major leak occurred somewhere in the section.

The regeneration gas dryer failed.

One of the electrical heaters failed.

The following measures must then be taken:

Stop catalyst circulation.

If the shut down is expected to be of longer duration, close manual special


catalyst valves below the 1st and 2nd reactor as well as ON/OFF remote
operated valves UV 1706 (3 rd reactor bottom), UV 1715 (regenerator
bottom) and UV 1705 between 1st upper hopper and reductor.

Keep the regenerator under pressure.

Stop air injection through FIC 1701 and FIC 1702.

Switch off electric heaters.

Stop caustic circulation pump, caustic injection pump, water injection


pump.

Whenever possible keep the regeneration section under pressure.


9.8

FAILURE OF NITROGEN LIFT SYSTEM


This system may have to be shutdown if:

Both compressor failed (unlikely).

A major leak occurred and operation could not be sustained.

The N2 gas cooler failed (leak)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 08

The following measures must be taken:

Stop catalyst circulation.

Close manual special catalyst tight valves below the 1 st, 2nd reactor
as well as ON/OFF remote operated valves UV 1706 (3 rd reactor
bottom) and UV 1715, UV 1705.

Stop air injection through FIC-1701 and FIC-1702.

If the shutdown is expected to be of short duration (24 hours or so).

Keep regeneration compressor on.

Maintain temperature in the regenerator beds.

Keep washing system on (caustic recycle pump, caustic injection


pump, water injection, pump).

If the shut down is expected to be longer, proceed with total


shutdown of the regeneration section.

9.9

FAILURE OF CHLORINE INJECTION


If chlorine injection in the regeneration cannot be continued:

For a few hours only: keep running without any change, the
chlorine loss will be compensated later.

For up to 8 hours: reduce catalyst circulation rate.

For more than 8 hours: proceed with regeneration partial shutdown


and start adding chlorine in the feed.

9.10 FAILURE OF CATALYST CIRCULATION


If the expected downtime is more than 8 hours proceed with regeneration
and catalyst circulation total shut down.

9.11 WASHING SECTION DEFAULT


Due to the corrosivity of the regeneration, any default of the washing
section must be corrected shortly.
If the default cannot be fixed within a few hours, proceed with the total
shutdown of the regeneration section.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 09 09

9.12 DIFFICULTIES IN CONTROLLING THE REGENERATION


TEMPERATURE
9.12.1 High temperature out of first combustion bed

Decrease TIC 1751 set point to reduce TI 1704 to 420 0C.

Check inlet O2 content (must be <0.7% vol.). If required, decrease


AIC 1701 set point.

Increase

gas

flow

to

first

combustion

bed

(FIC

1716),

simultaneously reduce AIC 1701 set point.


9.12.2 High temperature out of Second combustion bed

If temperature of the first combustion bed allows, reduce inlet


temperature to the first combustion bed (TI 1704) to 420 0C.

Increase gas flow through both the combustion beds (FIC 1716).

Decrease catalyst circulation rate.

9.12.3 Low temperature out of Second combustion bed

Increase inlet temperature to the first bed (TI-1704) by resetting


TIC-1751

Reduce combustion gas to 1st bed ( FI-1720), if practicable.

If does not work (i.e. TI-1706 still below 460 0C) then oxychlorination
step will not be satisfactory. Low coke content must be suspected.

If low coke content is confirmed (lower than 3/ wt on the catalyst) it


is advisable to stop regeneration for a few days.

Increase catalyst circulation.

9.12.4 High temperature in the oxychlorination or calcination bed


o A too high catalyst circulation rate, or a wrong calibration of
AIC-1703, or both are the possible causes.
o Stop catalyst circulation (to avoid more coked catalyst
ingress in the oxychlorination bed).
o Check and correct analyzers, if required.
o Break cascade AIC-1701/FIC-1701.

Leave cascade AIC-

1703/FIC-1702 on.
o Depending upon temperature excursion decrease or stop air
injection (FIC-1701).
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-C

CRU- 09 10

o Depending upon temperature excursion, reduce calcination


inlet temperature (TIC-1752) or switch off heater.
o If possible increase calcination gas flow.
o When calcination/oxychlorination outlet bed temperatures
are down to 5000C, re-introduce air carefully through FIC1701 and complete the controlled combustion of the coked
catalyst. Bed outlet temperature must not exceed 520 0C.
o When no temperature rise is noticed, any longer, increase
progressively, if required, the calcination gas inlet
temperature (electric heater). Outlet temperature must be
between 5000C and 5200C.
o Restart catalyst circulation at low flow rate.
Increase catalyst circulation progressively to the design figure.
9.12.5 Low temperature in the calcinations bed
Three likely causes:

Gas flow through heater exceeds design figure.

Heater resistance failure.

PDIC-1706 is set too low and part of the calcination exhaust gas
flows to the second combustion zone and by-passes the preheater.
This last cause is identified by:

An inlet gas flow to calcination (FIC-1705) greater than the outlet gas flow
(FI-1721).

PDIC-1706 reading nil(i.e. pressure in oxychlorination bed is equal or


higher than pressure in the second combustion bed).

The corrective action is to adjust PDIC set point.

9.12.6 PREVENTING MECHANICAL STRESS ON REACTORS INTERNALS


DURING TRANSIENT PHASES
Damages or collapses of the reforming reactor internals are not expected
to happen but still possible. Past experiences shows that the
encountered problem occurs during or after unplanned and uncontrolled
fast cooling down of the reaction section (especially including recycle
compressor emergency shutdown).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 09 11

PART-C

Consequently the relieving of excessive mechanical stress on


the internals during this period is crucial. Under normal operating
temperature, the catalyst basket volume is higher due to thermal
expansion. When unexpected shutdown is encountered and catalyst
circulation is lost, the basket
volume will reduce due to reactor cooling down while the catalyst volume
remains unchanged as circulation is stopped. The mechanical stress
induced by such phenomenon can exceed the allowable limit and result
in deformation or rupture of the outer basket/scallops or centre pipe.
Similarly, restarting a thermally balanced reactor vessel with a sudden
cold gas flow may induce similar thermal phenomenon.
Consequently, the temperature ramp-down step is important to stay
away from the
aforementioned scenario. In any instance, maintaining by all means
catalyst circulation as long as possible during plant shutdown and
restoring the same as soon as possible during re-start-up is best
operation practice.
Requirement of Catalyst Circulation:
It is recommended to always relieve the mechanical stress by release of
catalyst bed, when cooling down of the reactors internals can be
expected while catalyst circulation is stopped. This situation can be
encountered in the following cases:
a) Emergency shutdown of the Recycle gas compressor
b) Reaction section cooling down for scheduled shutdown
c) Reaction section heater shutdown
d) Restart of the Recycle Gas Compressor after short duration shutdown
Guideline for Restarting Recycle Gas Compressor following a short
shutdown:
Whenever recycle gas compressor is restarted with hot catalyst inside
the reactor, please follow the recommended practice to avoid thermal
sock to reactor internals and feed/effluent exchanger:
a) Start recycle gas compressor with minimum achievable driver speed
(say 1000-1500 rpm, to be confirmed with 15-K-01 supplier) and monitor
last reactor outlet temperature until it stabilizes (no fast reduction in
temperature). Normally, it takes 20-30 minutes.
c)

When last reactor outlet temperature stabilizes, normal


operating speed of RGC can be achieved.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 09 12

Proposed Modifications:
Considering the presently installed facilities (no nitrogen storage) in
Mathura and keeping in mind requirement of minimum possible line
modification to be carried out during the upcoming shutdown, AXENS
proposes following modifications to enable IOCL-Mathura to perform
emergency catalyst circulation.
Based on our discussion dated 18th Mar13, basis of modification
considers that Nitrogen is available from refinery nitrogen header in a
uninterrupted manner (Pressure Normal: 5.0
Kg/cm2g, Min: 3.5 Kg/cm2g
Proposed Modifications for Nitrogen Lifts (Lift 1 and Lift-4): Refer Drawing
No-017-02-41-1115 Rev-3

A new 3 line from refinery nitrogen header needs to be constructed


within CCR ISBL.Proposed line is to be connected to the Nitrogen Lift gas
compressor (017-K-03A/B) discharge line, 3- N- 017-015-A5A-PR as
shown below. Proposed facilities are marked in RED.

Proposed Modifications for Hydrogen Lifts (Lift 2 and Lift-3): Refer Drawing No017-02-41-1113 Rev 3

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 09 13

PART-C

2nd new 3line from refinery nitrogen header needs to be constructed


within CCR ISBL.Proposed line is to be connected to the upstream of H2
rich gas exchanger (017-E-04) S/S inlet line, 4-H - 017-001-A5A-PR as
shown below. Proposed facilities are marked in RED.

Procedure for Emergency Catalyst Circulation:


Unit Status & Preparation:

Lift pots below the 3rd reactor (4th lift pot) and below the regenerator (1st
lift pot) will be normally isolated by automatic safety gas tight valve
closure.

Close at least one out of the two manual valves located on each seal
legs below reactors 1 & 2.

Close the globe valves located on each seal gas inlet line (H2 injection)
to the 2nd and 3rd lower hoppers. This is to prevent gas backing during
lining-up of nitrogen to the system for emergency circulation.
Also, close FV-1710 located in the reduction gas inlet line of 4-H-017002-B5D-PR

Check that the PDV on seal gas inlet line to the 1 st lower hopper is
closed.

Check that the FV on seal gas inlet line to the 4 th lower hopper is closed.

Close the isolation valves of hydrogen lift gas supply at recycle gas
compressor discharge line (4- H-017-001-A5A-PR).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 09 14

PART-C

Reduce reaction section & regeneration section pressure as per


requirement to maintain some positive differential pressure (~ 1.0-1.5
Kg/cm2) between the nitrogen supply pressure & that of
reactor/regenerator.
Open the blind and the gate valve located on the new nitrogen line 3-N017-001A-A5A connected at upstream of H2 rich gas exchanger (E-04).
Isolate gate valves at nitrogen lift gas compressor (017-K-03A/B)
discharge. Line-up the new nitrogen line 3-N-017-015A-A5A from
refinery header.

Procedure for Emergency Catalyst Transfer:

Open the manual valve(s) located on the seal leg below the reactor. This
operation ensures a catalyst transfer from the reactor to the related lift
pot.
Check lift pot is full by knocking the catalyst seal leg.
Close manual valve(s) on the seal leg.
Open the PDV located on secondary gas injection.
Open the bypass globe valve located on the FV of primary gas injection
to the lift pot.
Use Nitrogen to perform catalyst transfer from lift pot to upper hopper.
Check lift pot is empty by knocking the catalyst seal leg (or check level of
downstream upper hopper if available).
Close the bypass globe valve located on the FV of primary gas injection
to the lift pot.
Close the PDV located on secondary gas injection.

Repeat the above steps until related Upper Hopper level has decreased
by 3 to 5% to ensure catalyst bed release is done properly and that bed
is not packed anymore.

Each transfer step should end with empty conditions of the lift pot.
Continue till sufficient nitrogen pressure is available for catalyst lifting. In
case of Nitrogen pressure becomes lower than expected for catalyst
lifting, getting the lift pot empty allows catalyst bed release by filling the
pot by opening seal leg manual valve. If possible, cooling process must
be stopped until Nitrogen pressure can be recovered to lift the catalyst.
At the end of emergency circulation, Close Nitrogen valve at hydrogen
rich gas compressor inlet as well as at nitrogen lift gas compressor
discharge.

For safety reasons nitrogen supply to hydrogen circuit (E04 inlet) line
blind must be put back in closed position before sending hydrogen to the
catalyst circulation system.
To ensure catalyst bed release is done properly and that bed is not packed
anymore the most relevant criteria is the Upper Hopper level decrease.
Therefore it is advised to continue catalyst emergency circulation until relevant
level decrease is noticed (3 to 5 % depending of level fluctuation)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 09 - 15

PART-C

9.13 SHUTDOWN OF THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM


A shutdown of this system does not affect the reaction section nor the
regeneration section. Its main effect is an increase of the molecular
weight of the produced hydrogen, (also used as carrier gas for the lifts
B.C and D) due to an increase of C3 to C5.

The points to watch are then:

The hydrogen flow to the hydrotreatment and other users. Flow orifice
coefficient must be corrected to maintain the requested hydrogen make
up to the various users.

The flow of gas to the lifts B and C must also be recalculated and adjust if
required. This gas flow impacts on the flow of catalyst.

The temperature in the reduction section must be followed with attention,


owing to the presence of heavier hydrocarbons on the very active catalyst,
at low space velocity. If required the inlet temperature to the reduction
zone will be lowered.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 09 16

PART-C

10.0
10.1
SL.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

EQUIPMENT LIST
VESSELS/REACTORS/REGENERATOR/FILTERS/COLUMNS
/FURNACES
EQUIPMENT NAME
REFORMING SEPARATOR DRUM
RECONTACTING DRUM
LPG ABSORBER DRUM
STABILISER REFLUX DRUM
REGENERATION GAS K.O. DRUM FOR 15 DR-1
FLARE KO DRUM
C.B.D DRUM
FUEL GAS K.O. DRUM (EX CRU)
FG K.O. DRUM (FGEX 99 UNIT)
STEAM GENERATOR BLOW DOWN DRUM
STEAM GENERATOR DRUM
PHOSPHATE DOSING DRUM
LIQUID AMONIA RECEIVER
SUPER FEED SURGE DRUM
OIL TANK SEPERATOR OF NH3 COMPRESSOR-A
OIL TANK SEPERATOR OF NH3 COMPRESSOR-B
KNOCK OUT DRUM
OIL, AMONIA RECOVERY TANK
WATER DOSING TANK
CHLORIDING AGENT DOSING TANK
WASHING DRUM
REGENERATION LOOP DRIVE
CAUSTIC TANK
CHLORIDE AGENT TANK
UPPER SURGE DRUM
LOCK HOPPER

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

TAG NAME
15V-1
15V-2
15V-3
15V-4
15V-6
15V-8
15V-9
15V-10
15V-11
15V-15
15V-16
15V-17
15-V-20
15-V-21
15-V-22A
15-V-22B
15-V-23
15-V-24
15VT-1
15VT-2
17V-5
17 DR-1
17T-1
17T-2
17V-1
17V-2

CRU- 10 01

PART-C

27.

CATALYST MAKE UP HOPPER

17V-4

28
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.

FIRST UPPER HOPPER


REDUCTION CHAMBER
SECOND LIFT POT
FIRST LIFT POT
SECOND UPPER HOPPER
SECOND LOWER HOPPER
THIRD LOWER HOPPER
THIRD LIFT POT
THIRD UPPER HOPPER
FOURTH LOWER HOPPER
FOURTH LIFT POT
KNOCK OUT DRUM
FIRST/SECOND/THIRD REFORMING REACTORS
REGENERATOR
FILTER(E) OF AMONIA COMPRESSOR -A
FILTER(E) OF AMONIA COMPRESSOR -B
FILTER(W) OF AMONIA COMPRESSOR -A
FILTER(W) OF AMONIA COMPRESSOR -B
FINES FILTERS
PROTECTION FILTERS
REFORMER FEED FILTERS
START UP EJECTOR

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

17V-10
17V-11
17V-31
17V-34
17V-12
17V-21
17V-22
17V-32
17V-13
17V-23
17V-33
17V-6
015/R-1/2/3
17R-1
15 G 22A
15 G 22B
15 G 23A
15 G 23B
17G-1/2
17G-3
15G-1A/B
15J-1

CRU- 10 02

PART-C

50.
51.
52.
53.
10.2
SL.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

PRE HEATER, 1ST INTER HEATER, 2ND INTER


HEATER, STABILISER REBOILER
STEAM GEN.,STEAM SUPER HEATER, STEAM
GENERATION, BFW HEATING
STABILIZER
NH3 COOLING TOWER

15F-1/2/3/4
15F-5/6/7/8
15C-1
15CT-1

EXCHANGERS
EQUIPMENT NAME
REACTOR FEED, EFFLUENT (HELI TOWER)
REACTOR EFFLUENT TRIM COOLER
RECONTACTING DRUM FEED COOLER
RECONTACTING DRUM FEED/VAP EXCHANGER
RECONTACTING DRUM FEED/BOTTOM
EXCHANGER
RECONTACTING DRUM CHILLER
STABILISER FEED/BOTTOM EXCHANGER
STABILISER TRIM CONDENSER
HEAVY REFORMATE TRIM COOLER
REGENERATION GAS COOLER
AMONIA CONDENSOR

TAG NAME
15E-1
15E-2
15E-3
15E-4
15E-5
15E-6
15E-7
15E-8 A/B/C/D
15E-11
15E-12
15E-20

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

SUPER FEED EXCHANGER


LUBE OIL COOLER OF NH3 COMPRESSOR -A
LUBE OIL COOLER OF NH3 COMPRESSOR -B
BURNING FEED/EFFLUENT EXCHANGER
CALCINATION FEED/EFFLUENT EXCHANGER
CAUSTIC RECYCLE COOLER

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

15E-21
15E-22A
15E-22B
17E-1
17E-2
17E-3

CRU- 10 03

PART-C

18.
19.
10.3
SL.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

HYDROGEN RICH GAS EXCHANGER


NITROGEN LIFT GAS COOLER

17E-4
17E-5

PUMPS
EQUIPMENT NAME
SEPARATOR BOTTOM PUMP
LPG ABSORBER FEED PUMP
STABILIZER FEED PUMP
STABILIZER FEFLUX PUMP
STABILIZER REBOILER CIRCULATION PUMP
WATER INJECTION PUMP
CHLORIDE INJECTION PUMP
CBD PUMP (VERTICAL)
15K-1 AUX L.O. PUMP
EMERGENCY LUBE OIL PUMP
COOLING WATER PUMP
REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR LUBE OIL PUMP
PHOSPHATE DOSING PUMP
BFW CIRCULATION PUMP
CAUSTIC RECYCLE PUMP
WATER INJECTION PUMP
CAUSTIC INJECTION PUMP
CHLORIDE INJECTION PUMP
REGENERATION LOOP COMP MAIN LUBE OIL

TAG NAME
015PM-1A/1B
015PM-2A/2B
015PM-3A/3B
015PM-4A/4B
015PM-5A/5B
015PM-8A/8B
015PM-9A/9B
015PM-10
15K-1 M-1
15K-1 M-2
15X-M2A/B
15X-M1A/B/C/D
15PM-16A/16B
15PM-15A/B
17P-1A/B
17PM2A/B
17PM3A/B
17PM4A/B
17K-1 M1A/B

PUMP
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 10 04

PART-C

SL.
NO.
20.

EQUIPMENT NAME

TAG NAME

N2 LIFT GAS COMPRESSOR LUBE OIL PUMP

17K-3 M1A/B

21.

17K-1A AUX L.O. PUMP A

22.

17K-1A AUX L.O. PUMP B

23.

17K-1B AUX L.O. PUMP A

17K-1A
LO PUMP A
17K-1A
LO PUMP B
17K-1B

LO PUMP A
17K-1B
LO PUMP B
17-K-3A LO
PUMP

24.

17K-1B AUX L.O. PUMP B

25.

17K-3A AUX L.O. PUMP

26.

17K-3B AUX L.O. PUMP

17-K-3B LO
PUMP

27.

15K-1 EMERGENCY OIL PUMP

15K-1 M2

10.4
SL.
NO.
1.

AIR COOLERS/ELECTRIC HEATERS


EQUIPMENT NAME
REFORMER REACTOR EFFLUENT AIR COOLER

TAG NAME
015AC-01A
/B/C/D/E/F

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

HEAVY REFORMATE R/D AIR COOLER


REGENERATION LOOP AIR COOLER
BURNING/CALCINATION/REDUCTION
REGENERATION GAS HEATER
SILENCER

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

15AC-4A/4B
17AC-1
17EH-1/2/3
15EH-1
17 S-1

CRU- 10 - 05

10.5

COMPRESSORS & BLOWERS

SL.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
10.6
S.
NO
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

EQUIPMENT NAME

TAG NAME

NH3 REFRIGERATION SCREW COMPRESSOR


COOLING TOWER FAN
ID FAN
FD FAN
REGENERATION LOOP COMPRESSOR
N2 LIFT GAS COMPRESSOR
REFORMING RECYCLE COMPRESSOR

15-X-MA/MB
15-X-M3
15KM-3
15KM-2A/2B
17KM-1A/B
17KM-3A/B
15K-1

STATIONARY EQUIPMENT LIST

EQUIPMENT NO.
15 PSV 1501
15 PSV 1502
15 PSV 1503
15 PSV 1504
15 PSV 1505
15 PSV 1506
15 PSV 1507
15 PSV 1508
15 PSV 1509
15 PSV 1510
15 PSV 1511
15 PSV 1514
15 PSV 1515
15 PSV 1901
15 PSV 1902

DESCRIPTION
ON 15-V-1
ON 15-V-1
ON 15-K-1
ON 15-K-1
ON 15-P-9A
ON 15-P-9B
ON 15-P-8A
ON 15-P-8B
ON 15-V-2
ON 15-V-3
ON 15-C-1
ON 15-DR-1
ON 15-V-4
ON 15-V-16
ON 15-V-16

SET
PRESSURE
Kg/cm2 g)
5.3
5.3
8.8
9.0
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1
7.8
18.3
18.3
7.4
18.3
20.0
20.0

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

No. IN
LINE
BOTH
BOTH
0NE
0NE
0NE
0NE
0NE
0NE
0NE
0NE
0NE
BOTH

CRU- 10 - 06

PART-C

16.
17.
18.
19
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

15 PSV 1903
15 PSV 1904
15 PSV 1905
15 PSV 2301
15 PSV 2302
15 PSV 5001
15 PSV 5002
15 PSV 5003
15 PSV 5004
15 PSV 5005
15 PSV 5006
15 PSV 5007
15 PSV 5008
15 PSV 5009
15 PSV 5010

ON 15-P-16B
ON 15-P-16A
ON SHS HEADER OF 15-V-16
ON 15-V-10
ON 15-V-11
ON 15-V-22A
ON 15-V-22B
ON 15-E-20
ON 15-V-20
ON 15-V-21
ON 15-V-23
ON 15-V-24
LUBE OIL PUMP A
LUBE OIL PUMP B
LUBE OIL PUMP C

19.0
19.0
18.5
7.8
7.8
21.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.

15 PSV 5011
15 TSV 1516
15 TSV 1517
15 TSV 1518
15 TSV 1519
15 TSV 1520
15 TSV 1521
15 TSV 2601
17 PSV 1701
17 PSV 1702
17 PSV 1703
17 PSV 1704
17 PSV 1705
17 PSV 1706
17 PSV 1707
17 PSV 1708

LUBE OIL PUMP D


ON CWR EX-15-E-2A/B
ON CWR EX-15-E-2A/C
ON CWR EX-15-E-2A/D
ON CWR EX-15-E-8C
ON CWR EX-15-E-11
ON CWR EX-15-E-12
ON CWR EX-15-V-9
ON 17-V-1
ON 17-V-2
ON 17-E-1
ON 17-V-5
ON 17-K-1A
ON 17-K-1B
ON 17-P-3A
ON 17-P-3B

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

16.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
10.0
8.9
8.9
7.2
9.5
9.5
11.5
11.5

ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE

CRU- 10 07

PART-C

47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.

17 PSV 1709
17 PSV 1710
17 PSV 1711
17 PSV 1712
17 PSV 1713
17 PSV 1714
17 PSV 1715
17 PSV 1718
17 PSV 1719
17 PSV 2001
17 PSV 2002
17 PSV 2003
17 PSV 2004
17 PSV 2005
17 TSV 1720
17 TSV 1721
17 TS V 2001

ON 17-P-4A
ON 17-P-4B
ON 17-V-10
ON 17-G-1
ON 17-G-2
ON 17-K-3A
ON 17-K-3B
ON 17-V-6
ON 17-V-4
ON 17-G-405A
ON 17-G-405B
ON 17-G-400
ON 17-G-402A
ON 17-G-402B
ON CWR EX-17-E-3
ON CWR EX-17-E-5
ON CWR EX-17-E-404

11.5
11.5

ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 10 - 08

PART-C

11.0 SAFETY INTER LOCKS


TAG
SET
CUT OFF
CAUSES
NO.
VALUES
I 1501 REFORMING UNIT Recycle gas low-low flow 8.2 T/Hr
FEED
15FD-04
I -1502

RECYCLE
GAS
COMPRESSOR
15K-1
I - 1503/ PREHEATER 15F-1
1504

70%

I -1505/
1506

8.2 T/Hr

I-1507/
1508

I
1509 /
1510

I - 1511

Separator Drum 15V-1 High


High level LSHH-2503&
Hand Switch HS-1502.
1) Recycle gas low-low flow
FSLL-1504
2) Fuel
gas
low-low
pressure PSLL-1558
3) Hand switch HS-1511
FIRST
INTER 1) Recycle gas low-low flow
HEATER 15F-2
FSLL-1504
2) Fuel
gas
low-low
pressure PSLL-1568
3) Hand switch HS-1521

8.2 T/Hr
0.4 Kg/cm2

0.4 Kg/cm2

SECOND INTER- 1) Recycle gas low-low flow 8.2 T/Hr


HEATER 15 F-3
FSLL-1504
2
2) Fuel
gas
low-low 0.4 Kg/cm
pressure PSLL-1578
3) Hand switch HS-1531.
Stabilizer
15F-4

reboiler 1) Low
circulation
rate 15.15 T/Hr
through
heater
coils
FSLL-1565/A/B/C/D.
2) Fuel
gas
low-low
0.4 Kg/cm2
pressure PSLL 1581.
Hand with HS-1541.
Stabilizer reboiler 1) Stabilizer reboiler pumps 14.0 T/Hr
pumps 15P5A/P5B
low-low flow FSLL-1514.

ACTION

To cut off fe
by
clos
valves
1501/1502
To stop 15K-1
closing LV-15

1) To close
gas
va
UV-1511
To close p
valves HV-15
1) To close
gas
va
UV-1521
To close p
valve HV-152
1)

To close
gas
va
UV-1531

2) To
cl
pilot
va
HV-1531
1) To close
gas val
UV-1541.
To close p
valve HV-154

To start
second
pu
15P5A
15P5B

I 1512 Stabilizer
15V-4
I - 1513

reflux 1) Stabilizer reflux drum low- 30%


low liquid level LSLL1510
Stabilizer 15C-1
1) Stabilizer liquid level 35%
LSLL-1508.

To close L
shut down va
LV-1510.
To
cl
reformate S
valve LV-151

11.1 (UNIT 15)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 01

PART-C

11.2

(UNIT 17)

The safeties are divided in two types according to the degree of safety requested,
there are

(A)

The software safeties

(B)

The hardware safeties

The software safeties are configured in logic blocks in the DCS, they are
referenced as sequences 17xx or interlocks/permissive conditions.
They are sequences 1703, 1711, 1712, 1713, 1714.
The hardware safeties are hardwired using relays technology or programmed in
PLC, Programmable Logic Controllers, they are referenced as Interlocks Ixxx.
They are I-1701, I-1702, I-1703, I-1704, I-1705, I-1706 Reductor heater stop.
In addition to the software described here below, we recommend also to duplicate
by software safety the hardware interlocks I-1701 and I-1702, specially if they are
hardwired.
(A) SOFTWARE SAFETIES CONFIGURED IN THE DCS
The purpose of the safety sequences is to force control valves to close/open in
case of abnormal conditions detected by on/off alarms or interlock devices.
When an abnormal condition is detected, the safety sequence forces the control
valve to close, overriding the normal operation in cascade or automatic mode.
To be able to restart the defaults must have disappear.

The purpose of the interlock/permissive conditions is to allow or not a requested


action.
Sequence 1703.
Purpose :

stop burning air injections in the regenerator

Initiated by

interlock I-1703 activated.

Action:

force FIC 1701 and FIC 1702 in Manual with output 0%

Restart:

operator action needed to come back to the normal operation


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 02

PART-C

Lift stop sequences


During automatic lift control, when an abnormal condition is detected, a stop
sequence forces the control valve PDC to close, overriding the normal operation in
cascade or automatic mode, and, consequently, stopping the corresponding lift.
There is one independent stop sequence for each lift.
In case of abnormal condition detection, the LC/PDC cascade is automatically
cancelled, the PDC set to MANUAL mode, and the PDC output set to 0%. These
actions can also be executed manually by the operator.
When all the stop conditions disappear, operator action is needed to restore the
LC/PDC cascade in order to restart the lift.
If the stop was caused by hardware cut-off due to low level in the upper hopper, this
cut-off must be reset before the lift can be restarted.
The first, the second the last lifts can also be stopped by the operator by setting HS
17801 ON. This switch closes UV 1715, UV1705, and UV1706. In this case, the
operator must reset UV1705 and UV 1706 by action from board on HS 1725 and
HS 1726 respectively, before the lift can be restarted.
The lift stop conditions are the following;
LIFT A stop conditions: (sequence 1712)
the regenerator is empty (LALL 1704 on alarm)
the valve UV 1715 is closed.
the interlock I-1703 is activated due to

high temperatures in the regenerator (alarm on TAHH 1701, 7102,


1703, 1704)

high oxygen content at regenerator inlet (alarm on AAHH 1701)

low flow to the regenerator (alarm on FALL 1731)

the interlock I-1705 is activated due to

low differential pressure between the first lift pot and the first lower
hopper (alarm on PDAL 1725)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 03

PART-C

the catalyst is not correctly regenerated (AALL 1703 on alarm)


LIFT B stop conditions: (sequence 1712)
the first upper hopper is empty (LALL 1710 on alarm)
the reaction section is isolated from the regeneration section ( valve UV
1705 closed).
the interlock I-1701 is activated due to

the pressure difference between the reductor and the upper hopper
is low (PDALL 1730 on alarm)

the flow of sealing gas is low (FALL 1732 on alarm)

the stop is requested by operator by action on HS 1701

the nitrogen is polluted by H2 (AAHH 1705 on alarm)

the nitrogen is polluted by O2 (AAHH 1704 on alarm)

LIFT C stop conditions: (sequence 1713)


the second upper hopper is empty (LALL 1712 on alarm)
LIFT D stop conditions: (sequence 1714)
the third upper hopper is empty (LALL 1713 on alarm)
the upper surge drum is full (LAHH 1701 on alarm)
the reaction section is isolated from the regeneration section ( valve UV
1706 closed).
the interlock I-1702 is activated due to

the pressure difference between the reactor and the lower hopper is
low (PDALL 1731 on alarm)

the flow of sealing gas is low (FALL 1733 on alarm)

the pressure of sealing gas is low (PALL 1751 on alarm)

the stop is requested by operator by action on HS 1701

the nitrogen is polluted by H2 (AAHH 1705 on alarm)

the nitrogen is polluted by O2 (AAHH 1704 on alarm)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 04

PART-C

Interlocks/permissives between valves UV1701, UV1702, UV1707 AND


VALVES UV1703, UV1704, UV1708
These interlocks are configured in the DCS to avoid mis-operation and work on
such permissive. They must be duplicated in the hardware safeties.
They forbid the communication between the regenerator 017-R-1 and the upper
surge drum 017-V-1 through the lock hopper 017-V-2.
When at least one of the valves UV1703, UV1704, or UV1708 is opened, this
interlock forbids to open the valves UV 1701,UV1702, or UV1707 for the catalyst
transfer from the upper hopper 017-V-1 to the lock hopper 017-V-2.
When at least one of the valves UV1701, UV1702, or UV1707 is opened, this
interlock forbids to open the valves UV 1703,UV1704, or UV1708 for the catalyst

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 05

PART-C

transfer from the lock hopper 017-V-2 to the regenerator 017-V-1.


INTERLOCK I -1701
Activated in case of:
Low pressure difference between the reductor and upper hopper (PDALL1730
alarm)
Low flow of sealing gas (FALL1732 on alarm)
Low pressure sealing gas (PALL1751 on alarm)
Request by operator by action on HS-1701
Pollution of nitrogen by Hydrogen (AAHH1705 on alarm)
Pollution of nitrogen by oxygen (AAHH1704 0n alarm)
CLOSE VALVE UV-1705 AND STOP THE LIFT-A
INTERLOCK I-1702
Activated in case of:
Low pressure difference between the reactor and lower hopper (PDALL-1731 on

alarm)
Low sealing gas flow (FALL- 1733 on alarm).
Low pressure of sealing gas (PALL- 1751)
Request by operator by action on HS1701,
Pollution of nitrogen by hydrogen or oxygen (AAHH-1705,AAHH-1704 on alarm)

CLOSES VALVE UV-1706 AND STOP LIFT-D


INTERLOCK I-1703

Activated incase of:


High temperatures in the regenerator (TAHH1701,1702,1703,1704 on alarm)
High Oxygen content at regenerator inlet (AAHH1701 on alarm).
Low flow to the regenerator (FALL 1731 on alarm).
Stops air injection to the regenerator, stops the chlorine injection pump and
stops the LIFT-A.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 06

PART-C

INTER LOCK I-1704


Activated in case of:
Low pressure of seal gas (PALL 1751 on alarm).
Closes the valves UV 1711 and UV 1712 to protect N2 header.
IINTERLOCK I 1705
Activated in case of:
Low differential pressure between the first lift pot and the first lower hopper
(PDAL 1725).
Request by operator by action on HS 1701.
Closes valve U/V-1715
INTER LOCK I-1706
Activated in case of
High level in the washing drum (LAHH 1723 on alarm)
Shut down the caustic injections pumps 017-P-3A/B and shuts down the
regeneration loop compressors 017-K-1A/B.
REDUCTION HEATER STOP

In case of high temperature in the reduction drum (TAHH 1711 on alarm).


The reduction heater 017-EH-3 is stopped.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 07

PART-C

11.3 PROCESS SAFETY INTERLOCKS (UNIT 15 & 17)


SL.
NO
.
1

15FD1906

BFW FLOW LOW PUMP 15P5A/B AUTO SWITCH OVER

15FD1906

15FD 04

15PD58

BFW FLOW VERY LOW TRIP ALL 3 IFP HEATERS I.E.


CLOSE UV 1511, 1521 & 1531
V. LOW R/G FLOW TRIPS ALL 3 IFP HEATERS AND
15FC-01 & 15FC02
FG PRESS. V. LOW UV1511 OF 15F1 TRIP

HS1514
(H.W.)Panel
PSLL1558
(H.W.)Panel
15PD 68

CLOSE 15F1-FG + PG-UV1511+HV11

HS1521
(H.W.)Panel
PB 19
(H.W.) Panel
15PD 78

CLOSE 15F2 FG+PG-UV1521 +HV1521

HS 1531
(H.W.) Panel

CLOSE 15F3 FG+PG-UV1531 +HV1531

6
7
8
9
10
11

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

15F1 FG L.PR. BYPASS SWITCH


F.G. PR. V LOW UV1521 OF 15F2 TRIP

15F2 FG L. PR. BYPASS SWITCH


F.G. PR. V LOW UV1531 OF 15F3 TRIP

12

14.

PSLL1578
(H.W.) Panel
FV1501
(H.W.) Panel
15FD 1906

15.

15PD88

16.

HS1541
CLOSE 15F4 FG + PG UV1541 + HV 1541
(H.W.)Panel
PSLL 1588
15F4 FG LOW PRESS. BYPASS SWITCH
(H.W.)Panel
15FD65,A,B,C,D ANY ONE PASS V. LOW TRIP 15F4 UV 1541

13.

17.
18.

15F3 FG L. PR. BYPASS SWITCH


15FC01, 15FC02 MANUAL RESET SWITCH
BFW CUMULATIVE FLOW (15FC 1902 + 1903) V. LOW, IT
TRIPS ALL 3 IFP HEATER
FG PR V. LOW UV 1541 OF 15F4 TRIP

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 08

PART-C

SL.
NO
.
19.

FSLL 1514

15P5 DISH. FLOW V. LOW STAND BY PUMP AUTO START

20.

15LD 08

21.

15LD 10

15C1 V. LOW LEVEL - CLOSE LV 1512 REFORMATE R/D


VALVE
15V4 V. LOW LEVEL - CLOSE LV 1510 LPG R/D VALVE

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

LIFT A STOP CONDITION


22

17LD 04

V. LOW LEVEL OF 17R1 CLOSE 17PDC 11

23

17AU01

REGN I/L OXYGEN HIGH

24

17AD03

REGN BURNING ZONE O/L OXYGEN V. LOW

25.

17FD31

26.

17PD25

27.

17TU01

V. LOW FLOW OF REGN GAS TO BURNING ZONE. THIS


WILL CLOSE 17FV02 & STOP 17P4 A/B AND
CLOSEUV1715
VERY LOW DIFF. PRESSURE BETWEEN 17V3 & 17V34.
IT WILL CLOSE UV1715
REGN TEMP HIGH / CLOSE UV1715 AND 17FC01,17FC02

28.

17TU02

REGN TEMP HIGH/ CLOSE UV1715 AND 17FC01,17FC02

29.

17TU03

REGN TEMP HIGH/ CLOSE UV1715 AND 17FC01,17FC02

30.

17TU04

REGN TEMP HIGH/ CLOSE UV1715 AND 17FC01,17FC02

31.

HS1715

SW RESET SWITCH FOR UV 1715

32

HS1701

H.W. SWITCH FOR CLOSING UV1715

LIFT B STOP CONDITION


33.

17LD10

V LOW LEVEL OF 17V10 CLOSE 17 PDC 12

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 11 - 09

34.

17PDD30

35.

17FD32

36.

17PD51

DIFF PR BETWEEN 17V10 & 17V11 V. LOW CLOSE U/V


1705 ALSO
SEAL GAS FLOW TO 17V10 V.LOW CLOSE UV-1705
ALSO
SEAL GAS PRESS. TO 17V10 V. LOW

37.

17ASH04

O2 PERCENT IN LIFT GAS HIGH CLOSE UV1705

38.

17ASH05

H2 PERCENT IN LIFT GAS HIGH CLOSE UV1706

39.

HS1705

S.W. SWITCH IN PANEL FOR CLOSING OF UV 1705

40.

HS1725

S.W. SWITCH IN PANEL FOR RESETTING OF UV 1705


(TO OPEN)

LIFT C STOP CONDITION


41.

17LD12

V. LOW LEVEL OF 17V12 CLOSE 17PDC 13

LIFT D STOP CONDITION


42.

17LD13

V. LOW LEVEL OF 17V13 CLOSE 17PDC14

43.

17FD33

44.

17ASH04

V. LOW FLOW OF SEAL GAS TO 17V23 & CLOSE UV 1706


ALSO
O2% IN LF GAS HIGH. IT WITH CLOSE UV 1706 ALSO

45.

17ASH05

H2% IN LF GAS HIGH. IT WITH CLOSE UV 1706 ALSO

46.

17PDD31

47.

17PD51

48.

17LU01

DIFF. PR BETWEEN 15R3 & 1723 V. LOW. CLOSE UV


1706 ALSO.
SEAL GAS PR TO 17V23 & 17V10 V. LOW. CLOSE UV
1705, 1706, UV1711 & UV1712
V. HIGH LEVEL OF 17V1

49.

HS1706

S.W. SWITCH IN PANEL FOR CLOSING UV 1706

50.

HS1726

S.W. SWITCH IN PANEL FOR RESETTINGUV 1706

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 10

PART-C

SL.

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

NO
.
15K1 EQUIPMENT SAFETY INTERLOCKS
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.

PSL4001

15K1 LUBE OIL PR LOW AUTO SWITCH OVER OF L.O


MOTOR PUMP
Ebara L.O.
15K1 LO MOTOR DRIVEN PUMP AUTO/MAN H.W. SWITCH
pump STD by
PANEL
Ebara L.O. PMP 15K1 L.O. PUMP EMERGENCY AUT/MAN H.W. SWITCH
EMG
PANEL
Ebara S/D reset H.W. SWITCH FOR RESETTING TRIP CIRCUIT (PANEL)
MOS13
(H.W.)Panel
TAHH102B

15V1 V. HIGH LEVEL 15K1 TRIP BY PASS SWITCH

MOS6
(H.W.) Panel
TSHH 4011

TURBINE BEARING TEMP V. HIGH 15K1 BYPASS SWITCH

MOS7
(H.W.) Panel
PSLL 4002
A,B,C
MOS8
(H.W.) Panel
PSHH4060
A/B/C
MOS 9
(H.W.) Panel
PSHH 4060
A/B/C
MOS10
(H.W.) Panel
S.T. 4101 A/B/C

COMP DISCH. TEMP V. HIGH 15K1 TRIP BY PASS


SWITCH
LUBE OIL PR. V. LOW 15K1 TRIP

MOS11
(H.W.) PANEL
MOS12
(H.W.) Panel

TURBINE OVER SPEED BY PASS SWITCH

TURBINE BEARING TEMP V. HIGH 15K1 TRIP

COMP DISCH. TEMP V. HIGH 15K1 TRIP

LUBE OIL PR. V. LOW 15K1 TRIP BY PASS SWITCH


SEAL GAS VENT PR. V HIGH 15K1 TRIP
SEAL GAS VENT PR. V HIGH 15K1 TRIP BY PASS
SWITCH
SEAL GAS VENT PR. V HIGH 15K1 TRIP
SEAL GAS VENT PR. V HIGH 15K1 TRIP BY PASS
SWITCH
TURBINE OVERSPEED 15K1 TRIP

GOVERNOR COMMON TRIP BY PASS SWITCH

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

CRU- 11 - 11

PART-C

SL.

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

NO
.
69.

VAHH 4101 A/B

V. HIGHVIB COMP RADIAL DISCH/SUC 15K1 TRIP

MOS01
(H.W.) Panel
AAHH 4101

V. HIGHVIB COMP RADIAL DISCH/SUC 15K1 TRIP BY


PASS SWITCH
V. HIGH TEMP COMP THR BEARING 15K1 TRIP

MOS 02
(H.W.) Panel
VAHH4102 A/B

V. HIGH TEMP COMP THR BEARING 15K1 TRIP BY


PASS SWITCH
V. HIG VIB TURBINE RADIAL EXHAUST/I.L. 15K1 TRIP

MOS 03
(H.W.) Panel
AAHH 4102

V. HIG VIB TURBINE RADIAL EXHAUST/I.L. 15K1 TRIP


BY PASS SWITCH
V. HIGH AXIAL DISPLACEMENT OF TURBINE 15K1 TRIP

MOS 04
(H.W.) Panel
TAHH 4101A

V. HIGH AXIAL DISPLACEMENT OF TURBINE 15K1 TRIP


BY PASS SWITCH
V. HIGH TEMP COMP THR BEARING 15K1 TRIP
V. HIGH TEMP COMP THR BEARING 15K1 TRIP BY
PASS SWITCH
15K1 MANUAL TRIP SWITCH IN H.W. PANEL

80.

MOS 05
(H.W.)Panel
HS1502 (Ebara
Emerg trip)
PSL 4001

81.

LSL 4001

82.

Governor speed
over RPM

LUBE O/H LEVEL LOW (START PERMISSIVE FOR


GOVENOR)
SPEED OVER RPM (START PERMISSIVE FOR GOVENOR)

70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.

LUBE OIL PR LOW (START PERMISSIVE FOR GOVENOR)

17K1 A/B & 17K-3 A/B EQUIPMENT SAFETY INTERLOCKS


83.

17LU23

V.HIGH LEVEL OF 17V5 (WATER) TRIP 17K1 A/B

84.

TSH1707

17V5 I/L TEMP HIGH

85.

TSH1713
(TU11)
17LU26

V. HIGH REDUCTION TEMP 17EH3 POWER CUT OFF

86.

V HIGH LEVEL OF 17V6 STOP 17K3A/B

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 11 - 12

SL.
NO
.
87.

17TU17

V. HIGH DISCH TEMP 17K3A TRIP

88.

17TU18

V. HIGH DISCH TEMP 17K3B TRIP

89.

17PD002A

V. LOW LUBE OIL PRESS 17K3A TRIP

90.

17PD002B

V. LOW LUBE OIL PRESS 17K3B TRIP

91.

TSHH 301A

92.

17TU101A

17K1 COMMON DISCH FEEDER TEMP V HIGH TRIP


17K1A/B
V. HIGH TEMP OF DISCH CYLINDER 17K1 A TRIP

93.

17TU102A

V. HIGH TEMP OF DISCH CYLINDER 17K1 A TRIP

94.

17TU101B

V. HIGH TEMP OF DISCH CYLINDER 17K1 B TRIP

95.

17TU102B

V. HIGH TEMP OF DISCH CYLINDER 17K1 B TRIP

96.

17PD301A

V. LOW LUBE OIL PR 17K1A TRIP + A OP AUTO START

97.

17PD301B

V. LOW LUBE OIL PR 17K1B TRIP + A OP AUTO START

98.

17PD101A

V LOW SUCT PRESS. 17K1 A TRIP

99.

17PD101B

V LOW SUCT PRESS. 17K1 B TRIP

TAG NAME

DESCRIPTION

17EH-1 EQUIPMENT SAFETY INTERLOCKS


100. 17TI06/ITY51

17EH1 TRIPPING FROM HIGH TEMP TV

17EH-3 EQUIPMENT SAFETY INTERLOCKS


101. 17TI 19/17TY 53 17EH3 TRIPPING HIGH TEMPERATURE

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-C

CRU- 11 - 13

NITROGEN UNIT
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Inert gas is required on continuous basis as well as intermittently in CRU
process and as a utility for misc. activities such as purging & pressure
testing etc. In addition it is required on continuous basis for the inert
blanketing of hydrotreated naphtha tank. To meet the above requirement,
Nitrogen plant supplied by M/S BHPV using M/s Airliquide's cryogenic
process of air liquefaction has been installed as a package unit. The plant
is capable of generating 600 NM3 /Hr gaseous nitrogen which can be
supplied at various consuming points at 7.0 Kg/cm 2g through Nitrogen
header - I. For supply at a pressure of 12.0 Kg/cm 2g (through Nitrogen
header - II) as required in CRU process, a booster compressor is provided.
Depending upon the withdrawal of gaseous nitrogen from the Nitrogen plant,
the balance nitrogen can be withdrawn in liquid form and stored in liquid
Nitrogen storage vessel. Four nos. of liquid nitrogen storage vessels each
of 50m3 capacity have been provided. One gaseous nitrogen vessel of
capacity 10 m3 is also provided, which acts as buffer for the intermittent
consumption of gaseous Nitrogen in CRU process.
Nitrogen produced by cryogenic process i.e. by distillation of air at low
temperature is of the purity of 99.99 %, whereas nitrogen produced by
Pressure Swing Adsorption is of the purity of 99.8 % max.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 01 - 01

2.0 DESIGN BASIS


2.1

NITROGEN REQUIREMENT
For CRU normal operations, Nitrogen is required at :
- De-sulfurised Naphtha (DSN) Tank blanketing 350 NM3/HR (continuous).
- Catalyst Regeneration 100 NM3/HR (continuous).
- Lock Hopper 9 NM3 every hour @ 108 NM3/HR for 5 minutes.
As utility, Nitrogen will be required during Start up & Shut down for Purging
and Pressure testing of different equipment and lines.

2.2

AIR REQUIREMENT
Two numbers of Air compressors (one running, one standby) each of
capacity 4500 NM3/HR (with discharge pressure of 8.0 Kg/cm 2g) have
been provided to meet the following requirement.
- 1870 NM3/HR Process air for the production of GN2 and LN2.
- 360 NM3/HR Dry air for CRU (Dew Point -40 oC).
- 2220 NM3/HR compressed air as Service air.

2.3

PRODUCT QUALITY
Unit is designed to produce Nitrogen of following quality :

2.4

Nitrogen

99.99 %

Carbon dioxide

1.0 PPM (Volume) maximum

Oxygen

3.0 PPM (Volume) maximum

Dew point

- 100 oC at atmospheric pressure

PRODUCTION PATTERN
The nitrogen required is withdrawn as a gaseous Nitrogen and the remaining
is withdrawn as liquid Nitrogen. Following is the production pattern from the
plant under normal conditions of operation:
STREAM

CASE -1 CASE-2 CASE-3 CASE-4 CASE-5


500
400
300
0
600

GN2 (NM3/Hr)
LN2 (equivalent GN2
NM3/Hr)

45

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

50

55

65

N2- 02 - 01

3.0

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Air is composed of Oxygen (20.96 % by volume) and Nitrogen (78.11 % by
volume). In addition, it has 5 rare gases, which may be found in following
proportions:
Argon 0.93%, Neon 0.0015% (approx.), Helium 0.0005% (approx.), Krypton
0.0001 % (approx.), Xenon 0.000008 % (approx.). Varying quantities of
water vapour, Carbon dioxide, Hydrocarbons (mainly acetylene) and ozone
are also present in air.
In liquid state, oxygen and nitrogen form a mixture of two liquids, which are
miscible in all proportions. The liquid mixture can be separated into Oxygen
and Nitrogen by using the property of volatility difference of oxygen &
nitrogen. Nitrogen (boiling point - 196 o C) is more volatile than Oxygen
(boiling point - 183o C).
The boiling temperatures of the air, nitrogen and oxygen rises with increase
in the pressure. By raising the pressure alone, Air can't be condensed at
ordinary temperature. The maximum temperature at which these gases can
be liquefied is called "Critical Temperature". Above critical temperature, no
gas can be liquefied. The Critical constants of air, nitrogen and oxygen are :
Parameter / Componant
Critical Temperature,

oC

Critical Pressure, Kg/cm2

AIR

OXYGEN

-140.7

-118.9

38.45

51.34

NITROGEN
-147.1
34.6

As the critical temperature of Nitrogen is -147 o C, hence, air has to be


cooled to a temperature of lower than -147 o C to liquefy the same for
separation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 03 - 01

4.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


Nitrogen production unit consists of Air compression, Refrigeration,
Adsorption followed by liquefaction and distillation section.
Cold
(Frigories) is generated by Expansion turbine. All the sections of plant
operating at cryogenic temperatures are housed in a compact well insulated
box called as Cold Box.

4.1

AIR COMPRESSION SECTION


The atmospheric air enters the first stage suction of the three stage
centrifugal Air Compressor 'CENTAC' make of capacity 4500 NM3/Hr
through a suction filter and is discharged at a pressure of 8.0 Kg/cm 2g. An
automatically operated IGV is provided at the suction of compressor to
control inlet air flow and compressor load. An anti-surge valve with a
silencer and an open vent (to atmosphere) has been provided at final
discharge nozzle for protection of the machine from Surging and also to
control the compressor discharge pressure. A set of inter cooler with
moisture separator has been provided after first and second stage to remove
the heat of compression and to drain out the condensate formed in each
stage. An after cooler and moisture separator after third stage discharges
dust and oil free air at 45oC.
2220NM3/hr of compressed air at a pressure of 7.8 Kg/cm 2g is supplied to
the Refinery Service Air header through 40PC2203.

4.2

REFRIGERATION SECTION
Air from the compressor discharge @ 2230 NM 3/Hr is cooled to a
temperature of 10o C for the removal of moisture to the maximum possible
extent. This is achieved by passing the air through the Refrigeration
Evaporator 40-E-12. Refrigerant (Freon-22) is evaporated in 40-E-12 to cool
the air to a temperature of 10o C. The cooled air enters into a moisture
separator (40-B-1), where the condensed water gets separated from the air
and is periodically removed through an air trap.
The Refrigeration system consists of Freon Compressor with Oil separator
(one running, one standby), Condenser (water-cooled), Suction liquid heat
exchanger (double pipe type) and evaporating cooler.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 01

4.3

AIR PURIFICATION SECTION


Cooled Air @ 2230 NM3/Hr at a temperature of 10o C and pressure of 7.8
Kg/cm2g enters the bottom of the Adsorber to remove the Moisture and
Hydrocarbons. This section consists of two Adsorbers, while one is under
adsorption, the other is under regeneration. Each Adsorbers has a bottom
layer of activated Alumina (400 KGs of 2-5 mm diameter balls) and top layer
of molecular sieve (650 KGs of 1/16" Pellets). The height and volume of
Alumina bed is 680 mm and 0.565 M3 respectively. The height and volume
of molecular sieve bed is 1540 mm and 0.985 M 3. Moisture is removed by
activated Alumina and CO2 & Hydrocarbons are removed by molecular
sieve at 10oC. The air from the Adsorbers is dry and free from CO 2. The
regeneration of the Adsorber is done with waste nitrogen (WN2) flowing from
top to bottom @ 385 NM3/Hr at a pressure of 0.5 Kg/cm2 g.
The dry air then passes through one of the two post filters 40-F-3A/B (one in
line) to remove any dirt/dust/oil mist. When the differential pressure across
the filter exceeds ------ mm WC, the filter should be changed to standby one.
An on-line CO2 analyser 40AI2224 has been provided at common outlet of
post filters to monitor CO2 content in feed to the cold box.
The dry air with dew point of -40 oC is sent to Cold Box. A stream of dry air
(360 NM3/Hr) is used in CRU process through 40PC2230.
There is a provision to send the dry air to
- Expansion turbine as seal gas
- N2 plant instrument air
- Air for deriming
- Adsorbers for regeneration during start up.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 02

4.4

LIQUEFACTION AND FRACTIONATION SECTION

4.4.1 COLD BOX


The dry and purified air (1870 NM 3/Hr at 10 oC and 7.8 Kg/cm2g) is sent to
the cold box which houses the liquefaction & fractionation sections. All the
equipment of liquefaction and fractionation section (40-E-1, 40-K-1, 40-E4 and 40-D-1) are enclosed within Cold Box to minimise the loss of cold to
atmosphere. It contains all the elements, pipes, valves and accessories
operating at low temperature and requiring thermal insulation. Slag wool is
provided as insulating material inside cold box. A dry gaseous nitrogen
purge at a pressure of 0.1 - 0.2 Kg/cm 2g is maintained inside the cold box
by supplying nitrogen through Rotameter (40FCV2250) to prevent moisture
ingress into the slag wool. 40PSV114 provided on top of cold box, protects
the box from over pressurisation.

4.4.2 EXCHANGER (40-E-1)


The dry and purified air (1870 NM 3/Hr at 10o C and 7.8 Kg/cm2g) is cooled
and partially liquefied at -167 o C (Pressure 7.5 Kg/cm2g) in a special plate
type exchanger 40-E-1 installed inside the cold box.
Air is cooled against three cold streams
- Product Nitrogen gas
- Waste Nitrogen LP (ex Expansion Turbine)
- Waste Nitrogen MP (ex 40-E-4).
The flow, temperature and pressure of the various streams of the Exchanger
40-E-1 are as under:

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 03

Item

Units

Flow
Operating
Pressure
Temp. at warm
end
Temp. at cold end
Heat Load

NM3/Hr
Kg/cm2g
oC
oC
Kcal/Hr

Air
1,820

Fluid
Pure N2 WN2(LP) WN2(MP)
500
1,270
1,200

7.4

7.08

0.32

3.5

15

13

13

-150

-166.7

-171.6

-179.2

-173.6

90,636

26,418

64,218

9,585

4.4.3 FRACTIONATING COLUMN & VAPORISER CONDENSER


The fractionating column 40-K-1 is a Medium Pressure column made of
Stainless Steel and has 70 nos. aluminum trays of diameter 500 mm packed
one over another with a spacing of 80 mm. The air at -167 oC and 7.5
Kg/cm2g enters at the bottom of the column below the 1st tray.
At the top of the M.P. column a vaporiser-condenser 40-E-4 is placed. The
tube side of 40-E-4 is connected with 40-K-1 & acts as a condenser for the
column. The shell side of 40-E-4 acts as vaporiser, where the oxygen rich
liquid vaporises at pressure 3.4 Kg/cm 2g and removes the heat from the
tube side (top of M.P. column). The shell side of 40-E-4 is called lowpressure column. Through the bed of trays of M.P column, the rising
vapours of treated air gets purer and purer in nitrogen while the reflux liquid
flowing down gets richer and richer in oxygen until forming a "Rich Liquid"
having an oxygen content of about 29 % collected in the M.P. Column vat.
The Rich liquid from the M.P. column bottom under level control 40LC2241 is
transferred to the shell side of the vaporiser 40-E-4. In 40-E-4 shell side,
this liquid vaporises as the pressure in shell is at 3.4 Kg/cm 2g. The latent
heat of vaporization is taken from the liquid itself and thus cooling the tube
side i.e., top of M.P. column and thereby condensing the nitrogen vapours.
The condensed liquid nitrogen at the top ensures the reflux.

The pure gaseous nitrogen comes out from the top of the condenser at 7.4
Kg/cm2g and at -167.2 o C. A part of liquid nitrogen is drawn off as product
through the 40LC2242 and is received in liquid Nitrogen cold converters 40-

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 04

LIN-1 & 2. 40LC2242 control the level of Rich liquid bath of vaporiser 40E-4.
The flow, temperature and pressure of shell and tube sides of the 40-E-4 are
as under:
Stream

Units

Shell Side
Rich Liquid

Tube side
Pure N2

NM3/Hr
NM3/Hr

1,270

1907

---

1,407

NM3/Hr
Kg/cm2g

1,270

500

3.4

7.4

oC

-173.6

-171.6

Kcal/Hr

67,467

67,467

Fluid
Flow Rate (Total)
Liquid flow
Vapour flow
Operating pressure
Operating Temp.
Heat Load

4.4.4 EXPANSION TURBINE (40-D-1)


The loss of cold during normal operation is balanced by the cold generated
by expansion Turbine (40-D-1). Waste nitrogen coming from the top of the
rich liquid bath (L.P. column) at 3.4 Kg/cm 2g drives the turbine and is
expanded through the turbine upto 0.5 Kg/cm 2g. The drop in head of this
gas is transferred into mechanical energy, which is absorbed by an oil brake.
As per the requirement of Gaseous/ Liquid nitrogen production, the waste
nitrogen feed to the turbine is adjusted through 40PC2243. The high level in
40-E-4 (Rich Liquid level 40LC2242) will close 40LC2241, 40LC2242 and
open 40PC2243 besides it will trip the expansion turbine. The impure
nitrogen expanded to about 0.5 Kg/cm 2g and -179 oC, passes through 40-E1 to balance the loss of cold, necessary to operate the plant continuously
under required conditions.

4.5

PRODUCT STORAGE & SUPPLY


The gaseous nitrogen is withdrawn (7.4 Kg/cm 2g and temp. 13 oC) from the
system after exchanging its Frigories in exchanger 40-E-1 through
40FC2222. 40FC2222 is a split range controller with two control valves A &
B. 40FV2222A opens from 0-50% and is connected with the product line,

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 05

and 40FV2222B opens from 50-100% and is connected with the impure
nitrogen line for venting. An on-line oxygen analyser 40AI2219 monitors the
oxygen content of Nitrogen gas. When the oxygen level goes above 3.0
PPM, 40AI2219 will open 40FV2222B for venting the impure nitrogen and
close 40LC2242 for stopping liquid nitrogen withdrawal.

4.5.1 COLD CONVERTERS


There are four numbers of Vessels each of capacity 50 KL to store liquid
nitrogen two nos. supplied by BHPV and the other two by INOX. It is a
concentric vessel . The inner one is made of SS and outer one is made of
CS. The gap between the two is filled with Perlite (insulating material) with a
vacuum of 50-100 mm Hg. The inside working pressure is 7.5 Kg/cm 2g and
working temperature is -196 oC. The inlet and outlet lines are at the top of
the Converter, but the outlet line is lowered upto the bottom surface. To
bring up converters pressure, a stream of liquid nitrogen through a vaporiser
(called as pressurisation coil) and a pressure regulator going back to the
converter top is provided. The converters have been provided with a level
indication in control room, level gauge and pressure gauge. A vent pipe has
been provided to purge the nitrogen vapours during receipt as well as during
idling of converters to maintain the pressure within the limits. PSV has been
provided to take care of the excess pressure.

4.5.2 ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER


The liquid nitrogen from the cold converters is kept lined up with the gaseous
nitrogen through the atmospheric vaporiser. The atmospheric vaporiser
vaporises liquid nitrogen by taking heat from the atmosphere. There are two
sets of vaporiser (one operating, one standby) of capacity 1000 NM 3/Hr.
The operating pressure of the atmospheric vaporiser is 7.0 Kg/cm 2g.

The atmospheric vaporiser is designed to vaporise liquid nitrogen (in the


range of
-196 to 10 oC) to gaseous nitrogen at a temperature of 10 oC
below the ambient. These vaporisers are of SS finned tubes and are
supplied by 'CRYOQUIP' USA.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 06

The atmospheric vaporiser is designed to vaporise liquid nitrogen (in the


range of
-196 to 10 oC) to gaseous nitrogen at a temperature of 10 oC
below the ambient. These vaporisers are of SS finned tubes and are
supplied by 'CRYOQUIP' USA.

4.5.3 NITROGEN BOOSTER COMPRESSOR


Two numbers of Nitrogen booster compressors (one running, one standby)
has been provided to supply Nitrogen at about 12.0 Kg/cm 2g pressure to
CRU through Nitrogen header - II. This is a single stage reciprocating
compressor of capacity 120 NM3/Hr. The compressor boosts the pressure
from 7.0 Kg/cm2g to 12.0 Kg/cm2g.
A Gaseous nitrogen vessel of capacity 10 M 3 has been provided in the
discharge line of Nitrogen Booster Compressor. This vessel acts as a buffer
vessel and take care of the varying consumption of Nitrogen.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 04 - 07

5.0 REGENERATION OF ADSORBERS


Adsorbers after approx. four hours of adsorption period becomes saturated
with the impurities like water, Carbon dioxide, acetylene and other
hydrocarbons. These impurities need to be purged out to make the
adsorbent effective again. The purging of impurities is done by waste
nitrogen gas heated to a temperature of approx. 150 oC in regeneration
heater 40-E-16. It is an electrical heater of 30 kW designed to heat up 385
NM3/Hr. of waste nitrogen for the regeneration of Adsorbers from 8 oC to
150 oC.
The cycle of Adsorption and Regeneration each of four hours, is performed
by an automatic positioner called cyclomatic device. The complete cycle of
adsorption and regeneration is performed in 14 steps in 8 hours duration.

5.1

STEPS OF REGENERATIONS:
The steps involved and the valves status during adsorption and regeneration
of the Adsorbers is as given below in the table:
STATUS OF CYCLOMATIC VALVES DURING

STEP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

ADSORPTION & REGENERATION


ADSORBER, R-1 ADSORBER, R-2 A E C J L
ADSORPTION
ISOLATED
O O C C C
ADSORPTION
DEPRESSURISATION O O C C C
ADSORPTION
BLOWING
O O C C C
ADSORPTION
HEATING ( 1 hr. )
O O C C C
ADSORPTION
COOLING (2 1/2 hrs)
O O C C C
ADSORPTION
ISOLATION
O O C C C
ADSORPTION
PRESSURISATION
O O C C C

N D B F H K M P

C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C O C
ISOLATION
ADSORPTION
C C C C C C C O
DEPRESSURISATION ADSORPTION
C C C O C C C O
BLOWING
ADSORPTION
C C O C O O C O
HEATING ( 1 hr. )
ADSORPTION
C C C C O O C O
COOLING ( 2 1/2 hrs.) ADSORPTION
C C C C O O C O
ISOLATION
ADSORPTION
C C C C C C C O
PRESSURISATION
ADSORPTION
C C C C C C O O
CYCLIC OPERATION CONTINUES AS PER STEP No. 1 TO 14.

O : OPEN

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

O
O
O
O
O
O
O

C C C
C O C
O C O
C C O
C C O
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C
C C C

: CLOSE

A to P are CYCLOMATIC VALVES NUMBERED AS KV2201A to P (total


13).
Note: Ensure the cooling and heating peaks of the absorbers during its
regeneration. Incase if the peaks are not satisfactory bottle up the nitrogen
plant as per procedure and wait for the peaks to normalize.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-D

N2- 05 - 01

C
C

O
O
O
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

NOTES:
1. During the adsorption, the flow of air is from bottom to top where as in
regeneration the flow of waste nitrogen is from top to bottom.
2. Depressurisation IS COMPLETE ONLY WHEN pre-set TIME HAS
ELAPSED AND pressure IN ADSORBER IS LESS THAN pre-set VALUE AS
SENSED BY PSL-2215/2216*
3. Blowing is done with waste nitrogen WN2 through E-16 and will be
complete only when pre-set time has elapsed.
4. During Heating step, heater E-16 gets switched ON when WN2 flow of
385 NM3/Hr (as sensed by FSL-2217B) and indicated by 40FI2217 is
established. WN2 temperature at E-16 outlet is maintained at 150 oC.
Heating cycle continues till heating period has completed its pre-set time
(one hour) and temperature at Adsorber outlet has reached the pre-set limit
sensed by TSH-2214 B.
5. During cooling step, heater E-16 gets switched off. Flow of WN2 is
maintained at 385 NM3/Hr. Cooling step is completed after the completion of
pre-set time (2hrs. 30 minutes) and temperature after the Adsorbers has
reached the pre-set limit sensed by TSL-2214 B.
6. Pressurisation step is complete when pre-set time has elapsed and the
differential pressure between the Adsorbers is less than the pre-set value
(0.2 Kg/cm2) as sensed by PDSL-2207/2208*.
* Tags are for Adsorber R-2
FLOW SAFETY ON THE REGENERATION GAS:
FSL2217B ensures a minimum flow of 385 NM 3/Hr of WN2 during heating
step, If the flow decreases below this set limit, it will give an alarm
FAL2217B. During the heating step, it stops the heating in a time lag of 3-5
minutes if the flow is not established.
TEMP. SAFETY ON THE REGENERATION GAS:
It is foreseen a safety minimum +100 o C and another safety maximum
+300oC on the regeneration gas in automatic/manual operation. The safety
Maximum TSHH2209B causes an alarm and makes dead the resistance of
the Heater.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 05- 02

EXCEPTIONAL REGENERATION OF CYCLOMATIC ADSORBERS


Purpose:
To remove the excess moisture completely from the molecular sieve bed,
which is designed to preferentially adsorb CO2.
Data:
Design flow through adsorber beds: 1870+360 = 2230 nm3/Hr
Adsorption/regeneration cycle time
= 4 hours
Design flow for exceptional regeneration
= (2230 * 4)/24 = 371 nm3/Hr
Temperature at adsorber inlet
= 240 deg C
Duration for each bed
= 24 hours
Heating
= 17 hours
Cooling
= 7 hours
Adsorber sequence
= Manual
Procedure:
1 Ensure that Freon refrigeration section is running and air outlet
temperature is <15 deg C
2 Ensure proper flow through chiller to enable vaporization
3 Restrict flow through adsorber to be only 365-375 nm3/Hr
4 Ensure that there is no consumption through the adsorber other than
regeneration i.e all the air through the adsorber in line is to be routed to
the regeneration of the other
5 Put the adsorber timer sequence in Manual mode
6 Adsorber inlet temperature through heater should not exceed 240 deg C
7 Heating time through the adsorber should be 61200 seconds
8 Ensure that the adsorber outlet temperature does not cross 180 deg C
9 After the fixed time duration change the sequence manually to cooling
mode
10 Cooling time through the adsorber should be 25200 seconds
11 After completion of the cooling step proceed through the other steps
manually to bring the other adsorber in regeneration
12 Repeat the same process for the other adsorber
p.s:
Check the outlet of each adsorber after exceptional regeneration for
presence of CO2. If found, repeat the 24 hour procedure for that bed.
Reliability of the online CO2 analyser to be checked before operation

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 05- 03

6.0 AIR COMPRESSOR


It is a three stage centrifugal compressor (CENTAC make). The compressor
and driver are direct coupled and the entire unit is mounted on a common
base plate with its own lube system, control system and auxiliaries. The
compressor contains compression stages consisting of an impeller mounted
on its own shaft, enclosed within a common cast iron casting. Each rotor
consists of an integral pinion gear driven at its optimum speed by a common
bullgear. The bullgear is directly driven by the main driver. The seals behind
each impeller are of the floating carbon ring type. Buffer air is provided to
supply air to the oil seals assuring that lube oil is not drawn past the seals,
thus supplying oil free air. Stand by unit is also provided.
The Main drive of the air compressor is a 650 kW (absorbed power 538 kW)
Squirrel cage High voltage (6.6 KV) BHEL make induction motor.
A common forced lubrication system is provided for the motor (I/B and O/B
bearings) and compressor. Motor inboard and outboard bearings have been
provided with temperature gauges as well as temperature indications. Motor
winding too has been provided with Six numbers of temperature indications.
Compressor each stage has a vibration indication, high vibration alarm and
trip on high-high vibration.

6.1

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The lubrication system for the compressor is completely self contained and
mounted on the base plate. Oil is drawn from the oil reservoir located in the
base plate and passes through the oil pump. Two oil pumps are provided a
pre-lube pump and a main oil pump. The pre-lube oil pump, driven by an
electric motor, serves to prime the main oil pump and flood the compressor
bearings and oil lines before the compressor starts. The prelube pump
starts when the control panel is energized (turn on the switch which will start
the panel as well as POP) and runs until the compressor is up to speed and
the main oil pump develops oil pressure. The prelube pump stops
automatically between 15 - 40 seconds of the start of the compressor as per
the timer setting. The timer setting should be long enough to keep the pump
running until the compressor has reached full operating speed. When the
unit trips on the shutdown cycle, the prelube pump will start immediately and
will continue to run until the panel is de-energised.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 01

After the compressor stops, the prelube pump should be allowed to run 20 to
30 minutes to cool down the compressor bearings. Seal air pressure
transmitter interlock prevents the prelube pump from operating if seal air
pressure is not established.
The main lube oil pump is a positive displacement type pump driven by the
main shaft. The oil from prelube pump / main oil pump is cooled in the dual
oil cooler and filtered in dual oil filter. The oil temperature is controlled by
adjusting the water flow at the discharge of the cooler. Enough water has to
flow through the oil cooler to maintain a normal operating temperature of 40
oC to 45 o C to the compressor bearings. The oil filter has 10 micron treated
paper element. The main pump discharge pressure is controlled by a relief
valve down stream of the oil filter. In the event of stopping the main driver or
power failure, the main oil pump will continue to supply oil to the bearing and
gears during coast down.
The oil pumps are equipped with an inlet strainer for protection against
foreign particles. Check valves in the discharge line of the prelube pump
and on the inlet of the main pump are provided to prevent reverse flow
through the pumps.
Relief valve allows the input pressure to the compressor to be raised or
lowered by adjusting the valve setting. A stream of the oil goes to both the
bearings of the motor through RO. The remaining oil passes through the
compressor bearings and drains into the reservoir. Low oil pressure
protection is provided by a pressure-sensing device that will trip the unit and
light the alarm light. Abnormal oil temperature protection is provided by
temperature sensing device set to trip the unit and light the alarm light. The
same device acts as interlock to prevent the unit from being started if oil
temperature is below the minimum. A wet element type 4 kW (415 volts)
lube oil reservoir heater is supplied to ensure adequate oil temperature for
compressor start up. An oil temperature control device is supplied that
automatically regulates proper oil temperature to the bearings by mixing hot
and cold oil at the oil cooler.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 02

The lube oil used in the compressor must meet the following specifications
Viscosity at 100 oF ( ASTM D-88 )
Flash Point, Open Cup ( ASTM D-92 )
Viscosity Index ( ASTM D-2270)
Carbon Residue ( ASTM D-524 )
Steam Emulsion Number ( ASTM D-157 )
Total Acid Number ( ASTM D-974 )
Emulsification ( ASTM D-1401)

6.2

140-170 Cst
370 oF Min.
85 Min.
0.08% Max.
120 Max.
0.15 Max.
30 Minutes

CONTROL SYSTEM
The control system includes all devices necessary for starting and stopping
the compressor, controlling system pressure, and assuring safe operation
with respect to lubrication, vibration and temperature. The basic control
system is designed for constant pressure operation. The control system also
includes a surge-sensing device that protects the compressor from
sustained operation in the unstable surge region. The control system
provided for this compressor is 'AUTO-DUAL CONTROL PANEL'. The 'autodual' control panel functions as the modulate control in the 'modulate' mode,
but has an addition "Modulate + Two Step" control mode.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 03

MODULATE CONTROL
Modulate type of control maintains the system pressure at a constant value,
which is accomplished by throttling the inlet valve within the compressor
throttle range. If the system flow demand is less than the minimum throttled
capacity, constant discharge pressure will be maintained by leaving the
throttled inlet valve at the minimum throttled capacity and venting the rest
through the bypass valve also called the unloading valve.

D
I
S
C
H
A
R
G
E
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

SURGE
LIMIT

100%

UNLOAD

THROTTLE

RANGE

RANGE

0%

CAPACITY

100%

The compressor is at full capacity when the inlet valve (CV-2) is fully open
and the unloading valve (CV-1) is fully closed. At full capacity the
compressor is operating at point "A" on the performance curve and the
controller will send the proper 'full load' signal to CV-1 & CV-2 when at point
"A" on the curve.
As flow demand decreases, constant discharge pressure is maintained by
reducing the flow delivery to the system by throttling the inlet valve (CV-2)
and keeping the unloading valve fully closed. The compressor will follow
flow demand changes between points "A" and "B" by throttling CV-2. As flow
demand is reduced and the maximum inlet throttle range is reached, the
compressor approaches its surge point.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 04

To prevent the compressor from operating within the surge region, the
control signal keeps the CV-2 at the maximum inlet throttle point and meet
the lesser demand by blowing off surplus air through CV-1. The compressor
will follow flow demand between points "B" and "C" by throttling the CV-1.
Throttling the unloading valve provides capacity control from the minimum
throttled capacity to zero capacity requirements.
DUAL CONTROL
'Two Step' type of control operates the compressor between pre-set
pressures and cycles the compressors from full capacity to zero capacity.

D
I
S
C
H
A
R
G
E
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

SURGE
LIMIT

B
A

100%

TWO STEP
RANGE

0%

CAPACITY

100%

Two step is a load - unload type operation and is used when system
demand is less than 50 % of compressor capacity.
When the compressor loads in two steps, it will go to point "D" on the
performance curve. The inlet valve (CV-2) will be fully open and unloading
valve (CV-1) fully closed. As system pressure increases to a value equal to
point "B" on the performance curve, the two step control pressure switch will
cause the compressor to unload (point "C").
The compressor unloads by opening CV-1 and closing CV-2 to a position as
permitted by the unload limit regulator. As system pressure drops to a value

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 05

equal to point "D" on the performance curve the two step control pressure
switch will load the compressor.
AUTO DUAL CONTROL
The "auto-dual'" control panel functions the same as the modulate control
panel in the 'Modulate' mode, but has an additional "Modulate + Two Step"
control mode. Selection between Modulate and Auto dual control
(modulate + two step) can be made at the control panel.

D
I
S
C
H
A
R
G
E
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

SURGE
LIMIT

100%

THROTTL
RANGE

0%

CAPACITY

100%

When capacity requirements are within the throttle range of the compressor,
the compressor operates efficiently by automatically throttling the inlet valve
(CV-1) to maintain constant pressure. If capacity requirement decrease
below the maximum throttle range, the compressor will unload. When
system pressure decreases to a pre-set cut-in-pressure, the compressor
goes to load condition. The compressor will follow the natural curve to the
constant pressure setting, and will respond to the demand requirements of
the system by remaining at full load or throttling and then unloading.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 06

When the compressor loads in 'modulate + two-step it will go to point "D" on


the performance curve, loading is accomplished by the inlet valve (CV-2) full
opening. The unloading valve (CV-1) will full close. The controller will send
a "full load" signal to the CV-2 inlet valve when operating between points "D"
and "A" on the performance curve.
As system pressure increases to a pressure level equal to point "A", the
controller will then signal CV-2 to throttle. The compressor will continue to
follow system flow demand between points "A" and "B". As flow demand
decreases, the signal to the inlet valve will decrease until point "B" is
reached. At point "B" the unit unloads and operates at point "C". As system
pressure decreases to predetermined level equal to point "D" on the
performance curve, the compressor will reload.
The modulate mode of operation on the auto-dual control panel is often
used when system demand is more than 50 % of the compressor
capacity and fairly constant. The modulate + two-step mode of
operation is used when system demand is unpredictable or varies
significantly.

6.3

AIR COMPRESSOR START UP


Turn on the cooling water supply to oil cooler, inter coolers and after cooler.
Check the instrument air supply to the control panel.
Adjust the seal air regulator to maintain 10 PSIG seal air pressure at the seal
gauge.
Turn on electrical power to the control panel. This will start the prelube
pump.
The oil pressure to compressor casing should read 20 PSIG (nominal).
Check to see that oil is above minimum starting temperature.
Check to see that the inlet valve is closed and unloading valve is open.
Open the block valve in the discharge line.
Adjust the discharge pressure set point to the desired setting.
Check the oil level on the sump it should be above 65%

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 07

Start the compressor.


Oil pressure should increase to approx. 26 PSIG.
Prelube pump should automatically stop within thirty seconds.
If the compressor was started in "unload" mode, it will continue to run not
making pressure until another control mode is selected.
If the compressor was started in an operating mode other than "unload" then
within thirty seconds the discharge pressure will increase to value set on the
controller.
Adjust oil pressure to 26 PSIG. by the relief valve.

6.4

STOPPING THE AIR COMPRESSOR


It can be stopped simply by pushing the "compressor Stop" push button.
The prelube oil pump will start immediately upon compressor shutdown. The
pre- lube pump should be permitted to operate 20 to 30 minutes after the
compressor has stopped. The power to control panel may then be turned
off, stopping the prelube pump.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 08

6.4.1 Air Routing to Merox and precautions:


In a scheme Merox Unit Air Compressor stopped and around 42Nm3/Hr @ a
pressure of 7.2kg/cm2 air is used from CRU Air Compressor discharge for
sweetening of ATF/Kerosene in Merox unit.
Sweetening can be defined as conversion of mercaptan sulphur present in a
hydrocarbon stream to disulphide sulphur without actually reducing sulphur content
of treated stock. The sweetening process is based on the ability of Merox catalyst
to promote the oxidation of mercaptans to disulphides using air as the source of
oxygen. The reaction is as follows:
RSH + NaOH <-> NaSR + H2O
2NaSR + l/2O2 + H2O -> 2NaOH + RSSR

Precaution:
From CRU Air Compressor discharge air is supplied through 40PC-2203.
Pressure at control valve downstream is maintained from 7.2 to 7.4kg/cm2.
However in case if air compressor trips or pressure reduce below 6.5kg/cm2.
Following action to be taken to avoid back flow of ATF/Kerosene in CRU
Air line header:
(1) Inform Merox Unit Operator to close their air Control valve and Block Valve.
(2) Immediately in close Control valve 40PC-2203 from DCS and Merox side Air
Block Valve in pipe rack of N2 Plant.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 08*

Provision of 10 CW header for Nitrogen Generation Plant in CCRU.


1.0 Introduction:
Mathura Refinery has two Nitrogen generation plants, one in CCRU and the other in NewHGU. CCRU nitrogen generation plant came in year 1995 while nitrogen generation unit in
New-HGU unit came in the year 2005. Total nitrogen generation capacity of each nitrogen
generation plant is 600 Nm3/hr in gas mode. Normal Nitrogen consumption of Mathura
Refinery remains around 1000-1200 Nm3/hr. Differential between consumption and
generation helps in Liquid Nitrogen build-up in storage tanks.
Nitrogen Generation Plant in CCRU has two Air Compressors (40-AC-1/40-AC-2), 2 nos.
of Freon Refrigeration Compressors (40X1/X2), Freon Condenser and 2 nos. of Nitrogen
Booster Compressors (40NC1/NC2) consuming cooling water for cooling purposes. Total
water for the existing facilities in the Nitrogen plant comes out to be around 280 m3/hr
(2*108 (air compressor package) + 30 (Freon Condenser) + 2*3 (Freon Refrigeration
Compressors) + 10 (Expansion turbine LOC) + 2*10 (Nitrogen Booster Compressors)). Of
these, each air compressor has two stage coolers, one final cooler and two Lube oil coolers
(1W+1S).
2.0 Present Operation of CCRU Nitrogen Plant Cooling water system:
Cooling water supply to 40AC1 air compressor package is catered by a 6 header from the
south battery limit, which also supplies water to Freon Condenser, expansion turbine LOC
and Nitrogen booster compressors (40-NC-1/2). Cooling water supply to air compressor,
40AC2, is catered by a separate 6 header taken from the North Battery limit, which is the
last point in the main supply header.
The total cooling water requirement of each air compressor package, according to OEM
data sheet, is 108 m3/hr. The air discharge temperature after each stage along with the lube
oil temperature is required to be maintained less than the trip value of 54 deg C. Presently
the cooling water from these exchangers are being drained out (@ 80 m3/hr) to open instead
of being routed to the return header because of compressor tripping at high stage and Lube
oil temperatures. Even with new inter stage cooler bundles the stage outlet temperatures
touch 52-53 deg C in summer months due to insufficient cooling water flow across the
bundles. This was confirmed by measuring the flow with portable Ultrasonic flow meter.
The low cooling water flow may also be due to the additional load in the main 22 Supply
header due to new coolers added during revamps in 2009 & 2013. Though relief of about
500 m3/hr is expected from the main supply header after commissioning of the new PRU
cooling tower, the situation is not expected to improve much with respect to the Nitrogen
plant.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 09*

With the present 6 CW header from south battery limit, pressure in the supply header at
40AC1 compressor inlet was found to be only 2.8 kg/cm2g while pressure in the return
header was 2.4 kg/cm2g. Due to this small difference in pressure between the supply and
return headers, effective flow across Air compressor package was found to be less than 15
m3/hr against the design mentioned earlier. The low pressure differential is also attributed to
the physical location of the nitrogen plant (North B/L), which is farthest from the Supply
header of CCRU (South B/L), resulting in a low supply pressure at the Nitrogen plant and
maximum back pressure in return header Pressure.
3.0 Proposal:
In view of this, a separate 10 header from the Process Cooling Tower Cooling Water
header is to be provided from south battery limit of CCRU for the Nitrogen plant. With New
PCT CW Pumps CW supply pressure in Header is approximately 5.0 Kg/cm2g while CW
return pressure of PCT header is approximately 2.5 Kg/cm2g. Further, there is a
comfortable margin for additional 300 m3/hr from PCT without affecting the supply
parameters to other units. Hook-up from the main supply header at south battery limit in
water block PCT CW pump area can be through hot tapping while the connections to
compressors can be done one after the other. However, hooking up of the new header to the
Freon refrigeration system may require a short time bottling-up of the Nitrogen plant. But
production department done hook job without bottling-up the N2 plant and without
affecting any parameter. Following is the procedure:
3.1 Procedure for Hookup job of New PCT to Interstage Cooler of Air Compressor,
Freon Condenser and Expansion Turbine Condenser.
1
2
3

4
5
6
7

40AC-2 is running with External C.W. Header. Line up 40AC-1 with Internal C.W.
Header. Start 40AC-1 in Venting for checking reliability of Compressor and C/O
40AC-2 to 40AC-1.
Stop 40AC-2 and Isolate External Header for Hookup job from new PCT.
After Hookup and Precommissioning job , C/O to 40AC-2 and Line up Interstage
Cooler of 40AC-2 with New PCT.
For Isolation of Internal Cooling Water Header
Stop 40AC-1 and Isolate C.W. Supply and Return of Interstage Cooler.
For Freon Condenser Provide Temporary C.W. Supply at Strainer B/P Line B/W
Two B/V. and Cooling water O/L will be lineup in Open Drain.
For Expansion Turbine Provide Temporary C.W. Supply at C.W.(S) Drain. And
O/L will be lineup in Open Drain.
After Temporary Connection of C.W. to Interstage Cooler of Air Compressor, Freon
Condenser and Expansion Turbine Condenser, Isolate Internal Cooling Water
Header from at SBL near IFP Furnace. Then Proceed for Hookup job with New
PCT.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 09*

4.0 Cost Estimate:


The total estimated cost for the separate 10 inch cooling water header for Nitrogen plant of
CCRU works out to be ` 124.93 Lacs.

5.0Benefits:
(1)
The facility is proposed for operational reliability and stopping of avoidable loss by
stoppage of open draining of cooling water @ 80 m3/hr from the Air Compressor inter stage
coolers.
(2)
Frequent tripping of air compressor will be reduced and N2 plant operational
reliability will increase

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 09*

6.5

INTERLOCKS
The various interlocks / securities provided on the compressor are:
S.No DESCRIPTION
1
2
3
4

Vibration Stage-1
Vibration Stage-2
Vibration Stage-3
Lube oil supply
Pressure

UNITS

ALERT
TAG VALUE

MIL
VAH-1
MIL
VAH-2
MIL
VAH-3
Kg/cm PAL-2
2g
oC
TAH-1

Lube Oil supply temp.


High
6 Lube Oil supply temp.
oC
Low
oC
7 2nd stage suction
temp.
8 3rd stage suction
oC
temp.
oC
9 3rd stage disch. temp.
+
10 Seal Air pressure
Kg/cm
2g

0.85
0.8
0.8
1.26

TRIP
TAG
VALU
E
VSHH-1 1.05
VSHH-2
1
VSHH-3
1
PSLL-2 1.12

49

TSHH-1

52

TAL-1

21

TSLL-1

18

TAH-2

46

TSHH-2

49

TAH-4

46

TSHH-4

49

TAH-6

49

TSHH-6

52

PAL-1

---

PSLL-1

0.42

The values are given as per the INGERSOLL-RAND Instrument schedule


and settings drawing no. RIN 60880, REV-2 (4 Sheets).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 06 - 09

7.0 REFRIGERATION SECTION


The Refrigeration unit is designed to cool down 2400 NM 3/Hr of compressed
air (8 Kg/cm2 g) from 40 oC to 10 oC. The section consists of Freon
compressor with oil separator (one running, one stand-by), Evaporator,
Condenser (water cooled), Suction Liquid Heat Exchanger (double pipe
type). The section is designed for a load of 39900 Kcal/Hr with refrigerant
circulation rate of 1150 Kg/Hr.
Compressor sucks Freon (Refrigerant) vapours at 4.0 Kg/cm 2g from
evaporator via suction liquid heat exchanger. Compressed Freon-22 gas at
high temperature and pressure is discharged to oil separator, where oil
carried along with discharge gas is separated.
High pressure and temperature Freon gas from oil separator is condensed in
the condenser (Freon condensation temp. is 43 oC at 16.2 Kg/cm2g). It is
further sub-cooled in the suction liquid heat exchanger. This liquid then
passes through thermostatic expansion valve 40TEV4411 to form low
temperature and low pressure liquid with some flash gas. This liquid flows
through the tubes of evaporator where Freon evaporation takes place (Freon
evaporates at 3.95 Kg/cm2g) which cools the air flowing through shell side.
Most of the moisture condenses and collected at the bottom of shell is
drained out periodically. Chilled air is passed through the moisture separator
where further moisture is separated. Freon vapours from the evaporator
passes through the Suction liquid heat exchanger and gets superheated.
These vapours are sucked by the compressor and the cycle repeats.

7.1

REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR
It is a reciprocating, four cylinders, forced lubricated 'Kirloskar' make (GK-25
model) vertical compressor. The compressor is driven by NGEF make 15
kW electrical motor of 1500 rpm through V-belt drive. It has a shaft driven
lube oil pump for the lubrication. A 40-watt crankcase heater powered from
220 Volts AC supply has been provided. The main feature of the compressor
are:

Maximum / operating rpm

: 2000 / 1080.

Cylinder bore dia / stroke

: 70 mm / 55 mm.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 07 - 01

Displacement

: 846 cm3

Theoretical vol. at 1450 rpm

: 73.65 m3/hr

The compressor has been provided with 50% capacity control valve
assembly on cylinder cover. The capacity regulator comprises an electric
solenoid valve, which can be energised, or denergised as per the
refrigeration system load requirements. It works on the principle of cutting
off suction gas to 2 out of 4 cylinders. The ports of solenoid operated valves
are open, when solenoid is not actuated. The suction gas from the
crankcase is sucked into cylinder through solenoid operated valves. When
the solenoid is actuated the ports of the solenoid operated valves are closed
and the suction gas cannot enter into the cylinder through these solenoid
operated valves. Then two pistons reciprocate without compression. Thus
compressor is unloaded to 50 % of the full load.
As the air temperature attains the TSL4417 level, the solenoid is energised
and compressor gets unloaded to 50% of the full load. The compressor will
trip if the air temperature drops to the TSLL4417 level.
The Compressor has been provided with the following interlocks, which will
trip the compressor in case of any fault:
1) Compressor suction pressure low (PSL4415/PSL4425*) at 1.0 Kg/cm 2
2) Compressor discharge pressure high (PSH4416/PSH4426*) at 17.5
Kg/cm2
3) Lube oil pressure low (PSL4414/PSL4424*), it remain bypassed for 0- 60
seconds from compressor starting through a delay timer) at 0.8 Kg/cm 2
4) Condenser cooling water flow-low (FSL4400).
5) Cooled Air temperature (Evaporator outlet) low (TSLL4417) at 3 deg C

Tags for Refrigeration Compressor -2.

For all above trips, annunciation windows indicating the fault are provided in
Local control panel. The ACCEPT push button to be pressed to
acknowledged the fault and silence the hooter.

After the occurrence and rectification of the fault, RESET push button to be
pressed to clear the fault displayed in annunciation window.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 07 - 02

The compressor can be loaded in Auto/Manual mode through a selection


switch. Loading can be done only after the set time of the delay timer has
elapsed. In auto position of selector switch, the loading and unloading of
compressor is achieved by the Cooled Air temperature (40TI4417) through
TSL4417. In manual position of selector switch, loading and unloading is
done by putting the loader switch in loading/unloading position.
A toggle switch has been provided for switching the crankcase heater. With
the toggle switch in ON position the heater is switched on when the
compressor is stopped and switched off when the compressor starts running.
The solenoid valve in the Freon liquid line to evaporator will be
energised/open when the compressor is running.
Four liters of recommended lube oil (Servo Friz F-32) is required for the
compressor.
Details of condenser, evaporator and exchanger are given below in the
table:
Description

FLUID

CONDENSER
EVAPORATOR
Shell
Tube
Shell
R-22
Water
Air

Tube
R-22

FLOW, Kg/Hr

1,375

1,200

3,103

OPERATING TEMP. IN/OUT,


oC
DESIGN TEMP. MAX/MIN,
oC
OPER./DESIGN PRESS.,
Kg/Cm2g
NO. OF PASSES

90/45

33/38

110/-

HEAT LOAD, KCal/Hr

EXCHANGER*

1,150

Shell
Liquid
R-22
1,150

Tube
Gaseous
R-22
1,150

45/10

5/5

45/42

6.7/12.2

65/-

65/10

30/0

65/4

65/4

16.7/19

4/5

8/8

5/19

16.6/19

4/19

1
114 Tubes

8152
Tubes

62,645

39,860

---

The values are given as per the INGERSOLL-RAND Instrument schedule and settings drawing no. RIN
60880, REV-2 (4 Sheets).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 07 - 03

7.2

STARTING PROCEDURE
- Fill the Freon till suction header pressure is 2.0 Kg/cm 2g.
- Establish CW flow through the condenser and compressor jacket.
- Check compressor oil level, oil level in idle condition is 3/4th of the sight
glass.
- Establish air flow through evaporator.
- Check the local panel for the lamp indication "Interlock OK." glowing.
- Open compressor discharge valve, condenser inlet valve.
- Open compressor suction valve partially.
- Start the compressor and observe oil pressure Compressor will build up oil
pressure in 20-40 seconds. Observe compressor running sound, motor
current and drop in suction pressure.

7.3

When liquid solenoid valve energises, suction valve to be opened fully.


Observe HP (discharge pressure), LP (suction pressure) and OP (oil
pressure) when compressor is stabilized. Switch off capacity controls
solenoid valve so as to load compressor to 100%. While switching off
capacity control solenoid valve, make sure that the motor current does not
exceed the rated current.

STOPPING PROCEDURE
- Switch off liquid line solenoid valve.
- Stop the compressor.
- Close suction and discharge valve.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 07 - 04

7.4

TROUBLE SHOOTING
CONDENSER
High head pressure due to :
1) Sealed condenser tubes
2) Refrigerant overcharge
3) Non condensable

EVAPORATOR
The following symptoms show refrigerant shortage in evaporator:
1) Low suction pressure.
2) Bubbles in sight glass.
3) High expansion valve superheat.
4) Temperature drops in liquid line (due to restriction).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 07 - 05

8.0 EXPANSION TURBINE


The turbo-expander system designed for the application as cold producer
in Nitrogen generator is supplied by CRYOSTAR, FRANCE. The system
consists of an expander and oil brake system, which transforms the head
drop into mechanical energy, which is absorbed by an oil brake. The system
is designed to produce cold of 20 kW.
Process gas enters the expander (through 3" process line) through inlet
screen F-1 (35 mesh screen of 560 mic/m to protect the expander against
dirt or CO2 separation) and trip valve SDV-2253. SDV-2253 is a quick action
trip valve to close in one second. The opening should take about 5 seconds
to prevent heavy shocks on nozzle. The inlet flow to the expander is
controlled by HIC-2254. HIC operation can be done either from the local
panel or from the control room and the output to the control will be through
LSS-2254. Expander inlet and outlet pressures are indicated by PI-2251 and
PI-2256. Expander inlet and outlet temperatures are indicated by TI-2252 &
TI-2255. Speed of the turbine is measured by SE-2251 and is indicated by
SI-2251 in the main control room. Normal operating speed of the turbine is
43000 rpm, maximum continuous speed 45,100 rpm. High-speed alarm will
appear at 46,250 by SSH-2251 and the machine will trip at high speed of
47,400 rpm and will be alarmed by SSHH-2251. Very low speed of 5000 rpm
(SSLL-225) will also trip the machine. Main operating parameters of the
expansion turbine are:
Sr No

PARAMETER

UNIT

MODE-1

MODE-II

MODE-III

KG/CM2G
KG/CM2G

3.57

3.57

3.57

0.37

0.37

0.37

INLET PRESSURE

OUTLET PRESSURE

INLET TEMP.

oC

-150

-150

15

OUTLET TEMP.

oC

-179.64

-179

-44.86

FLOW RATE

1,540

1,200

950

6
7
8
9
10

EFFICIENCY
COLD PRODUCTION
SHAFT SPEED
FLOW RANGE
NOZZLE OPENING

NM3/HR
%
KW
RPM
%
MM2

81
15.34
39,700
0-100
353.78

79
11.66
36,000
0-100
275.1

71
20.34
43,000
0-100
341.85

Mode-III is for maximum cold generation during start-up period.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 08 - 01

8.1

LUBE OIL SYSTEM


(The tag numbers are from CRYOSTAR original P&ID)
The system consists of an oil tank of capacity 300 liters provided with
heater EH-5 of 1.5 kW with a thermostat of 30-110 oC. Tank temperature is
measured by TI-5 and is normally in the range of 45-55 oC. High-high temp.
of 90 oC as sensed by TSHH-5 will cut off the heater. Reservoir low level
alarm will by given by LSL-5 in case of level fall of 2 cm below the normal
level. Lube oil filling point is provided with a filter F-5A (degree of filtration
500 mic.).
Self priming oil pump (Screw pump) OP-6 of capacity 109 lpm (discharge
pressure 15Kg/cm2g) is provided with electric motor EM-6 of 4 kW (2900
rpm) and an integrated relief valve. The lube oil is cooled in the oil cooler C-6
of capacity equivalent to 40 kW. Cooler outlet temperature is maintained at
35 oC by (self regulating TCV-6 having a range of 29-41 oC) partial by
passing of oil flow through the cooler. The outlet temperature is indicated by
TI-8.
The cooled oil is filtered in duplex oil filter F-7 (degree of filtration 25 mic).
Pressure drop across the filter is measured by PDI-7. The normal pressure
drop is 0.5 Kg/Cm2 whereas red pointer at 4.2 Kg/Cm 2 indicates highpressure drop. At filter outlet pressure is maintained at 8 Kg/Cm 2g by a selfregulating valve PCV-8. The excess oil will get circulation to the tank through
PCV-8. Oil header pressure is indicated by PI-8. PSL-8 will low pressure
alarm at 7.0 Kg/Cm2g and PSLL-8 will trip the turbine at 6.5 Kg/Cm 2g.
Oil at pressure of 8 Kg/Cm 2g and temperature of 35 oC flows to the
bearings installed on both sides of the brake system.
The oil flow to the brake system flows through FCV-9. The oil brake is an
integral part of the bearing lubrication circuit. Absorbed power adjustment is
given by variation of oil flow through the brake. Oil return from the system
goes back to the tank. Its temperature is indicated by TI-9. The normal lube
oil exit temperature is indicated by TI-9 and shall be in the normal range of
45-55 oC. Independent temp. switch TSH-9 will alarm at 70 oC whereas
TSHH-9 will trip the machine at 75 oC.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-D

N2- 08 - 02

The lube oil used in the Turbine must meet the following specifications:
Viscosity at 40 oC ( ASTM D-445 )
Viscosity at 100 oC ( ASTM D-445 )

22 cst

Viscosity Index ( ASTM D-2270)


Flash Point, Open Cup ( ASTM D-92 )

113

Pour Point (ASTM D-97)


Specific Gravity at 15 oC (DIN 51757)
Aniline Point (ASTM D-611)
Desemulsibility ( ASTM D-1401 )
Foaming, sequence 1 (ASTM D-892)

8.2

4.6 cst
202 oC Min.
-30 oC
0.864 g/cc
100 oC
40/40/0 ml, 15 mn
0/0 ml/ml

SEAL GAS SYSTEM


The seal gas system prevents the lube oil from entering the process stream.
This gas is supplied between the expander wheel and the bearing, thus not
allowing the lube oil to migrate into the process stream. Either dry air or
nitrogen gas at pressure of 3 to 7 Kg/cm 2g is reduced to pressure of 2.5
Kg/cm2g through self regulating PCV-11 and its pressure is indicated by PI11A. PSL-11 will appear at low pressure of 2.0 Kg/cm 2g. The gas enters the
system through a 3/8" connection and the normal flow is 1-2 NM 3/hr.
Local panel is provided with two heaters, each of 90 watt and powered with
110 Volts. Turbine emergency stop from control room is provided through
HS-2251 switch. UAH-2251 and UAHH-2251 are provided as common
alarm and trip alarm in the control room.

8.3

PROCEDURE'S
START UP PROCEDURE
PRELIMINARY CHECKS:
Check inlet screen on process side is installed.
Check turbine rotor for free rotation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 08 - 03

Clean lubricating system.


Clean and check cooling water system. Open block valves and cooling water
supply and return line.
Fill oil reservoir with specified oil.
Check seal gas system.
Check vent system of turbine and oil tank.
Check and operate nozzle actuator DAC/HY 1.
Check and operate quick shut off valve SDV-2253.
Check set points for the different instruments.
Seal Gas System:
Adjust seal gas pressure for quick shut-off valve SDV-2253 and nozzle
actuator HY-1.
Open seal gas block valve. The seal gas must be dry and clean.
Adjust seal gas pressure with PCV-11.
Check set point of seal gas pressure switch PSL-11.
Lube Oil System :
If lube oil temperature is below 20 oC, switch on heater EH-5 until the lube
oil temperature reaches at least 20 oC. If oil temperature is above 20 oC,
switch off the heater.
Start lube oil pump OP-6 (motor direction CW looking onto motor fan).
Keep lube oil pump running for atleast 30 minutes prior to start turbine.
Adjustment of lube oil pressure.
Open flow control valve FCV-9 on brake oil circuit.
Check shut down set points.
Adjust lube oil pressure with PCV-8 to have normal pressure of 8.0 Kg/Cm 2g
on PI-8.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 08 - 04

Check pressure drop across filter F-7, if high change the filter.
Check that bearing oil outlet temperature is about inlet temp.
Check lube oil system for leaks.
Expander Start-up
Bring seal gas and lube oil system into operation.
Open block valves to turbine inlet and outlet.
Check that no alarm lamp is on.
Check that nozzles are closed.
Depress turbine reset. Push start button to open quick shut-off valve UV2806.
Open the nozzles slowly to the point where the turbine starts to rotate.
Close drain valve on turbine casing.
Check if the turbine running is normal (no abnormal noise).
Increase turbine speed gradually by opening the nozzles.
Adjust brake load by flow variation through brake control valve FCV9.
Observe that all parameters are within the limits.
STEADY STATE OPERATION
Operate nozzles and oil brake, as cold production requires.
Do not operate the expander/oil brake under conditions, which lead to
excessive thrust load (high process pressure).
Check complete operating system for oil leaks, seal gas leaks, water leaks,
and product leakage regularly.

Maintain reservoir oil level at the level

indicated on the reservoir sight glass LG5.


Check lube oil filter pressure drop PDI7 regularly.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 08 - 05

EXPANDER SHUT DOWN


Close in gradually turbine nozzles.
Press "Expander Stop" button.

Quick shut-off valve UV2806 closes

automatically.
Close block valves to turbine.
Open drain valve on turbine casing.
Shut seal gas supply only after the oil outlet temperature TI9 is above 20 o
C.
NOTE:
Oil pump OP-6 to be switched off after a minimum period of 30 minutes in
case if the turbine is going to be shut for a longer period. Prior to restart
the expander must be thawed.
CAUTION !
In case the turbine is stopped in cold condition (no seal gas, power failure
etc...) The cold creeps from turbine towards the turbine side bearing and the
expander bearing will freeze. Start up of the turbine under these conditions
will lead to a bearing failure because in addition to the above, the oil supply
holes will also get blocked by frozen oil.

Importance of QSV and Caution before Cold Box Turbine startup:


Earlier before March 2014 QSV operation was from local panel. Now QSV
selector switch for Normal and By pass condition is provided on Hardwire
panel of control room.
Normal position is selection before turbine start up. Initially turbine I/L will
close. The opening should take about 5 seconds to prevent heavy shocks on
nozzle.
Bypass position is selection while doing deriming of turbine path to forcefully
open the inlet nozzle.
After deriming of Turbine path put QSV in Normal position. Ensure on DCS
and in field before Turbine startup.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 08 - 06

9.0 START UP OF PLANT


Nitrogen plant pre-commissioning and commissioning activities involves:
1. Preparation of Adsorbers.
2. Drying of the circuits.
3. Putting in cold before placing insulation.
4. Checking and tightening of bolted joints inside the cold box.
5. Insulation inside the cold box.
6. Final start-up.

9.1

PREPARATION OF ADSORBERS:
Preparation of adsorbers involves Blowing of the adsorbers, Catalyst
loading and regeneration. Blowing is done to remove dust and dirt from the
system using instrument air. The catalyst loading is done with care using a
funnel (chute) to prevent damage to adsorbent by free fall. The adsorbent
must imperatively be regenerated before being put into service.

9.2

DRYING OF THE CIRCUITS (COLD BOX)


Drying is done to remove moisture and dirt/dust from the system. This is
done with low pressure dry and warm air (80 o C) obtained from deriming
heater. Air from deriming heater is supplied to the cold box at different
defrosting inlet points through the flexible hoses available at the cold box.
The whole circuit is to be dried part by part.
Before starting the drying, all valves, drains, manometers, gauges, analyser,
flow meters, expansion turbine valves will have to be shut.
Before sending the air towards the cold box, the Expansion Turbine is set in
good starting conditions viz. seal gas in service and lube circuit in operation.

Each and every circuit will be checked and dried, until air outlet temperature
at each end reaches 50-60 o C. The outlet pressure of the warm air should
not exceed 0.5 Kg/cm2g. The drying is finished when the last air outlet is

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

N2- 09 - 01

PART-D

warm. After completion of drying of a circuit, shut all its outlets and mark with
red marker before putting another circuit into drying.

9.3

PUTTING IN COLD (before placing the Insulation)


The aim of this operation is to inspect the expansion and contraction of
different joints at low temperature.
Two cooling may be necessary, with tightening of the bolted joints after each
cooling.
9.3.1 START UP OF THE UNIT
Air Compressor System.
Start the air compressor with vent valve open on manual as per the
compressor start-up procedure given in chapter 6.
Open the vent valve VAG-02 upstream of the adsorbers.
Slowly load the compressor by closing the vent valve. Bring up the system
pressure to 8.0 Kg/cm2g.
Refrigeration Section.
Start the Refrigeration section as given in chapter 7.
Start the compressor & open the condenser outlet valve as pressure builds
up. Check that the lube oil pressure is normal (7-8 Kg/cm 2g).
Establish the Freon circulation in the system. When refrigeration circuit is
established, air temperature at the evaporator outlet will start coming down
slowly. Line up the moisture draining facility in the separator.
Drying Section.
Keep adsorbers 40-R-1/2 in regenerated condition using available
instrument air.
Switch on the cyclomatic device and take in manual mode.
See that 40-R-2 is in adsorption cycle and 40-R-1 is in regeneration cycle.
Slowly throttle the vent valve VAG-02 (u/s of adsorber) to get some air flow
through 40-R-2 and allow it to flow through vent stack 40-E-15 via dilution

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 09 - 02

line by opening valve VAG-14 & VAD-03.


Manually change the regeneration steps as per requirement for 40-R-1.
Check the air sample at the outlet of post filters, when air dew point is -40 o
C, route the dry air to Cold Box slowly. For heating/cooling steps, open
valve VAG-06 to get airflow of about 385 NM 3/HR in 40-E-16 by adjusting
VAD-03.

Cold Box
Open start up bypass valve WAG-05 (Air to expansion turbine).
Open 1" diameter air inlet valve (VAG-03F) to cold box slowly to obtain M.P.
column pressure (40PC2243) to 2-3 Kg/cm 2g.
Start the expansion turbine as given in chapter 8.
Adjust turbine outlet pressure to 0.5 Kg/cm 2g by adjusting waste nitrogen
header pressure control valve (40PC2218).
Shut the dry air for adsorber regeneration valve (VAG-06) and open waste
nitrogen to adsorber valve (VNR-10).
Pressurize the M.P. column (40-K-1) to 7.4 Kg/cm 2g slowly by opening the
main air inlet valve (VAG-03E) to cold box.
Adjust turbine inlet pressure to 3.4 Kg/cm 2g by adjusting start up bypass
valve (WAG05). Cool the plant as much as possible and let the equipment
work while pressure of different circuits are raised to their working pressure.
Facility for quick start up with liquid nitrogen is also available. Its procedure
shall be given after clarification from M/s BHPV.
End of the Cooling Down
At certain stage, because of the waste of cold due to lack of insulation, the
temperature becomes steady and the progression is no longer possible.

9.3.2 SHUT DOWN OF THE PLANT


Stop the Air compressor, or open the Air through the vent valve.
Shut the quick shut-off valve of Expansion Turbine, to stop the expansion
turbine.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 09 - 03

Shut 40PC2218 (waste nitrogen venting).


Let unit defrost before tightening the bolted joints.

9.4

TIGHTENING OF NUT & BOLTS INSIDE THE COLD BOX


The bolted joints inside the cold box are tightened after cooling operation.
Two cooling are necessary for allowing the contraction of the joints to avoid
failure while in operation.

9.5

PLACING THE INSULATION INSIDE THE COLD BOX


The insulation is placed inside the cold box after checking and tightening of
all the bolted joints and other equipment.

9.6

FINAL START UP
9.6.1 FIRST STAGE
Start the section as per 9.3.1.
Wait, for the cooling down of the system.
9.6.2 SECOND STAGE
Adjust 40TI2246 at - 85 oC (Mid part temperature of the exchanger) with the
valve WNR-02, waste nitrogen gas ex 40-E-4 to expansion turbine.
It is the period of appearance of liquid.
The liquid appears first at 40LC2241. At the beginning, drain it through its
bottom drain valve PK-1A.
Drain all circuits where liquid appears for the first time, so that all impurities
are eliminated. Keep waste N2 outlet pressure (40PI2244) at 3.0 Kg/cm 2g
with WAG-05 open, kept the pressure of the MP column (40PI2243) by
adjusting valve VAG-02 & VAD-03.

The liquid is gathered in the vat of the column and its level is maintained at
about 50 % through 40LC2241.
As the rich liquid is released from 40LC2241 towards the vaporiser, the level
40LC2242 starts building up.
Due to vaporization of the rich liquid in
vaporiser start closing WAG-05 (if it is open). Maintain L.P. column pressure
at about 3.4 Kg/cm2g.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 09 - 04

Set 40PC2243 on auto, as the L.P. column level (40LC2242) reaches about
40%, condensation at the top of M.P. column begins resulting of reflux. It is
visible through the indication of 40PDI2245 (around 1250 mmWC).

9.6.3 THIRD STAGE


The adjustment will be performed by measuring the purity of the Nitrogen
production through the oxygen analyser 40-AI-2219.
Set 40FC2222 on auto, 40FV2222A (Pure Nitrogen gas valve) gets full open
at 50% output and 40FV2222B (Venting) operates between 50-100%.
The fact that the plant does not react instantaneously and a change in
adjustment must be taken into account. It is always necessary to perform
small changes and to wait for about 1/2 hour before analysing the effect of
this change. For this reason it is always preferable to perform only one
change at a time.
The grade of the Nitrogen production must be max. 3 PPM (volume) Oxygen
and its flow of 600 NM3/HR at 7.0 Kg/cm2g minimum.

9.6.4 LIQUID NITROGEN DRAW OFF


The pure liquid nitrogen in the Receiver at the top of the M.P. Column is to
be drawn off as liquid nitrogen product through the valve 40LC2242 and
sent towards one of the converter (LIN -1&2). The valve 40LC2242 will shut
off if oxygen content in the gaseous nitrogen is more than 3 PPM (v/v) as
sensed by 40AI2219.
The liquid Nitrogen kept in the Receiver at the top of the MP column can be
purged through the valve PK-1B in the drain collector, and then evaporated
in the liquid drains vaporization stack (E-15) by mixing with warm air flow
(through VAD-03) and vented to atmosphere. E-15 is a purge collector,
made of SS and enables the evaporation of different liquid purges at a safer
height. The dry air at 7.7 Kg/cm 2g and atmospheric temperature is injected
in order to quicken the vaporization and dilution.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

10.0

N2- 09 - 05

SHUTDOWN OF THE PLANT

10.1 PLANNED SHUTDOWN


10.1.1

SHORT TIME STOPPAGE

Close Nitrogen gas outlet valve (40FC2222).


Close air inlet valve to cold box (VAG0-3E/F).
Close liquid nitrogen draw off (40LC2242).
Close M.P. column level control valve (40LC2241).
Shut quick shut-off valve of Expansion Turbine. MAINTAIN THE SEAL GAS
PRESSURE ON THE BEARINGS OF THE EXPANSION TURBINE through
Instrument air or Nitrogen gas.
Stop Air compressor & Refrigeration compressor.
During a short time stoppage it is possible to keep the liquid in the MP
column Vat, in order to maintain the installation cold.
10.1.2

PROLONGED STOPPAGE

Follow the procedure listed at 10.1.1 for short time stoppage.


Supply instrument air to Liquid drain vaporisation stack (E-15) through VAD03.
Drain the Vat of MP column.
Drain the Vat of LP column (Vaporiser bath).
Derime the plant.
Shut down the plant.
Maintain the dry gas pressure on the bearings of the expansion turbine.

10.2

EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN
Follow the procedure listed at 10.1.1 if it is a short time stoppage. Follow
10.1.2 if it is a prolonged stoppage.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 10 - 01

10.3 Emergency on the OSBL line:

S No

Details of action

Action
By

Inform S/I and alert FO about emergency

PO
SI &
PO
SI &
PO

Inform Unit In charge and RSM about failure.

Inform HGU-II regarding change in Routing

GN2 to be vented to open atmosphere during the


emergency in OSBL N2 header or any problem with
R/D C/V

PO

LN2 r/d to be isolated near the MP column in case of


emergency in LN2 R/D line

FO

In case of extreme emergency like the case of header


without N2 due to severe leak on the OSBL line
inform immediately to RSM as this may lead to seal
leaks in RGC of DHDT/DHDS/CCRU

FO &
PO

In case of emergency in GN2 line unit to be operated


in maximising Liquid N2

FO &
PO

In case of emergency in Liq N2 R/D line unit to be


operated in Maximising Gaseous N2

FO &
PO

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 10 - 02

11.0 DEFROST OF THE PLANT


The total defrost of the Unit consists in blowing a dry and warm gas into
every cold circuit in order to heat them in all their parts for removing all
traces of solid deposits (H2O, CO2 ) existing after a long run.
The dry warm defrosting gas is taken from the Adsorber (It can be
Instrument air) through the valves VAG-14 & VAD-01 to deriming heater E17.
In order to avoid plugging, always defrost by blowing from the coldest places
towards the warmest ones.
Before carrying out the defrost operation check the followings:
Cold Box is isolated.
Cold Box is entirely drained of the liquids it contained.
Air compressor is working or Instrument air is lined up.
Adsorber must be regenerated if air is from the air compressor.
Dismount all the accessories tapped on the circuits or open them close to
instrumentation.
ENSURE THE FEEDING OF AIR ON THE EXPANSION TURBINE
BEARINGS IN ORDER TO GUARD THE MACHINE AGAINST ANY
MANIPULATION MISTAKES.
DEFROST PROCESS
The first sweeping with defrost Air will be performed at ambient temperature
until this gas gets out at 5 oC approximately from the defrost outlet.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-D

N2- 11 - 01

The defrosting is done by heating air to a temperature of approx. + 80 oC in


a deriming heater 40-E-17. It is an electrical heater of 20.4 kW designed to
heat up 500 NM3/Hr of dry air from 11 oC to 80 oC.
As soon as the temperature at the de-frost outlet reaches + 60 oC (maximum) stop
the heater & continue to sweep the circuit until the gas comes out at the ambient
temperature.

DERIMMING PATH
AIR PATH

: INLET AD 09
OUTLET AD 06
VALVE CLOSE VAG 05 (S/U B/P)

MP COLUMN

: INLET AD 09
OUTLETPK 01, PK 1B, RLR 1, GK 1 VALVE CLOSE
LIC 2241, LT 2241, LIC 2242, PDT 2245,PT 2243

GN2 PATH

: INLETAD 09
OUTLETAD 10, RNG 01

LN2 PATH

: INLET AD 09
OUTLETCONVERTER DRAIN (THROUGH LIC 2242), WNL 03

VAPORISER

: INLET AD 08
OUTLET GE 4, RE 4C, PE 4A, LT 2242 A/B, PT 2244

WASTE N2
MID PATH

: INLET AD 08
OUTLET AD 04 (OPEN WNR 02 FOR SOME TIME)

TURBINE
OUTLET PATH

: INLET AD 05
OUTLET PV 2218 (25% OPEN)

TURBINE

: INLET AD 05
OUTLET AD 04 (OPEN QSV TURBINE DRAIN)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 11 - 02

12.0 DANGERS OF IMPURITIES


12.1 DANGERS OF ACETYLENE
The acetylene, which concentrates in the bath of the vaporiser, may give rise
to explosions if the content of the bath exceeds certain concentrations. In
most cases explosions are due to thermal or mechanical shocks (sudden
heating of the liquid either inside a pipe, or on a wall or a vessel, and sudden
expansion in the drain valves).

12.2 DANGERS OF OXYGEN


When the oxygen is purged or vented, make sure the evacuated gas is
actually vented and that there is neither flame, nor danger of sparks in the
surroundings.

Personnel having

remained

in

an

over-oxygenated

atmosphere shall make sure that his cloths have actually been ventilated
before he approaches a flame. Otherwise they might catch fire when in
contact with a flame or a spark, that causes serious burns.

12.3 DANGERS OF NITROGEN


Once the nitrogen has been purged or vented, make sure that the gas is
actually ventilated. Nitrogen is not poisonous, but if its concentration is too
high, it prevents the oxyhaemoglobin of blood from regenerating property.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

N2- 12 - 01

PART-D

13.0 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION


Time required to start the plant from ambient conditions is 24 hours.
Time required to start the plant at ambient conditions but with LN2 injection
is 8 hours (approx.).
Time required to start the plant with liquid levels in the column is 2 hours.
Time required for deriming operation is 24 hours.
Period between two consecutive defrost operations is generally one year.
This time depends on the local climatic conditions and impurity contents of
air.
About 3500 litres of LN2 is required for quick start up of the plant.
In case of shut down, 50 to 60 litres/hr LN2 injection is required to keep the
plant in cold condition.
80 KGs of Freon-22 is required for initial charge.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

N2- 13 - 01

PART-D

13.1 PROCEDURE FOR RUNNING NITROGEN PLANT WITH


SERVICE AIR FROM WATER BLOCK
Following checks / actions to be taken:
13.1.1 WATER BLOCK END
1. Coordinate with w/b for line up of service air to cru (with both
b/vs remaining closed at cru end this is for draining any
condensate trapped in the line.)
2.

Check the b/v at water block is opened slowly to full open


condition while monitoring load on compressors.

3. Check header pressure > 7kg/cm 2g (if required adjust service


air header pr.)
4. CRU air header pr. To be maintained >7 kg/cm 2g during normal
running by adjusting service air header pr.)
5.

In case of any emergency contact CRU control room


immediately.

13.1.2 CRU END


1. Line up battery limit b/v (make sure vent is closed at b/l.)
2. After opening compressor discharge b/v (for water block)
slowly drain all condensate from final stage knock out drum
drain point (other low pt drains may also be used.) Make sure
b/v is fully opened.
3. Check pr on knock out drum > 7 kg/cm2g
4. Check mist separator downstream of the Freon chiller drain
free of condensate.
5. Coordinate with panel operator and unload running comp.
6. Open compressor Discharge B/v (N2 plant) slowly to fully
opened condition while watching header pr. (if required
coordinate with water block). Simultaneously close compressor
discharge valve (every care should be taken to avoid surging
of comp.)
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

N2- 13 - 02

PART-D

7. If every thing found normal stop comp.


8. Check for condensate and header pressure

13.1.3 CRU PANEL END


1. Stop/reduce liquid Nitrogen production to LIN. 40C1 bottom
level to be maintained slightly on higher side (to make up any
liquid loss during change over)
2. L.P column pr to be maintained >3 kg/cm 2g during changeover
(if required. Gaseous Nitrogen flow may be minimized.
3. Coordinate with water block for 40C1 pr >=6.5 kg/cm 2g
4. In case of any abnormality stop liquid Nitrogen draw & gaseous
Nitrogen to be diverted to vent.

13.2 STATIONARY EQUIPMENT LIST


S. EQUIPMENT NO.
DESCRIPTION
NO.
1.
2.
3.

40 C 1
40 CB 1
40 E 1

4.
5.

40 E 10
40 E 101

6.

40 E 102

7.

40 E 103

8.

40 E 104

9.
10.

40 E 11
40 E 110

SET
PRESSURE
Kg/cm2 g)

COLUMN OF COLD BOX-1


COLD BOX-1
PLATE TYPE EXCHANGER
OF COLD BOX-1
ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER
ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER
UNDER LIN-1
ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER
UNDER LIN-2
ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER
UNDER LIN-3
ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER
UNDER LIN-4
ATMOSPHERIC VAPORISER
EVAPORATOR

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 13 - 03

TYPE

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19
20.
21.

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

E 111
E 112
E 113
E 12
E 17
E 20
E 21
E 4
EH 16
EH 18
G 1

22.

40 G 2

23.

40 G 3A

24.

40 G 3B

25.

40 IC 1A

26.

40 IC 1B

27.

40 IC 2A

28.

40 IC 2B

29.

40 IC 3A

30.

40 IC 3B

31.

40 IC 4A

32.

40 IC 4B

33.

40 IC 5A

EVAPORATOR
EVAPORATOR
EVAPORATOR
EVAPORATOR
DERIMING HEATER
DOUBLE TUBE EXCHANGER
FREON CONDENSER
VAPORISER OF COLD BOX-1
REGENERATION HEATER
ELECTRICAL TRIM HEATER
OIL SEPERATOR OF FREON
COMPRESSOR-1
OIL SEPERATOR OF FREON
COMPRESSOR-2
AIR FILTER OF COLD BOX
U/S
AIR FILTER OF COLD BOX
U/S
1ST STAGE INTER COOLER
OF AIR COMPRESSOR-A
1ST STAGE INTER COOLER
OF AIR COMPRESSOR-B
2ND STAGE INTER COOLER
OF AIR COMPRESSOR-A
2ND STAGE INTER COOLER
OF AIR COMPRESSOR-B
3RDSTAGE INTER COOLER
OF AIR COMPRESSOR-A
3RDSTAGE INTER COOLER
OF AIR COMPRESSOR-B
LUBE OIL COOLER OF AIR
COMPRESSOR-A
LUBE OIL COOLER OF AIR
COMPRESSOR-B
LUBE OIL COOLER OF AIR
COMPRESSOR-A

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 13 - 04

34.

40 IC 5B

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

PSV
PSV
PSV
PSV
PSV
PSV
PSV
PSV
PSV

44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

PSV 2281
PSV 3308
PSV 3309
PSV 3318
PSV 3319
PSV 3320
PSV 4410
RX 1
RX 2
V 1

54.
55.
56.

40 V 101
40 V 102
40 V 103

2203
2206
2211
2212
2230
2231
2247
2249
2257

LUBE OIL COOLER OF AIR


COMPRESSOR-B
ON 40-V-1
ON 40V-1 O/L LINE
ON 40-E-16
ON INST. AIR LINE
ON 40-RX-1
ON 40-RX-2
ON 40-C-1
ON 40-E-4
ON 40-D-1(EXPANSION
TURBINE)
ON 40-E-17
ON 40-V-2
ON40-V-2
ON LINE TO LIN 1&2
ON 40-E-10,11 I/L LINE
ON 40E-10,11 O/L LINE
ON 40-E-21
ADSORBER REACTOR
ADSORBER REACTOR
K.O. DRUM AFTER
REFRIGERATION
LIN-1
LIN-2
LIN-3

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

8.8
1.0
8.0
1.29
1.29
1.29
4.0
1.0

CONV
CONV
CONV
CONV
CONV
CONV
CONV
CONV

2.0

CONV

7.70
7.70
7.70

CONV
CONV
CONV

N2- 13 - 05

57.
58.
59.

40 V 104
40 V 2
40 V 3A

60.

40 V 3B

LIN-4
GASEOUS NITROGEN TANK
DISCHARGE K.O. DRUM OF
AIR COMPRESSOR-A
DISCHARGE K.O. DRUM OF
AIR COMPRESSOR-B

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-D

N2- 13 - 06

AMMONIA REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (15-X-1)


1.0 INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of the plant is to increase the purity of hydrogen in recycle gas
by eliminating condensable hydrocarbon like propane, butane at low
temperature of -10 oC (pressure 4.8 Kg./cm2 g). To achieve this,
Refrigeration plant of capacity 424 TR. has been installed which is supplied
as a package unit by M/s KIRLOSKAR. The plant will be handed over to IOC
after its commissioning and stabilization by M/s KIRLOSKAR.
The condensing temperature of NH3 is 43 oC at 15.3 Kg./cm2 g and liquid to
gas evaporation starts at -15 oC at 2.4 Kg./cm2 g. This principle has been
applied in Ammonia Refrigeration plant where gaseous NH3 is compressed
by a screw type compressor and then after condensation in a condenser by
cooling water, the liquid NH3 is again allowed to evaporate by taking latent
heat from the system which lowers the temperature upto -15 oC. The gas is
compressed again by compressor and a continuos cycle continues.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 01 - 01

2.0 PROCESS DESCRIPTION:


Ammonia gas is drawn by the compressor through a non-return valve and
strainer fitted directly on the inlet flange and discharged into an oil tank
separator. The non return valve is necessary to prevent the compressor
being "motored" in reverse direction when it is stopped with high gas
pressure at the outlet. The suction pressure remains 1.4 Kg./cm 2 g. After
compressor, discharge gas mixed with oil comes to oil separator at a
pressure of 15.5 Kg./cm 2 g where primary separation takes place.
Secondary separation takes place in a wire mesh separator placed close to
the outlet.
Separated oil from the separator is drawn by the oil pump, cooled in a cooler
and filtered in microfilm filter. The cooled and filtered oil at a pressure of 17.5
Kg./cm2 g (Pressure should be 2.0 Kg./cm 2 more than the comp. discharge
pressure) is supplied to a manifold from where it is fed to the bearings,
balance piston, shaft seal, compression chamber & hydraulic actuator. A
pressure relief valve at the oil pump discharge maintains the system oil
pressure. Initial pressure adjustment is done with circulation valve provided
at the oil pumps common discharge to the oil separator. Compressed NH3
gas from the top of the oil separator (at pressure of 15.5 Kg./cm 2 g) is
cooled and condensed in a condenser. Ammonia condensation takes place
from gas to liquid phase and the liquid ammonia (at temp. of 41 oC) goes to
receiver. This liquid NH3 is further cooled to a temp. of 0.5 oC in superfeed
vessel.
Superfeed vessel is a shell & tube exchanger where the liquid ammonia
stream enters into its tube side. A part of the liquid ammonia stream is fed
into the shell side of this exchanger, which evaporates. The shell side
achieves a temperature of -5.5 oC on evaporation of liquid ammonia.
Liquid ammonia stream is further cooled in the coil of Knock out drum by
flashing a part of the Superfeed outlet stream. This cooled liquid ammonia is
fed to the kettle type reboiler under its level control LIC 5003 (LIC-1504 as
per EIL drawing) and is allowed to evaporate at 2.41 Kg./cm 2 g in the kettle
and thereby cooling its temperature to -15 oC. This cools the process stream
of hydrocarbon from 19oC to -10oC. The part of the liquid ammonia stream
fed to the compressor knock out vessel under level control of LIC 5001 is to
cool down the comp. suction gas also to a temp. of -10 oC.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 02 - 01

To maintain constant cooling water flow through condenser and oil cooler
one package type cooling tower has been installed.
Also new Cooling water circuit has been installed directly from the refinery
Cooling Water header in case of non availability of cooling tower.
Additional Ammonia condenser installed in parallel of old Ammonia
Condenser on November 2013.
In case of Ammonia Condenser high DP in Tube side due to Chockage. One
can be isolated for cleaning and other can be taken in line without stopping
Refrigeration system.

3.0 OPERATING PARAMETERS:


Following are the main operating parameters for the unit:
Sr.
No.

DESCRIPTION

FLOW
KG/HR

TEMP.
oC

PRESS.
KG/CM2g

COMP. MAIN SUCTION

4,441

-15

2.41

COMP. SUCTION FROM SUPERFEED

822.5

-5.5

3.54

COMP. DISCHAREG

77.9

15.3

OIL PUMP DISCHARGE

428 LPM

77.9

19

OIL COOLER OUTLET

428 LPM

45

17.5

OIL FILTER OUTLET

428 LPM

45

17.2

CONDENSER INLET

77.9

15.3

RECEIVER OUTLET

41

15.3

SUPERFEED OUTLET TUBE SIDE

0.5

7.9

10

SUPERFEED OUTLET SHELL SIDE

-5.5

2.54

11

SUPERFEED O/L TO CHILLER DIRECT

12

SUPERFEED TO CHILLER VIA KO COIL

13

CHILLER INLET TOTAL

14

CHILLER OUTLET

15

SUPERFEED FLASHING IN KO

16

COOLING WATER TO OIL COOLER

65 M3/HR.

33/37

17

COOLING WATER TO CONDENSER

395M3/HR

33/37

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 03 - 01

Modification in suction line and connecting discharge line


of Ammonia CW pump to new condenser
Ammonia condenser Cooling water pump(15XP2A/B) discharge line was
connected to only old condenser and new condenser takes suction from
cooling water header directly.
New 8 line provided for suction and pump discharge connected to both
condensers.
Above modification resulted in lowering the temperature of Hydrocarbon to
subzero degree, thus increasing the purity of rich gas.
Now both condenser are in line and performance of Refrigeration section has
been improved.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 03 01*

4.0 EQUIPMENTS DESCRIPTION:


COMPRESSOR:
It is an oil injected screw compressor supplied by M/s KIRLOSKAR
(Manufactured by M/s Howden of UK). 560 kW 6.6 kV motor of BHEL make
is directly coupled to the compressor. The compressor has a capacity
control mechanism and is an oil flooded rotary machine. Compression is
achieved by the meshing of two helical rotors on parallel shafts housed in a
casing.
The accurately machined helical rotors are called Male and Female. The
Male (driving) rotor has four lobes, which mesh with six flutes in a female
(driven) rotor, both rotors having the same outside diameter. Each rotor is
supported by two white metal thick walled journal bearings fitted adjacent to
the compressor chamber.
The lubricating oil is at gas discharge pressure plus 2kg/cm2 for standard
range compressor.
Rotor end thrust is balanced by balance pistons and angular contact ball
bearings. One side of the balance piston is subject to oil pressure (gas outlet
pressure plus 2 Kg./cm2 ). The other side is at suction pressure and
therefore the balance Piston opposes the normal rotor end thrust and the
angular contact bearings are lightly loaded and have a long life.
As the rotors continue to rotate the intermeshing of the lobes on the
discharge side of the compressor progressively reduces the space occupied
by the gas causing compression. Compression continues until the inter lobe
space becomes exposed to the outlet port in the casing and the gas is
discharged.
Capacity control is achieved by means of a slide valve in the casing
operated by a piston in a hydraulic cylinder mounted on the compressor.
The piston is actuated by lubricating oil, fed from the compressor lubricating
oil manifold to one or other side of the piston, moving the slide valve altering
the point in the rotor length at which compression begins. This allows
internal gas re-circulation, thus controlling the capacity from 100% down to
10% with approx. proportionate saving of power. The main operating
parameters are:
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NH3- 04 - 01

PART-E

Suction / Disch. pressure :

1.4 / 15.29 Kg./cm2 g

Suction / Disch. temp.

-15 / 77.8 Oc

Flow

4441 kg/hr,

Power required

506 kW

Speed

2950 RPM

OIL TANK SEPARATOR:


It is a vertical vessel of 762mm OD X 1775 mm height. For proper oil
separation wire mesh element separator is positioned close to the tank
outlet.
Operating / Design pressure

: 15.51 / 20 Kg./cm2 g

Operating / Design temp.

: 77.9 / - 177 oC

OIL COOLER:
There are two oil coolers for two sets of compressors:
Kg./cm2 g

Operating Pressure

: 19

Operating temp. (L.O) IN / OUT

: 78/45 oC

Operating temp. (Water) IN/OUT : 33/37 oC

OIL PUMPS:
Each set of compressor is equipped with two oil pumps. The pumps are
David Brown UK make with capacity of 450 liters/min. with 9.3 kW motor.
CONDENSER:
It is horizontal exchanger of Dia 812mm, Length 6000mm with 848 tubes of
3/4"OD.
Operating temp. ammonia IN/OUT

: 78 / 41OC

Cooling water IN/OUT

: 33 / 37oC

NEW CONDENSER
Operating Pressure

: 16.3 kg/cm2

Operating temperature

: 78/ 41 oC

Cooling water IN/OUT

: 33 / 37oC

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 04 - 02

RECEIVER:
It is horizontal type vessel of volume 7.2m3
Operating pressure : 15.29 Kg./cm2 g
: 41oC

Operating temp.

SUPERFEED VESSEL:
It is horizontal flooded type exchanger of 457 mm OD and 3000mm length
having 200 nos. 3/4" tubes. It is designed for flow of 822 kg/hr in tube side.
Shell side operating pressure and temp. are 2.54 Kg./cm 2 g and -5.5oC.
Tube side-operating temp. is 0.5oC.
SURGE DRUM:
Volume

= 0.24 m3

Operating pressure = 1.359 Kg./cm2 g


= -10oC

Operating temp.
KNOCK OUT POT:

It is vertical vessel of volume 1.7m3 capacity (OD=860mm H=3000mm)


Operating pressure = 1.41 Kg./cm2 g
= -15oC

Operating temp.

AMMONIA RECOVERY TANK


It is a vertical vessel having vol. 0.3m3.
= -10oC (minimum)

Operating temp.
COOLING TOWER:

Paharpur make Model No. 23101,


Cooling Tower Capacity

= 455 m3/hr,

Cooling water Pump Capacity

= 460m3/hr. at 25M head,

Cooling water pump motor

= 45 kW (KEC make)

Cooler tower fan motor

= 15 kW (KEC make)

FRP MAKE UP TANK capacity

= 2500 liters (vertical).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 04 - 03

5.0 STARTING & STOPPING PROCEDURE:


5.1

STARTING PROCEDURE:
Ensure cooling water flow through condenser and oil cooler.
Check and ensure that all the valves in the oil circuit are open, with one oil
filter and one oil pump in line.
Check and ensure that the following valves in the refrigerant circuit are open:
Oil Tank Separator (OTS) outlet valves.
Condenser inlet/outlet valves.
Receiver outlet valves.
All liquid line valves except hand expansion valve and liquid line
strainer.
All superfeed vessel valves feeding ammonia to tube and shell side.
Superfeed suction valve.
Vapour line valves leading to and from KO. drum.
Compressor main suction valve.
Isolation valve for superfeed stand pipe.
Check the oil level in OTS. This should be between the top most U-clamp
bolt of the level gauge glass and the glass top.
Start the oil pump. Ensure that differential oil pressure is minimum 2.1
Kg./cm2 and maximum 4 Kg./cm2. This can be controlled by adjusting the
by-pass valve on by pass line.
Diff. oil pressure = (Oil Pump Disc. pressure) - (Comp. Discharge.
pressure).
Operating Philosophy for maintaining Oil/Gas DP of Ammonia
Package:
Initially open 50% bypass valve(Oil Pump discharge to Oil separator) of Oil
Pump. After starting Compressor maintain differential pressure with
compressor load by adjusting bypass valve.
New Oil gas DP Interlock has been revised from 1.0Kg./cm 2 to 0.8 Kg./cm2.
So minimum differential oil pressure to be maintained upto 1.5Kg./cm 2.
Below this pump performance to be checked by M/M. Never allow differential
oil pressure more than 4 Kg./cm2. It may overload the pump.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


ART-E

NH3- 05 - 01

Check the compressor is fully unloaded and the 10% load limit switch is
actuated.
If all the safety requirement are satisfied then compressor ready to
start lamp will glow indicating that the compressor can be started.
Keep the system in manual mode by selecting the same through the
Auto/Manual selection switch.
Start the compressor. After the compressor attains full speed, check the
following:
Discharge pressure is less than 18 Kg./cm 2 g.
Suction pressure is around 3 Kg./cm2 g.
Oil differential pressure is more than 2.1 Kg./cm 2.
Once the compressor is started, its capacity can be controlled either
manually (with the help of loading/unloading push buttons) or automatically
with the help of capacity controller. Load the compressor by pressing the
"Raise" push button. Care should be taken to ensure that in each installment
the compressor is not loaded to more than 10% of the earlier loading value.
This is to ensure that the other system parameters are not disturbed due to
abrupt loading of the machine. The percentage loading of the compressor
can be seen on the indicator at the back of the compressors.
Compressor loading can also be done manually by the valves facing
opposite each other on the load side and can be unload by the valves facing
opposite to each other on unload side.
For reducing the compressor capacity the same can be accomplished by
pressing the lower push button. The same care as mentioned in previous
para should be taken while unloading the machine.

5.2

STOPPING PROCEDURE:
Stop the compressor by pressing the compressor stop push button.
Close the oil bleeder line valve.
Keep the oil pump running for some time till the compressor is fully
unloaded.
Stop the oil pump.
Isolate the CW of lube oil cooler and drain it. (This is done due to the past
experience of tube leaks)
An emergency stop push button has been placed behind the field panel to
stop the compressor in case of emergency.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

NH3- 05 - 02

PART-E

6.0 SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE:


For long period shutdown the following procedure to be adopted:
The compressor suction shut off valve should be back-seated (full close)
The gauge port plug should be removed and a compound pressure gauge to
be installed in the suction shut off valve.
Close the liquid valve on the receiver or condenser to retain all the liquid
refrigerant in the shell.
The solenoid valve (stop valve) should be manually open or the thermostat
should be set to hold the valve open so that all the liquid can be withdrawn
from the liquid line.
The condensing water supplies to be on. The compressor will then draw
refrigerant out of the liquid line, cooling coil and suction line and discharges
it into the condenser or receiver
The compressor should be operated until the gauge on the compressor
suction shut-off valve shows a pressure of 0.14 Kg./cm 2 g. To reach the low
pressure it may be necessary to hold the contacts of the low pressure switch
in the closed position. Do not let the compressor be operated in the vacuum.
When the compound gauges shows 0.14 Kg./cm 2g pressure, stop the
compressor and close the compressor discharges valve immediately. Then
the compressor suction valve should be back seated, the compound gauge
removed and the plug replaced in the back seat part of the suction valve.
The system should never be pumped out below 0.1 Kg./cm 2 g. A slight
positive pressure should always be left in the system. This prevents air being
drawn in through very minor leaks and on un-moving seal.
After the system is pumped out and all the valves are closed, the part of the
system containing the charge on the refrigerant should be thoroughly
checked for refrigerant leak. It is necessary, as a large amount of refrigerant
may be lost during the shut down period. The condenser water supply valve
should be shut-off. If the system is subjected to freezing temperature, the
condenser water tubes, the water regulating valve and piping should be
drained thoroughly, If draining is not possible then water should be blown out
with compressed air.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 06 - 01

7.0 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR PLC LOGIC:


Control scheme is designed for safe and continuous operation of the plant
taking into consideration all safety interlocks and ease for operation and
maintenance. One compressor will be running all the time while other will act
as STAND BY. The duty of each compressor can be selected using selector
switch (Main/Standby) provided on control panel. Each compressor is safe
guarded against following safety interlocks.

Sr.
no

ALARM
DESCRIPTION

1 Comp. Suct. pressure


( KG/CM2 g )
2 Comp. Disch. pr.
(KG/CM2 g )
3 Comp. Disch. temp.
(oC)
4 K.O drum

COMP-1 COMP-2
TAG.NO
TAG.NO.
.
15 PSL 15 PSL
5001
5005

TRIP
SET. COMP-1 COMP-2
POINT

SET.
POINT

TAG.NO. TAG.NO.
0.0

15 PSLL
5002

15PSLL
5006

-0.2

15 PSH
5003

15 PSH
5007

17

15 PSHH 15 PSHH
5004
5008

18

15 TSH
5001

15 TSH
5003

85

15TSHH
5002

90

15LSH 5003

15LSHH
5005
15LSL
5001

5 Oil tank separator

15TSHH
5004

15LSL
5002

15LSH
5003

6 Receiver
7 Condenser water DP NORMAL OPERAING DP
IS 1.0 KG/CM2
( KG/CM2)

15DPSL
5001

8 Oil cooler water flow


( KG/CM2)
9 OIL - GAS DP.
( KG/CM2)

15DPSL
5002

15DPSL
5003

0.5

DPSL
5004

DPSL
5005

1.0

NORMAL OPERAING DP
IS 1.0 KG/CM2
DPSL
DPSL
1.5
5004
5005

0.5

THE VALUES FOR ALARM AND TRIP SETTING HAVE BEEN TAKEN FROM
INSTRUMENTS TEST CERTIFICATES. ACTUAL SET POINTS TO BE
CONFIRMED. PRESSURE SETTINGS TO BE CHECKED FOR ABS. OR
GAUGE.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 07 - 01

8.0

LUBE OIL PUMPS LOGIC:


1) Select duty of two oil pumps (main/standby) using selector switch on
control panel. Say oil pump 1 (LOP-1) is selected as MAIN.
2) Press 'START' push button. LOP-1 start command will be on and the oil
pump STARTS. This closes starter field contact and LOP-1Run lamp
glows.
3) If LOP-1 command is ON and even then after pre-set time (0-30 sec.
adjustable) the LOP-1 starter field contact do not closes (indicating there
is some fault related to starter) then the LOP-1 fail indicating lamp will
glow. If LOP-1 fails i.e. there is some fault with LOP-1 starter, a START
command for oil pump LOP-2 (standby in this case) will be given
automatically by the logics provided. Logic similar to LOP-1 is provided
for LOP-2 also.
4) If LOP-1 start command is given and there is no problem with its starter,
then LOP-1 starts. If oil/Gas differential pressure do not builds up within
PRE-SET TIME (0 to 3 minutes adjustable) then oil/gas DIFF. PRESSURE
TRIP indicating lamp will glow. Simultaneously START command will be
given automatically by the logic provided for oil pump-2 (LOP2) and LOP2 starts if there is no problem with starter as explained earlier.
Once LOP-2 starts after PRE-SET TIME (0-3 minutes adjustable) first oil
pump (which was not able to develop oil pressure) LOP-1 STOP
command will be given by the logic.
5) Note that for short duration (depending upon present time) both oil pumps
are running. This is because for a screw compressor at least one oil
pump should run continuously. Therefore both oil pumps are kept running
and after confirming that the 2nd oil pump (standby) has started and
running OK, then only the first oil pump will stop running.
6) As explained earlier once the stand by oil pump STARTS and even then
the oil/gas differential pressure do not builds up within PRE-SET TIME (03 minutes adjustable) for the stand by oil pump also stop command will be
given. The stand by oil pumps STOPS running. At this time since both oil
pumps are not running "Both OIL PUMPS FAIL' indicating lamp will glow.
7) The indicating lamp "BOTH OIL PUMPS FAIL" will glow even when starter
held contact for both oil pumps do not closes within PRE-SET TIME (0-20
Sec) as explained.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-E

NH3- 08 - 01

8) If any of the oil pump (main or stand by) is running, the indicating lamp
"OIL PUMP FOR COMPRESSOR RUNNING" will glow.

9.0 COMPRESSOR START/STOP LOGICS:


1) If all the safety interlocks are OK, trip reset push button is pressed, any of
the oil pump for compressor is running and the 10% limit switch is closed
(ensuring compressor at minimum load during starting) the indication lamp
"COMPRESSOR READY TO START" will glow.
2) If compressor ready to start lamp glows, the operator has to push
COMPRESSOR START push button. Then start command for selected
(main) compressor becomes on.
3) If compressor start command is on and field contact of compressor starter
do not closes within PRE-SET TIME (0-30 sec. adjustable) then indication
lamp "COMPRESSOR STARTER FAIL" will glow.
4) If compressor start command is ON and there is no problem with
compressor starter, compressor motor becomes on and the indication
lamp "COMPRESSOR ON" glows.
5) If compressor motor is not running, the indication lamp "COMPRESSOR
OFF" glows.
6) As soon as compressor becomes ON indicating lamp "COMPRESSOR
READY TO START " becomes off. Similarly the inter lock at 10% load
limit switch (as explained earlier) is during starting only (to ensure
compressor starting on unload) and as soon as compressor becomes ON,
the 10% limit interlock is not required as the compressor can be loaded
(either manually or automatically).
Reference:
Documents supplied by M/s KIRLOSKAR
i)

Operating & Maintenance manual for Ammonia Refrigeration System.

ii)

Auto folder No. 3407/97

iii)

Calculation Sheets and P&ID.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-E

NH3- 09 - 01

AIR PREHEATER SYSTEM FOR 09F-1/14F-1/14F-2/15F-4


1.0

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Combustion air required for Naptha splitter reboiler (09 F-01) and Stabilizer
reboiler (015-F-04) is fed by the two forced draft fans 15K-02A/B, and the air
is pre heated in glass tube air preheater and then in the Cast air pre heater
combined flue gas of all four heaters (09F-01, 14F-01, 14F-02, 15F-04) after
the convection section enters Cast air preheater then glass air pre heater,
enters ID Fan 15K-03 finally leave through a stack, which is common for all
heaters. However 14F-01, 14F-02 are provided with natural draft burners.

1.1

CAST TUBE AIR PREHEATER


The cast tube air preheaters an assembly of rectangular cast tubes. The
heat exchange surface is made up of hot end and cold end sections. The
cast iron tubes in hot end have integral fins on old internal and external
surfaces. Tubes in cold end have integral tins only on the outside surfaces.
The entire tube assembly is built inside a steel frame made by beams and
full insulated casings. Flue gas and air terminal connections are made of
rectangular flanges formed from rolled steel sections and forms an integral
part of the air preheater frame. The entire air preheater assembly can be
considered as part of the ducting system because of its general
arrangement.
The tube is made up of two half sections, cast independently and then bolted
together. To prevent air, leakage in the longitudinal direction two grooves
have been provided on the flanges on either side.

Asbestos ropes are

placed in the grooves before bolting. The flanges provide the necessary gap
for the flue gas passage. The flanges also have peripheral grooves on all
four sides to accommodate asbestos rope to ensure all tightness between
adjacent tubes.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 01 - 01

Flue gas enters at the top of the hot end and flows vertically down over the
outside of tubes and leaves the air preheater at the bottom of the cold end.
Air enters the air preheater at the bottom of the cold end. Air enters the air
preheater at the side of the cold end flows first through the cold end tubes.
On leaving the cold end the air is turned through 180 degrees and flows
horizontally through the hot end tubes of the air preheater. The flue gas in is
a single pass, which flows, vertically down from top to bottom and the air is
on three passes.

1.2

GLASS TUBE AIR PREHEATER


Glass tine APH is a rectangular box containing Glass Tubes held by tube
sheets on both ends. The two sides of box are blanked with metal cover
while the remaining two sides are used as inlet/outlet for flue gas.
The combustion air flows through the Glass Tubes whereas the flue gas
flows on the shell side across the tube banks. The tubes in the Air preheater
are made from borosilicate glass while the other components of the air
preheater coming on contact with the flue gases are suitably lined.
Both the Cast Tubes and Glass Tube Air preheaters are provided with
separate static wash water systems for cleaning above the top row of tubes.

1.3

COMMISSIONING INSTRUCTIONS
Commissioning procedure for an air preheater has to be formulated
considering the furnace/process heater to which it is going to be hooked into
and the overall system conditions.
The instructions mentioned here for commissioning assistance are meant for
the general safety of the air preheater equipment alone.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

APH- 01 - 02

PART-F

The avoid fouling and corrosion of the heat exchange surface it is


recommended that the heat load be brought upto design conditions as early
as possible. This procedure is aimed at rapidly elevating the cast iron tube
wall temperature above the acid dew point to minimise acid condensation on
the cast APH tube surfaces and diminish the fouling on glass tubes. The
glass

tube Airpreheater should be taken in line only after flue gas

temperature at glass APH inlet is below 240 0C. Air preheater performance
has also been checked under turndown conditions.
It is to be noted that the air bypass is necessary during winter. The user
shall review the actual quantity to be bypassed considering the other
equipment in the system like dampers, furnaces etc.
However, it is recommended that under no circumstances the flue gas exit
temperatures are allowed to go below the recommended values and the air
bypass may need to be adjusted accordingly to avoid acid condensation
under all operating conditions and special care need to be taken when the
air preheater is taken on line. The Tube skin temperature on the last row of
tubes in the cast APH section should be monitored closely and should be
kept atleast 100C above the dew point of the flue gases.

1.4

MAINTENANCE DURING OPERATION


Due to the tubular construction of the cast fin air preheater there are neither
extensive flat surfaces, not small ducts or no flow zones. The whole working
surface is swept by the flow of flue gases thus preventing soot deposit.
Since the flue gas is only cooled in cast air preheater to a point where the
minimum tube wall temperature is still safely above the acid dew point, there
is no condensation on the flue gas side surfaces and hence no sticky
deposits. No frequent cleaning of the tubes is therefore required during
normal operation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 01 - 03

However, for the safe operation, it is recommended to monitor the flue gas
pressure drop and when this approaches the limit of ID Fan capacity, the air
preheater should be taken out of line and washed. This could probably be
because of soot deposition due to abnormally poor combustion in the
furnace.

1.5

WASHING PROCEDURE
Washing of air preheater has to be done by taking it off line.

Vendors

instructions for carrying out the washing of the APH should be followed
thoroughly.
NOTE: Commissioning, Maintenance and Washing Instructions above
are general only and vendors instructions in the above regard
must be followed thoroughly.

In case of any contradiction

vendors instructions shall over rule.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 01 - 04

2.0 AIR PREHEATER OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS


2.1

DESIGN DATA
Note : These instructions are established on the assumption that air and flue
gas are uniformly distributed at the inlet flanges and through the air
preheater.

2.2

PROCESS PARAMETERS
Table 1 & 2 specifies the performance of the cast tube and glass tube air
preheaters respectively at design conditions:
TABLE 1 (FOR CAPH)
1.

Air temperature in 0C

119

2.

Air temperature out 0C

287

3.

Air flow Kg/hr

50833

4.

Flue gas temp. in 0C

310

5.

Flue gas temp out 0C

210

6.

Flue gas flow rate, Kg/hr

75306

7.

Heat exch., MMK cal/hr

2.08

8.

Allowable press. Drop

80/55

(Flue gas/Air) mmWC


TABLE 2 (FOR GAPH)
1.

Air temperature in 0C

35

2.

Air temperature out 0C

119

3.

Air flow Kg/hr

50833

4.

Flue gas temp. in 0C

210

5.

Flue gas temp out 0C

160

6.

Flue gas flow rate, Kg/hr

75306

7.

Heat exch., MMK cal/hr

1.04

8.

Allowable press. Drop

60/60

(Flue gas/Air) mmWC

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 02 - 01

3.0 INTERLOCK AND ALARM SET POINT


GENERAL
This chapter has been prepared with the intention of providing the fired
heater operating personnel with basic information on how interlock scheme
works and how they should be operated safely. Operating personnel should
understand the interlock scheme thoroughly for safe operation of the heater
during any abnormalities.

3.1

INTERLOCK SCHEME
Following interlocks have been provided for the safe operation of the
furnaces in the event of failure of any operating equipment or any
abnormality in the process condition.
3.1.1 FD FAN FAILURE
Failure of FD fans can be sensed by
a)

Motor Contact XL-3101/XL-3102

b)

Extra Low flow switch FSLL 3103

c)

Low flow switch FSL 3104/3105

During normal operation both the FD fans will run at 50% process load. In
the event of failure of one of the fans as sensed by XL-3101/XL-3102 or
FSL-3104/FSL-3105 the working fan will go to 100% process load and the
tripped Fan will be isolated automatically through the pneumatic actuator of
the

discharge

damper,

HV-3107/HV-3108

(As

the

case

may

Simultaneously tripped fan will get decoupled through hydraulic coupling.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 03 - 01

be)

In the event of failure of both the FD Fans as sensed by FSKK-3103 or XL


3111 and XL-3114 together, or FSL-3104 and FSL-3104 and FSL-3105
together, fuel to both the furnaces 09-F-01 & 15-F-04 will be cut off.
3.1.2 ID Fan Failure
Failure of ID fan can be sensed by
a)

Motor Contact XL-3115.

b)

High pressure switch PSHH-3107 at ID fan suction.

In the event of ID fan failure, dampers HV-3101, HV03102, HV3103, HV3104


and HV-3105 shall be automatically opened, IF HV-3101 or HV-3102 or HV3103 or HV-3104 fails to open within 0.20 sec., fuel supply to the respective
furnaces shall be cut off. If the stack damper HV-3105 fails to open within
0.20 sec., fuel to all the furnaces will be cut off.
3.1.3 High Arch Pressure
In the event of high Arch pressure as sensed by two of the three PSH3103A/B/C for NSU heater and PSH-3101/3102/3104 for HDT Charge
heater, HDT-Stripper Reboiler Heater and Stabilizer Reboiler Heater
respectively, damper HV-3103/3101/3102/3104 (as the case may be) and
HV-3105 shall open automatically within 10 sec (full close to full open), If
PAH-3103/3101/3102/3104 persists for 0.20 sec, fuel to the respective
furnaces will cut off through a time delay of 0.30 sec.
3.1.4 High temperature of ID Fan inlet
In the event of extra high temperature of ID fan inlet as sensed by TSHH3134 or extra high temperature at glass APH inlet as sensed by TSHH-3132,
damper HV-3101, HV-3102, HV-3103, HV3104, and HV3105 will open
automatically and ID fan will trip after a time delay of 0.20 secs. If the
dampers fail to open within 0.20 sec., fuel supply to all the furnaces will be
cut off.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 03 - 02

3.1.5 Low combustion Air Pressure/Flow


In the event of combustion air extra low pressure to the furnace as sensed
by PSLL-3110/3111 or combustion air extra low flow as sensed by FSLL3101/3102, fuel flow to the NSU Heater (09-F-01) /Stabilizer Reboiler Heater
(15-F-04) (as applicable) will cut off and the corresponding HV-3103/3104
shall open along with HV-3105.

3.1.6 Fuel cut off to Furnace


In the event of fuel cut off to any of the furnaces the following sequential
action will take place:
a)

Dampers HV-3101, HV-3102, HV-3103, HV-3104 and HV-3105 shall


be opened.

b)

ID Fan shall trip within 0.30 secs.

c)

Respective dampers FV-3101/3102 as applicable will close and


respective AY-3107/3108 as applicable will be cut off.

3.1.7 Stack Damper HV-3105 shall not be closed unless ID Fan is running.
3.1.8 During turndown operation only one fan will operate and in the event
of failure of working fan as sensed by XL-3111/3114 or FSL3104/3105, standby fan shall start automatically.

Fan discharge

damper HV-3107/3108 of the tripped fan will close and that of standby
fan will open simultaneously. During this fan switch over operation,
fuel supply to the furnace shall attain minimum flow for a time period
of 0.30 seconds.
3.1.9 Each interlock shall have individual by pass option (except interlocks
specified in 3.1.3 & 3.1.4) available at main control panel with lamp
indication.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-F

APH- 03 - 03

3.1.10 Emergency
Emergency stop push bottom has provided on the main control panel
on pressing which all drives will trip, dampers HV-3101, HV-3102, HV3103, HV3104 and HV-3105 will open even if interlocks are in bypass
mode and simultaneously fuel supply to all the furnaces will be cut off.
An additional local emergency push button shall be provided 15 m
away from the heater in Break Glass enclosure.

3.2

Set Point

TAG NO.
TAH 3101
TAH 3108
TAH 3115
TAH 3122
TAH 3129
TAH 3132

SERVICE/LOCATION
Fuel gas at Convection Outlet of 014-F-1
Fuel gas at Convection Outlet of 014-F-2
Fuel gas at Convection Outlet of 09-F-01
Fuel gas at Convection Outlet of 015-F-04
Fuel gas at Cast APH ( 015-FP-01) inlet
Fuel gas at duct upstream of Glass APH

SET POINT
345 0C
335 0C
230 0C
325 0C
280 0C
230 0C

TAHH 3132

(015-FP-02) inlet
Fuel gas at duct upstream of Glass APH

240 0C

TAG NO.
TAH 3133

(015-FP-02) inlet
SERVICE/LOCATION
Fuel gas at duct downstream of Glass APH

TAL3133
TAHH 3134

( 015-FP-02) inlet
Fuel gas at ID Fan suction

SET POINT
185 0C
155 0C
195 0C

TALL 3134
150 0C
Following are the indicative values of set points of alarms and trips for
different instruments. These may require tuning during actual plant operation
and assessing the performance.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

APH- 03 - 04

PART-F

TAH 3136
TAH 3137
TAH 3141
PAH 3101
PAH 3102
PAH 3103

Hot Air to Burners of 015-F-04


Hot Air to Burners of 09-F-01
Fuel Gas at Stack
Fuel Gas at Furnace Arch 014-F-1
Fuel Gas at Furnace Arch 014-F-2
Fuel Gas at Furnace Arch 09-F-1

235 0C
235 0C
180 0C
+2mmWC
+2mmWC
+2mmWC

PAHH 3103
PAH 3104
PAHH 3104
PAHH 3107

Fuel Gas at Furnace Arch 015-F-04


Inlet to ID fan

+5mm WC
+2mmWC
+5mm WC
(-) 40mmWC

Combined hot air to burners of 09-F-01

[Adj:0 to(-)100mmWC]
+ 20mmWC

PALL 3111

Combined hot air to burners of 015-F-

[Adj:0 to(+)50mmWC*]
+ 15mmWC

PAH 3112
PAH 3113
PAH 3114
PAH 3115
FALL 3101

04
Flue gas at Furnace Arch 09-F-01
Flue gas at Furnace Arch 015-F-04
Flue gas at Furnace Arch 014-F-01
Flue gas at Furnace Arch 14-F-02
Air to 09-F-01

[Adj:0 to(+)50mmWC*]
+ 1mmWC
+ 1mmWC
+ 2mmWC
+ 2mmWC
10800

PALL 3110

FALL 3102
FALL 3103

Air to 015-F-04 Burners

[Adj: 8000 to 30000]


4500

Total air flow to heaters 09-F-01 & 015-

[Adj: 4000 to 14000]


15800

F-04

[Adj: 10000 to 45000]

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

APH- 03 - 05

PART-F

TAG NO.
FAL 3104

SERVICE/LOCATION
FD an (15-K-02A) suction duct

SET POINT
1200
[Adj: 10000 to 30000]

FAL 3105

FD an (15-K-02B) suction duct

12000
[Adj: 10000 to 30000]

AAH 3107

Oxygen analyser at Arch of 09-F-

6%

01

2%

#
AAH 3108

Oxygen analyser at Arch of 15-F-

6%

04

2%

AAL 3107

AAL 3108
#
* Indicates set points are tentatively only and to be adjusted based upon
burner performance.
# Indicates marked tag nos. are not shown in the APH systemP&ID

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

APH- 03 06

PART-F

Benefit by taking APH in line:


In S/D Nov 2013 CAST APH both segment replaced with new one.
In October 2014 ID started and APH taken in line.
Following is parameter at CAPH bypass fully closed and GAPH bypass fully closed.
PARAMETER

FOR CAPH

FOR GAPH

1.

Flue gas temp. in 0C

250

175

2.

Flue gas temp out 0C

175

150

3.

Air temperature in 0C

116

35

4.

Air temperature out 0C

235

116

ID Fan Parameter:
1.

ID Suction temperature :

145 0C

2.

ID Suction Draft :

-170mmWC

3.

RPM@ 14% load :

750

4.

Ampere :

120A

5.

I/B Bearing temperature:

42

6.

O/B Bearing temperature:

48

7.

Oil temperature :

65

8.

Fluid coupling oil flow:

85 LPM

Parameter

Unit

Air inlet temperature


Air Outlet Temperature
Flue Gas inlet temperature
Flue gas ex cast module
Flue Gas ex Glass module
ID suction temperature
ID suction pressure
Heat Duty

deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C
mmWC
Mkcal/hr

Design
35
287
310
200
160
160
-200
3.12

Actual
with Old
CAPH
35
95-105
210-230
180
105-110
105-110
-300
0.8

Actual
with New
CAPH
35
235
250
175
150
145
-172
2.10

Calculation
Air flow

42 Ton/Hr = 42000 Kg/hr

Cp of Air

1.06 Kj/KgK = 1.06/4.2 = 0.25Kcal/kgK

Delta T of Air

235 35 = 200

Heat Duty

42000 x 0.25 x 200 = 2100000Kcal/hr = 2.1Mkcal/hr

SRFT

1680 SRFT/Yr

1 SRFT

46916Rs( last 3 year average)

Total saving

1680 x 0.46916 = 788 Lac/Yr = 7.8 Crore

/Yr

(*Calculation are based on utilities price on march 2015.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

APH- 03 06*

PART-F

OFF-SITE HYDROGEN FACILITY


1.0 INTRODUCTION
In Catalytic Reforming Unit, reforming is done in the presence of Hydrogen
gas. For the initial start up of the Reforming section, Hydrogen required is
procured from outside. Once the reforming section is stabilized, the
Hydrogen gas generated in the reforming section is used in the process of
CRU and balance is sent to HGU-I where it is compressed using compressor
06K-05 A/B and purified in PSA-140. The pure hydrogen then joins the fresh
hydrogen header (20 kg/cm2 g). After recent revamp of NHTU Hydrogen
requirement is met from the supply of make up hydrogen from fresh

hydrogen header. The off gas from the PSA-140 is compressed using 06-K04 A/B and sent to fuel gas header. Facility exists for using this off gas in
reformer from upstream of compressor.
In HGUs the steam reforming of naphtha or natural gas done and reformed
gas is purified in PSAs of respective units. The pure hydrogen gas from
PSAs is having H2 purity of 99.99 % vol. The pure hydrogen is sent to fresh
hydrogen network (20 kg/cm2 g).
The fresh hydrogen is utilised in HGU/CCRU/NHTU of CCRU/ DHDT/
OHCU/ MSQ Units/TGTU.
An offsite Hydrogen facility to store hydrogen during normal operation and
supply hydrogen during start up has been provided. Facility to unload
hydrogen cylinder has also been provided to supply hydrogen for the very
first start-up of the unit. The offsite hydrogen facility section comprises of the
followings:
1. Three Hydrogen gas storage bullets each of capacity 220 m 3 (which were
installed along with CRU project) and fourth bullet identical to other three
have been installed in DHDT/MSQ Projects.
2. A three stage reciprocating Hydrogen Compressor (42-K-01) to store
Hydrogen at a pressure of 40.0 Kg/cm 2g.
3. Unloading of Hydrogen cylinders.
4. A 2" dia. line connects Hydrogen offsite facility with CRU to supply and
receive hydrogen gas from CRU.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-G

H2- 01 - 01

5. A 3 line for supply and to receive pure hydrogen from HGU-I.


6. A 3 line for supply of hydrogen to HGU-II and NHTU (CRU) and to
receive pure hydrogen from N-HGU.
7. Inter bullet transfer facility using compressor 42-K-01.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-G

H2- 01 - 02

2.0 HYDROGEN STORAGE BULLETS:


Four bullets (42 VV-001A/B/C/D) each of capacity 220 m3 have been
provided to store hydrogen at 40 kg/cm 2g. Each of the bullets is provided
with double safety valve with a set pressure of 45 kg/cm 2g, at present the
PSVs discharge is given to atmosphere, which will be connected to flare
once the new flare network, and new flare is put in operation. A bypass line
with double B/V has been provided across one of the Safety valves of each
bullet.
A temperature gauge, pressure gauge and a sample point have been
provided on each bullet. Each of the bullets has been provided with a

pressure indication in field and Control room, which can give process high
and low alarms.
The 2" inlet/outlet line of the bullet is provided with a Remote Operated
Valve's (ROV's) for emergency isolation of the bullets locally (Compressor
house). The ROV can be closed from CRU control room also.
Minimum residual pressure of 2.0 kg/cm 2g should be maintained in the
bullets.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 02 - 01

PART-G

3.0 HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR (42-K-01)


It is a three stage non lubricated reciprocating compressor of type 2HSE-3
NL-2 supplied by M/s INGERSOLL RAND (INDIA) LTD. The compressor is
driven by 415 volts 100 kW (154 amps) motor supplied by M/s Crompton
Greaves.
The compressor is designed to handle normal flow of 775 Nm 3/hr (rated for
850 Nm3/hr) with suction and discharge pressures of 4.0 and 41.0 kg/cm 2g
respectively.
Stage wise design parameters of the compressor are as follows:
STAGE
I
II
III

CYLINDER DIAMETER, inch


STROKE, inch
INTAKE PRESSURE, Kg/cm2g
DISCHARGE PRESSURE, Kg/cm2g
INTAKE TEMPERATURE, oC
DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE, oC
PISTON DISPLACEMENT, m3/hr
CAPACITY AT INLET, m3/hr
SPEED, rpm

3.1

8
9
4
8.8
47
119
293
215.5
330

6
9
8.6
19.4
45
122
151
215.5

4.25
9
19
41
45
124
76
215.5

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The compressor is equipped with a self-contained, force feed lubrication
system for the bearing and running surfaces of the compressor frame and
running gear. Parts lubricated by the frame lubrication system include the
main crankshaft journal bearings, crankpin bearings, crosshead pin
bushings, and cross heads. A frame mounted oil pump is a gear type pump
with two rotating gears is driven directly off the end of the compressor
crankshaft. A motor driven auxiliary pump has been provided for the priming
of the main pump and the pre-lubrication of the compressor bearing and
running surfaces prior to starting the unit.
The oil is drawn from the frame sump through a screen type strainer and into
the crankshaft driven gear type oil pump. The pump forces the oil through a
cooler and then through a filter (with replaceable cartridge type element).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 03 - 01

PART-G

The cooled and filtered oil then flows under pressure to the main crankshaft
journal bearing, located at the oil pump and of the frame and from there
through drilled passages in the crankshaft to the crankpin bearings and drive
end main bearing. A rifle-drilled hole through each connecting rod conducts
the oil from the crankpin to the crosshead pin bushing located in the small
(eye) end of the rod. The oil then enters the hollow crosshead pin from
where it is distributed to the pin surfaces and the crosshead shoes. After
passing through and lubricating the various parts, the oil drains back into the
frame sump.
Oil from the filter goes to drive end main bearing and to the oil pressure
gauge and also to the low oil pressure shut down switch. The spring loaded,
ball check type relief valve protects the lubrication system from excessive oil

pressure resulting from (i) low ambient starting temperatures, or (ii) clogging
of the oil filter.

Lube Oil Characteristics


VISCOSITY at 100 oF, cst (max.)
VISCOSITY at 210 oF, cst (min.)
FLASH POINT (COC), oC (min.)
CCR, %wt (max.)
STRONG ACID NUMBER (max.)

168.4
10.2
193
0.45
0

The capacity of the frame oil sump is 26 litres. The operating level of the oil
should be maintained at the line on the gauge glass. The oil can be added
to the frame sump while the unit is running by removing the breather cap
and pouring the oil into the breather tube.
The lube oil cooler is designed for an oil inlet / outlet temperature of 71 / 65
o
C. Cooling water 11.3 lpm to be supplied at 29 oC.

3.2

INITIAL START-UP PROCEDURE


Remove inspection cover from the frame and distance piece to clean and
check interiors. Wash out the frame with solvent if necessary and wipe out.
Inside of the frame is white painted.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 03 - 02

PART-G

Fill up the oil sump (capacity 26 litres).


Pour oil over all the bearings and running surfaces that can be reached
through the inspection opening.
Just prior to placing the compressor in operation, Remove closures from
cylinder intake and discharge passages and remove the bags containing VPI
crystal, connect process piping. Pull the distance pieces inspection covers
and remove the VPI crystal bags and the VPI paper wrapping from the
piston rod. Install packing rings if they were removed. Any crystal remaining
inside the cylinder bore will vaporise when machine is started.
Check that temporary filter has been installed in the process gas in-take to
the compressor (filter screen of 0.0045" dia wire, 100 mesh, and 140 micron
opening.

Check that all blinds have been removed, PSVs installed.


Each cylinder can be completely unloaded by removing one or more inlet
valves. Re-install covers.
Manually turn the compressor through several revolutions in the direction
shown by arrow.
Turn on full supply of cooling water through oil cooler, process gas and
compressor cylinders. (Prior to starting, disconnect water lines at cylinder
and cooler outlet and thoroughly flush the system.)
Start and then immediately stop the driver to determine direction of motor
and compressor.
Run the compressor for 5 minutes, check sump oil level, frame oil pressure
(to be 1.8-3.5 kg/cm2g), cooling water flow and temperatures, excessive
heating, unusual sound or any other abnormal condition.
Shutdown, remove frame and crosshead inspection covers. Check the main
and crank pin bearings, crosshead pin bearings, and crosshead running
surface to see. Re-install the inspection covers.
If everything is found to normal, Re-start the compressor and operate for one
hour at no load.
Stop the machine and once again check running parts for excessive heat.
Monitor cylinder temperatures to be sure that the parts are not overheating.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 03 - 03

PART-G

Re-install the inlet valves.


Crack open main valve in the suction line and allow the pressure to build up
to 3.5 kg/cm2g. Check and attend for leaks.
Purge the unit and the compressor is ready to start and load.
Prime the frame oil pump just prior to starting the machine.
Ensure that breather is not covered / obstructed.

3.3

START UP PROCEDURE
Check the oil level in the frame sump and refill as required to bring the
operating level to the line on the gauge glass.

Start the auxiliary oil pump for the lubrication at least 10-15 minutes before
the start up of the compressor.
Open the suction and discharge B/V of the compressor.
Manually turn the compressor through at least one complete revolution to be
sure all moving parts are clear.
Turn on the cooling water supply to the inter coolers, after cooler and also to
cylinders.
Drain the liquid if any from the first stage suction knock out drum
Start the driver and run the compressor with no load for a few minutes to
warm up the unit. Listen for unusual noises during the warm up period.
Check the oil pressure in the frame lubrication system; the normal operating
oil pressure should be 1.8 to 3.5 kg/cm 2g.
When the unit is warmed up and determined to be running satisfactorily, the
compressor can be loaded.

CAUTION
If the compressor was started without turning on the cooling water and the
cylinders have heated up, shut down immediately and allow the cylinder

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 03 - 04

PART-G

parts to cool. Do not introduce cooling water to hot parts or they may crack.
After the unit has cooled, the water can be turned on and the machine
restarted.

3.4

STOPPING PROCEDURE
Unload the unit.
Stop the driver.
Shut off the cooling water supply.

3.5

EMERGENCY STOPPAGE
If an emergency occurs requiring immediate shutdown of the compressor,
the unit can be shut down under load; however open the final stage bypass

valve to reduce the back pressure load on the compressor, permitting the
machine to coast to a stop versus stopping in several revolution under load.
In the event of an automatic shutdown, the system pressure to be relieved
immediately.
Shut off the cooling water supply, if the compressor will not be operating
again within ten minutes.

3.6
S.No

1
2
3
4
5

INTERLOCKS
DESCRIPTION

ALERT
TAG
Lube oil supply pressure Kg/cm2g PAL-1001
1st suction pressure
Kg/cm2g PAL-1003
1st stage discharge temp. oC
TAH-1001
2nd stage discharge temp. oC
TAH-1003
o
3rd stage discharge temp. C
TAH-1005

UNITS

TRIP
VALUE TAG
0.55
PALL-1002
3.8
PALL-1004
125
TAHH-1002
128
TAHH-1004
130
TAHH-1006

VALUE
0.35
3.6
130
135
136

The above data has been taken from Instrument schedule RIN-40935EW

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 03 - 05

PART-G

4.0

CYLINDERS UNLOADING FACILITY


For initial commissioning, Hydrogen required has to be brought from outside
and stored in bullets. Gaseous Hydrogen cylinders in different capacities are
available at a pressure of 120 Kg/cm 2g (approx.).
To off-load the Hydrogen, cylinders unloading rack with a provision to
connect forty cylinders (20 numbers each in two racks) has been provided.
Cylinder unloading racks is connected to compressor suction and the Bullets
through self-regulating PCV-2001 (Inlet pressure 40-150 Kg/cm2g, d/s set
point 20 Kg/cm2g) and PCV-2002 (Inlet pressure 4-40 Kg/cm2g, d/s set point 4
Kg/cm2g).
Cylinder to be unloaded into Bullets is first lined up through PCV2001 till the
cylinder pressure comes down to 40 Kg/cm2g, then cylinders are lined up

with PCV2002 and taking 42-K-1 in line. The compressor has to be stopped
when cylinder pressure reaches 4 Kg/cm2g.
Close all the valves and depressurize the cylinder rack to cold stack and
replenish the empty hydrogen cylinders.
During unloading of cylinders, Hydrogen can be supplied to CRU (i.e.
cylinder outlet is connected to Bullets as well as CRU).
The ROV on the Bullet under receipt is to be kept in open position, while
ROV's of other two Bullets to be kept in closed position.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 04 - 01

PART-G

5.0

HYDROGEN TRANSFER TO/FROM BULLETS


Hydrogen gas is to be transferred from Bullets to CRU for initial start up and
also in the subsequent start-ups. For supplying Hydrogen to CRU, first line
up 42PC2001 D/S side with the system. Open the bullet ROV & B/V. Put
42PV2001 on auto (set pressure 4.0 Kg/cm 2g). Slowly line up 42PC2001
watching D/S pressure in co-ordination with control room. As soon as CRU
header pressure will reach 4.0 Kg/cm 2g 42PC2001 will get close. Hydrogen
transfer from bullets to CRU will take place by the bullet pressure, which is to
be kept more than 4.0 Kg/cm2g.
For supplying hydrogen to HGU-I, HGU-II & NHTU from bullets line up the
bullet(s) with corresponding headers.

For storing Hydrogen in Bullets Hydrogen generated in HGU will be


compressed in 42-K-1 and transferred to the bullets. During this operation
ensure the bullet to receive compressed Hydrogen from compressor is lined
up (ROV & B/V open). Initially pressurise the bullet upto 20 Kg/cm 2g without
starting compressor. Then start the compressor as per procedure. Continue
the topping up of the Bullet till the Bullet pressure reaches 40 Kg/cm2g and
then switch over the topping up to other Bullet. While switching over the
topping up operation first unload the compressor and close the ROV of the
bullet under receipt, then open the ROV of the fresh Bullet and reload the
compressor.
When topping up of the Bullet is over, first unload the compressor, close the
ROV, and then stop the compressor. Keep the bullet lined up to HGU-I,
HGU-II and CCRU/NHTU through proper line up the system (keeping B/V at
CRU closed) for normal/emergency operation in the Unit.
CAUTION: Topping up / Transferring of Hydrogen to be done in co-ordination
with the CRU / HGU-I / HGU-II Control room operator.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 05 - 01

PART-G

6.0

HYDROGEN PROPERTIES & SAFETY DATA SHEET

6.1

PROPERTIES:

Reference Temperature
Standard pressure (1atm) psia
Density (at 68 deg F and 1 atm)
Flammability Limits
Hydrogen-air mixture
Hydrogen-oxygen mixture
Explosive limits
Hydrogen-air mixture
Hydrogen-oxygen mixture

68 deg F
14.69 KPa
0.00523 lb/ft3
Lower = 4% volume
Lower = 4% volume

Higher = 75% volume


Higher = 95% volume

Lower = 18.3% volume


Lower = 15% volume

Upper = 59% volume


Upper = 90% volume

The major hazards associated with hydrogen are fires and explosions, and in
the event of contact with the liquid or cold boil off vapor, frostbite and burns.
Deflagration and detonation: Hydrogen gas can burn in two modes, as a
deflagration or as a detonation.
In a deflagration, the ordinary mode of burning, the flame travels through the
mixture at
Subsonic speeds. This happens, for instance, when an unconfined cloud of
hydrogen-air
mixture is ignited by a small ignition source. Under these circumstances, the flame
will travel at a rate anywhere from ten to several hundred feet per second. The rapid
expansion of hot gases produces a pressure wave. Witnesses hear a noise, often a
very
loud noise, and may say that an explosion occurred. The pressure wave from rapid
unconfined burning may be strong enough to damage nearby structures and cause
injuries to personnel.

In a detonation, the flame and the shock wave travel through the mixture at
supersonic
speeds. The pressure ratio across a detonation wave is considerably greater than
that in a deflagration. The hazards to personnel, structures, and nearby facilities are
greater in a detonation. A detonation will often build up from an ordinary deflagration
that has been ignited in a confined or partly confined mixture.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 06 - 01

PART-G

This can occur even when ignition is caused by a minimal energy source. It takes a
powerful ignition source to produce detonation in an unconfined hydrogen-air
mixture. However, a confined mixture of hydrogen with air or oxygen can be
detonated by a relatively small ignition source.
Leakage, diffusion, and buoyancy: These hazards result from the difficulty in
containing hydrogen. Hydrogen diffuses extensively, and when a liquid spill or large
gas release occurs, a combustible mixture can form over a considerable distance
from the spill location

Leakage: Hydrogen, in both the liquid and gaseous states, is particularly subject to
leakage because of its low viscosity and low molecular weight (leakage is inversely
proportional to viscosity). Because of its low viscosity alone, the leakage rate of liquid
hydrogen is roughly 100 times that of JP-4 fuel, 50 times that of water, and 10 times
that
of liquid nitrogen.
Diffusion and buoyancy: The diffusion rate of hydrogen in air is approximately 3.8
times faster than air in air. In a 500-gallon ground-spill demonstration experiment,
liquid hydrogen diffused to a non-explosive mixture after about 1 minute. Air
turbulence increases the rate of hydrogen diffusion
The buoyancy of hydrogen tends to limit the spread of combustible mixtures
resulting from a hydrogen release. Although hydrogen vapor is heavier than air at the
temperatures existing after evaporation from a liquid spill, at temperatures above
418o F the hydrogen vapor becomes lighter than air, thereby making the cloud
buoyant. (See NASA STD 8719.16, Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen
Systems, Chapter 2, for more specific related information)

6.2

Hazardous properties of Hydrogen Gas:

Un-detectability: Hydrogen gas is colorless and odorless and not detectable by


human senses.
Flammability: Mixtures of hydrogen with air, oxygen, or other oxidizers are highly
flammable over a wide range of compositions. The flammability limits, in volume
percent of hydrogen, define the range over which fuel vapors ignite when exposed to
an ignition source of sufficient energy.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

H2- 06 - 02

PART-G

The flammable mixture may be diluted with either of its constituents until it is no
longer flammable. Two limits of flammability are defined: the lower limit, the minimum
amount of combustible gas that makes a mixture flammable; and the upper limit, the
maximum amount of combustible gas in a flammable mixture.
The flammability limits based on the volume percent of hydrogen in air (at 1.03
Kg/cm2) are 4.0 and 75.0. The flammability limits based on the volume percent of
hydrogen in oxygen (at 1.03 Kg/cm 2) are 4.0 and 94.0. Reducing the pressure below
1 atmosphere tends to narrow the flammability range by raising the lower limit and

lowering the upper limit. No mixture of hydrogen and air has been found to be
flammable below 0.077 Kg/cm2.
Auto ignition: Temperatures of about 565.5 oC are usually required for mixtures of
hydrogen with air or oxygen to auto ignite at 1.03 Kg/cm 2; however, at pressures from
0.21 to 0.56 Kg/cm2, autoignitions have occurred near hot hydrogen and flash fire.
The primary hazard of using hot hydrogen (565 to 3315 C) is that a large leak at
temperatures above the autoignition temperature will almost always result in a flash
fire. Other safety criteria are the same as for ambient temperature gaseous
hydrogen. System construction materialsmust be suitable for use at the elevated
temperatures
Ignition at low energy input: Hydrogen-air mixtures can ignite with very low
energyinput, 1/10th that required igniting a gasoline-air mixture. For reference, an
invisible spark or a static spark from a person can cause ignition.
Lack of flame color: Hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-pure air flames are colorless.
(Any visible flame is caused by impurities.) Colorless hydrogen Hydrogen diffuses
rapidly if not confined. At room temperature, hydrogen is the lightest of all gases, only
1/14th as heavy as air; consequently, it rises. Therefore, inverted pockets will trap
hydrogen gas. Avoid covers, suspended ceilings, or places where pockets may form
and trap hydrogen gas.
Fire Classifications:
CLASS A

: Ordinary combustible solids

CLASS B

: Flammable liquids

CLASS C

: Flammable gases under pressure

CLASS D

: Water reactive metals

Hydrogen gas falls under CLASS C fire.


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-G

H2- 06 - 03

MISCELLANEOUS
1.0 UTILITY SYSTEM
GENERAL
Utility system consists of cooling water, DM-Water, Boiler feed water, HP system,
Fuel gas, nitrogen, LP system, service water, Plant air, Drinking water, Flare
system, HCs/CBD system.
Brief descriptions of the aforesaid facilities for each system are given below:
1.1

Instrument air:
Instrument air enters the unit through a 3 line with a spectacle blind at the
down stream of battery limit block valve. Various tapping are taken from the
main header inside the unit to supply dry, clean air to the instruments of
different sections.

1.2

Drinking Water:
Drinking water enters the unit through a 2 line with a spectacle blind at the
down steam of the battery limit block valve.
Drinking water is distributed in side the unit to two eye wash and safety
shower points hear chemical drums.

1.3

Steam:
1.3.1 Low Pressure Steam:
Low pressure steam enters into the unit at the battery limit through a
14 line with a spectacle blind at the down steam of 05BL block valve,
two block valves, one on the OSBL side and another on the ISBL side

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 01

are provided at the battery limit. One condensate drain line is


provided in between two B/Vs. LP steam battery limit pressure is
normally about 3 Kg/cm 2 and temperature 1500C, it may vary from
2Kg/cm2 to 4kg/cm2 and the corresponding temperatures are 130 0C to
1700C.
LP steam is distributed in various sections as mentioned below:
i.

Atmospheric vent of CBD vessel 15-V-9.

ii.

At different hose stations i.e. utility points.

iii.

9-C-1 purging steam.

iv.

15-F-1/F-2/F-3 radiation sections.

v.

Convection and radiation sections of 14-F-1 and 14-F-2.

vi.

Convection section of 15-F-4.

vii.

Radiation section of 15-F-4.

viii.

Duct E is 15-K-3 (ID Fan) suction.

ix.

ID Fan.

x.

9/F-1.

LP steam from 15-K T-1 (steam turbine of 15-K-1) out let joins the LP
steam header in side the unit so also the 15-K-1 lube oil turbine outlet
steam. LP steam header pressure is maintained by venting excess
steam through a PCV provided at the up steam of air atmospheric
vent. The atmospheric vent is provided with a silencer near 15-F-4.
One LP steam tapping has been taken from 15-KT-1 out let line which
joint the LP steam header for the new units out side the south side
battery limit. This take off line is provided with a block valve at the
take off point and two block valves at the battery limit.
1.3.2 Medium Pressure Steam:
MP steam enters the unit through a 8 line provided with OSBL and
ISBL block valves. OSBL block valve is provided with a spectacle
blind. This steam line is provided with local as well as DCS mounted
PI and TI. Flare indication is given in DCS.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01 - 02

MP steam pressure at the battery limit is normally 12Kg/cm 2 and


temperature 2500C, but it may vary from 10kg/cm2 to 13kg/cm 2 and
corresponding temperature from 2000c to 2600C.
MP steam is distributed in the unit to different sections as mentioned
hereunder.
i.

15-J-1 provided with a spectacle blind at the down stream of


take off valve.

ii.

17-DR-1

iii.

14-F-2 convection section

iv.

HY-1402

v.

15-K-1 Lube oil turbine

vi.

14-F-1 Convection section (divided into two streams)

vii.

9-F-1 atomizing steam.

viii.

9-F-1 soot blowers

ix.

15-F-4 convection section

x.

9-F-1 Coil purging steam provided with block valves and


NRVs.

1.3.3 High Pressure Steam:


HP steam enters the unit through a 8 line provided with OSBL and
ISBL side block valves and a condensate drain line in between the
two block valves.
A spectacle blind is provided at the down steam of OSBL side block
valve.
At the battery limit, local TI and PI are provided so also in the Control
room.
Facilities are provided in DCS for flow integration, pressure and low
pressure audiovisual alarm. HP steam pressure, at the battery limit is
normally about 60kg/cm2 and temperature3300C.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 03

Steam produced in the CRU steam generator joins the HP steam


header inside the unit through a 8 line HP steam and steam
generated in the unit are jointly required for running 15-KT-1. Steam
generated in the unit can be vented to atmosphere through a silencer
near 15-F-3.
1.4

Cooling Water:
Cooling water enters the unit through a 22 line.

A spectacle blind is

provided at the down steam of the battery limit block valve.


Cooling water pressure and flow indications are given in CRT.
Cooling water is used in different equipments as mentioned below:
i.

15-V-9 CBD vessel coils.

ii.

14-E-5 stripper bottom water cooler.

iii.

15-E-3 recontacting drum feed cooler.

iv.

15-E-2A/B reforming reactor effluent trims coolers.

v.

9-E-4 naphtha splitter bottom trim cooler.

vi.

9-E-1 light naphtha run down cooler.

vii.

14-E-8 makes up gas compressor by pass cooler.

viii.

14-E-2 reactor effluent trims cooler.

ix.

14-E-4A/B stripper trim condensers.

x.

17-E-3 Caustic recycle cooler.

xi.

15-E-8A/B/C/D stabilizer trim condenser.

xii.

17-E-5 nitrogen lift gas cooler.

xiii.

15-P-4A stabilizer reflux pump.

xiv.

15-P-4B stabilizer reflux pump.

xv.

15-P-5A stabilizer reboiler pump.

xvi.

15-P-5B stabilizer reboiler pump

xvii.

17-K1A/B regeneration loop compressors.

xviii.

14-K-2A/B HTU make up gas compressors.

xix.

15-K-1 L.O. coolers (CRU recycle compressor L.O. Coolers)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 04

xx.

17-K-3A/B nitrogen lift gas compressors.

xxi.

14-K-1A/B HTU recycle compressors.

xxii.

17-DR-1 regeneration loop dryer.

xxiii.

To APH system.

Cooling water returning from the above mentioned equipments join a


common cooling water return header of diameter 22.
Cooling water supply and return headers are joined together by a blinded Ubend near nitrogen plant. Cooling water return header is also provided with
a battery limit block valve having a spectacle blind at its upstream.
One cooling water tapping is taken from the upstream of cooling water
supply line battery limit block valve for supplying cooling water to the
different equipment of nitrogen plant. Cooling water common return line
from nitrogen plant joins the main cooling water return line at the down
stream of battery limit block valve. Both the cooling water supply and return
line for nitrogen plant are provided with battery limit block valves.
1.5

DM water: (De-mineralized Water)


DM water enters the unit through a 2 line, which is provided with a block
valve at the battery limit and a spectacle blind at its down stream. Local PI
and TI are provided at the battery limit. Flare indication is given in DCS.
DM water is used in the steam generation section. 17-P-1A/B section and to
15-T-1 now this line has been kept blinded.

1.6

Boiler Feed Water:


BFW line is provided with a battery limit block valve having a spectacle blind
at its down stream. It is used for steam generation in the unit.

1.7

Fuel Gas System:


F.G. enters the unit through a 8 line having two block valves at the battery
limit with a spectacle blind at the down stream of the OSBL side block valve.
Local PI and a DCS mounted flow indication facility has been provided.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-H

MISC- 01- 05

FG from the battery limit is received in FG knock out drum 15-V-11, through
pressure controller 15PC91. The drum is also provided with L.G. and high
level switch and visual alarm and level indication in CRT.
FG from 15-V-11 goes through a 8 line to the burners of the following
furnaces after passing through isolation block-valves, shut down valves and
pressure control valves.
i

15-F-1/F-2/F-3 CRU heaters.

ii

14-F-2/14-F-1/9-F-1 and 15-F-4.

These are stripper reboiler,

hydrotreater reactor feed header, splitter reboiler heater and stabilizer


reboiler respectively.
One part of FG is used for maintaining positive pressure in the
following vessels.
i.

14-V-1

ii.

14-T-1

iii.

9-V-1

iv.

14-C-1

v.

15-C-1

gases from 15-V-2, 15-V-3 and 17-AC-2 through 10 , 1.5, 4 line join
a 12 line with two branches one goes out from the unit through a 8
line with a flow indication at the battery limit and a block-valve. There
is a spectacle blind at the upstream of the battery limit block valve.
The other branch through a block valve and a NRV joins a 10 header.
FG can flow to the 10 header through the NRV. The 10 FG header is
connected to the 8 out let line of 15-V-11 through two block
valves with a NRV and a spectacle blind in between, the HRV opens
in the direction of 10 line at the down stream of the previous NRV.
FG to the non IFP furnaces are supplied through this 10 line, 15-V-11
outlet 8 line supplies FG to the IFP furnaces.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 06

One 1 line is provided from the 10 line for purging the line into flare header.
This line is provided with a block valve.
To tackle frequent chockage of fuel gas C/V, strainers, FG KOD demister
and foreign particles basket filter of 80-100 microns with bypass facility has
been installed on the u/s of 15V11.process scheme MR/TS/PS/CRU/2008/05
An electric heater 15EH1 (modified heater) has been provided on upstream
of 15V11for heating the fuel gas to get rid of salt deposition. Also on the
absence of electric heater a MP steam jacket on the upstream of 15V11 has
been provided to heat up the fuel gas.
1.8

Nitrogen System:
Nitrogen (gas) is supplied in the unit from nitrogen plant installed within CRU
battery limit.
Gaseous nitrogen is supplied through two headers (header-I and header II)
to meet the requirement of CRU.
Gaseous nitrogen from the cold box of nitrogen plant is divided into two
parts. One part goes to the off side through a battery limit block valve.
The other part taken from the upstream of battery block-valve through a 3
line, which is provided with two block valves and a spectacle blind I between,
and this line is marked as Header-I. Header-I flow is measured by a FE and
its indication is given by FI in CRT.
Gaseous nitrogen can be supplied from liquid nitrogen storage vessels via
vaporisers through header-I.
Nitrogen (gas) from Header-I is required to serve the following purposes:
i.

N2 (g) blanketing in 14-T-1 (Antipolymerisation agent tank)

ii.

9-V-1 for maintaining positive pressure in splitter reflux drum.

iii.

14-C-1 for maintaining positive pressure in stripper.

iv.

15-C-1 for maintaining positive pressure in stripper.

v.

17-T-2 for maintaining positive pressure in stripper


CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-H

MISC- 01- 07

vi.

14-K-1A HTU recycle gas compressor of HTU, through 1 line

vii.

14-K-1B HTU recycle gas compressor of HTU, through 1 line

viii.

14-K-1A/B HTU recycle gas compressor of HTU, through 2 line

ix.

14-K-2A HTU make-up compressors, through 1 line

x.

14-K-2B HTU make-up compressor through 1 line

xi.

14-K-2A/B HTU make-up compressor through 1.5 line

xii.

15-K-1 CRU recycle compressor through 3 line

in all compressors, N2 (gas) is used for purging.

Header-II:
Two nos. nitrogen booster compressor are provided in the nitrogen plant.
These compressors take suction from the cold box outlet nitrogen line and
boos-up the pressure from 7Kg/cm2 to about 11.5Kg/cm2.
The discharge line of booster compressor is marked as Header-II.
This line is provided with two block valves and a spectacle blind in between
at the west side of nitrogen plant battery limit. This line is provided with a FE
to give the flow indication in CRT. Gaseous nitrogen is supplied to the
following vessels and reactors to serve different operational functions.
i.

17-V-5

ii.

17-V-6

iii.

17-G-1A/B

iv.

17-R-1

v.

17-V-1

vi.

17-V-3

vii.

17-V-10

viii.

17-V-23

Gaseous nitrogen can also be supplied from liquid N2 storage vessels (new)
through vaporiser (new) at the down stream of gaseous nitrogen battery limit
block-valve.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 08

1.9

Plant Air:
Plant air enters the unit through a 6 line having a spectacle blind at the
down stream of the battery limit block-valve. One local PI is provided at the
battery limit.
One FE is installed on the line to give the flow indication through a FI in CRT.
Plant air is used in the unit for different operations as follow:
i.

Plant air to regeneration system.

ii.

To all hose stations

iii.

To 14-F-1 for Catalyst regeneration.

Dry air from the nitrogen plant is used in 17-R-1 for catalyst regeneration.
1.10

Service Water:
Service water enters the unit through a 3 line having a spectacle blind at the
down stream of the battery limit block valve. A local PI is provided at the
battery limit. A battery limit a FE is installed in the line to give the flow
indication in the CRT.
Service water is used at the following points in side the battery limit.
i.

At all hose stations.

ii.

To 17-P-2A/B suction

iii.

To steam generator

iv.

To APH system.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 09

1.11

Flare system:
Gases from, columns, vessels, compressors and reactors after passing
through PSVs join a Common 26 Flare header that runs across the unit.
FG lines for IFP and non-IFP heaters are connected to the flare line through
double block valves with a spectacle blind in between.
All compressor discharge line PSVs are connected to the flare header.
9-V-1 pressure can be controlled by venting excess gas through a pressure
control valve into the flare header.
14-V-1 pressure is also controlled by a split range control system, which
vents excess gas into the flare header 15-V-1, 15-V-2 and 15-V-3 pressures
can also be controlled by venting excess gas into the flare header.
The common flare header is connected to a flare knock out drum 15-V-8.
Pump seal pot vents are connected to the flare header 15-V-8 is having LG,
high and low level alarms in CRT. Gases from 15-V-8 finally goes to the flare
through a 26 line provided with a block valve at the battery limit.
HCs and CBD system:
Hydrocarbons from columns, vessels exchangers pumps and compressors
can be drained into CBD drum, 15-V-9.
15-V-9 is provided with high and low level alarm and a local level indicator as
well as a level indication in the CRT.
15-P-10 is a submerged pump, which is installed in the CBD drum for
pumping out liquid into the slop header.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 01- 10

2.0 STANDING INSTRUCTIONS


PREFACE:
These Standing Instructions are of general nature and shall be valid under most of
the conditions. These instructions have been prepared keeping in view the safety
of the plants, personnel and environment. These instructions can be superseded
only by another written instruction. Attempt should be made to follow these
instructions religiously. If under any condition, the safety of the plant and or
personnel or the normal operation of the refinery is expected to be in danger, the
same is to be reported immediately to RSM & DMPN / PNM / SPNM for fresh
guidelines to tackle such situation.
Addition or change of any of the Standing Instruction will be documented as
Supplementary, Standing Instructions and the same will attached at the end of
these Standing Instruction. Those supplementary Standing Instructions will be
incorporated in main Standing Instruction under the under the respective heading
while bringing out the next revision. The sections covered under these instructions
are Naphtha Splitting Unit (NSU, unit-09), Naphtha Hydrotreating Unit (HTU, unit014), Reforming and Regeneration Unit (CRU, unit 15 & 17), Nitrogen Plant (Unit40) and Hydrogen Storage and unloading facility (unit-42).

A GENERAL:
A-1.

No shift personnel shall leave the plant unless properly relieved or permitted
by his supervisors. However persons completing sixteen hours shall be
released by the supervisor by making alternate arrangements.

A-2.

Fire of any nature and intensity must be immediately reported to Fire Station,
RSM and DMPN/PNM/SPNM(U).

A-3.

Whenever any accident takes place, shift PNE/SPNE shall act as follows:

Report the matter to RSM and DMPN/PNM/SPNM(U).

Arrange for Ambulance to transfer the injured to First Aid/Hospital

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 01

Fill up form A-1 for accident reporting and send one copy each to Fire
Station and Medical.

If form A-1 is not available, inform Fire Station Shift In-charge on phone.
Also inform RSM.

Shift PNE/SPNE to make quick investigation regarding cause of the


accident and record it on the office copy of A-1 form and also in the shift
Log-Book.

Accident report is to be filled on the same day by the PNE/SPNE in


whose shift accident occurred.

A-4.

Absentee and Overtime Statements shall be sent to time office with in fortyfive minutes of the commencement of the shift.

A-5.

PNE/SPNE in each shift shall initial the previous shift Log-Book and also the
Instruction Book to conform that they have read it.

B-GENERAL WORK INSTRUCTIONS:


B-1.

Any operational variation/equipment breakdown which is likely to have effect


on unit Tput, product quality, equipment safety must be immediately brought
to the notice of Refinery Shift Manager (RSM) and Unit
DMPN/PNM/SPNM(U) at the earliest.

B-2.

For Normal operation, Planned S/D and Start-up, and Emergencies handling
follow procedures given in the Operating manual.

B-3.

Any intermitted operation done in the plant should be specifically written with
starting and completion time.

B-4.

Clearance to be issued for all maintenance jobs. On the work clearance all
column must be ticked / crossed as applicable for the clearance part.
Pollution and Environment related jobs to be given top prooity (priority no.
one).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 02

B-5.

All clearances / work orders to Maintenance to be issued on SAP. If the SAP


system is out of order, issue clearances on the clearance book and record
the same in the log-book.

B-6.

All work clearances/work orders issued must be recorded in the Log-Book.


Jobs completed by different maintenance agencies also should be logged.

B-7.

Copy of clearances / work orders issued and job completion certificates must
be kept for record.

B-8.

Before effecting any change in the consumption pattern of utilities, PUE


(Water Block) and RSM to be informed in advance. Where it is not possible
to inform in advance, it should be done as soon as possible.

B-9.

Follow lab. Sampling schedule. Log reason if any of the sample could not
be sent along with the reason.

B-10. Follow pumps change over schedule. Record the same in the log-book.
Also record reason if any change over could not be done.
B-11. Morning shift PNE/SPNE to ensure that daily log-sheet print outs are taken
and filed. He should also check if the field and panel log books and registers
are filled and duly signed.

C-GENERAL SAFETY INSTRUCTION:


C-1.

All employees must follow safety guidelines and safety rules as framed in
Mathura Refinery Safety manual.

C-2.

Use Safety Halmet while entering HARD HAT AREA. This is for the safety of
all of us. The usage of Safety halmet in-side the B/L is to raised to
maximum.

C-3.

In-build security system to be always kept in line. If any system is giving


problem it should be quickly attended and to be taken in line. However
procedure for by passing of security system is as follows:

SYSTEM

AUTHORITY

ACTION

PROCESS
TRIP

CPNM

To be discussed in RSM meeting within 24


hours with CTSM, CITM, and DGM (T).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 03

EQUIPMENT
TRIP

GM(T)

In case trip bypass is required for more than


three days

CMNM/CITY/
SITM/CPNM

To be discussed in RSM meeting with in 24


hours with CTSM, and DGM (T).

GM(T)

In case trip bypass is required for more than


three days

C-4.

All Safety valves must be kept in line with both sides isolation valves car
sealed/wire sealed in wise open condition. If any of the Safety valves is
required to be isolated due to passing or leak, take the standby safety valve
in-line and isolate the defective one. Standby PSV to be attended on priority
and kept and stand-by. For isolation of safety valve where stand-by is not
available, procedures outlined above for security system shall be used.

C-5.

While handling chemicals, use safety wears. Shift PNE / SPNE should
satisfy themselves regarding the adequacy of protection (use of PVC hand
gloves, apron, face shield, safety goggle, hand gloves or gas mask etc.)
required to carry out the job.

C-6.

All drains and vents on lines and equipments handling hydrocarbons and
dangerous chemicals are to be kept properly capped or blinded. Even
sample points from where regular samples are collected should be kept
preferably capped hand tight.

C-7.

Draining of oil / water / caustic etc. wherever it is done manually is not to be


left unmanned even for a short while. If person doing the operation has to
move to some other urgent job, he must close the draining operation before
moving out even if the job is unfinished.

C-8.

Draining of oils from system should be done to DBD system. As the


reforming unit handles light HCs, If draining is required, to be done to OWS
for any reason, ensure that the material being drained is a small quantity and
it is sufficiently cold so as to avoid vapour cloud formation.

C-9.

LPG and Light Naphtha are not to be drained into OWS as it may create
vapour cloud at various places leading to fire and explosion.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 04

C-10. Any line / equipment which has been under hydrocarbon service, should not
be exposed to atmosphere / air unless it is made free of hydrocarbons either
by streaming or by water flushing.
Similarly when any equipment is exposed to air, it is to be made free of air
before putting it into hydrocarbon service.
C-11. Rotary equipment is to handed over to Maintenance only after proper
isolation (process isolation, draining and electrical de-energisation). Confirm
the de-energisation by pressing the start button in the field.
C-12. Any excavated area or opening at higher attitude must be properly
barricaded to eliminate chances of anybody falling down.
C-13. Wooden planks, bamboos ropes, oil soaked cotton wastes or any other
combustible material must not be allowed to remain in the unit area specially
near hot equipments as it can result in fire.
C-14. First aid box must be available in PNE/SPNE office. Ensure refill of the
box as and when required. Record in the log-book for deficiency.
C-15. Constant watch to be kept on firebox conditions. Boxes must be clear and
there should be no flame impingement on the tubes.
C-16. Naphtha is not to be given to any person / section for washing or cleaning
purposes.
C-17. Scales / mucks taken out from equipments under lighter hydrocarbon service
(e.g. fuel gas, LPG and naphtha) are to be kept wet and carefully removed to
a safer place and buried. This is to prevent fire due to presence of
pyrophoric iron.
C-18. Naphtha / Reformate rundown temperature should not exceed 45-46 deg. C.
Keeping it on the lower side will be preferable. This is to reduce fugitive
emission, hydrocarbon loss and reduce the possibility of hydrocarbon
vapours coming out of receiving tank and forming vapour cloud that may
result in fire.
C-19. Utility steam points have been provided at various locations in the plant. At
all critical areas (such as furnaces, Reboiler pumps, columns bottom
platforms, Reforming reactors different platforms. LPG pumps etc.) steam
hoses should be kept connected and rolled for fire fighting purpose.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 05

C-20. If any nitrogen leak is observed in the nitrogen plant, which might has made
the area oxygen deficient, use air mask or an air hose provided for this
purpose near.
C-21. Steam leak can cause steam burn while working on it. To reduce the risk of
person getting injured due to the HP steam leakage.
-

Reduce the steam leakages by properly commissioning and


operating the HP steam lines. Ensure condensate draining the
slow warm up while commissioning.

As the steam leak will increase if allowed unattended for


prolonged period, get the leak attended by tightening of by
isolation of the system if possible. Other get it attended by Online sealing.

Keep the record of leaks attended by on-line sealing so as to


take corrective actions during shutdown.

C-22. All floors to be kept clean and dry to avoid person falling due to uneven
surface or slippery area. Get the areas levelled if any sagging is observed.
To keep the area dry, minimise Hydrocarbon, Chemicals, Steam and Water
leaks by attended them as and when noticed.

D-HOUSE KEEPING:
D-1.

All utility hoses must be kept rolled in their position.

D-3.

Ensure that the bins provided in the area are used for the collection of
garbage. Garbage collected in the bins should be disposed off at regular
intervals by civil maintenance. Record follow up for the same in the logbook.

D-4.

Shoes are not allowed inside the DDCS Control room. Control room to be
maintained dust free to avoid frequent Electronic Cards Failure.

D-5.

No foodstuff/eatables are to be stored/eaten inside the DDCS control room.

D-6.

Waste food/packing materials to be disposed off in the garbage bins only.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 06

D-7.

Ensure that sample point and chemical / oil drum valves are closed properly
immediately after the completion of the job. This is essential as;

It reduces chemicals and oils wastage.

It reduce the load on our environment.

It can lead to hazardous situation.

In case if any valve is found passing/defective, the same to replaced at the


earliest.

E-ENVIRONMENT RELATED:
E-1.

E-2.

E-3.

E-4.

E-5.

Excess O2 level in furnaces to be kept in the range of 3 to 4 % so as to have


high efficiency and minimum fuel firing. This will avoid excessive fuel firing
and extra environment pollution. Excess O 2 to be controlled based upon
oxygen analyser available on each of the furnace. Also compare the flue
gas samples analysed on weekly basis (ORSAT analysis) with the on-line O 2
analyser readings for corrective action including calibration of on-line
analyser.
SO2 emission from CRU is to be kept less than 10 Kg/hr. In case of
increase of SO2 emission level, cross check the emission levels of other
units stacks. If the increase is in all the stacks, check H2S content of the
15K-1 recycle gas (to be normally less than 2 ppm.) and sulfur contents of
FG. Otherwise get the SO2 monitor checked by the Instruction Maint.
Inform RSM and DMPN/PNM/SPNM and record in the Log-book.
Furnaces stack should be maintained smoke free. If due to any upset
smoke is observed from the stack, corrective actions are to be taken to clear
the stack. The duration for which smoke is observed from the stack must be
logged in the Shift PNE/SPNE logbook along with the action taken. Inform
RSM also.
NOX control in the furnaces can be better achieved by uniform air
distribution to the burners and uniform box temperature control. Hence the
burners to be kept in healthy conditions and box temp. to be maintained
uniformly. Record deviations.
Under normal unit operations there shall not be any flaring from the unit.
Ensure that 14V-2 and 14V-4 gases are lined up with the Sour gas system.
Adjust 15V-2 pr. between 5.0 to 5.5 Ktg/cm2 so as to have no flaring from
15PV-07, 15V-3 pr. controller also should be kept lined up with FG system.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-H

MISC- 02- 07

E-6.
E-7.

Steam, process water, process cooling water and fire water leaks should be
reported in the Log-Book and attended at the earliest.
While taking round of the unit, check open channel for any oil. No oil is to be
allowed to go to open channel. If oil is noticed, act as follow:

Block the channel to prevent the oil going further. Locate and stop the

oil leak from the source.


Inform RSM and DMPN/PNM/SPNM.
Recover the oil from the channel by gully sucker/portable pump and
take it to nearby OWS.

E-8.

During normal plant round, if any Hydrocarbon leak is notices, report it in the
Log-Book and get it attended at the earliest. If required isolated the
system/equipment and get the leak attended. Gaseous hydrocarbons in
addition to fire hazards have effect on environment also.
Liquid
hydrocarbons in addition to fire hazards have affect on land and water
pollution.
E-9. To minimise risk associated with Naphtha leak in cooling water (EMS
programme) check visually on weekly basis (preferably on Mondays) cooling
water sample at B/L for any naphtha and send the sample to lab. for the
HCs content as per the schedule. This checking is highly important as
cooling water is used in the number of naphtha exchangers. (09E-1, 9E-4,
14E-2, 14E-4A/B, 14E-5, 15E-2A/B, 15E-3, 15E-8A/B/C/D & 15E-11) where
naphtha pressure is higher than the cooling water pressure and any leak in
the exchanger will lead to naphtha carry over to the cooling tower. In case of
any abnormality inform PUE(Water block), RSM and PNM/SPNM, identify
the leaking exchanger and isolate the cooler if leak is confirmed.
E-10. Service water consumption is to be minimised (EMS programme). Ensure
the following for the same;

No unwanted service water point is left open.


Oil/Chemical leaks are attended at the earliest whenever observed.
Proper levelling of the floor to avoid spreading of spilled chemical/oil.

E-11. Hydrogen leak if any should be attended on priority as the leak may increase
very soon due to high pressure.
E-12. Freon refrigeration system should be maintained leak proof. Periodically
check the system for leaks and get the same attended on top priority.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 02- 08

F- CBD SYSTEM
As the reforming unit handles light HCs , The closed blow down system
needs special attention.
F-1.

F-2.

F-3.
F-4.

F-5.
F-6.

Ensure blanketing steam to CBD vent line is always kept charged. In case
of LP steam failure, isolate the steam to CBD vent to avoid any back flow
HCs to LP steam header.
Normally CBD system is to be kept floating with flare and isolated from the
atmospheric vent. This requires CBD network to be all leak proof. However,
if due to any reason (such as leakage), the system may be floated with
atmosphere. While floating with atmosphere, ensure that blanketing steam
(LP steam) is opened prior to opening of the atmospheric vent.
Check CBD vessel level in each shift. Pump out the CBD vessel if level is
more than 30%. Level to be kept in the range of 10-30%.
Weekly (preferably on Wed. Evening shift) check CBD pump performance
(even if the level is low) with discharge valve close. This is to ensure that
pump motor is in energised condition and pump develops pressure. Record
observation in the log-book.
Before and after draining any material to CBD, check the CBD level and
record in the log-book.
CBD all the clean out points must be kept blinded. All columns, Vessels and
exchangers drains to CBD to be kept blinded.

G- OWS SYSTEM
As the reforming unit handles light HCs The OWS system needs special
attention.
G-1.
G-2.

G-3.

OWS drain lines for the system, equipments and lines under hydrocarbon
service must be kept blinded.
Unit OWS and Storm sewer system are common. The storm channel inside
the unit to be kept lined up to OWS and isolated to the open channel near
steam drum.
Oil spillage if any, must be contained and not to be allowed to spread,
Draining of Naphtha in OWS will lead to the formation of HCs vapour cloud,
which can catch fire from the unit heater. However in case of spillage, flush
out the OWS system thoroughly.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-H

MISC- 02- 09

G-4.
G-5.

All sewage /OWS / Storm water manhole must always be kept covered.
Screens, mesh provided in the OWS funnel shall be kept cleaned to avoid
funnel chokage, which will lead to oil / chemical spillage on the floor while
draining.

H- FLARE / PSVS SYSTEM


The unit has been provided with flare system, which is hooked up with
the existing flare system by an isolation valve at the B/L
H-1.
H-2.
H-3.
H-4.

H-5.

H-6.

Unit B/L Valve shall be always full open and car sealed. Under no condition
it is to be isolated without the permission of DMPN / PNM or RSM.
Keep fuel gas purge to flare header charged near Non-IFP heaters.
Keep Flare KO pot drain to CBD and OWS in de-blinded condition. However
normal draining shall be done to DBD only.
Flare KO drum pr. and level to be checked while checking the unit. Level in
the KO pot to be kept in the lowest level gauge only. Under no case the flare
header Pr. will be more than 0.5 bar.
Under normal operations, no level build up is expected in the flare KO drum,
however if level build up is experienced, then check all the safety valves for
passing and simultaneously inform PNE VBU/MEROX for him to take care of
levels at the flare KO vessels.
All safety valves, which are to be kept in line, must be with safety valve inlet
and discharge valves wide open and car-sealed. Spare / Stand-by safety
valves should be with inlet valve close and discharge valve open and carsealed.

I INERT-HCS & INERT-AIR SYSTEM.


The unit has Nitrogen as an inert media, Hydrocarbons as process fluid
medium and air as a media for pr. testing and / or for use during catalyst
regeneration. To avoid the mixing, follow the instruction as given below :
I-1.

Keep air and HCs system isolated by blind. Air to unit 17 for regeneration to
be de-blinded at the time of regeneration only.

I-2.

Air / Nitrogen connection at 14 R-1 is to be kept blinded to avoid the ingress


of air in the inert media.

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PART-H

I-3.

Nitrogen / Hydrocarbons lines to be kept isolated by blinds to avoid nitrogen


contamination by HCs. However the places where nitrogen is required in

emergency, the system is to be kept isolated by double block and bleed. I.e.
keep both the valves isolated and bleeder open. Any minor passing of any
of the valve will vent out the leak to atmosphere.
I-4.

While charging Nitrogen in any system, ensure that nitrogen pr. is higher
than the system pressure.

I-5.

Isolate nitrogen product block valve installed at the D/S of product valve
when the nitrogen unit is under start-up.

I-6.

Route nitrogen product to nitrogen header when Oxygen content of the


nitrogen produced is less than 10 ppm.

Charge handing over and Taking over Procedures

J- NUCLEONIC LEVEL INDICATORS.


The unit has provided with nucleonic level indication / switches for the
catalyst levels in the reforming section. Cesium-137 with half life period of
approx. 30 years have been provided as the gamma ray source. The
source is well protected against mech. Impacts and high temperatures. The
source approx. 10 mg. is in a ceramic capsule which has be following outer
casings:
-

Stainless steel inner capsule

Stainless steel outer capsule,

Lead box,

Outer MS shell

J-1.

Ensure Radiation danger boards are kept displayed near the source
location.

J-2.

While working on the source or in the very vicinity, isolate the source by
closing its shutter.

J-3.

During long shutdown or while man-entry in the vessel provided with


Nucleonic level transmitter, isolate the source by shutter and lock it in close
position.

J-4.

In case of major fire in the vicinity of the source, isolate the source and
inform RSM, and DMPN/PNM/SPNM.

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PART-H

J-5.

Loss of any source from the position to be immediately reported to RSM,


DMPN/PNM/SPNM and refinery gate CISF.

K-OPERATIONAL
K-1.

Follow the procedures as given in the operating manuals for the unit and its
different sections for the normal operations, start-up/ shutdown and
emergencies handling.

K-2.

NSU lighter product to be normally kept lined up with AVU. Heavy Naphtha
product to be routed to either HTU feed or to the Naphtha tank as per the
daily instruction through production line / Stop line.

K-3

Normal NSU product routing to HTU feed tank shall be:


BH stock : Tank 106
Nig stock : Tank 106
HS stock : Tank 105

K-4

Any Variation in NSU Tput should be communicated to PNE (OM&S I) &


AVU and variation in HTU and Reformer Tput to PNE.

K-5

If Sulfur slippage of more than 1 ppm is observed from the hydrotreating unit
in two consecutive results with hydrotreating unit at normal operating
condition, reduce the High Sulfur feed processing in HTU to 25% of the total
feed.

K-6

Keep constant watch on Stripper / stabiliser level and ensure that level is not
lost. This is to ensure that gases / LPG do not escape through the bottom
circuit to rundown tank creating fire hazard.

K-7

Ensure that liquid hydrocarbons are not carried by the fuel gas ex 14V2&14V-4 to 20C-6.

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PART-H

K-9

Ensure that liquid hydrocarbons are not carried by gases ex 15V-2 to the fuel
gas system. This may create a fire situation. Cross check its level indication
with level gauge.

K-10. Chemical dosing to be done at the rates as specified in the operating


manual. Refer CRU folder for Batch preparation / dosing rates calculation.
However the following changes w.r.t. the operating manual are to be
followed:
a)

Antipolymerisation agent dosing to be kept suspended till vis breaker


naphtha processing is not starting in the unit.

b)

DMDS dosing to the reformer feed shall be done only if instructed in


the daily instruction. Due to the presence of more that 0.2 ppm of S
in the reformer feed, it shall probably be not required.

c)

Caustic, Chloride and water dosing to unit 17 shall be done during the
catalyst regeneration only.

K-11. During each shift, confirm the level indications response by varying the level
of the vessels / column by 5%. Simultaneously get the levels cross
checked in the field LGs.
K-12. While topping up DSN tank, ensure the followings:
a)

Stripper operation is steady and the Desulfurised naphtha is meeting


the Sulfur spec of less than 0.5 ppm.

b)

Manifold valves at B/L are properly lined up.

c)

Close follow up with OM&S, to know the DSN tank dip.

K-13. Keep Nitrogen-I and Nitrogen-II headers charged and pressurised to


minimum of 5.0 Kg/Cm2. In case if nitrogen plant is down, take nitrogen
from the bullet.
K-14. The regeneration loop system and the nitrogen lift gas systems pressures to
be maintained higher ( + 0.2 bar ) than the HCs system pressure even if the
regeneration and or the lift gas compressor / regeneration loop compressor
are not running. This is to avoid any contamination of the regeneration loop /
nitrogen lift loop with HCs.

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PART-H

K-16. Air diversion to oxichlorination bed to be done only, once:


-

The performance of analyzer is confirmed:

All the catalyst levels in the reactors/vessel is OK.

All the temperature indications of the oxychlorination are


responding well.

Residual oxygen in AC-03 of the order of 0.2 0.4 %


confirming that coke burning in the combustion bed is
complete.

K-17 Ensure furnace draft physically by looking at the furnace.Also cross checks
the draft readings with local gauge and that of DCS.
K-18 Ensure the box temperature, skin temperature of every furnace and make
sure to keep them within the limits.
Maximum Skin temperature limits for

9F1 - 253 deg C


14F1 393 deg C
14F2 305 deg C
15F1 615 deg C
15F2 615 deg C
15F3 615 deg C
15F4 300 deg C

K-19 Ensure the status of interlock while taking charge on every shift.
K20. Update interlock register as and when any interlock is bypassed.
K21.Ensure no flaring during normal operation. In Case so take corrective actions
immediately without any delay.
K22.whenever feed pumps of NHTU fails in OM&S survive the unit by taking hot
feed from NSU bottom. Please ensure the specification w.r.t the line foreign
materials of the feed before taking the feed.
K23.Whenever temperature in ox chlorination is found on higher side, burning in
regeneration to be converted to black burning mode.

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PART-H

K24. All the Advance Process Control strategies to be kept on-line. In case of a
problem forcing a strategy to be taken to Auto mode, report in the shift logbook
as well as to the advance control group.
K25.Ensure the performance of all electric heaters by analyzing their trends in dcs
and mention in log book in case of any abnormalities.

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MISC- 02- 15

PART-H

3.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM


3.1

Introduction

The human element of the system has one of the biggest potentials for either
causing or preventing a major incident. Safe job performance by operators,

maintenance personnel and contractors has a tremendous positive impact on


safety.
The objectives of the Work Permit System are to exercise control over the
maintenance activities by assigning responsibilities, ensuring clear cut
communication between interested functions and requiring that proper
consideration be given to the job, its hazards and the precautions required. It
ensures that the work is properly defined, authorised, operating personnel are
aware what is going on, precautions to be taken are specified and the persons
executing the job understand the nature and extent of hazards involved.
Safe work practices should provide for the safe conduct of operating, maintenance
and modification activities. Work Permit System is an element of safe work
practices. Requirements of OISD Standard 105 on 'Work Permit System' &
requirements under section 36 & 37 of The Factories Act, 1948 are to be complied
with.

3.2

Scope

For performing any work in the refinery by any person other than the operating
personnel of that area, a duly authorised written permit shall be obtained for by the
person/agency executing the work before commencement of the work. In
exceptional cases, the operating personal may require to issue permit to other
operating personnel such as in case of entry into confined space or so. Separate
permit shall be obtained for each activity. Following jobs should be undertaken only
after obtaining work permit:
Hot job, Excavation, Road/dyke cutting, Electrical lock-out/energising, Confined
space entry, Boxing up of vessel/furnace/ column, Working at elevation, working on
fragile roof structures, Radiography, Crane Operation.
The above list of jobs is indicative and not exhaustive.

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PART-H

3.3

Types of Work Permit

Depending on the nature of the job as mentioned in 3.2, there are seven types of
permit:
Cold work permit
Hot work permit/ Vessel entry / Vessel box up/ Excavation permit
Working at height permit
Radiation permit

3.3.1

DEFINITIONS

a) Hot Work: Hot Work is an activity that may produce enough heat to ignite a
flammable air - hydrocarbon mixture or a flammable substance. This includes all
works which produces spark, running of IC engine, breaking of concrete, use of
ordinary torches etc.
b) Cold Work: Cold Work is an activity that does not produce sufficient heat to ignite
a flammable air- hydrocarbon mixture or a flammable substance.
c) Radiation Work: Any activity that is carried with a source of ionizing radiation,
which does not produce sufficient heat to ignite a flammable air- hydrocarbon
mixture or a flammable substance.
d) Working at Height: Any activity that is carried out at 2.5 meters & above on
temporary structure, scaffolds etc.
e) Excavation: Any excavation work inside refinery of depth 200mm or more.
f) Confined space: A restricted space, not meant for human occupancy and where
there is likelihood of presence of undesirable condition for human safety.

3.4

General Requirements

All jobs in the refinery shall be carried out under valid work permit only. Normally
operating personnel do not require work permit, however in exceptional cases,
work permit is require
Work permits in the refinery shall meet the requirements of OISD-STD-105 titled
'Work Permit System'.
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Separate permit must be issued for each job. Multiple jobs in a single permit are
prohibited.
Permits should be in printed forms, in triplicate or duplicate depending on nature of
job, serially numbered and different colour code may be adopted for different types
of permits.
Depending on nature of jobs, type of permit required shall be decided.

'Working at Height Permit' shall be required for working at a height of more than 2.5
meters from where the working personnel are liable to fall.
Safety harness with lifelines secured with a fixed structure is a must for working at
height. Provision of safety net shall also be considered based on site condition.
For excavation jobs, the following is to be ensured:
A warning or protective barricade of 1 meter height with red & white band/ selfglowing caution board is provided around excavation site.
Excavated material is piled at least one meter away from the edge of the trench or
depth of the trench whichever is greater.
Provision of two entries/exits is made.
Safe angle or repose or proper shoring/strutting to prevent cave-in is provided.
Permit issuing authority shall satisfy him that permit conditions are met before
issuing permit. It is also to be ensured that permit conditions are maintained in
course of execution of the job.
Before issuing a permit, equipment is inspected to ensure that the equipment/
facility is prepared and safe to carry out the assigned work, the area is cleaned and
all safety precautions have been adopted. Wherever necessary, equipment is
isolated, drained/ depressurised, properly purged, water flushed, gas test and
oxygen deficiency test are done. All concerned are to be trained on Work Permit
System for proper implementation. Certification and documentation of the training
imparted is a must.

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MISC- 03- 03

PART-H

3.5

RESPONSIBILITIES

3.5.1 ISSUING AUTHORITY


To prepare the equipment/ facility/ area properly before handing over for Maint/
Repair/ construction etc.
Ensure that equipment/ facility and area is safe for particular work.
Permit is properly filled up and precautions are categorically mentioned.

Gas test has been carried out, if required. (Gas test is mandatory for hot work and
entry into confined space).
Avoid giving general/ vague remarks on permit, which is not specific.
For working at height, ensure that there is provision of safe access to the work site
and there is provision of ladder/ platform/ scaffold for safe execution of work. Check
those scaffolds provided are with green tag.
Ensure positive isolation of electric equipment and decide about the extent of
isolation required for the job.
Close the permit on completion of work and retain the copy for at least one month.
Keep your copy of permit always with you.
Dont sign the permit without authority.

3.5.2 EXECUTING AUTHORITY


On issue of permit, go through the permit and pass the instruction down the line as
has been mentioned in the permit. If case of any doubt get it clarified from Issuer.
Do not sign without authority.
Ensure that precautions mentioned in the permit are complied at site.
Ensure that equipment being used by you is safe to perform the task.
Ensure that all power driven equipment including the cables, insulation of cables &
cable joints etc. are as per standard and are maintained in healthy condition.
To make the permit available at work site all the time during the work.
Work at specified location only.
Ensure use of approved type of spark arresters on exhaust of every IC engine.
The checking and certifying including proceeding tag on each scaffold shall be the
responsibility of executing authority.
Clear the site on completion of work.
Close the permit on completion of work and hand it over to issuing authority.

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PART-H

3.6

PROCEDURES

General
Refinery Management shall issue the appropriate authority limits for various types
of permits. For blanket hot work and dyke cutting, permits should be obtained from
higher authorities and the facility should be restored as quickly as possible.

Entire refinery shall be divided into various zones. For each zone, Gas Safety
Inspector (GSI) and Fire Permit Signatory (FPS) shall be authorized. Normally, 'A'
and 'B' grade officers are made GSI and officers in grade 'C' and above are
designated as FPS. In addition, SRSM/RSM shall be authorized as FPS for the
entire refinery.
Dy. General Manager/General Manager shall authorize gas Safety Inspectors and
Fire Permit Signatories. List of authorized GSI and FPS shall be updated and
issued to all concerned at least once in a year.
Hot work permits shall be normally valid for 7 days. The authorized person can
extend validity after ensuring that all permit conditions are complied. However shift
wise clearance for the job is to be obtained.
Blanket hot work permit shall be issued with the authorization of DGM (PN) for one
month or above as mentioned below:
For Laboratory and Workshop or any place where hot work is required everyday
and the same is safe.
In instances like plant turn around or an activity where work is of continuous nature
involving round the clock activity.
For project construction area in non-operating areas.
However, for cutting process lines, specific permit shall be required.
For road cutting HOD permission is required and in case of dyke cutting,
permission of DGM shall be obtained.

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PART-H

For carrying out hot jobs beyond normal working hours (General Shift) or on
Sundays/Holidays, permission shall be obtained from HOD/DGM. In case
concerned HOD/DGM is not available on duty, SRSM/RSM may give the
permission on instruction from HOD/DGM.
Whenever required, permit shall be renewed by the authority that is competent to
issue permit after ensuring all necessary checks as required in case of fresh permit.
The renewal is to be recorded on all the three copies of the permit.

Each and every permit shall accompany a clearance certificate. Job can be
executed only after obtaining clearance certificate from operating department.
Clearance certificate shall be renewed in each shift by GSI.
Permits and clearance certificate shall be available at the job site while the job is
being executed.
Permits shall be signed and returned to the issuing authority after completion of the
job. It is to be ensured that the area has been cleared of all debris and temporary
electrical connections have been removed.
The issuer on receiving back the permit would satisfy himself regarding completion
of the job and that the area has been cleaned. Then he shall also sign the permit
and keep the records for one month. In case of hot work permit and confined space
entry permit, the same shall be forwarded to F&S Department along with the
issuer's copy.

3.6.1 ISSUE OF PERMIT


Permittee i.e. under whose direct supervision the job is to be carried out shall raise
the appropriate permit. All permits shall be issued in triplicate. Based on type of job,
following permit shall be used:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Cold Work
Hot Work/ Vessel entry/ Vessel box up/ Excavation permit
Working at Height
Radiation permit

Hot Work Permit also covers permission for vehicle entry inside operation area.

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PART-H

In case the job is planned to be executed through a contractor, permit shall be


raised and signed by maintenance/project/ construction engineer and not by the
contractor, unless approved by management.
The period of validity, in terms of the date, start time and completion time should be
entered.

The location of the work should be specified clearly in terms of the plant, plant area,
building, vessel or equipment. Identification number of the equipment should be
mentioned.
Area in-charge/GSI shall check the permit conditions prescribed in the format.
Permit shall be issued only after satisfying all the conditions. Additional precautions
and remarks, if any, shall be clearly mentioned. All the items shall be marked
appropriately in the boxes under heading done and Not Required.

3.6.2 EXPLANATORY NOTES TO WORK PERMIT FORMS


The check-listed items in the Work Permit Forms are elaborated below to amplify
the underlying concepts and highlight their significance:
(i)

Equipment / Area inspected

Equipment or area where work is to be conducted, should be inspected to ensure


that it is safe to carry out the work and assess other safety requirements /
stipulations. In case of vessel box-up permit, it should be ensured that the work is
complete, all personnel are out, no maintenance gear is left behind and debris
removed.
(ii)

Surrounding area checked / cleaned

Unsafe conditions for performance of work may arise from surrounding area. It
should be cleaned-up to remove flammable material such as oil, rags, grass etc.
(iii)

Sewers, Manholes, CBD etc. and Hot Surfaces covered

Flammable gases may be released from nearby sewers. Hot un-insulated


surfaces/pipelines may provide a source of ignition. Therefore, these are to be
properly covered to prevent fires.
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PART-H

(iv)
Considered hazard from other routine / non-routine operations and persons
alerted
Other activities (routine / non-routine) being carried out near-by which can create
conditions unsafe for performance of the permit work, should be taken into
consideration and the concerned persons should be alerted accordingly.
(v)

Equipment electrically isolated and tagged

Before issuing permit for mechanical / electrical work in the operating area, it
should be ensured that electrical switches are locked-out and cautionary tags duly
signed with date and time are attached. Wherever local locking arrangement is
provided in the field, the same should be used. Refer format for electrical lockout /
energizing given in OISD-STD-137 on "Inspection of Electrical Equipment".
(vi)

Running water hose/Portable extinguisher provided

Running water hose and portable fire extinguisher are required respectively to flush
/ dilute in case of release of any hazardous chemical or to quench sparks and to
put out small fires immediately.
(vii)

Fire water system checked for readiness

In order to meet any contingency, it should be ensured that the fire water system
including firewater pumps, storage, network etc. is checked and kept ready for
immediate use.
(viii)

Equipment blinded / dis-connected / closed / isolated / wedge opened

Equipment / Vessel, on which the work permit


completely isolated from the rest of the plant with
normal operation, in order to ensure that there
environment with respect to presence of toxic
hazardous chemicals etc. in the course of the work.

is being issued, should be


which it is connected during
is no change in the work
/ flammable gases, liquids,

Blinding is one of the most effective ways of isolation. Blinds should be installed as
close to the vessel as possible. If lines cannot be blinded, they should be
disconnected and the open ends should be made safe by installing pipe
caps/plugs, blind flanges, mud packing etc.

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PART-H

(ix)

Equipment properly drained / depressurized

Equipment under pressure should be depressurized after isolation. This will be


followed by draining / purging / water flushing etc. as the case may be.
Equipment containing liquid hydrocarbons should be drained completely. There
may be a possibility of overlooking liquid collected in pockets or inaccessible areas

such as level gauges, small nozzles / bleeders on vessels, laterals in pipe work etc.
All low point drains should be in unplugged condition.
(x)

Equipment properly steamed / purged

Purging of equipment (vessels, pipelines, compressors etc.) is done to make them


free of flammable hydrocarbons and toxic gases. Steam / Inert Gas is used for gasfreeing of vessels and pipes in refineries and other locations. Other means of
purging is by displacement with water and final traces of gas removed by air
eductor. All high point vents should be unplugged while purging. Purging may be
done continuously or in batches to conserve purge medium. It should be done in a
systematic manner to cover the entire equipment/plant and continued till the
concentration of toxic / flammable gas is lowered to allowable level.
(xi)

Equipment water flushed

Water flushing is an effective means of cooling, cleaning and even gas-freeing of


equipment. It is also employed to remove traces of acids / chemicals. Equipment
metallurgy must be considered before using sea / saline water. Sometimes, flushing
with dematerialized water would be necessary depending upon the metallurgy of
the equipment.
(xii)

Gas / Oxygen deficiency test done and found OK


Gas test includes measurement of :
(a) Hydrocarbons by Explosivemeter
(b) Oxygen Deficiency by Oxygen Meter
(c) Use of Calibrated Meters

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PART-H

(d) Toxic gases like Hydrogen Sulphide, Carbon


Monoxide, Nickel
Carbonyl, and Chlorine etc. by techniques like Indicator Tube method, Lead Acetate
Paper etc.
Gas tests may be specified for vessel entry including open excavation where head
of a man will be below ground level and when hot work is being carried out. The
person carrying out gas test must wear proper protective gear.

No hot work shall be permitted unless the Explosive meter reading is zero. Vessel
entry, where no hot work is to be carried out, may be permitted if combustible gases
are up-to 5% of lower explosive limit (LEL). Entry with an air supplied mask may be
permitted with LEL of upto 50%.
The oxygen level should be at least 19.5 % vol. and the concentration of toxic
gases below the threshold limits.
(xiii)

Shield against sparks provided

In order to protect against welding sparks which can provide ignition in operating
areas, shields are to be provided. The shield material should be non-flammable and
should be kept wet with water.
(xiv)

Proper ventilation and lighting provided

Where natural ventilation is not available, fans/air eductors are provided. Some
types of work like welding may generate fumes. Facilities may be required for the
speedy dispersal of these fumes. Only approved reduced voltage extension lights
(not exceeding 24 volts) are to be allowed for work inside vessels from
consideration of personal safety.
(xv)

Proper means of exit provided

Proper means of exit is required in case of emergencies developed on account of


the work or otherwise. Availability of an alternate route of escape should be
considered.
(xvi)

Precautionary tags / boards provided

To prevent any unwarranted entry in the work area and also to caution other
personnel taking actions which may endanger people working on the permit job,
precautionary tags/boards are to be provided like "No Entry" sign on roads or
"Caution-Men at Work Inside" on the manhole of a vessel.
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PART-H

(xvii) Portable equipment / Hose nozzles properly grounded


As a precaution against static electricity generation, portable equipment / hose
nozzles e.g. nozzle of a shot / sand blasting gun, are to be grounded. Use of
hydrocarbon lines for earthing should be avoided.
(xviii)

Standby person provided for vessel entry

Whenever a person is entering a vessel or work is being carried out in confined


space, it may be necessary to keep standby persons (minimum two) at the
manhole or entry point holding the rope connected to the safety belt of the person
inside. In case of any emergency inside or outside the vessel, the standby will be
able to pull the person out.
(xix) Standby personnel provided for fire watch from Process / Maintenance /
Contractor / Fire Department
Depending on the criticality of the job, work permit issuer shall decide the type of
standby to be provided i.e. from which department, of which level, how many and
also additional fire fighting support facilities.
(xx)

Iron Sulphide removed / kept wet

Pyrophoric substances may be present in operating area / equipment handling


hydrocarbon. Iron sulphide scales is the most common pyrophoric substances
encountered. These should be either removed to safe locations or kept wet all the
time to prevent their auto-ignition.
(xxi) Area cordoned off
In order to prevent the un-authorised entry of people and to avoid accidents during
excavation jobs, work area is to be cordoned off.

3.6.3 EXPLANARY NOTES FOR WORKING AT HEIGHT:


(I) Scaffolds been checked and certified in prescribed form by scaffold supervisor
All scaffolding shall be inspected after completion of erection and then at least
every seven days and after weather likely to have affected stability.
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PART-H

(II) Scaffolds been tagged with green card duly filled and signed by scaffold
supervisor
Scaffolding should be tagged with red tag or green tag,
Green Tag: Means scaffold is safe for use.
Red Tag: Means not for use.
(III) Scaffold erected on firm ground and sole plate & base plate have been used

A good base is essential, so that the ground or floor on which the scaffolding is
going to stand should be carefully examined. Soil or made up ground will need
consolidating. Sole plates at least 9" x 1" (230 mm x 40 mm) cross section are
required to spread the load on earth, made up ground, asphalted surface etc. Sole
plates shall extend under at least two standards and joints shall be positioned so
that they fall within one half to one third of the distance between any two adjacent
standards. At the end standard the sole plate shall project a similar distance.
(IV) Platforms been provided with Toe board, guardrail & area below is barricaded.
TOE-BOARD (Also known as a Kicking Board) - A board positioned at the edge of a
platform or place so as to prevent persons, tools and materials falling from the
platform or place.
GUARDRAIL - (Also wrongly known as a Handrail) - A tube connected at the edge
of platform and other places to prevent persons falling from platform of place.
(V) Proper means of access to the scaffold including use of standard aluminum
ladder provided
Access to a working platform is best achieved by providing a separate ladder tower
or cantilevered access platform so as not to obstruct the platform and to minimize
the possibility of persons falling through the gap in the guardrail or decking
Work permit is a document, which certifies that all practicable precautions have
been taken for carrying out the job. Hence, it is desirable that the work permit form
shall be filled up personally by the GSI. GSI shall satisfy himself that all precautions
have been taken to ensure that the work site is gas free and will remain so during
execution of the job.
In case of cold work, radiography, working at height, only GSI shall sign the work
permit. In case of hot work, both GSI and FPS shall sign the permit. FPS must
satisfy himself that the job can be carried out safely and the permit conditions will
remain valid during execution of the job. For major construction sites, the
contractor/ consultant/ shall issue permit for working at height.
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PART-H

In case, electricity is involved, GSI shall request P&U Department for electrical
isolation. No work permit shall be issued unless electrical isolation is obtained.
In case of hot job, permits signed by both GSI and FPS shall be registered in Fire
Station. Fire Safety Officer in the shift shall check that the permit is filled properly in
all respect before registering the permit. FSO shall allot a number on the permit
with validity and put his signature. The registration shall be carried out at F&S
control room after ensuring signature of authorized signatory for the zone.

For excavation permit, permittee shall obtain the clearance from the respective
discipline like Civil Maintenance, Electrical Maintenance, Telecom, MIS, Production/
P&U, Fire & Safety in prescribed form as a prerequisite condition.
The authorized original copy of the permit shall be given to the receiver. Duplicate
copy shall be retained in the book. In case of Hot Work Permit, F&S Department
shall retain one copy.
Job can commence only after getting clearance certificate. Clearance in each shift
shall be given by GSI of the area after checking permit conditions.

3.6.4 Surveillance and Withdrawal of permit


The permit issuing authority shall inspect the work site frequently to ensure that
permit conditions are being complied and maintained.
F&S crew shall make surprise check at the sites where hot work, working at height
and working in confined spaces are in progress. Surprise checks shall be carried
out on a structured checklist and findings shall be documented. Date and time of
such surprise checks shall be recorded.
The permit can be withdrawn by issuing authority, executing authority, F&S
personnel or any person authorized by management in case of violation of permit
condition, plant emergency or any other unsafe situation.

3.6.5 Surrendering the Permit


On completion of a cold work, Radiation and Working at height, the permit shall be
signed by permittee and returned to the issuer along with clearance certificate. The
issuer along with the duplicate copy shall keep the permit.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 03- 13

PART-H

On completion of a hot work/ Vessel entry/ Vessel box up/ Excavation, the permit
shall be signed by permittee and returned to the issuer along with clearance
certificate. The issuer will then send the permit to F&S Department along with his
copy. F&S Department shall record the completion of the job and keep the permits
(two copy) along with the F&S copy, which was submitted during registration.
Hence, after completion of the job, shift in-charge of F&S Department will keep all
the three copies of hot wok permit together and preserve these at least for one
month.

In case of serious lapse or violation of permit conditions where safety of the


working personnel or equipment is likely to be affected, the execution of the job
shall be stopped.
In case of any accident or fire at the work site, the permit shall be cancelled. Fresh
permit shall be obtained for restarting the job.

3.6.6 Training and Awareness


Training and awareness programs are to be organized from time to time for issuer
& receiver of permit to make them conversant about work permit system. These
programs should include class room as well as on the job training like
Filling of permits
Atmosphere monitoring
Use of PPE including SCBA & air line respirators
Carrying out different jobs safety

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 03- 14

4.0 UNIT HOUSE KEEPING


Good house keeping always added safety at work place.
Ensure following for good house keeping:
All surface drain around the unit is free from silt.
All saucer drain in unit is free from silt.
All OWS manhole covers are properly placed.
All OWS funnel are free form congealing material.
All unit accesses free from obstruction.
All platforms & staircases are free form obstructions.
No steam leaks.
Hydrocarbon leak from valve glands and flanges etc to be arrested at
earliest.
No water logging in any area of unit.
Steam lancers fitted at various utility points.
Valve keys are placed in key stand.
DCP fire extinguishers are properly placed in unit area.
All hot lines are properly insulated & cladding provided.
COLOUR CODE OF MANHOLES
OWS

Yellow

Open Channel

Blue

Domestic Sewage -

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Green with white bonds

MISC- 04- 01

5.0 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

5.1
5.1.1

ROLES
RESPONSIBLITY
RESOURCES AND RELIABILTY PLANNING
Planning for feed processing products quality,
equipment

Reliability and manpower requirement

during Shutdown through

co-ordination/participation

in:

Daily zonal maintenance meeting.

SPNM(U)/PNM

RSM co-ordination meeting.

SPNM (U)

Feed, product & quality planning meeting.

SPNM (U)

Shut-down planning meeting

SPNM(U)/PNM /
DMPN

Chemical review meeting with material.

PNM / DMPN

5.2 IMPLEMENTATION MEASURES


5.2.1

Relevant instructions
instructions.

to

shift

officers

through

5.2.2 Ensuring availability of catalyst, caustic, Freon,


DMDS,C2CL4 additive, lube oil, APA, Corrosion
Inhibiter, TSP, Ammmonia

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

5.3

CONTROL MECHANISM

PNM / DMPN
DMPN

MISC- 05- 01

5.3.1 process control to be done in accordance with


Procedure and instructions given in operating Manual,
emergency/handbook and daily instructions. The
activities are to be coordinated in both field and
Control room by shift personnel for unit operation
Maintenance in following areas:

DDCS panel operation

Panel operator

Field operation

Field operator

Flare area

Field operator

Sampling & field jobs

Operator C

5.3.2 Overall coordination with


supervision of plant operation.

maintenance

group

Shift officer

5.4 TEST & INSPECTION


5.4.1 Noting lab results in lab resister & taking corrective

Panel operator

Action for deviation in lab results in consultation with


Shift officer.
5.4.2 Carrying out field test & entering in lab register.

Panel operator &


Field operator

5.4.3Any abnormalities observed in any equipment while On

Panel operator &


Field operator

round in the field or in panel to be conveyed to Shift


officer.
5.4.4 Log the abnormality in logbook & convey critical Ones

Shift officer

to SPNM (U) / PNM and to RSM beyond general shift


hours.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 05- 02

5.5 CRITICAL ISSUES


5.5.1

Beyond eight hours of non-conformance of products

Shift officer

with respect to manufacturing specs., seek the advice


of SPNM(U) and act accordingly.
5.5.2.

Ensuring field tests for quicker corrective actions.

Field operator

5.6 FEED BACK

5.6.1 All the activities of the shift along with critical


parameters To be logged in log book & lab results to

Panel operator &


Shift officer

be noted in lab Register.


5.6.2

Generate Monthly Operating Report (MOR)

DMPN

5.6.3

For feed back on unit operations refer log book & lab

DMPN / PNM /
SPNM

register

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 05- 03

6.0

LIST OF VARIOUS OISD STANDARDS:

STANDARDS

NAME OF STANDARD

OISD-STD-105

Work Permit system

OISD-STD-106

Process design and operating philosophies on


pressure relief & disposal system

OISD-STD-108

Recommendation
handling.

OISD-STD-109

Process design & operating philosophies on blow


down & sever system.

OISD-RP- 110

Recommended practices on static electricity.

OISD-STD-111

Process design & operating philosophies on fired


process furnace.

OISD-STD-112

Safe handling of air


pyropheric substances.

OISD-STD-113

Classification of areas for electrical installation at


H/C processing & handling facilities.

OISD-STD-116

Fire protection facilities for petroleum refineries &


oil/gas processing plants.

OISD-STD-118
(Rev 1)

Layouts for oil & gas installations

OISD-STD-119
(Rev 1)

Inspection of pumps.

OISD-STD-120

Inspection of compressors.

OISD-STD-121

Inspection of turbine & diesel engine

OISD-STD-122

Inspection of fan, blower, gearboxes & agitators.

OISD-RP-123

Inspection of rotating equipment components.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

practices

on

oil

hydrocarbon

storage

mixture

MISC- 06- 01

&

&

STANDARDS

NAME OF STANDARD

OISD-RP-124

Predictive maintenance of mechanical seals.

OISD-RP-125

Inspection & maintenance of mechanical seals.

OISD-RP-126

Specific maintenance
equipments.

OISD-STD-127

History of recording of rotating equipments.

OISD-STD-128

Inspection of unfired pressure vessels

OISD-STD-129

Inspection of storage tank.

OISD-STD-130

Inspection of pipes, valves & fittings

OISD-STD-132

Inspection pressure relieving devices.

OISD-STD-133

Inspection of fired heaters.

OISD-STD-134

Inspection of heat exchangers.

OISD-STD-135

Inspection of loading & unloading hoses for


petroleum products.

OISD-STD-137

Inspection of electrical equipments.

OISD-STD-142

Inspection of fire fighting equipments & systems

OISD-RP-147

Inspection &
installations.

OISD-RP-148

Inspection & safe practices during overhauling


electrical equipment.

OISD-STD-152

Safety instrumentation
hydrocarbon industry.

OISD-STD-153

Safety aspects in functional training.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

safe

practices

practices

for

for

during

process

rotating

electrical

system

MISC- 06- 02

in

STANDARDS

NAME OF STANDARD

OISD-STD-154
Part I
Part II

Personal protective equipment


Non-respiratory equipments
Respiratory equipments

OISD-STD-163

Process control room safety

OISD-GDN-166

Guidelines for occupational health monitoring in oil &


gas industry.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

7.0 CRU SAFETY INTERLOCK SET POINTS

MISC- 06- 03

IOCL MATHURA REFINERY - SAFETY INTERLOCK SET POINTS - CRU


SL

TAG NO

DISCRIPTION

RANGE

SETTING

ACTION

09 FURNACE 1
1

09 FSLL-1201 B

09 F1 PASS FLOW P 1

0-20.66 M3/HR

19.81 M3/HR

TRIP

09 FSLL-1202 B

09 F1 PASS FLOW P 2

0-20.66 M3/HR

19.81 M3/HR

TRIP

09 FSLL-1203 B

09 F1 PASS FLOW P 3

0-20.66 M3/HR

19.81 M3/HR

TRIP

09 FSLL-1204 B

09 F1 PASS FLOW P 4

0-20.66 M3/HR

19.81 M3/HR

TRIP

09 FSLL-1210 B

09 F1 PASS FLOW P 5

0-20.66 M3/HR

19.81 M3/HR

TRIP

09 FSLL-1211 B

09 F1 PASS FLOW P 6

0-20.66 M3/HR

19.81 M3/HR

TRIP

09 PSLL 1210 B

09 FI P/G PR

-------------------

0.4 KG/CM

TRIP

PSH 3103 B

FUR;ARCH PR HI - 09 F1

-25TO +25 MMWC

+2 MMWC

TRIP

PSH 3103 C

FUR;ARCH PR HI - 09 F1

-25TO +25 MMWC

+2 MMWC

TRIP

10 PSHH 3103 B

FUR;ARCH PR HI - 09 F1

-25TO +25 MMWC

+ 5MMWC

TRIP

11 PSHH 3103 C

FUR;ARCH PR HI - 09 F1

-25TO +25 MMWC

+ 5MMWC

TRIP

12 PSH 3103 A

FUR;ARCH PR HI - 09 F1

-25TO +25 MMWC

+2 MMWC

TRIP

13 PSHH 3103 A

FUR;ARCH PR HI - 09 F1

-25TO +25 MMWC

+ 5MMWC

TRIP

14 14 FSLL 1416

14 F2-STRI REBOI FLOW

0-52301.63 KG/HR

49103.4 KG/HR

15 14 FSLL 1404

REG STEAM FLOW

0.3111.26 KG/HR

3000 KG/HR

16 14 FSLL 1411 B

RECYCLE GAS FLOW V.L0

0-827.34 KG/HR

767.7 KG/HR

17 14 FSLL 1419 A

14 F2 PASS FLOW P-1

0-13072.05 KG/HR

10229.90 KG/HR

18 14 FSLL 1419 B

14 F2 PASS FLOW P-2

0-13072.05 KG/HR

10229.90 KG/HR

19 14 FSLL 1419 C

14 F2 PASS FLOW P-3

0-13072.05 KG/HR

10229.90 KG/HR

20 14 FSLL 1419 D

14 F2 PASS FLOW P-4

0-13072.05 KG/HR

10229.90 KG/HR

21 14 PSH 3101

14 F1 ARCH PR V.HI

-25 TO +25MMWC

+2 MMWC

22 14 PSLL 1422

14 F1 FUEAL GAS PR

------------

0.4 KG/CM

23 14 PSLL 1422 B

14 F1 PILOT GAS PR

------------

0.4 KG/CM

24 14 PSLL1442

14 F2 FUEL GAS

------------

0.4 KG/CM

14 FURNACE 1 & 2

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 07- 01

25 14 PSLL 1442 B

14 F2 PILOT GAS

26 14 TSHH 1473

14F1 OUTLET TEMP

----------

0.4 KG/CM
330 DEG C

14K2A HTU MAKEUP GAS COMPRESSOR


26 14 PSLL 2002A

14K2A FRAME OIL PR.V.LOW

-----------

0.35 KG/CM

27 14 PSLL 1474A

14K2A SUCT PR V.LOW

----------

KG/CM

28 14 TSHH 1477A

DISCH TEMP VERY HIGH

118 DEG C

29 14 PAHH 1476A

DISCH PRESS. VERY HIGH

KG/CM2

30 14 PSL 2001A

14K2A FRAME OIL PR.LOW

-------------

0.55 Kg/Cm

31 14 PSLL 2007A

14K2A CW HDR PR V.LOW

---------

2.4 Kg/Cm

--------

0.35 KG/CM

14K2B HTU MAKEUP GAS COMPRESSOR


33 14 PSLL 2002B

14K2B FRAME OIL PR.V.LOW

34 14 PSLL 1474B

14K2B SUCT PR. V. LOW

35 14 TSHH 1477B

DISH TEMP VERY HIGH

--------

118 DEG C

36 14 PAHH 1476B

DISCH PRESS. VERY HIGH

--------

KG/CM2

37 14 PSL 2001B

14K2B FRAME OIL PR.LOW

--------

0.55 Kg/Cm

38 14 PSLL 2007B

14K2B CW HDR PR V.LOW

--------

2.4 Kg/Cm

KG/CM2

14K1A HTU RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR


39 14 PSLL 1002A

14 K1A FRAME OIL PR.V.LOW

---------

0.35 Kg/Cm

40 14 PSLL 1004A

14 K1A GAS SUCT PR

----------

16.17 Kg/Cm

41 14 TSHH 1002A

14 K1A CY 1-DIS GAS TEMP

----------

106 C

42 14 TSHH 1004A

14 K1A CY 2-DIS GAS TEMP

---------

106 C

43 14 PSL 1001A

14 K1A FRAME OIL PR.LOW

----------

0.55 Kg/Cm

44 14 PSLL 1006A

14 K1A CW IN HDR PR

----------

2.4 Kg/Cm

45 14 LSHH 1409

14V3 Level High (Com. for A&B)

---------

75%

14K1B HTU RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR


46 14 PSLL 1002B

14 K1B FRAME OIL PR.V.LOW

-----------

0.35 Kg/Cm

47 14 PSLL 1004B

14 K1B GAS SUCT PR

---------

16.17 Kg/Cm

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 07- 02

48 14 TSHH 1002B

14 K1B CY 1-DIS GAS TEMP

----------

106 C

49 14 TSHH 1004B

14 K1B CY 2-DIS GAS TEMP

-----------

106 C

50 14 PSL 1001B

14 K1B FRAME OIL PR.LOW

----------

0.55 Kg/Cm

51 14 PSLL 1006B

14 K1B CW IN HDR PR

----------

2.4 Kg/Cm

52 15 PSLL 1558 B

15 F1 P/G PR V.LO

-----

0.4 KG/CM

53 15 PSLL 1568 B

15 F2 P/G PR V.LO

-----

0.4 KG/CM

54 15 PSLL 1578 B

15 F3 F/G PR V.LO

----

0.4 KG/CM

55 15 FSLL 1565 A

15 F4 PASS FLOW P-1

0-16133.22 KG/HR

15150.45 KG/HR

56 15 FSLL 1565 B

15 F4 PASS FLOW P-2

0-16133.22 KG/HR

15150.45 KG/HR

57 15 FSLL 1565 C

15 F4 PASS FLOW P 3

0-16133.22 KG/HR

15150.45 KG/HR

58 15 FSLL 1565 D

15 F4 PASS FLOW P 4

0-16133.22 KG/HR

15150.45 KG/HR

59 15 PSLL 1588 B

15 F4 P/G PR V.LO

60 15 FSLL 1906

Total of 15FC1903 & 15FC1904

0-308000 KG/HR

57000 KG/HR

61 15 FSL 3104

FD FAN 1-SUCT FLOW LOW

0-60000 NM3/HR

12000 KG/HR

62 15 TSHH 3141C

FD A(15K01)OIL TEM HI TRIP

0-200 DEG C

90 C

63 15 FSLL 3142 B

(FL 142 B) ID/FD OIL FLOW TRIP 0-200 LPM

50 LPM

64 15 FSL 3105

FD 2-SUCT FLOW

0-60000 NM3/HR

12000 KG/HR

65 15 FSLL 3144 B

FL 144 B) ID FD OIL LOW TRIP

0-200 LPM

50 LPM

66 15 TSHH 3142C

FD B (15 K02)

0-200 DEG C

90 C

67 15 PSLL 3110

COMP. AIR PR V.LO-9 F1

--

5mmWC

68 15 PSLL 3111

COMP. AIR PR V.LO-15 F4

--

5mmWC

69 15 FSLL 3101 /FC

COMP. AIR FLOW V.LO-09 F1

38000 KG/HR

10800 KG/HR

70 15 PSHH 3107

ID SUCT PR. V.LO

-250 TO +25MMWC

-40 MMWC

71 15 FSLL 3102

COMP AIR FLOW V.LO-15 F4

16500 KG/HR

4500 KG/HR

72 15 TSHH 3132

APH I/L TEMP HI

0-400 DEG C

240 C

73 15 FSLL 3103

FD FAN TOTAL AIR FLOW V LO 54500KG/HR

15 FURNACE 1/2/3/4

-------

0.4 KG/CM

ID/FD FANS

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

15000 KG/HR

MISC- 07- 03

74 15 FSLL 3140 B

ID/FD OIL FLOW LOW TRIP

0-200 LPM

50 LPM

75 15 TSHH 3140 B

15 K03-OIL TEMP HI TRIP.ID

0-200 DEG C

90 C

17K1A/B REGENERATION LOOP COMPRESSOR


76 17 TSHH 0102A/B

17K1A/B CY 2-DIS TEMP V.HI

---------

115 C

77 17 PSLL 0301A/B

17K1A/B L.O.PR.LO-LO

---------

1.5 KG/CM

78 17 TSHH 0101A/B

17K1A/B CY.1 DIS TEMP.V.H.

---------

115 C

79 17 PSLL 101A/B

17K1A/B SUCN.PR.V.LOW

--------

1.5 KG/CM

80 17 PSL 301A/B

17K1A/B L.O.HDR.PR.LO.

--------

1.8 KG/CM

81 17 LSHH 1723

17K1A/B WASH DRUM LEVEL

75%

17K3A/B NITROGEN LIFT GAS COMPRESSOR


82 17 TSHH 1717

17K3A DIS;TEMP HI

----------

155 C

83 17 PSLL 3002A

17K3A L.O PR; V.LOW

----------

1.6 Kg/Cm

84 17 PSL 3001A

17K3A L.O PR.LOW (AOP Start)

---------

2.0 Kg/Cm

85 17 LSHH 1726

NIT LEVEL V.H(17 K3 A&B)

---------

70%

86 17 TSHH 1718

17K3B DIS;TEMP HI

----------

155 C

87 17 PSLL 3002B

17K3B L.O PR; V.LOW

----------

1.6 Kg/Cm

88 17 PSL 3001B

17K3B L.O PR.LOW (AOP Start)

---------------------------

2.0 Kg/Cm

15K1 'EBARA' HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR


89

VAHH 4101

15K1 COMP RAD VIB DIS

15 K 1-

103 MIC. MET

90

AAHH 4101

15K1 AUX DIS. HIGH

15 K 1-

5.2 MM

91

VAHH 4102

15K1 TUR RAD VIB EX;SIDE

15 K 1-

103 MIC. MET

92

AAH 4102

TUR AXIAL DIS; HIGH

15 K 1-

5.2 MM

93

TAHH 4101 A

COMP.TH.RRG.TEMP.HIGH

15 K 1-

138 C

94

TAH 4101 B

TIS 4102 B

15 K 1-

132 C

95

TAH 4102 A

TIS 4102 A

15 K 1-

132 C

96

TAHH 4102 B

TUR.TH.RRG.TEMP.HIGH

15 K 1-

138 C

97

PDSL 4010

15 K1 COM.BAL.PIST PR

15 K 1-

0.3 KG/CM

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 07- 04

98

PSH 4204

ST;BY.OIL PUMP RUN

15 K 1-

3.3 KG/CM

99

PSH 4205

EMER;OIL PUMP RUN

15 K 1-

1.6 KG/CM

100 LSL 4201

RESERVIOR OIL LEVEL LO

15 K 1-

25%

101 PSL 4206

OIL HDR PR LO

15 K 1-

7.0 KG/CM

102 PSH 4057

SEAL VENT GAS PR

15 K 1-

0.5 KG/CM

103 PSH 4059

SEAL VENT GAS PR

15 K 1-

0.5 KG/CM

104 PDSH 4053

BUF.GAS.FIL.PR.DISCH

15 K 1-

0.7 KG/CM

105 PDSH 4051

BUF.GAS.FIL.PR.SUCT

15 K 1-

0.7 KG/CM

106 PSL 4001

LO PR LO

15 K 1-

0.89 KG/CM

107 LSL 4001

LO R/D TANK LEVEL LO

15 K 1-

25%

108 TSHH 4011

COMP DISCH TEMP HI

15 K 1-

170 C

109 PSLL 4002 A

L.O SUP. PR V L

15 K 1-

0.76 KG/CM

110 PSLL 4002 B

L.O SUP. PR V L

15 K 1-

0.76 KG/CM

111 PSLL 4002 C

L.O SUP. PR V L

15 K 1-

0.76 KG/CM

112 PSHH 4058 A

SEAL VENT GAS PR V.H

15 K 1-

0.75 KG/CM

113 PSHH 4058 B

SEAL VENT GAS PR V.H

15 K 1-

0.75 KG/CM

114 PSHH 4058 C

SEAL VENT GAS PR V.H

15 K 1-

0.75 KG/CM

115 PSHH 4060 A

SEAL VENT GAS PR V.H

15 K 1-

0.75 KG/CM

116 PSHH 4060 B

SEAL VENT GAS PR V.H

15 K 1-

0.75 KG/CM

117 PSHH 4060 C

SEAL VENT GAS PR V.H

15 K 1-

0.75 KG/CM

118 ST 4101 A

TURBINE SPEED HIGH

15 K 1-

8896 RPM

119 ST 4101 B

TURBINE SPEED HIGH

15 K 1-

8896 RPM

120 ST 4101 C

TURBINE SPEED HIGH

15 K 1-

8896 RPM

121 LSHH 1503

15 V1 LEVEL V.HI

15 K 1-

70%

122 SV 4001

TRIP VALVE(SOV)

15 K 1-

110 V.AC(ASCO)

123 AE 4101 A (AI)

COMP.AXIAL DISPLACEMENT

AIS 4101 -15 k1

124 AE 4101 B (AI)

COMP.AXIAL DISPLACEMENT

AIS 4101

125 XE 4101 A

COMP.RAD.VIB.(DISH. SIDE)

VIS 4101 A

126 YE 4101 A

COMP.RAD.VIB.(DISH. SIDE)

VIS 4101 A

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

525
MICRO.M(TRIP)
525
MICRO.M(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)

MISC- 07- 05

105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
105 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
512 MICRO.M
(TRIP)
512 MICRO.M
(TRIP)

127 XE 4101 B

COMP.RAD.VIB.(SUCT.SIDE)

VIS 4101 B

128 YE 4101 B

COMP.RAD.VIB.(SUCT.SIDE)

VIS 4101 B

129 XE 4102 A

TURB.RAD.VIB ( EXH SIDE)

VIS 4102 A

130 YE 4102 A

TURB.RAD.VIB ( EXH SIDE)

VIS 4102 A

131 XE 4102 B

TURB.RAD.VIB.(INLET SIDE)

VIS 4102 B

132 YE 4102 B

TURB.RAD.VIB.(INLET SIDE)

VIS 4102 B

133 AE 4102 A (AI)

TURB AXIAL DISPL

AIS 4102

134 AE 4102 B (AI)

TURB AXIAL DISPL

AIS 4102

135 SE 4101 D,E

TURBINE SPEED

136 SE 4101 A,B,C

TURBINE SPEED

137 TI 4101 A

COM.THR.BRG (INACT) 15 K1

132 C

138 TI 4101 B

COM.THR.BRG (INACT)

132 C

139 TI 4101 C

COM.THR.BRG (ACT)

132 C

140 TI 4101 D

COM.THR.BRG (ACT)

132 C

141 TI 4101 E

COM.THR.BRG (ACT)

132 C

142 TI 4102 G

TURB.THR.BRG (INACT)

132 C

143 TI 4102 H

TURB.THR.BRG (INACT)

132 C

144 TI 4102 J

TURB.THR.BRG (INACT)

132 C

145 TI 4102 K

TURB.THR.BRG (ACT)

132 C

146 TI 4102 L

TURB.THR.BRG (ACT)

132 C

147 FT 4301

COMP. DISH FLOW

8734 RPM
SSHH 4101 A,B,C

635-3810 MMWC

8734 RPM

CAL. 2400 MM

15 X1/X2 AMMONIA COMPRESSOR


148 PSHH 5004/5008

15 X1&2 Dish.Pr.V.High

17 Kg/Cm

149 TSHH 5002/5004

15 X1&2 Dish.Temp.V.High

85 C

150 PSLL 5002/5006

15 X1&2 Sucn.Pr.V.Low

0.2 Kg/Cm

151 DPSL 5002/5005

15 X1&2 Oil Cooler DP low

0.5 Kg/Cm

152 LSHH 5005

15 X1&2 K.O. Drum Level V. High

80%

153 DPSL 5003/5004

15 X1&2 Oil/Gas DP Low

1.5 Kg/Cm

154 LSL 5001/5002

15 X1&2 Oil Sep.level V.low

20%

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 07- 06

42K1 HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR


155 PLL 1004 /42

COM. 42 V.L .SUCTION PR

2.0 Kg/Cm

156 THH 1002 /42

COM. 42 V.HI TEMP.CY 1

125 C

157 THH 1004 /42

COM. 42 V.HI TEMP.CY 2

125 C

158 THH 1006 /42

COM. 42 V.HI TEMP.CY 3

125 C

159 PLL 1002 /42

COM.42

1.0 Kg/Cm

40X1/X2 FREON COMPRESSOR


160 PSL 4414

40X1 - Oil Pr. V. Low

0.8 Kg/Cm

161 PSL 4415

40X1 - Sucn. Pr. V. Low

1.0 Kg/Cm

162 PSH 4416

40X1 - Disch. Pr. V. High

17.5 Kg/Cm

163 PSL 4424

40X2 - Oil Pr. V. Low

0.8 Kg/Cm

164 PSL 4425

40X2 - Sucn. Pr. V. Low

1.0 Kg/Cm

165 PSH 4426

40X2 - Disch. Pr. V. High

17.5 Kg/Cm

166 TSLL 4417

40X1&X2 Com.Disch.Temp.V.Low.

3 C

40NC1/NC2 NITROGEN COMPERSSOR


167 PSLL 7104

40NC1/2 - F.O. Pr. V. Low.

1.0 Kg/Cm

168 PSLL 7102

40NC1/2 - Sucn. Pr. V. Low.

1.1 Kg/Cm

169 TSHH 7103

40NC1/2 - Disch.Temp.V.High

90 C

40AC1/AC2 AIR COMPERSSOR


170 PT 2

Low Oil Pr.

1.12 Kg/Cm

171 VB 1

1st Stg.Vibration High

1.0 MIL

172 VB 2

2nd Stg. Vibration High

1.0 MIL

173 VB 3

3rd Stg. Vibration High

1.0 MIL

174 TE 1

High Oil Temp.

52 C

175 TI 1

Low Oil Temp.

18 C

176 TE 2

1st Stg.Air temp.High

52 C

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 07- 07

177 TE 3

2nd Stg.Air temp.High

52 C

178 TE 4

Disch.Air temp. High

52 C

179 PSLL1

Seal Gas Pr. Low

0.42 Kg/cm

PROCESS - GENERAL
180 FSLL 1514

15 P5 A/B

0-91263 KG/HR

80802

181 FSLL 1504 C

15 E1

0-7379 KG/HR

6895

182 FSLL1731

17 E1

0-4743.8 KG/HR

4000

183 FSLL1732

N2 II TO 1 ST UH

0-10 KG/HR

184 FSLL1733

N2 II TO 4 TH LH

0-13.41 KG/HR

185 PDSL 1730

N2 II TO RD CH

0-0.5 KG/CM2

0-0.3 KG CM

186 PDSL 1731

N2 TO RR. CH

0-0.1 KG/CM2

0-0.1 KG/CM2

187 FSL 3141

CL.W.LIN

0-280 LPM

74 LPM

188 FSL 3142 A

CL.W.LIN

0-200 LPM

50 LPM

189 FSL 3143

CL.W.LIN

0-280 LPM

70 LPM

190 FSLL 3144 A

CL.W.LIN

0-200 LPM

50 LPM

191 FSL 3145

CL.W.LIN

0-280 LPM

70 LPM

192 TSHH 1711

17 V11 RED CH.

0-600

480 DEG .C

193 TSHH 1701

17 R1 REGEN

0-600 DEG C

520 DEG C

194 TSHH 1703

17 R1 REGEN

0-600 DEG C

535 DEG C

195 TSHH 1704

17 R1 REGEN

0-600 DEG C

535 DEG C

196 TSHH1712

II UH 17 V-12

0-600 DEG C

300 DEG C

197 TSHH1713

III RD UH 17-V-13

0-600 DEG C

300 DEG C

198 PDSL 1725

N2 II TO IST UH

0.5 KG CM2

0-0.5 KG CM2

199 ASHH 1701

O2 % IN N2 GAS

0-1.0 %

0.90%

200 17 FSL 2001

REG GAS FLOW

10000 KG/HR

5000 KG /HR

201 17 TSHH 2002

17 DR1 EX SKIN TEMP

0-600 DEG C

580 DEG C

202 17 TSHH 2001

17 DR1 EX SKIN TEMP

0-600 DEG C

580 DEG C

203 17 FL 18

RECYLE FLOW

0-20000 KG/HR

10000 KG/HR

204 ASH 1705

H2 % VOL IN GAS

0-10 %

0.80%

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 07- 08

205 ASH 1704

O2 % IN N2 GAS

0-1.0

0-0.8%

206 17 PL 2001

17 DR 1 PR.

0-8.0 KG CM2

3.9 KG CM2

207 PSH 3101

14 F1 ARCH PR

-25 TO +25MMWC

+2 MMWC

208 PSH 3102

14 F2 ARCH PR

-25 TO +25MMWC

+2 MMWC

209 PSH 3104

15 F4 ARCH PR

-25 TO +25MMWC

+15 MMWC

210 PSHH 3104

15 F4 ARCH PR

-25 TO +25MMWC

+20 MMWC

211 15 FSL3104

60000 KG/HR

12000 KG/HR

212 15 FSL 3105

60000 KG/HR

12000 KG/HR

213 TSHH 1755

0-600 DEG C

300 DEG C

214 17FH01

AIR TO CAL ZONE

0-300 KG/HR

150 KG/HR

215 17TSH2005

17 DR1 COOLER O/L TEMP

0-100 C

60 C

216 17TSH2006

REGEN.GAS TEMP.

0-400 C

240 C

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 07- 09

PART-H

8.0 CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS


8.1 COMPRESSORS
CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - 14 K 1A / B

Comp.
Trip
EFFECT
14K1A/B
1 Sucn.Pr.V.Lo.
PSLL1004 [PSLL1004B]
CAUSE
Disch.Cyl-1.Temp. V.Hi. TSHH1002
2 [TSHH1002B]
Disch.Cyl-2.Temp. V.Hi. TSHH1004
3 [TSHH1004B]
4 L.O. Pr. V.Lo. PSLL1002 [PSLL1002B]
5 CW Hdr.Pr.V.Lo. PSLL1006 (Common)
6 14V3 Level V.Hi. LSHH1409

X
X
X
X
X
X

Comp
Start
Permit

AOP
Auto
Start

AOP
Auto
Stop

(Common)
1
2
3
4
5

CW Pump ON +
Capacity Control 0% +
AOP ON +
Trip Parameters OK +
14V3 Level LSHH1409 OK (Common)

1 Comp ON + L.O. Pr. Low


2 Comp OFF

X
X

Comp ON + 30 Sec Delay + L.O.Pr.


1 Healthy

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 08- 01

PART-H

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - 14 K 2A / B

Comp.
Trip
EFFEC
14K2 A/B
1 Suction
CAUSEPr V.Low PSLL1474A/B
2 Disch. Temp. V.High TSHH1477A/B
3 LO Pr V.Low PSLL2002A/B
4 Disch.Pr V.High PAHH1476A/B
5 C/W Hdr.Pr V.Low PSLL2007(common)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

C/W Pump On+


Capacity control 0%+
AOP On+
Frame Oil Pr not low+
Disch Pressure not very high+
Diff PR across oil Filter not high+
Frame Oil temp not High+
Suction Pr not Low+

Comp
Start
Permit

X
X
X
X
X

AOP
Auto
Start

AOP
Auto
Stop

9 Purge gas Pr not low+


10 C/W R temp not high+
11 Disch. Temp not High+
12 C/W S pr not low+
13 Suction sep level not high+
1 Comp. Off
X
2 Comp On+LO Pr V.Low
1 Comp On+30 sec delay+Lo Pr healthy

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 08- 02

PART-H

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM 17KIA.B


Comp
. Trip
EFFECT
17K1A/B
CAUSE
1 Sucn.Pr.V.Lo.
PSLL101A [PSLL101B]
Disch.Cyl-1.Temp. V.Hi. TSHH2002
2 [TSHH2002B]
Disch.Cyl-2.Temp. V.Hi. TSHH2004
3 [TSHH2004B]
L.O. Pr. V.Lo. PSLL0301A
4 [PSLL0301B]
Comp ON + 0% Loading + 3Hrs.
5 Delay

1 Capacity Control 0% +
2 AOP ON +
3 Trip Parameters OK +

Comp
Start
Permit

X
X
X
X
X
X

AOP
Auto
Start

AOP Auto
Stop

Wash Drum Level LSHH1723 OK


4 (Common)
Comp ON + L.O. Pr. Low PSL0301A
1 [PSL0301B]

Comp ON + 20 Sec Delay + L.O.Pr.


1 Healthy

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - 17 K 3A / B


Comp.
Trip
EFFECT
17K3A/B
CAUSE
Disch.Temp.
V.Hi. TSHH1717
1 [TSHH1718]
2 L.O. Pr. V.Lo. PSLL3002A [PSLL3002B]
3 N2 Level V.Hi. LSHH1726

Comp
Start
Permit

AOP
Auto
Start

AOP
Auto
Stop

X
X
X

1 Capacity Control 0% +
2 AOP ON +
3 Trip Parameters OK +

Comp ON + L.O. Pr. Low PSLL3001A


1 [PSLL3001B]

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 08- 03

PART-H

Rad.Vib.V.Hi. Inlet side

3 VAHH4102
4 Axial Disp V.Hi. AAHH4102
Comp Thrust Bearing temp V.Hi

5 (TAHH4101A)

Turbine Thrust Bearing temp V.Hi

6 (TAHH4102B)
7
8

Comp Disch Temp V.Hi.


TSHH4011
L.O. Pr. V.Lo. PSLL4002A/B/C

X
X
X
X
X
X

LOP2 Stop

LOP2 Start

LOP1 Stop

LOP1 Start

Valve OpenAnti- Surge

X
X

PermitGovr Start

CAUSE

15K1
1 Axial Disp V.Hi. VAHH4101
2 Axial Disp V.Hi. AAHH4101

PermitComp Start

EFFECT

Comp Trip

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - 15 K 1

9
10
11

(2/3 Logic)
Seal Vent Gas Pr. V.Hi.
PSHH4058A/B/C (2/3 Logic)
Seal Vent Gas Pr. V.Hi.
PSHH4060A/B/C (2/3 Logic)
Turbine Speed V.Hi.
ST4101A/B/C (2/3 Logic)

12 Governer Common Trip


13 15V1 Level V.Hi. LSHH1503
14 Emergency S/D Sw.

X
X
X
X
X
X

1 Trip Parameters OK +
2 L.O. Pr.Lo. PSL4001 - OK +
L.O.Tank Level Lo. LSL4001 -

3 OK +
4 Turbine Speed ST4101A - OK
1 Trip Parameters OK +
2 Govr Speed below RPM +
3 L.O. Pr.Lo. PSL4001 - OK +
L.O.Tank Level Lo. LSL4001 -

4 OK +
5 External Run

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

1 Comp Trip

L.O. Hdr Pr. Lo. PSL4206 + A/M

1 Sw. in AUTO

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 08- 04

A/M Sw. in MAN + Standby LOP

2 Start

1 Standby LOP Stop

1
2

L.O.Pr.V.Lo.
PSLL4002A/B/C(2/3) + A/M Sw.
(Auto)
A/M Sw. in MAN + Emergency
LOP Start

X
X

Emergency LOP Stop / A/M Sw.

1 in AUTO

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - 40 X 1 / 2

Comp.
Trip
40X1/2
EFFECT
1 Sucn.Pr.Lo.
PSL4415 [PSLL4425]
CAUSE
2 Disch.Pr.Hi. PSH4416 [PSHH4426]
3 L.O. Pr. Lo. PSL4414 [PSL4424]
4 Disch.Temp.V.Lo. TSLL4417 (Common)
Cooling Water Flow Lo. FSL4400
5 (Common)

1 Comp OFF
2 Oil Temp.Low
3 Trip Parameters OK +
Wash Drum Level LSHH1723 OK
4 (Common)
Comp ON + L.O. Pr. Low PSL0301A
1 [PSL0301B]
Comp ON + 20 Sec Delay + L.O.Pr.
1 Healthy

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Comp
AOP Auto
Start
Start
Permit

AOP
Auto
Stop

X
X
X
X
X

X
X

MISC- 08- 05

PART-H

8.2 FURNACES (NON-IFP & IFP)


Legend

CRU NON-IFP FURNACES CAUSE X - First Action


& EFFECT TABLE

FG Pr. V.Low 14F01


(PSLL1422)

XX

FG/FO Pr.
V.Low (09F01)

XX
X

XX

FG Pr. V.Low 15F04


(PSLL1588)

Pass Flow
V.Low
(FSLL1419A/B
/ C/D) & COT
V.High - 14F02
Pass Flow
V.Low & COT
V.High (09F01)
Pass Flow
V.Low
(FSLL1565A/B
/ C/D) & COT
V.High - 15F04

XX
X

XX

XX

XX

XX

XX

Trip ID Fan

Open Damper HV3105

XX

Open Damper HV3104

XX

FG Pr. V.Low 14F02


(PSLL1442)

Pass Flow
V.Low & COT
V.High (14F01)

CutOff Fuel to 15F04 (Close


UV1541)

Open Damper HV3103

CutOff Fuel to 09F01 (Close


UV1201, 1202,1203)

Open Damper HV3102

CutOff FG Supply to 14F02


(Close UV1411)

Open Damper HV3101

CutOff FG Supply to 14F01


(Close UV1401)

Close Dis. Damper (SOV3107/3108)

Start other FD Fan

XX - Subsequent action upon Furnace CutOff

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)
XX (With
delay
30Sec)
XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX

XX

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 08- 06

XX

XX

XX

XX

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

XX

MISC- 08- 07

FanTrip
ID

DamOpen
per

XX

XX

PART-H

DamOpen
per

Fuel CutO
to
ff

DamOpen
per

Fuel CutO
to
ff

DamOpen
per

SuppCutO
ly to ff FG

DamOpen
per

Dis. Clos
e

SuppCutO
ly to ff FG

FD Start
Fan other

One FD Fan
Failure
(XL3101/3102
& FSL3104/
3105)
Both FD Fan
Failure
(XL3101&3102
/ FSL3104 &
3105/
FSLL3103)
ID Fan Failure
(XL3115 &
PSHH3107 at
ID
Sucn./Speed
Sensor)
ID Fan Failure
(XL3115 &
PSHH3107 at
ID
Sucn./Speed
sensor) &
HV3101 Not
open + 20Sec
ID Fan Failure
(XL3115 &
PSHH3107 at
ID Sucn./
Speed sensor)
& HV3102 Not
open + 20Sec
ID Fan Failure
(XL3115 &
PSHH3107 at
ID Sucn./
Speed sensor)
& HV3103 Not
open + 20Sec
ID Fan Failure
(XL3115 &
PSHH3107 at
ID Sucn./
Speed sensor)
& HV3104 Not
open + 20Sec

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

High Arch
pressure
(PSH3101)

High Arch
pressure
(PSH3102)

X (If
persist
s for
20Sec
with
delay
30Sec
)

XX

XX

XX

XX

X (If
persist
s for
20Sec
with
delay
30Sec
)

High Arch
pressure (2/3of
PSH3103ABC)

X (If
persist
s for
20Sec
with
delay
30Sec
)

High Arch
pressure
(PSH3104)

X (If
persist
s for
20Sec
with
delay
30Sec
)

Extra high Pr.


At Arch - 9F01
(2/3 of PSHH
3103 A/B/C)
Extra high Pr.
At Arch
15F04
(PSHH3104)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Trip ID Fan

UV1541)CutOff Fuel to
15F04 (Close

Open Damper
HV3103

UV1201, CutOff Fuel to


1202,1203) 09F01 (Close

Open Damper
HV3102

UV1411)CutOff FG Supply
to 14F02 (Close

Open Damper
HV3105

XX

Open Damper
HV3104

Open Damper
HV3101

UV1401)CutOff FG Supply
to 14F01 (Close

Close Dis. Damper


(SOV-3107/3108)

Start other FD Fan


ID Fan Failure
(XL3115 &
PSHH3107 at
ID Sucn./
Speed sensor)
& HV3105 Not
open + 20Sec

MISC- 08- 08

PART-H

X (If
ZSH31
01 not
closed
after
20Sec)

X
X (If
ZSH31
02 not
closed
after
20Sec)

X (If
ZSH31
03 not
closed
after
20Sec)

X
X (If
ZSH31
04 not
closed
after
20Sec)

Trip ID Fan

Open Damper HV3105

Open Damper HV3104

CutOff Fuel to 15F04


(Close UV1541)

Open Damper HV3103

1202,1203)CutOff Fuel to 09F01


(Close UV1201,

Open Damper HV3102

CutOff FG Supply to
14F02 (Close UV1411)

Open Damper HV3101

CutOff FG Supply to
14F01 (Close UV1401)

Close Dis. Damper


(SOV-3107/3108)

Start other FD Fan


V.High Temp.
at ID Fan Inlet
(TSHH3134/31
32)
V.High Temp.at
ID Inlet
(TSHH3134 /
3132) &
Dampers fails
to open within
20Sec
Low Comb.Air
Pr. / Flow
(PSLL3110,
FSLL3101)
Low Comb.Air
Pr. / Flow
(PSLL3111,
FSLL3102)
High Oil Temp
(TSHH3140C)
or FSLL3140B

X (With
delay
20Sec)

XX

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

XX (With
delay
30Sec)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 08- 09

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - IFP FURNACES 15 F1 / 2 / 3


15F1 FG 15F2 FG 15F3 FG
SDV Cut- SDV Cut- SDV Cut- Common
Off
Off
Off
MSD Open
UV1511
UV1521
UV1531

15F1

CAUSE

EFFECT

1 F.G. Pr.V.Low PSLL1558


15F2
1 F.G. Pr.V.Low PSLL1568
15F3
1 F.G. Pr.V.Low PSLL1578
Common for 15F1/F2/F3
1 Recycle Gas Flow V.Low. FSLL1504C
2 Steam Gen.Coil Flow V.Low FSLL1906
Furnace Shutdown (UV1511/1521/1531
3 Shut-Off)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

MISC- 08- 10

9.0 RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR


9.1

INTRODUCTION:

Recycle gas compressor is a centrifugal compressor for the catalytic reforming unit
driven by a back-pressure steam (HP) turbine and is supplied by M/S EBARA
CORPORATION of Japan (Model No. 38MB6/SBHEG4-4). Compressor takes
suction from the reformer separator drum and discharges into the reformer feed
preheater 15E1, where it mixes as recycle gas with feed.

9.2

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

A centrifugal compressor is a machine that converts the energy of centrifugal force


into useful work of compressing gas. The gas travels more in a radial direction than
in axial direction. The gas is compressed by the mechanical action of rotating
impellers imparting velocity to the flowing gas.
The gas enters the compressor through the inlet flange and is directed into the inlet
of the first impeller through a set of inlet guide vanes, which direct the gas in proper
direction. The impeller rotates at a high speed, which causes the gas to be thrown
outwards by the centrifugal force and with high velocity. Centrifugal force creates a
lower pressure at the impeller inlet so that more gas is forced in by external
pressure in the suction pipe. The velocity is decreased and converted into pressure
in the diffuser channel following the impeller. The gas then crosses over and returns
to the next impeller through a set of return channels, including guide vanes to direct
the gas into the next impeller properly. As gas goes through each stage its pressure
is increased. After gas leaves the last stage, it is collected in a spiral shaped
chamber(volute) from which it passes into the discharge pipe. This volute further
reduces the velocity of the gas, converting the kinetic energy to pressure energy
and then it is discharged from the compressor.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 09- 01

Following conditions have been considered for the compressors design:

Normal

Rated

Case A

PLANT

BH+AM

BH+AM

BH+AM

CONDITION

+VB

+VB

+VB

REC.GAS

REC.GAS

69,648

GAS
HANDLED
FLOW, m3/Hr
WEIGHT
FLOW, Kg/Hr
SUC/DIS PR
(Kg/cm2 g)
SUC/DIS
TEMP DEG C
MOL.WT
I/L VOL,
m3/Hr (WET)
COMP. RATIO

Case B

Case C

Case D

BH

DRYING

REDUCTION

REC.GAS

REC.GAS

N2

H2

76,613

68,998

53,657

34,484

37,932

31,125

24,750

41,000

14,000

2.2/5.8

2.2/5.8

2.2/5.8

2.2/5.8

0.6/2.48

4.0/5.1

45/105

45/105

45/108

45/109

40/141

40/64

11.7

11.7

10.666

10.9

28

3.0

24,851

27,338

24,691

19,214

24,293

24,505

2.125

2.125

2.125

2.125

2.175

1.220

2140

2334

2151

1734

1221

955

7362

7446

7702

7498

5391

7702

KW REQD
(ALL LOOSES
INCL)
SPEED (RPM)

The suction pressure of the compressor can go up to 3.7 Kg/cm2 g. Speed can be
varied from 70% to 105% through steam turbine. Compressor rated speed is 7702
rpm, min 70% speed is 5391 rpm, max. 105% speed is 8087 rpm. Critical speed of
compressor is 3400-3500 rpm and torsional critical speed is 3379 rpm.

9.3

COMPRESSOR:

It is a single process stage centrifugal compressor to serve as a recycle


compressor for reformer reduction loop. It has six nos. of impellers each of dia 611

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 09- 02

mm. The rotation of the compressor as viewed from the turbine end is clockwise. It
takes suction from reformer seperator drum 15V1 and its discharge is routed to the
feed inlet side of the exchanger 15E1. A spillback flow through an anti-surge
controller is provided from discharge to suction via a cooler for machine protection
from surging. Compressor is equipped with dry gas seals for its shaft end sealing. A
brief description of the parts of the compressor is given below:
Casing is designed with a vertically split outer casing and horizontally split inner
casing. The inner casing is completely assembled and slid into the outer casing on
assembly. The end wall attached to the outer casing completes the casing
assembly.
Inlet guide vanes located in the front of each impeller provide proper gas flow
direction as gas enters the impellers. Inlet guide vanes are an integral part of the
diaphragm casting.
Diaphragms serve as partitions between the various stages and are generally
made of cast iron. They also form passages to direct the flow from the impeller
discharge to the inlet guide vanes of the next stage. The accurately machined
surfaces form spaces in which the impellers rotate. The extension of these surfaces
form the diffuser. The diffuser effectively coverts the velocity of the gas to pressure
energy. The diaphragms also contain inter stage seals.
Interstage labyrinth seals are to minimize leakage between the stages. The
labyrinth seal at the impeller entrance is called the impeller eye labyrinth seal while
the one located behind the impeller is called the shaft labyrinth seal.
Journal bearings are located in the bearing housing at the inlet and discharge
ends of the compressor to support the rotor assembly. The journal bearings are
pressure lubricated.
Thrust bearing function is to maintain correct axial position of the compressor rotor
and to absorb any thrust produced by the rotor. Normally the thrust is towards the
inlet of the compressor. However under abnormal operating conditions, thrust may
occur in the opposite direction. It is also pressure lubricated.
The shaft is made of forged steel. The impellers are made of alloy steel. The
impellers are accurately machined and balanced, then keyed and shrunk to the
shaft. Sleeves are used between impeller wheels for spacing. The sleeves are also
shrunk on the shaft.
Balance piston: Due to pressure rise developed through the impeller, a pressure
difference exists across the hubs and covers such that the impellers have a net
thrust in the direction of the compressor inlet.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-H

MISC- 09- 03

The majority of this thrust is counteracted by the balance piston drum located
behind the last impeller. This is accomplished by subjecting the area on the
outboard side of the balancing piston to a lower pressure (approx. inlet pressure),
thereby creating a pressure differential opposite in direction to that on the impellers.
This low pressure is achieved by connecting the area behind the balance piston to
the inlet of the machine by balance piston line. The impeller thrust not balanced by
the balance piston is absorbed by the thrust bearing. To minimize the amount of the
gas leakage past the balancing piston, a balance piston seal is fitted in the
discharge wall.

9.4

COMPRESSOR SHAFT END SEALING SYSTEM:

JOHN CRANE type 28 TANDEM seals have been installed on the shaft ends for
sealing process gas leak to open atmosphere. The tandem seal is a pair of
mechanical seals installed one behind the other. Primary seal seals from process to
venting pressure and the secondary seal from vent pressure to atmosphere.
Therefore only a small leakage is discharged into the atmosphere. The process gas
leak to flare is monitored.

9.4.1 SEAL RELATED DATA:


Seal design pressure

13.7 Kg/cm2 G max.

Temperature

170 deg C max

Operating Pressure

6.7 Kg/cm2 g

Shaft speed

8087 rpm

Expected leakage

8.8 std lit/min

Guaranteed leakage

22.7 std lit/min

The seals are designed to cover the widest range of operating parameters and
virtually require no maintenance. A supply of filtered compressor discharge gas is
injected into cavity between inboard gas seal and the inboard labyrinth. A majority
of the gas will flow by inboard labyrinth back into compressor ensuring that the seal
cavity is free from liquids or particles that can damage the seal.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 09- 04

A small quantity of the supply gas will flow past the inboard seal to the cavity
between the inboard and outboard seals. This cavity is vented and the leakage
goes to the vent. The O/B ga seal will be sealing on the gas leakage past the
inboard seal. This in conjunction with a separation labyrinth for bearing oil prevents
the gas from entering the bearing area. The O/B gas seal also functions as a safety
seal in case inboard seal starts leaking heavily. Seal performance is monitored
through leakage rates.
Basically the seal control unit consists of gas filter system which supplies seals with
filtered gas, a leakage gas control system and a buffer gas control system to supply
inert gas to the secondary seal.
9.4.2 GAS FILTER SYSTEM:
Gas supplied to the seal should be clean with max particle size of 5 microns. This is
ensured in the filter system. Filtration is accomplished by means of dual coalescing
filters. The degree of contamination of the on-line filter is monitored by the delta P
switch. Max allowable differential pressure is 2.0 Kg/cm2, the alarm is set at 0.7
Kg/cm2. Filter may be cleaned at this stage. Entrained moisture is removed from
gas and collected. It may be drained periodically.

9.4.3 LEAKAGE GAS SYSTEM:


The leakage gas system comprises a flow meter and pressure switches. The flow
meter will provide leak flow rate data for each seal cartridge. An increase in leak
flow signifies a breakdown of the inboard seal, and a decrease, a breakdown of the
outboard seal.
Following are the settings kept for the leakage gas system:
NORMAL

ALARM

TRIP

FLOW, nm3/Hr

5.15

9.30

PRESSURE, Kg/cm2 g

0.1

0.5

0.75

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 09- 05

9.4.4 SEPARATION GAS SYSTEM:


The purpose of the separation gas injection is to ensure that the bearing oil cannot
contaminate the gas seal. The separation gas pressure is adjusted by a a selfactuating pressure regulating valve.
Supply Pr.

Flow

Temperature

Source

Primary buffer
gas

5.8 Kg/cm2 g

312-350
nm3/Hr

105 deg C

Discharge H2

Intermediate
buffer gas

7.0 Kg/cm2 g

2.0 nm3/Hr

ambient

Nitrogen hdr-I

Sep. air buffer


gas

6.5 Kg/cm2 g

23.3 nm3/Hr

ambient

Instrument air

NOTE: Primary buffer gas header can be supplied with nitrogen gas during start-up shutdown operations.

9.4.5 CLEANPAC SYSTEM

The CleanpacTMF is a dual stage liquid knock and fine particulate filter. It
incorporates the benefits of a pre-filter liquid removal system and a final
coalescing filter into one complete package. This model of filter has two
separate chambers (lower & upper chamber) for liquid retention. In the first
stage, the gas is redirected by the vane pack which acts to disrupt the flow and
cause turbulence, this will cause liquids and heavier end hydro-carbons to be
removed from the gas stream and allow gravity to pull them into the liquid
retention area at the bottom of the vessel. Liquid drainage occurs by gravity
and collects in the bottom chamber of the vessel.
Secondly, the gas flows through a coalescing filter element, this filter element
will remove both the particles (0.3 Absolute) and coalesce fine liquid mists
that are entrained within the gas stream after the first stage filtration. As the
gas passes through the coalescing filter, the liquid aerosol in the gas stream
accumulates in the coalescing filter forming droplets. These droplets will also
accumulate in the upper chamber of the vessel.
CLEANPAC DRAINAGE

Liquids drain from the Cleanpac in a continuous drain to suction. An orifice on


the lower chamber restricts the flow of liquids and gases leaving the Cleanpac.

The drain can be opened and closed manually through the use of a ball valve
on the drain lines.
PDI-120 HIGH RANGE (0.7 Kg/cm2) Cleanpac Mesh Pad Differential
Reaching the high alaram value (Red Band) is an indication of high differential
across the Cleanpac mesh pad. Possible causes of this High DP are:
Dirty mesh pad
Transmitter block valves closed, partially closed
9.5

TURBINE:

The compressor is provided with a back-pressure turbine driven by HP steam. It


has four stages with a single steam admission valve.
9.5.1 TURBINE OPERATING DATA:
RATED POWER

2646 KW

RATED SPEED

7446 RPM

MAX CONTINUOUS SPEED

8087

OVERSPEED TRIP

8734

CRITICAL SPEED

4100

STEAM INLET PRESSURE/TEMP

60 Kg/cm2 g/420 Deg C

EXHAUST PRESSURE

4.0 Kg/cm2 g

Brief description of the turbine parts:


Horizontally split casing surrounds the steam path components and supports the
stationary steam parts. The turbine steam end contains the higher pressure stages
and the exhaust end contains lower pressure stages and the exhaust connection.
Rotor assembly consists of shaft over which the wheel discs are shrunk and keyed
to the shaft. The thrust collar tripping device and the governor drive arrangement
are on the steam supply end of the rotor assembly and the coupling is mounted on
the exhaust end.
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MISC- 09- 06

PART-H

Stationary diaphragms containing the interstage nozzles, expand the steam and
direct it against the following rows of rotating blades. The diaphragms are located
vertically in the casing grooves by shims at the bottom of the groves and laterally
by the means of adjusting screws at the horizontal joint.

Sentinal valve mounted on the exhaust end casing serves as a warning signal In
event the back-pressure builds upto a pre determined pressure setting above the
normal operating pressure.
Steam end bearing housing houses steam end journal bearing, the thrust
bearing, overspeed trip assembly and the governor drive arrangement. A labyrinth
seal at the inboard end prevents oil leakage along the shaft to atmosphere.
Exhaust end bearing housing contains the exhaust end journal bearing. Oil
labyrinth seals prevent oil leakage along the shaft to atmosphere.
Journal bearings(2 nos.)-one located in the steam end and the other located in
the exhaust end bearing housing are contained in bearing retainers with supports
and radially position the rotor assembly.
Thrust bearing is located in the steam end bearing housing. The purpose of the
thrust bearing is to absorb the rotor thrust and to position the rotor axially within the
casing. A thrust-bearing collar on the rotor shaft assembly transmits the rotor thrust
to the thrust bearing. The thrust bearing is also pressure lubricated.
Interstage shaft seals minimize leakage between the stages. Shaft end seals
minimize leakage at point where shaft emerges out from the casing.
Overspeed trip mechanism operates entirely dependent of the main governor
system and stops the flow of steam to turbine whenever the trip speed is exceeded.
Steam chest steam flowing from the steam inlet line to the first stage nozzle ring
passes through the steam chest. A strainer is contained in the steam chest along
with governor valve, governor valve seat. The governor valve is a venturi type
valve, which is positioned through linkage by a servo-motor.

9.5.2 TRIP & THROTTLE VALVE:


This valve has two major functions, one is for use as a emergency shut-off valve to
trip the turbine and other is to admit and throttle steam to turbine during start-up
operation to manually control turbine speed.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 09- 07

PART-H

9.5.3 TURBINE GLAND SEAL SYSTEM:


Turbine casing end seals are of LABYRINTH type, both in the steam end and in the
exhaust end. An ejector condenser assembly is provided for the gland steam

system. All gland leak is sucked by the ejector and condensed by the condenser.
Condenser is a fixed tube sheet type and uses cooling water. Condenser has one
shell pass and two tube passes and it cools down from 293 deg C to 80 deg C. MP
steam driven single stage ejector is provided to create a vacuum of 0.1 Kg/cm2. Its
normal consumption is 107 Kg/Hr MP steam. The ejector condenser system is
designed to handle 402 Kg/Hr (328 Kg/Hr steam, 74 Kg/Hr air).

9.5.4 LUBE OIL SYSTEM:


The lube oil system essentially a closed loop designated to provide the compressor
bearings and steam turbine bearings with an un-interrupted supply of cooled and
filtered oil at the proper pressure. If oil pressure drops to pre-determined pressure
the compressor end driver will automatically shutdown.
The lube oil system consists of an oil console, LO pumps, coolers, filters, and
pressure regulating valves.
Lube oil system normal flow is 9 m3/Hr.The console has a charge capacity of 4.39
m3, retention capacity of 1.97 m3, rundown capacity of 2.20 m3, working capacity
of 0.75 m3, normal operating range of 0.22 m3. the reservoir has a sloping bottom
to drain, clean out manholes, oil fill connection with strainer, oil level guage and
vent connection. A steam heater has been provided under the reservoir for heating
the oil before starting the pumps.
The lube oil circulation is established by LO (screw type) pumps LO-PA-01 A/B
main LO pump Lo-PA-01A is turbine driven and in case of its failure stand-by pump
LO-PA-01B (motor driven) will take auto start. These pumps have a normal capacity
of 12 m3/Hr and an additional emergency pump LO-PA-02 has been provided. It
has a normal flow of 5.1m3/Hr and discharge pressure of 5 Kg/cm2. The LO pumps
are Kosaka make three spindle screw pump which is a positive displacement rotary
pump. Its principal part is composed of a power rotor, two idler rotors engaging
closely with the power rotor and the casing in which the three rotors are enclosed.
The power rotor, is driven by a motor and the idle rotors rotate in the reverse
direction to the power rotor, to move the oil in the grooves of the screws in the axial
direction continuously.

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MISC- 09- 08

PART-H

The turbine drive of the LO pump is a single stage, MP steam driven with inlet
steam pressure of 12 Kg/cm2g (normal)/13.0 Kg/cm2g (max)/10Kg/cm2g (min) &
exhaust steam pressure is 4.0 Kg/cm2g (nor)/4.5 (max)/3.0 (min).

The turbine drive of the LO pump has a normal operating speed of 2900 rpm, min,
allowable speed of 2400 rpm, max, continuous speed of 3150 rpm, trip speed of
3630 rpm.
Two nos. of Lo coolers (LO-EE-01 A/B) have been provided to cool LO from 65 deg
C to 49 deg C. These are conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. They are
standard outside packed, floating head with removable tube bundles. LO temp
control valve is furnished to maintain the supply oil temperature at 43 49 deg C.
This control valve is pneumatic three-way control valve. It has four tube passes and
one shell pass with a duty of 60,000 Kcal/Hr.
Twin set of LO filters (K-01A/B) each of capacity 9.24 m3/Hr (at opening temp of 49
deg C) has been provided. Filters are sized for maximum pressure drop of 0.35
Kg/cm2 when clean and passing oil at design temperature. One LO filter has been
provided for emergency oil. It has a capacity of 5.1 m3/Hr (at operating temp of
64.9 deg C). It has clean pressure drop of 0.21 Kg/cm2. The filtering elements
should be replaced when pressure drop reaches approximately 1.4 Kg/cm2. The
above filters have a degree of filtration of 10 microns. Filters are supplied by
TAIYO-TECHNICO. Filters elements are of pleated paper type supplied by HILCO
cartridges.
Continuous flow transfer valves for smooth change over of running filter/ Lo cooler
to the corresponding stand-by equipment have been provided. These valves are
two-way, six ported valves of TAIYO TECHNO make.
Bladder accumulators (2 nos.) of 0.16 m3 capacity each and total usable capacity
of 0.25 m3 have been provided. The bladders are pressurized with nitrogen upto
pre-charge pressures of 3.9 Kg/cm2 g. These accumulators are located in the
controlled pressure header to maintain adequate oil pressure in the system while
the stand-by oil pump is coming to speed. An overhead tank of 0.75 m3 capacity
has been provided for run down oil supply for about 7 minutes in case of LO
circulation failure. A portable centrifuge of capacity of 0.6 m3/Hr of ALPHA-LAVAL
make is provided for console oil clarification.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

9.5.5 LUBE OIL SPECIFICATIONS:


Basic requirements of LO are:

MISC- 09- 09

Flash Point above 185 deg C

Viscosity at 40 deg C, 27.8-32.0 cst / at 100 deg C, 5.0-5.3 cst

Viscosity index above 90

9.5.6 ELECTROSTATIC LIQUID CLEANER MACHINES (ELC)


PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION :
Electrostatic Liquid Cleaner (ELC) machine is a mobile compact unit used for
removing solid suspended particulate contamination from mineral oils up to a level
of 1 micron and below.The ELC system uses the principle of electrostatics to collect
fluid contaminants.
FERROCARE ELC's unique design permits it to take advantage of the natural
charge of each contaminant. Oil is made to Pass through an electric field.
Contaminants that have a positive charge are drawn towards the negative
electrode plate and those with a negative charge are drawn towards the positive
plate. During their movement to the opposite electrodes the contaminants are
trapped on the collector papers inserted between the

electrodes. Neutral

contaminants are drawn and deposited by gradient force to the edge of the
collectors where the intensity of the deformed electric field is the strongest.
As the fluid flows freely through the system, the ELC removes contaminants sub
micronic particles even smaller than 1 micron, dust, dirt and products of oxidation
such as tars or sludge and varnishes. Contaminants are trapped on cellulose
collectors for easy disposal.
The ELC does not affect soluble additives.
APPLICATION
The Electrostatic Liquid Cleaner "ELC" unit can be used for cleaning hydraulic and
lubricating oils of the following general specifications.
Temperature - below 100 degrees C and Moisture - below 500 ppm
The ELC unit cannot be used for cleaning of:
a) Oils with moisture in excess of 500 ppm
b) Oils with detergent dispersant additives
c) Some synthetic oils
d) Conductive oils

9.6

TURBINE GOVERNOR:

Woodward 505 digital governor is provided for turbine control. It is a micro


processor based control. It can be easily configured as per requirement.
The 505 control has two operating modes the program mode and the run mode.
Using the program mode, the control of the turbine is configured. Once completed,
normally there is no need of re-using the program mode. Run mode is used for
turbine operation right from start-up through shut-down. Following are some of the
main features of the 505 control:
Speed control: A PID speed control w.r.t a speed reference set point is achieved
using this feature.
Valve limiter: it limits the actuator output signal or valve position to aid in starting or
shutting the turbine. It limits the maximum valve position.
Critical speed avoidance: During programming, up to two critical speed ranges can
be selected. Within a critical speed the 505 moves the speed reference at critical
speed rate programmed and does not allow the reference speed to stop within the
critical speed range.

9.7

COMPRESSOR ANTI-SURGE CONTROL:

9.7.1 COMPRESSOR SURGE: During process start-up or during continuous


operation, a variation in the system resistance or and increase in system pressure
may fore the compressor in to an unstable region of operation. This results in
surge. Surge is a normal characteristic of centrifugal compressor occurs whenever
flow through compressor is throttled, either at an inlet or at discharge, beyond a
certain point or specifically when the design compression ratio across compressor
is exceeded.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 09- 10

PART-H

As flow velocity and angle are reduced in the radial diffuser passage, the resultant
velocity pressure drops off to the extent where static (reservoir) pressure is no
longer held in balance and flow suddenly reverses. In some cases, there is no
audible evidence of operating in this region. The principle reason for avoiding surge
is to safe guard equipment. Operation in the surge region can result in mechanical
failure depending on the energy level involved.
15K1 is equipped with anti-surge control system designed by COMPRESSOR
CONTROLS CORPORATION. For surge protection gas is recycle from discharge
to suction via reformer gas cooler through anti-surge control valve UV-4301.

The control system consists of one series 3 plus anti-surge controller UIC-4301
which monitors relative distance d between the operating point of the compressor
and its surge control line and provides for the following actions:

1. Proportional and integral response (PI response) to prevent this distance d


from decreasing below set point b
2. Increasing the margin of safety when the operating point of the compressor
rapidly approaches the surge control line & slow decreasing when operating
point moves away from the surge control line
3. Recycle trip open loop control response, which prevents the operating point
from crossing the surge limit line.
4. Safety on response which adds extra static margin of safety to the surge
control line thus reducing the possibility of future surge cycles and counts
the actual number of surge cycles the compressor has experienced since
the controller was last manually reset.
The controller can be configured to transmit and receive signals to computers via
serial communication.
The controller UIC-4301 has six analog inputs:

1. Discharge flow measuring transmitter D.P


2. Discharge pressure of compressor
3. Suction pressure of compressor

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 09- 11

PART-H

4. Speed of compressor
5. Discharge temperature of the compressor
6. Suction temperature of the compressor

Operator can intervene in the AUTO operation of the controller by forcing open the
recycle valve UV-4301. This is achieved by providing additional analog input signal
from an AUTO-MANUAL station HIC (through I/P transformer). The controller will
select the largest of:

1. The internally calculated position of the valve


2. Analog input signal from the above HIC
3. Controllers internal low clamps parameter
This allows the HIC to set minimum recycle rate, without comprising the controllers
ability to increase it as needed to protect the compressor.
The recycle valve UV-4301 is positioned by output OUT1 of controller UIC-4301,
through I/P converter UY-4301.

9.8

GUIDELINES FOR START-UP:

For general routine operation of the unit, following instructions are to be followed:
1. Check oil reservoir to see that it is filled to proper level
2. Dry out steam ahead of throttle valve by opening drain in it. Thoroughly
warm-up the steam piping ahead of the turbine.
3. Select AUTO position of selector switch of local control panel. Open the
IDLE/RATED governor external contact to the Woodward governor (select
IDLE). The IDLE/RATED governor external should be used only on a turbine
hot start situation that is when turbine has been running on load for a
considerable time & there was an emergency S/D for a short duration only.
4. Start auxiliary oil pump to circulate oil & to insure the system is working
properly. Make sure that the oil temperature is minimum 21 deg C.
5. Drain any intermediate casing drains, and drain under throttle valve seat just
before starting and exhaust line.
6. Put any pressure regulators connected to control apparatus in operative
position.
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MISC- 09-12

PART-H

7. Open exhaust steam valve


8. The following operations are to be carried out as nearly simultaneous as
possible.

Push RUN and open throttle valve wide, but do not jam it. To
prevent jamming, back off the throttle valve approx. half a turn.

Put gland condenser and its steam ejector in operation

NOTE: During low speed warm up period, exhaust steam should be


to atmosphere with back-pressure increased gradually to exhaust
line pressure before loading.

9. Listen for any unusual noises and feel all bearing housing, oil lines, etc. for
any signs of abnormal heating or vibration. If undue heating, vibration or
noise is detected, slow down until it disappears. If it still persists, shut down
and locate and correct the cause before restarting.
10. When turbine is uniformly warmed up and operating at 1000 rpm
satisfactorily, increase speed slowly to design speed according to turbine
start-up. Bearing temperature may indicate it is time to put water through oil
cooler. Make sure the turbine is not held in critical speed range (critical
speeds are: 3400-3500 (compressor) & 4100 (turbine)).
11. Ensure that main oil pump has picked up and that auxiliary pump has been
shutdown,
12. After the turbine has been found satisfactory at the normal operating speed,
the loading of the compressor can be taken up & can be brought on line into
normal operating conditions.

NOTE: the load should be applied as gradually as time and nature


of the driven machine will permit to avoid rapid temperature
changes in the turbine and to allow the exhaust end to assure its
normal temperature.

13. Check oil pressures and temperatures to be sure they are at design.
14. Frequently observe oil level in reservoir, oil piping for leaks, oil pressures
and slight indicators, bearing temperatures, shaft packing, and valve stem
packing for steam leaks.

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MISC- 09- 13

PART-H

9.9

GUIDELINES FOR SHUTDOWN:

For normal routine shutting down of the compressor, proceed as follows:

1. Gradually reduce load to zero


2. Trip the throttle valve by carefully over-speeding the turbine and observe
tripping speed and action of mechanism. Alternately push EXTERNAL

STOP switch of local control panel. In case of emergency, the turbine


may be tripped by hand.
3. Close the valves between supply header and throttle valve and open the
drain ahead of throttle valve. Close exhaust valve as soon as unit comes
to rest.
4. Open casing drains. Be sure no steam can enter the turbine from any
source when idle

CAUTION: Do not leave the exhaust valve open while turbine is


at rest. The temperature in the exhaust line can be sufficient to
bow the turbine shaft when rotor is stationary.

5. After turbine has completely stopped, continue to operate the auxiliary oil
pump for several hours to prevent overheating of bearing from hot rotor.
Do not shut off C.W. to oil cooler until pump is stopped.
6. Shut off the compressor suction and discharge valve
7. Open compressor drains and drain off any liquid present.

NOTE: If an unusual amount of liquid is drained from


compressor, it should be analysed to determine the source.
Steps should be taken immediately to prevent the liquid from
entering the compressor.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 09- 14

PART-H

10.0 HANDING OVER AND TAKING OVER PROCEDURES


10.1 PUMPS
Following steps are to be followed for taking over of pump:
1. Check the pump motor, the switch and terminal boxes connection. Then
energise the motor.

2. Check that the motor of the pump is properly earthen to prevent electrical
shock.
3. Ensure that protective covers are placed over exposed rotary parts of the
pump such as pump coupling etc.
4. Check that bearing housing has adequate oil level of proper grade. Change
oil if it is dirty / contaminated.
5. Confirm whether cooling water lines are connected properly and there is
sufficient flow of water and drive out air from casing through the vent.
6. Open water / steam quench to the mechanical seal as per provision.
7. Rotate the, pump shaft by hand to ensure that it, is free and coupling is
secure.
8. Ensure that all blinds have been removed from the suction and discharge
line of the pump. Proper pressure gauge should be available on the
discharge line.
9. Check whether all bleeder valves have been closed on suction and
discharge lines of the pump. Now, open suction valve. CBD valves are to be
kept closed and flange blinded.
10. Start the pump and check the direction of rotation. Rectify the direction of
rotation if it is not right.
11. If the pump is in hot oil service, it should be gradually warmed up to a
temperature close to that of handled fluid. This is absolutely essential,
otherwise the pump casing, impeller etc may get damaged due to thermal
shock. Hot pumps are normally provided with a bypass across the check
valve to keep the idle pump hot.
12. Crack open NRV bypass valve. Do not open NRV bypass valve more else
pump will rotate in reverse direction.
13. Pump is to be slowly heated to an operating temperature (not more than 2
0
C / minute).

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 10- 01

PART-H

Following steps are to be followed for handing over of pump:


1. Close the valve in the bypass line across the discharge valve and check
valve (wherever provided).
2. Ensure that seal flushing oil (wherever provided externally) are shut off when
pump cools down.
3. Shut off pump suction valve.

4. Stop cooling water, when pump cools down.


5. Slowly open the CBD valve and drain liquid from pump. If liquid is very hot,
allow sufficient time for cooling before draining is started. Ensure that there
is no pressure in the pump. Also keep pump casing vent valve open for
complete draining.
6. De-energize / isolate the motor electrically.
7. Get the pump isolated by installing blinds at suction and discharge nozzle
flanges.

10.2 HEAT EXCHANGERS


Following steps are to be followed for taking over of a Heat exchanger:
1. Heat exchangers are hydraulically tested and certified as fit for operation
before being handed over for operation.
2. While taking over a heat exchanger check the followings:
a. All nuts and bolts are in position and tight.
b. All drains are capped/blinded.
c. Thermo-wells, if any, are in position.
d. Thermal insulation, if any, is provided.
e. Blinds from the inlet and outlet of both shell and tube side is removed.
f. Block valves, if any, in the tube and shell side lines and there are by- pass
valves are lined-up
g. PGs/TGs on the tube side and shell side are in place and lined-up and
their drains are capped.
h. Water from tube and shell are drained and are completely dried before
capping/blinding drains

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC- 10- 02

PART-H

Following steps are to be followed for handing over of a Heat exchanger:


1. Ensure that inlet and outlet valves of tube and shell sides and their by-pass
valves are closed.
2. Drain out shell and tube side when the material is still fluid but below 100 oC.
3. In case flushing oil connections are provided flush the exchanger and
displace heavy oil to CBD drum. Before flushing, check ullage in CBD drum.
4. Steam the heavy oil heat exchangers after flushing with gas oil.

5. Fill the light oil heat exchangers with water from bottom and displace product
from the top through hose to OWS.
6. Get the exchanger positively isolated by installing blinds at inlet and outlet
nozzle flanges of both shell & tube side.

10.3 VESSELS
Following steps are to be followed for takeover of a Vessel:
1. Check that the vessel is boxed up.
2. Check that inlet and outlet valves are closed.
3. Inlet and outlet flanges are in de-blinded condition.
4. PSV is de-blinded.
5. CBD is blinded.
6. All instrument tapings are connected and bleeders are capped.

Following steps are to be followed for handing over of a vessel:


1. Close the all the Inlet valve of the vessels (if it has more than one inlet).
2. Close all the outlet valves of the vessel (if it has more than one outlet).
3. Isolate the PSV (both inlet and outlet valves).
4. Slowly drain out the left over liquid and release the gases to flare.
5. Deblind the steam out line.
6. Deblind the top vent line.
7. Put steam into the vessel at slow rate and release the gases to flare.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 10- 03

8. Open the vent valve (when flare line is hot due to steaming).
9. Continue the steaming for 4 hours, open the bleeders of all instrument
tapings of the vessel.
10. Stop the steaming, keep the vent and drain valve open.
11. Get the vessel isolated by installing blinds at inlet and outlet nozzle flanges
of the vessel, PSV inlet isolation valve upstream flange and PSV bypass
valve upstream flange.
12. Again do the steaming for four hrs, keeping the vent and drain valve open.
13. Stop the steaming and allow it cool.
14. Blind the steam out line.

10.4 COLUMNS
Following steps are to be followed for taking over of a Column:
1. All the manholes of the column are boxed up.
2. All the inlet and outlet nozzles and vents of the column are deblinded.
3. PSV is in de-blinded condition.
4. All the instrument tapings are connected and bleeders are capped.
5. CBD is in blinded condition.

Following steps are to be followed for handing over of column:


1. Close the valves on all the inlet lines to column (i.e. CR return to column).
2. Isolate the PSV (both inlet and outlet valves).
3. Slowly drain out the left over liquid and release the gases to flare.
4. Deblind the steam out line.
5. Deblind the top vent line.
6. Put steam into the column at slow rate and release the gases to flare
through overhead circuit.
7. Open the vent valve (when condensate is accumulated in overhead
receiver).
8. Continue the steaming for 8 hours; drain the condensate from the draw
headers and the column bottom.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC- 10- 04

9. Open the bleeders of all instrument tapings of the column during steaming.
10. Stop the steaming, keep the vent and drain valve open.
11. Get the column inlet nozzles isolated, by installing blinds at the inlet flanges
of the column, PSV inlet isolation valve upstream flange and PSV bypass
valve upstream flange
12. Again start the steaming and continue it for four hrs, put water through the
top reflux line with the steaming on. Continue the hot water washing till the
hot water at the column bottom is clear. Stop the steaming and continue the
water washing till water through the column drain is at ambient temperature.
13. Allow the column to cool.
14. Blind the steam out line.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-10- 05

11.0 CHECK-LISTS:
11.1

S.N
O

INITIAL FURNACE START-UP:

DESCRIPTION

STATUS

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

Have all the thermocouples


e.g. skin, box, coil outlet been
checked and made okay by
Inst. Maintenance.
Is there any foreign material
inside the furnace and oil
soaked insulation, combustible
material etc. in the furnace
premises?
Has the man entry clearance
been withdrawn?
Has the furnace been boxed
up? Are all peepholes,
explosion door, manholes etc.
closed?
Are the Flue gas Main Stack
Damper and individual furnace
dampers (in case of non IFP
heaters) in open position?

Are ID & FD fans energized


and ready for start-up?

Have all the burners been


handed over after maintenance
and are boxed-up?

Is the fuel gas control valve


boxed-up in the right direction?

Have the instrument


connections to the fuel gas
control valve been given?

10

Has the stroke check for the


FG C/V been done?

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-11- 01

11

Are the pass flows healthy?

12

Has the Furnace interlock


been checked?

13

Has the damper operation


been checked?

14

15

Are the individual isolation


block valves of each burner
and its corresponding pilot
isolated?
Are the fuel gas and pilot gas
headers upto PCs steamed for
air removal ?

16

Have condensate been


drained from FG and Pilot gas
headers ?

17

Are the individual burner air


resistors closed?

18

Is the igniter in working


condition?

19

Is the FG strainer in line and


clean?

20

Has box-purging line been deblinded?

21

Has the FG line been deblinded?

22

Are the furnace dampers wide


open?

23

Has box purging been done?

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-11- 02

24

Is the tracer to FG and Pilot


gas manifold charged?

25

Are the Fuel oil low-pressure


trip switch and other interlocks
bypassed to start with?

26

Has FD fan been started? (Not


required for IFP furnaces)

27

Is the FD fan discharge flow


OK? (Not required for IFP
furnaces)

28

Are the isolation block valves


in the FG and Pilot gas
manifold open?

29

Is the furnace draft gauge


showing healthy?

30

Is the fuel gas/pilot gas lowpressure trip switch bypassed?

11.2

FURNACE LIGHT-UP:

S.N
O

DESCRIPTION

Ensure FD fan is running with


healthy discharge flow
(Required for 09-F-1 and 15-F4 only).

Ensure that BFW pump is


running with healthy discharge
flow

Ensure that APH is bypassed.

Ensure that individual burner


lines and tips are purged.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

STATUS

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

MISC-11- 03

Ensure flow through each pass


of furnace coils. Do ascertain
that equal flow distribution is
obtained at each pass.

Ensure that the FG line is free


of condensate

10

11

12

13

14

15

Check / adjust draft and light


up pilot burners. Use igniter for
lighting Pilot gas burner
whenever facility exists. In
case of no provision of igniter,
insert a lighted torch in front of
Pilot and then open valve in
Pilot gas line.
Ensure that all the pilot gas
burners are on line one by
one.
Is the FG pressure control
valve open and FG header
pressure healthy
Ensure that all the main
burners are lighted one by one
by opening the individual FG
valves slowly
Ensure all the individual FG
valves are open enough to
give a steady flame
Ensure air to individual
burners are open sufficiently
and there are no smoky flames
Ensure that the furnace draft is
healthy after adjusting furnace
stack damper and individual
air resistors for healthy flame
Ensure that there is no flame
impingement on the furnace
tubes or walls
Ensure that the outlet
temperature/skin temp from
each pass is well within the
limit during initial stage of
operation.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-11- 04

16

17

18

Ensure uniform flow through


each pass and then increase
firing gradually @ 30 Deg C /hr
to required COT.
Ensure that there is no flame
impingement at regular
intervals till required COT is
achieved
Ensure that box is not
pressurized. Commission APH
when furnace conditions are
normalized.

11.3 CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS HANDING OVER/TAKING OVER


CHECK LIST:
11.3.1 COMPRESSOR HANDING OVER CHECK LIST:
S.N
O

DESCRIPTION

Has the compressor been


unloaded and stopped from
the local control panel and the
stand-by started with proper
co-ordination with control room

STATUS

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

Have the lube oil pump and


cooling water pumps been
stopped after sufficient cooling
time
Has the compressor and its
lube oil pump been deenergized

Have the compressor suction


and discharge block valves
been isolated and blinded

Has the compressor casing


been de-pressurized to flare

Have
the
suction
and
discharge bottles been drained
to CBD

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-11- 05

Does the compressor local


control panel pressure gauges
for suction and discharge
show zero
Has the compressor casing
been pressure purged with
nitrogen at least twice

Have the compressor vent


lines to flare and rod packing
lines to flare been isolated

10

Have the distance piece


nitrogen lines been isolated

11

12

13

Have the compressor suction


and discharge PSV s and their
by-pass lines been isolated
Are
the
compressor
suction/discharge drain lines to
CBD/OWS isolated and CBD
line blinded
Has work order been issued to
maintenance department to
carry out jobs

11.3.2 COMPRESSOR TAKING OVER CHECK LIST:


S.N
O

DESCRIPTION

Has the compressor been


boxed-up and handed over by
maintenance

Has
the
compressor
suction/discharge bottles and
casing
leak
tested
with
nitrogen

Have the leaks been identified


and attended by maintenance

Have the compressor gear box


and crank case lube oils been
replaced

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

STATUS

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

MISC-11- 06

Are
the
compressor
suction/discharge bottle drains
to CBD blinded and OWS
isolated
Are
the
suction/discharge
pressure and temperature
gauges and flow meters lined
up and in working condition
Have
the
suction
and
discharge lines been deblinded

Have
the
suction
and
discharge lines been lined-up
slowly

Have the compressor main


motor and its AOP motor been
energized

10

Is the lube oil pump running


with
healthy
discharge
pressure

11

12

13

14

15

Have the rod packing to flare


line and casing vent to flare
line lined-up
Have
the
suction
and
discharge PSV s been linedup and their respective bypass b/v s isolated
Has the nitrogen to distance
piece been charged and flow
established
Has the direction of rotation
been checked and compressor
trial been taken
Take the compressor in line
with proper co-ordination with
control room and ensure
healthy flow before stopping
the other

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

11.3.3 PUMP HANDING OVER CHECK LIST:

MISC-11- 07

S.N
O

DESCRIPTION

Has the pump been stopped


and the stand-by pump taken
in line

Has the pump motor been deenergised

Has the pump suction and


discharge b/v s been isolated
and blinded

Has the casing warm-up valve


been isolated (for hot pumps)

Has the pump casing drain line


to CBD been de-blinded

Has the pump casing material


been drained to CBD after
sufficient cooling (in case of
hot pumps)

Have the pump seal pot vent


lines to flare been isolated

Have the cooling water inlet


b/v to the bearings and jacket
been isolated

Has clearance been issued to


maintenance department to
carry out jobs

STATUS

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

11.3.4 PUMP TAKING OVER CHECK LIST:


S.N
O

DESCRIPTION

Has the pump been handed


over by maintenance after jobs

Have the pump in-board and


out-board bearing oils been
replaced

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

STATUS

MISC-11- 08

Are the lube oil cups holding


enough lube oil

Have the seal pot oil been


changed/ topped up

Has the cooling water to


bearing, seal pot and casing
been established

Have the pump suction and


discharge lines been deblinded

Has the seal pot vent line to


flare been lined-up

Has the pump casing drain to


CBD been blinded and OWS
been isolated

Has the pump been put in


warm up condition

10

Have the suction been lined up


after sufficient warm-up

11

Is the coupling free to rotate


with hand

12

Has the pump motor been


energised

13

Has the trial been taken to


check rotation

14

Change over the pump with


proper
co-ordination
with
control room and ensure
healthy flow

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-11- 09

PART-H

11.3.5 FURNACE HANDING OVER CHECK LIST:

S.N
O

DESCRIPTION

Has the furnace been put-off


and all individual FG and pilot
vales been isolated

Has the main fuel gas and pilot


gas line and box-purging lines
been positively isolated

Has the furnace stack damper


bee opened fully

Have the process fluid lines to


the furnace coils been purged
and positively isolated

Have the convection coil


process fluid lines been
purged and positively isolated

Has the furnace cooled down


to ambient temperature

Has the furnace damper sluice


gate been closed (In case of
Non-IFP furnaces)

Have the furnace man holes


been opened and sufficient
time given for air circulation
Has oxygen content been
checked with explosive-meter
and found ok

10

Has the man-entry permit


been made and duly signed

11

Have
enough
lighting
arrangements been made to
facilitate man entry

STATUS

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

12

Hand
over
furnace
to
maintenance department for
jobs

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-11- 10

PART-H

11.3.6 FURNACE TAKING OVER CHECK LIST:

S.NO

DESCRIPTION

Has the furnace been handed


over after maintenance

Has the man-entry


been withdrawn

Have all the foreign material


been removed from the
furnace

Have the furnace man-holes


been boxed-up

Are all the main burners and


pilot burners been boxed-up

STATUS

permit

Have the convection zone


process lines and main
process fluid lines been deblinded
Has the stack damper sluice
gate been opened (in case of
Non-IFP heaters)
Has the fuel gas main line and
pilot gas line to the furnace
been de-blinded

DATE/TIME

CHECKED
BY

Has the clearance been taken


back after de-blinding duly
signed

Note: Please follow the furnace light up check-list in section 11.1 for further procedures

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-11- 11

PART-H

11.4 START UP / SHUT DOWN CHECK LIST


11.4.1 SHUT DOWN CHECK LIST
Steps

Time
in
Hours

0000

Description

0100

0200

0300

0400

0500

Reduce CRU Tput to 48 MT/hr and reactor


temperatures to 495 / 512 / 512 oC.
Reduce HTU Tput to 48 MT/hr, maintaining
same feed ratio. Reactor temperature will
remain unchanged at 300 oC.
Reduce CRU Tput to 46 MT/hr and reactor
temperatures to 490 / 504 / 504 oC.
Reduce HTU Tput to 46 MT/hr, maintaining
same feed ratio. Reactor temperature will
remain unchanged at 300 oC.
Reduce CRU Tput to 44 MT/hr and reactor
temperatures to 485 / 496 / 496 oC.
Reduce HTU Tput to 44 MT/hr, maintaining
same feed ratio. Reactor temperature will
remain unchanged at 300 oC.
Reduce CRU Tput to 42 MT/hr and reactor
temperatures to 480 / 488 / 488 oC.
Reduce HTU Tput to 42 MT/hr, maintaining
same feed ratio. Reactor temperature will
remain unchanged at 300 oC.
Reduce CRU reactor temperatures to 475 /
480 / 480 oC, maintain Tput @ 42 MT/hr.
Reduce CRU reactor temperatures to 470 /
472 / 472 oC, maintain Tput @ 42 MT/hr.

Action
By

Panel

Panel

Panel

Panel
+ field

Panel

Actual
time

Sign

0600

0630

Maintain CRU Tput @ 42 MT/hr and reactor


temperatures 470 oC in each reactor.
Reduce HTU reactor temperature to 290 oC.
Maintain 15-V-1 pressure around 3.4 Kg/cm2g.
Stop HTU cold feed pump of OM&S.
Start bringing down 14-V-1 level to 40%.
Inform HGU and stop rich gas to HGU.
Stop Ammonia refrigeration system.
Stop C2Cl4 injection pump.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Panel
+ field
Field
Panel
Panel
Field
field

MISC-11- 12

PART-H

Step
s

Time
in
Hour
s

0700

Description

10

0730

11

0800

12

0900

Action
By

Stop hot feed to HTU.


Cut off HTU feed and stop the feed pump.
Cut off CRU Feed at 42 MT/hr Tput and 470
o
C reactor temperature.
Cut off firing of 14-F-2, continue to run 14-P-4
till 14-C-1 bottom cools down. Maintain 14-C1 level around 60%.
Line up CRU with Hydrogen bullet through the
inter bullet transfer line, so that separate
bullets are lined up for HGU and CRU. Ensure
no bleeding of Hydrogen through the CRU
and HTU system.
Reduce CRU reactor temperature to 400 oC in
two hours (@ 35 oC/hr) continue Sweeping of
CRU reactors with Hydrogen.
Reduce HTU reactor temperature to 260 oC in
two hours (@ 15 oC/hr); continue sweeping of
HTU reactors with hydrogen.

Panel
Field
Panel
field
Field
panel

Isolate 15-G-1 A/B and 15FC1501 and 1502.


Stop 14-P-2 when 14-V-2 level comes down
to 20%.
Stop 15-P-1, 15-P-2 when 15-V-1 and 15-V-2
level comes down to 20%.
Give clearance to blind FG to 14-F-2.

Field

Continue sweeping of CRU reactors with


hydrogen maintaining reactor temperatures at

Field

Field
Field

Field
field
PNE+
M/M
Panel

Actual
time

Sign

13

1300

14

1400

400 oC.
Continue sweeping of HTU reactors with
hydrogen maintaining reactor temperature at
260 oC.
Cut off 14-F-1, 15-F-1, 2 and 3. Continue
sweeping of all the reactors with hydrogen till
the reactors temperature comes down to 100
o
C.
Vent off the steam to atmosphere. Continue to
run 15-P-15 till the SG-1/2 coils get cooled
down.
Give clearance to blind the FG of 14-F-1, 15F-1, 2 and 3.
Give clearance to blind box purging steam to
IFP heaters.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

+
field

Field
+
panel
field
+
panel
PNE+
M/M

MISC-11- 13

Step
s

Time
in
Hour
s

15

2300

16

0100

17

0300

Action
By

Description

Stop 14-K-2A. Isolate it and purge with


nitrogen.
Stop 14-K-1 when HTU system pressure
drops to 14 Kg/cm2g. Isolate the compressor.
Isolate hydrogen lines.
Depressurize HTU reaction section through
14-V-2 to FG / Flare.
Stop 15-K-1. Isolate steam header, continue
lube oil circulation for eight hours.
Depressurize CRU reaction section to flare
through 15-PC-05.
Close 15-K-1 discharge valve.
Give clearance to deblind 15-PC-05 to
atmosphere.
On depressurization of CRU reaction section,
Close 15-PC-05. Charge nitrogen from the d/s
of 15-K-1 discharge valve and raise 15-V-1
pressure upto 1.5 Kg/cm2g, close the nitrogen
valve and release the gases to flare through
15-PC-05.
On depressurization of HTU reaction section,
close 14-V-2 depressurization line. Charge
nitrogen from the d/s of 14-K-1 discharge
valve and raise 14-V-2 pressure upto 1.5
Kg/cm2g, Close the nitrogen valve and release
the gases to flare.
On depressurization of CRU reaction section,
Close 15-PC-05 and Raise the pressure upto
1.5 Kg/cm2g with nitrogen. Close the nitrogen
valve and release the gases to atmosphere
through 15-PC-05, repeat this exercise for 3
times.
On depressurization of HTU reaction section,
close 14-V-2 depressurization line. Charge
nitrogen from the d/s of 14-K-1 discharge
valve and raise 14-V-2 pressure upto 1.5
Kg/cm2g, Close the nitrogen valve and release
the gases to atmosphere, repeat this exercise
for 3 times.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Actual
time

Field
Field
Field
Field
Field
Panel
Field
PNE
Panel
+
Field

Field
+
Panel

Panel
+
field

Panel
+
field

MISC-11- 14

Sign

Step
s

Time
in
Hour
s

18

0800

19

20

21
22
23

Action
By

Description

Now raise the pressure of both HTU and CRU


reaction section upto 1.5 Kg/cm2g, close the
nitrogen valve, send the gas sample to
laboratory for hydrocarbon content. Release
the gases to atmosphere.
1100
If the hydrocarbon content in the gases is
equal to or below 0.2 %, Raise the reaction
section pressure upto 1.5 Kg/cm 2g, close the
nitrogen valve and release the gases to
atmosphere and go for blinding in the reaction
section as per the blind list.
1100
If the hydrocarbon content in the gases is
equal to or below 0.2 %, Raise the reaction
section pressure upto 1.5 Kg/cm 2g, close the
nitrogen valve and release the gases to
atmosphere and go for blinding in the reaction
section as per the blind list. If the hydrocarbon
content in the gases is above 0.2 %, repeat
the steps 17 to 20.
1400 Second check sample
1600 Third check sample (after 2 purges)
1800 Fourth check sample (after 2 purges)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Actual
time

field

field

Field

PNE+
M/M
Field
Field
Field

MISC-11- 15

Sign

11.4.2

START UP CHECK LIST


Time
in
Hours

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Description

Action
By

Actual
time

0600 14-K-2 discharge at 14-E-1F is deblinded.


to 14-K-2 discharge at 14-AC-1 is blinded.
M/M
0900
14-K-2 discharge at 14-E-1C is deblinded & kept
M/M
closed
14-K-1 discharge at 14-E-1F is isolated and kept M/M
blinded.
14-R-2 bypass is isolated and blinded.
M/M
Field
14-R-2 I/L for sulphiding is isolated and blinded.
+
14-R-2 O/L for sulphiding is isolated and blinded.
M/M
14-K-1 discharge at 14-E-1C is kept deblinded.
14-E-1D s/s O/L is deblinded and lined up to 14- M/M
R-2.
Field
14-R-2 O/L is deblinded and lined up.
+ M/M
14-R-2 O/L PCV is lined up.
M/M +
Field
14-R-1 I/L is deblinded and lined up.
Field
14-R-1 O/L is deblinded and lined up.
M/M
14-R-2 PSV is lined up.
M/M
14-K-2A/B discharge PSV is lined up.
Field
Field
Line up TC1443 A/B and TC1444 A/B
14-P-1 A/B discharge line PSV is lined up.
Field
0900 Charge Nitrogen at the 14-K-1 discharge line and
raise system pressure upto 5.0 Kg/cm2g keeping Field
14PC08 open.
1000 Hold the pressure at 5.0 Kg/cm2g and check all
the flanges for leakages.
dj
1600 On completion of leak test close the nitrogen
valve and depressurize to flare using 14-K-1 Field
suction to flare.
1700 Charge Nitrogen at the 14-K-1 discharge line and
raise system pressure upto 2.0 Kg/cm2g keeping Field
14PC08 open. Close the nitrogen valve.
1800 Depressurize the system to flare using 14-K-1
suction to flare.
1900 Repeat step 21 and 22.
Field
2100 Repeat step 21 and send the gas sample to
laboratory for O2 content. Also check O2 using Field
explosive meter.

Sign

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-11- 16

PART-H

Time
in
Hours

25

26
26

27
28

29
30
31

32
33

34

Actual
Time

Description

2100 Inform HGU for the consumption of Hydrogen


from the network. Confirm the availability of
H2 and its quantity. Expected time of
consumption 2300 hrs.
2300 If the O2 content is less than or equal to 0.2 % in
the gas, then proceed to Step 27. Otherwise
repeat step 22 and 24.
0100 Close 14PC08.
Inform HGU for drawing Hydrogen.
Slowly open Hydrogen network battery limit valve
keeping self-actuating PCV in line. The rate of
drawing must be under close coordination
with HGU.
0200 Depressurize HTU reaction section to flare.
0300 On depressurization open 14PC08 slowly under
close coordination with HGU and raise pressure
upto 15.0 Kg/cm2g. Hold at this pressure and do
the leak test.
0630 Start 14-C-1 bottom circulation.
0700 Light up 14-F-2. Raise COT @30 oC/hr.
Observe the skin temperatures of 14-F-2 and
keep them below the operating range.
0730 Inform OM&S to start feed pump ex Tank-106.
Start 14-P-1 and take feed into 14-C-1 bypassing
reactor, feed rate to be maintained @35 MT/hr.
HTU R/D will go to Tank-106.
0800 Start 14-K-1 and establish circulation.
0900 Start 14-K-2 in presence of DRs representative
and raise 14-R-2 O/L pressure to 25.0 Kg/cm2g
keeping PCV in line. While raising 14-R-2
pressure inform HGU.
1000 Inject feed to 14-E-1F s/s at a slow rate upto 35
MT/hr. Maintain 14-R-2 O/L pressure at 25.0
Kg/cm2g and 14V-2 pressure at 17.0 Kg/cm2g, if
required keep the bleeding thru 14FC06 and 14K2 loading at 50%. Temperature control circuit
will be on SOR mode and TIC 1433 value to be
kept at 160 oC.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Sign.

PNE

Field
Panel
Field

Field

Field

PNE
Field
Field
Panel

Panel

MISC-11- 17

PART-H

Time
in
Hours

35

36
37

Actual
Time

Description

1100 Light up 14-F-1 and start raising COT @30 oC/hr.


Observe the skin temperatures of 14-F-1 and
keep them below the operating range.
1500 Stabilize 14-C-1 and keep sufficient bleeding.
1900 Give clearance for hot bolting of 14-R-1 I/L and
O/L flanges, 14-R-2 I/L and O/L flanges (which
were deblinded),

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Sign.

Field
Panel

PNE
M/M

MISC-11- 18

12.0

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

12.1 AHURALAN (CORROSION INHIBITOR):


AHURALAN
ESK 50

CHEMICAL IDENTITY
Chemical
Name

Corrosion Inhibitor

Synonym
s

Corrosion Inhibitor

Formula

R1NHR2NHR3RH4

Regulated
Identification

Chemical
Classificatio
n

Long chain fatty


amine derivative

Trade
Name
C.A.S. NO.

Shipping Name

5285-60-9

Ahuralan
ESK 50
UN
NO.

Ahuralan ESK 50

Codes/Label
Hazardous waste
I.D. No.
Hazchem Code
HAZARDOUS
INGREDIENTS

C.A.S. NO.

1. Ahuralan ESK 50

5285-60-9

HAZARDOUS
INGREDIENTS

C.A.S.
NO.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA


Boiling
Point/
Range oC

150 300

Melting/
Freezing
Point oC

<10

Physical State
Vapour
pressure
@ 35 oC, mm
Hg

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Liquid

Appearance Viscous,
Yellowish
brown
< 1 mmHg Odour
@ 68oF
Pungent

MISC-12- 01

Vapour
Density
(Air = 1)

Solubility in
water @ 30 oC

Specific
Gravity
(Water = 1)

0.83

pH

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flammability Moderate
LEL (%V)
TDG
Flammability

UEL (%V)

Insoluble

Solubility in
others

Not applicable

0.7

Flash Point
(OC) oC

5.0
Flash Point,
(CC) oC

Auto ignition Temperature oC

37
66

228

Explosion Sensitivity to
Impact
Explosion Sensitivity to Static
Electricity
CO, CO2
Hazardous Combustion
products
Hazardous Polymerization
Combustible
Yes
Explosive
Liquid
Material
Flammable
Yes
Oxidiser
Material
Pyrophoric
No
Organic
Material
Peroxide
REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability

No
No

Corrosive
Material
Others

No

No

Stable

Incompatibility with other


material
Reactivity

None

Hazardous Reaction Products

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

MISC-12- 02

Routes of Entry

Inhalation, ingestion, contact

Effects of Exposure/
Inhalation
Symptoms
Ingestion
Contact
Emergency Treatment

Obtain immediate medical attention.

Inhalation

Remove affected person to fresh air. If


respiratory problems develop.
Do not induce vomiting.
Skin Contact : Apply a generous amount of
waterless hand cleaner (such of GOOP, Gojo
or similar product) to the affected area. Rub
briskly onto the skin, on and around the
affected area. Remove the mixture of cleanerproduct with paper towels or clean dry rags.
Repeat the entire procedure, then was the
skin with a mild soap, rinsing with warm water.
Eye Contact : Flush with water for at least 15
mins. If irritation occurs.
LD50 ,
mg/kg

Ingestion
Contact

LD50 (Oral-Rat),
mg/kg
Permissible
mg/kg
Exposure Limit
ppm

Odor Threshold,
ppm

TLV (ACGIH)
ppm

STEL,
ppm

mg/kg

mg/kg

NFPA Hazard
Signals

mg/kg

Health

Flammability

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Reactivity/Stabilit
y

Special

MISC-12- 03

PART-H

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective Equipment

Gloves, footwear, coveralls, and/or apron as

necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged


skin contact. Any clothing which becomes
wet with product should be removed
immediately and laundered before reuse.
Chemical goggles or face shield as
necessary to prevent eye contact.
Handling and Storage
Precautions

Store in tightly closed, properly labeled


containers in a cool, well ventilated area
away from all ignition sources. Store out of
direct sunlight. Wear appropriate personal
protective equipment. Avoid inhalation of
product vapors or mist. Never use a welding
or cutting torch on or near a drum (even
empty) because vapours from the material
(even residue) can ignite explosively. Follow
all MSDS/label precautions even after
container is emptied because it may retain
product residue.

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES


FIRE
Fire Extinguishing
Use water fog, foam, dry chemical powder,
Media
CO2
Special Procedure
Unusual Hazards
EXPOSUR
E

First Aid Measures

Antidotes/ Dosage

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Use water to cool fire exposed


components.
Obtain immediate medical attention.
Inhalation : Remove affected person to
fresh air. If respiratory problems develop.
Ingestion : Do not induce vomiting.
Skin Contact : Apply a generous amount of
waterless hand cleaner (such of GOOP,
Gojo or similar product) to the affected
area. Rub briskly onto the skin, on and
around the affected area. Remove the
mixture of cleaner-product with paper
towels or clean dry rags. Repeat the entire
procedure, then was the skin with a mild
soap, rinsing with warm water.
Eye Contact : Flush with water for at least
15 mins. If irritation occurs.

MISC-12- 04

SPILLS

Steps to be taken

Waste Disposal
Method

Standard hydrocarbon spill procedures


apply to this product. Remove all sources
of ignition. Isolate the affected area.
Confirne entry into the affected area to
those persons properly protected. Stop
leak at the source. Cut off and redirect
surface runoff by trenching of diking. Spills
should be contained through the use of
commercial oil adsorbent, but other
materials such as earth, sand or sawdust
may be more expedient to limit the extent
of the spill. Prevent the release of this
product into the waterway or sewer. To
prevent further losses, reposition, plug or
place the leaking container into an
oversized recovery drum/container.
Wear protective equipment. Absorb spilled
product using a commercial oil absorbent
soaking up as much product as possible.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/ REFERENCES

MANUFACTURER/ SUPPLIERS DATA


Name of firm :
Mailing Address :
DISCLAIMER
Information contained in this material safety data sheet is believed to be
reliable but no representation, guarantee or warranties of any kind are made as
to its accuracy, suitability for a particular application or results to be obtained
from them.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 05

PART-H

12.2 AMMONIA:
CHEMICAL IDENTITY
Chemical Name : AMMONIA
Chemical Classification : Inorganic Compound

Synonyms: Liquid Ammonia, Ammonia Gas,


Trade Name: Ammonia
Ammonia Anhydrous.
Formula: NH3
UN NO. 1005
Regulated
Identification

C.A.S.NO: 7664-41-7

Shipping Name : Ammonia


Codes/Label

: Non Flammable Gas, Class 2

Hazardous waste I.D. No: 17


Hazchem Code : 2 PE
HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS
C.A.S.NO.
INGREDIENTS
C.A.S.NO.

HAZARDOUS

1. Ammonia

2.

7664-41-7

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA


Boiling Point/Range
-33.4oC Physical State : Liquefied Compr.Gas
Appearance : Colourless
Vapour pressure
Odour : Strong Pungent Odour
@ 35oC
7600 mm Hg at
Melting / Freezing
-77.77oC
25.7oC
Point
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
Vapour Density
0.60
Solubility in water @ 30 oC
Others
(Air = 1)
Very soluble
Moderately soluble in Alcohol

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 06

Specific Gravity
(Water = 1)

0.771
@ 0 oC

pH

: I N aq. Sol. 11.6

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flammability
Point oC

No
LEL
Not Pertinent (OC)

TDG Flammability
NA
o
C
Not Pertinent (CC)
o

Auto ignition Temperature

UEL

16.0 %

Flash

25.0 %

Flash Point

651.0

Explosion Sensitivity to Impact

Stable

Explosion Sensitivity to Static


Electricity

Not available

Hazardous Combustion products


NOx

Emits toxic fumes of NH 3 &

Hazardous Polymerization

Does not occur.

Combustible Liquid
Corrosive Material

Yes
No

Explosive Material

No

Flammable Material
Others

No

Oxidiser

No

Organic Peroxide

No

Pyrophoric Material

No

REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability

Stable

Incompatibility with
Strong Oxidisers, Calcium hypochlorite, Gold,
Mercury, Silver, Halogens,
Other material
Acetaldehyde, Acrolein.
Reactivity
Reacts with Silver chloride, Silver nitrate, Silver azide, chlorine,
bromine,iodine, heavy metals and their compounds,
Incandescent reaction when heated with Calcium.
Hazardous Reaction

Reacts with Silver chloride, Silver nitrate, Silver Azide


and Silver Oxide Products form explosive silver nitride.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

MISC-12- 07

Routes of Entry
Inhalation, Skin or Eyes
Effects of Exposure/ 700 ppm causes eye irritation and permanent injury may
result if prompt
Symptoms medical remedial measures are not taken. 5000 ppm may cause
death from spum inflammation, or edema of the larynx. Contact of the liquid
with skin freezes the tissues and causes the caustic burns.
Emergency Treatment
and provide artificial respiration

Inhalation: Remove the victim to fresh air

or oxygen, if needed. Skin and Eyes :


Wash the affected area with plenty of
water for 15 mins. Seek Medical Aid.
Permissible
46.8 ppm
32.53 mg3
Exposure Limit

25 ppm

18 mg/m 3

L.D50 (Oral-Rat)

350 mg/kg

TLV (ACGIH)
35 ppm
27 mg/m3
NFPA Hazard Signals
Reactivity
Special

25 ppm
Health
2

Odour Threshold

18 mg/m 3

STEL

Flammability
1

0
PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective
Avoid contact with liquid or vapours
Equipment
Provide rubber boots, safety goggles,
self-contained breathing apparatus,
gas mask and protective clothing in case
of liquid ammonia.
Handling and Storage
Avoid storing along with oxidizing
materials and away from all possible
Precautions
sources of ignition. Store in well
ventilated flame resistant locations.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES

MISC-12- 08

FIRE
Fire Extinguishing Media
Stop flow of gas. Use water spray or fog.
Special Procedure Keep the containers cool by spraying water
if exposed to heat or flame.
Unusual Hazards
Gas is suffocating.
EXPOSURE
First Aid Measures
Inhalation : Remove the victim to fresh air area,
provide artificial respiration or oxygen, if needed.
Skin : Remove the contaminated clothes and wash
the affected area with plenty of water and soap.
Eyes : Flush with plenty of water for 15 mins.
Seek medical aid.
Antidotes/Dosages
Not available.
SPILLS
Steps to be taken Contain leaking liquid on sand or earth, allow to
evaporate. Dilute the vapours with plenty of water.
Waste Disposal Method Put into a large vessel containing water, neutralise
with HCl And discharge into sewer with sufficient water.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/REFERENCES
A human poison by an unspecified route. Difficult to ignite. NH 3 and air in a
fire, can detonate. Potentially violent or explosive reactions on contact with
interhalogens. Forms sensitive explosive mixture with air and hydrocarbons.
Those affected with eye and pulmonary diseases should avoid exposure to
Ammonia.
MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIERS DATA
Name of firm :
Mailing Address :

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 09

12.3 CARBON TETRA CHLORIDE:


CHEMICAL IDENTITY
Chemical Name : CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
Alkyl Halide

Chemical Classification :

Synonyms: Carbon Chloride, Per-chloro Methane,


Trade Name : Carbon tetrachloride
Benzinoform, Tetra-chloro Methane.
Formula
1846

CC14

Regulated
Identification

C.A.S. NO. 56-23-5

UN. No.

Shipping Name : Carbon Tetrachloride


Codes/Label

Poison, Class-6

Hazardous Waste I.D. No: 6


Hazchem Code : 2 Z
HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS
C.A.S.NO.
INGREDIENTS
C.A.S.NO.
1.

Carbon Tetrachloride

HAZARDOUS

56-23-5

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA


Boiling Point/Range oC 76.8
Appearance: Colourless, Watery.

Physical State : Liquid

o
Melting / Freezing
C -22.6
Vapour pressure
Odour: Sweet
Point
@ 35 oC 100mm Hg at 23 oC
_________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Vapour Density
5.30
Solubility in water @ 30 oC
Others: Miscible with Alcohol, Benzene,
(Air = 1)
Not Soluble
Chloroform Ether, CS2

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 10

PART-H

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flammability
No
LEL
o
C
(OC)
TDG Flammability N.A.
(CC)
Auto ignition Temperature

UEL
o

Not pertinent

Flash Point

Not pertinent

Flash Point oC

Not Pertinent

Explosion Sensitivity to Impact

Stable

Explosion Sensitivity to Static


Electricity

Stable

Hazardous Combustion products


Phosgene.

Emits toxic fumes of Cl &

Hazardous Polymerization

Does not occur.

Combustible Liquid
Corrosive Material

No
No

Explosive Material

No

Flammable Material
Others

No

Oxidiser

No

Pyrophoric Material
REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability

No

Organic Peroxide

No

Stable

Incompatibility with
Chemically active metals such as Sodium,
Magnesium, Potassium, Aluminium other material.
Tri-chloride, Di-benzoyl Peroxide & Potassiumtart-butoxide.
Reactivity
Vigorous exothermic reaction with allyl alcohol,
A1 (C2H5)3, (Benzoyl Peroxide + C2H6 ), BrF3, Di-borane, Di-silane, Liquid O2,
(AgC14 + HC1).
Hazardous Reaction
Forms impact sensitive explosive mixtures with
particulates of many metals (eg.A1).
Products
Also forms explosive mixtures with ClF 3, N2O4
etc. Forms explosive mixture with
ethylene, between 25-105 C and 30 80 bar.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

MISC-12- 11

Routes of Entry

Inhalation, Ingestion, Skin & Eyes.

Effects of Exposure/
Skin & Eyes : Causes irritation, Inhalation causes dizziness, inco-ordination,
Symptoms anesthesia may be accompanied by nausea, liver damage & kidney
damage. Often reduces or stops urinary output. Damages central nervous
system.
Emergency Treatment
Inhalation: Remove the victim to fresh air area. Keep the patient warm & quiet.
Give artificial respiration, if breathing stops.
Ingestion: Induce vomiting, give plenty of water to drink.
Eyes: Flush with plenty of water for 15 mins.
Skin: Remove the wetted clothes & flush the affected area with plenty of water.
Seek medical aid immediately.
L.D50 (Oral-Rat)

2800 mg/kg

Permissible
5 (Skin)
Threshold: > 10 ppm
Exposure Limit

ppm 30 (Skin) mg/m 3


mg/m 3

TLV (ACGIH)
ppm

30 (Skin) mg/m3

5 (Skin) ppm
125 mg/m3

NFPA Hazard Signals


Reactivity/Stability Special

Odour

Health
3

STEL

20

Flammability
0

0
PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective
Avoid contact with liquid or vapours.
Equipment.
Provide PVC or rubber hand gloves, air supplied mask,
safety goggles, organic
vapour canister with full-face masks, rubber apron and shoes.
Handling and Storage
from heat.
Precautions

Store in a cool, well ventilated, dry area way

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 12

PART-H

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES


FIRE Fire Extinguishing Media

Not Flammable.

Special Procedure Keep the containers cool by spraying water if


exposed to heat or flame.
Unusual Hazards
Poisonous and irritating gases are produced.
EXPOSURE
First Aid Measures
Inhalation : Remove the victim to fresh air area,
Give artificial respiration.
Ingestion : Induce vomiting, give plenty of water to drink.
Eyes & Skin : Wash the affected area with plenty of water.
Seek medical aid immediately.
Antidotes/Dosages

Not available.

SPILL
Steps to be taken Shut off leaks if without risk. Absorb on sand or earth.
Waste Disposal Method Seal all the waste in vapour-tight plastic bags for
eventual disposal.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/REFERENCES
A suspected human carcinogen. Violent or explosive reaction on contact with
fluorine. Potentially explosive reaction on contact with boranes. Potentially
dangerous reaction with dimethylene formamide, 1,2,3,4,5,6 - hexachlorocyclohexane or dimethylacetamide, when iron is present as catalyst. This has
narcotic action similar to that of chloroform though not as strong. Concentration
of the order of 1000-1500 ppm is sufficient to cause symptoms if exposure
continues for several hours. Repeated daily exposure to such concentrations
may result in poisoning. CC14 has caused explosions when used as fire
extinguisher on a wax fires and uranium fires.
MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIERS DATA
Name of firm :
Mailing Address :

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 13

PART-H

12.4 DI-METHYL DI-SULPHIDE (DMDS):


DI-METHYL DI-SULPHIDE

CHEMICAL IDENTITY
Chemical
Name

Di-methyl Di-sulphide

Synonym
s

2,3-Dithiabutane

Formula

CH3-S-S-CH3

Regulated
Identification

Chemical
Classificatio
n

Organic compound

Trade
Name
C.A.S. NO.

Shipping Name

Di-methyl DiSulphide
UN
NO.

2381

DMDS

Codes/Label
Hazardous waste
I.D. No.
Hazchem Code
HAZARDOUS
INGREDIENTS

C.A.S. NO.

HAZARDOUS
INGREDIENTS

C.A.S.
NO.

Di-Methyl di-sulphide
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Boiling
Point/
Range oC

109.7

Melting/
Freezing
Point oC
Vapour
Density
(Air = 1)

3.24

Physical State

liquid

Appearance

Vapour
pressure
@ 35 oC, mm
Hg

Odour

Solubility in
water @ 30 oC

Solubility in
others

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Highly
odourou
s

MISC-12- 14

Specific
1.0569
pH
Gravity
(Water = 1)
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
Flammability Moderat LEL (%V)
e
TDG
UEL (%V)
Flammability 3

Flash Point (OC) oC


Flash Point, (CC) oC

Auto ignition Temperature oC


Explosion Sensitivity to
Impact
Explosion Sensitivity to Static
Electricity
SO2, CO
Hazardous Combustion
products

Does not occur

Hazardous Polymerization
Combustible
Yes
Explosive
Liquid
Material
Flammable
Yes
Oxidiser
Material
Pyrophoric
No
Organic
Material
Peroxide
REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability
Stable
Incompatibility with other
material
Reactivity

No
No

Corrrosive
Material
Others

No

Oxydising materials

Hazardous Reaction Products


HEALTH HAZARD DATA
Routes of Entry
Effects of Exposure/
Symptoms

Emergency Treatment

May cause hemolytic anemia. It also produces


allergic dermatitis.
Remove victim to fresh air. Remove
contaminated clothing and wash affected part
with soap and water. In case of eye contact flush
with copious amount of water.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 15

LD50 (Oral-Rat),
mg/kg

LD50 ,
mg/kg

Permissible
mg/kg
Exposure Limit
ppm

Odor Threshold,
ppm

TLV (ACGIH)
ppm

STEL,
ppm

mg/kg

mg/kg

mg/kg

NFPA Hazard
Signals

Health

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective

Flammability

Reactivity/Stabilit
y

Special

Splash proof goggles, rubber gloves and


rubber boots.

Handling and Storage


Precautions
EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES
FIRE
Fire Extinguishing
Foam, CO2, DCP, Water spray
Media
Special Procedure
Unusual Hazards
EXPOSUR
E

First Aid Measures

Remove victim to fresh air. Remove


contaminated clothing and wash affected
part with soap and water. In case of eye
contact flush with copious amount of water.

Antidotes/ Dosage
SPILLS

Steps to be taken

Waste Disposal
Method
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/ REFERENCES
MANUFACTURER/ SUPPLIERS DATA
Name of firm :
Mailing Address :

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

12.5 TRISODIUM TRIPHOSPHATE:

MISC-12- 16

CHEMICAL IDENTITY
Chemical Name: Tri Sodium Orthophosphate
Chemical Classification : Inorganic compound
Synonyms: Sodium Phosphate
Trade Name: Sodium Phosphate
Formula: Na3PO4.12H2O
UN. NO. NA9148
Regulated
Identification

C.A.S.NO.

Shipping Name : Sodium Phosphate


Codes/Label

Hazardous waste I.D. No:


Hazchem Code :
HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS
C.A.S.NO.
INGREDIENTS
C.A.S.NO.

HAZARDOUS

1. Tri Sodium Orthophosphate


PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Boiling Point/Range oC Decomposes : 73 77 oC Physical State : Solid
Appearance : Colourless
Melting / Freezing
Odour: Odourless
Point

Vapour pressure
@ 35 oC

mm Hg

________________________________________________________________
__________________________________
Solubility in water @ 15 oC

Vapour Density
Others:
(Air = 1)

28.3 g/100 ml

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 17

Specific Gravity
pH:
(Water = 1)

1.062
at 20oC

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flammability
Not flammable
o
C
(OC)
TDG Flammability
o
C
(CC)
Autoignition Temperature oC

LEL

Flash Point

UEL

Flash Point

Explosion Sensitivity to Impact


Explosion Sensitivity to Static
Electricity
Hazardous Combustion products
Hazardous Polymerization
Combustible Liquid :
No
Corrosive Material :
No
Flammable Material :
Others: Nil

Explosive Material :

No

Pyrophoric Material
REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability

No

Oxidiser

No

Organic Peroxide

No
No

Stable.

Incompatibility with
Other material
Reactivity

Reacts violently with magnesium.

Hazardous Reaction
POx fumes.
Products

High temperature degradation gives off toxic

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

MISC-12- 18

Routes of Entry
Effects of Exposure/ Inhalation : Nose, eyes and throat irritation; sneezing,
difficulty breathing, coughing..
Symptoms
Ingestion: Burning sensation in mouth, pain
in swallowing, stomach cramps.
Contact: Skin itching, burning sensation, inflammation;
Eyes Irritation and burning.
MODERATELY TOXIC BY INGESTION AND INHALATION.
Emergency Treatment: Obtain medical assistance.
Inhalation: Remove victim to fresh air; give artificial respiration, if breathing has
stopped. Give artificial respiration. If laboured, give oxygen.
Ingestion : Give plenty of water to conscious victim to drink. Induce vomiting
immediately.
Contact : Remove contaminated clothing and flush immediately with plenty of
water
Eyes : Flush with water.
L.D50 (Oral-Rat)
7400
mg/kg
L.D 50
Permissible
ppm
mg/mg3
Exposure Limit
TLV (ACGIH)
ppm

ppm

ppm

mg/m 3

mg/m3

Odour Threshold

STEL

mg/m3

NFPA Hazard Signals


Reactivity
Special

Health

Flammability

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective
Rubber gloves/rubber boots. Safety goggles,
face shields, dust mask. Self contained breathing Equipment
apparatus in case of fires.
Handling and Storage
Precautions

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 19

PART-H

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES


FIRE
Fire Extinguishing Media : Most fire extinguishing medium may be

used in fire involving this chemical.

EXPOSURE
First Aid Measures: Obtain medical assistance. Move victim to fresh air. If
breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. Give water to conscious
victim to drink and induce vomiting. Remove contaminated clothing and
flush immediately with plenty of water.
Flush with plenty of water for eyes.

SPILLS
Steps to be taken
Waste Disposal Method
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/REFERENCES

MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIERS DATA
Name of firm :
Mailing Address :
DISCLAIMER
Information contained in this material safety data sheet is believed to be reliable
but no representation, guarantee or warranties of any kind are made as to its
accuracy, suitability for a particular application or results to be obtained from
them.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 20

PART-H

12.6 HYDROGEN
CHEMICAL IDENTITY

HYDROGEN

Chemical
Name
Synonym
s

Hydrogen

Chemical
Classificatio
n

Liquid Hydrogen, Para Hydrogen,


Hydrogen (compressed)

Formula

H2

Regulated
Identification

C.A.S. NO.

Inorganic Gas

Trade
Name
1333-74-0

Hydrogen

UN
NO.

Shipping Name

Hydrogen, Compressed gas

Codes/Label

Flammable Gas, Class 2

Hazardous waste
I.D. No.

17

1049

2 SE
Hazchem Code
HAZARDOUS
INGREDIENTS

C.A.S. NO.

1. Hydrogen

1333-74-0

HAZARDOUS
INGREDIENTS

C.A.S.
NO.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA


Boiling
Point/
Range oC

-252.8

Physical State

Gas

Appearance

-259.18

Vapour
pressure
@ 35 oC, mm
Hg

N.A

Odour

Solubility in
water @ 30 oC

Slightly
soluble

Melting/
Freezing
Point oC
Vapour
Density
(Air = 1)

0.069

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Colourl
ess
Odourle
ss

Solubility in
others

MISC-12- 21

Specific
0.0899
pH
Not Pertinent
Gravity
(Water = 1)
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
Flammability Yes
LEL (%V) 4.1
Flash Point (OC) oC

NP

Flash Point, (CC) oC

NP

TDG
2
UEL (%V)
Flammability
Auto ignition Temperature oC
400
Explosion Sensitivity to
Impact

74.2

Stable
Explodes

Explosion Sensitivity to Static


Electricity
None
Hazardous Combustion
products

Does not occur

Hazardous Polymerization
Combustible
No
Explosive
Liquid
Material
Flammable
Yes
Oxidiser
Material
Pyrophoric
No
Organic
Material
Peroxide
REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability

Yes
No

Corrosive
Material
Others

No

No

Stable

Incompatibility with other


material
Reactivity

Reacts vigorously with oxidising materials


(Bromine, Chlorine etc.) No chemical reaction
with common materials but low temperature
causes most materials to become very brittle.
Violent reaction on ignition with air + catalyst
(platinum etc.) Bromine, Iodine, Di-oxame +
Nickel, Lithium, Nitrogen Tri-fluoride, Nickel +
Oxygen, Oxygen Di-fluoride, Pet. + Isopropyl
Alcohol

Hazardous Reaction Products


It forms sensitive explosive mixtures with
Bromine, Chlorine, Iodine Hepta-fluoride,
Chlorine Dioxide.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

MISC-12- 22

Routes of Entry

Skin, Inhalation

Effects of Exposure/
Symptoms

If atmosphere does not contain enough


oxygen, inhalation causes dizziness,
unconsciousness or even death. Contact with
eyes or skin or liquid H2 causes freezing
similar to burn.

Emergency Treatment
Inhalation

If victim is unconscious (due to deficiencies),


move him to fresh air area.
And apply
resuscitation method.
Eyes and skin : Treat for frostbite. Soak the
skin in Lukewarm water. Seek medical aid.
Not listed
LD50 ,
mg/kg

Contact
LD50 (Oral-Rat),
mg/kg
Permissible
mg/kg
Exposure Limit
ppm

Odor Threshold,
ppm

TLV (ACGIH)
ppm

STEL,
ppm

mg/kg

mg/kg

Odourle
ss

mg/kg

NFPA Hazard
Signals

Health
0

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective Equipment

Handling and Storage


Precautions

Flammability
4

Not
listed

Reactivity/Stabilit
y
0

Special

Avoid contact with liquid or gas


Provide safety goggles, face shied, insulated
gloves and long sleeves, trousers Worn over
high top shoes to shed spilled liquid, selfcontained breathing apparatus containing air
(never use oxygen).
Store in a cool, fire-proof, with ventilated
area, separated from other cylinders,
preferably in open air.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES

MISC-12- 23

FIRE

EXPOSURE

Fire Extinguishing
Media

Stop flow of gas, let fire burn under control.

Special Procedure

Keep the containers cool by spraying water


if exposed to heat or flame.

Unusual Hazards

Flash back along vapour trail may occur.

First Aid Measures

Antidotes/ Dosage
SPILLS

Steps to be taken
Waste Disposal
Method

Inhalation : If victim is unconscious (due to


O2 deficiency), move him to fresh air area
and apply resuscitation method.
Eyes & Skin : Treat for frostbite, soak the
skin in Lukewarm water. Seek medical aid.
Not available
Shut off leaks if without risk. Explosion
hazard.
To be burnt under control condition

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/ REFERENCES


Practically no toxicity, except that it is an asphyxiant. Highly dangerous fire and
severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat and flame and oxidisers.
Flammable and explosive when mixed with air, O 2, Cl2. Vigorous exothermic
reactions with Benzene + Nickel Catalyst, metals (like Strontium, Potassium,
Barium-above 300oC) ventilate at highest points.

MANUFACTURER/ SUPPLIERS DATA


Name of firm :
Mailing Address :
DISCLAIMER
Information contained in this material safety data sheet is believed to be reliable
but no representation, guarantee or warranties of any kind are made as to its
accuracy, suitability for a particular application or results to be obtained from
them.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 24

12.7 ANTI-POLYMERISATION AGENT (APA):


KEROBIT
BPD

CHEMICAL IDENTITY
Chemical
Name

Anti polymerization agent

Synonyms APA

Formula

Trade
Name

KEROBIT
BPD

N1N-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine

Regulated
Identification

Shipping Name

Kerobit BPD

Codes/Label
Hazardous waste
I.D. No.
Hazchem Code

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA


Density (20
0.942
C)
g/cm3 Physical State

Liquid

Viscosity (20
deg C)

30.9
mm2/s

Flash point

>100 deg
C

Crystallisatio
n point

14 deg
C

Solubility in
water @ 30 oC

Pour point

<-33 deg C

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

pH

Insoluble

Appearance Viscous,
reddish
Odour

Pungent

Solubility in
others

Not applicable

MISC-12- 25

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flammability

Moderate

LEL (%V)

0.7

TDG
Flammability

UEL (%V)

5.0

Flash Point
(OC) oC
Flash Point,
(CC) oC

37
66

Auto ignition Temperature oC


Explosion Sensitivity to
Impact
Explosion Sensitivity to Static
Electricity
Hazardous Combustion
products
Hazardous Polymerization
Combustible
Yes
Explosive
Liquid
Material
Flammable
Yes
Oxidiser
Material
Pyrophoric
No
Organic
Material
Peroxide

No
No

Corrosive
Material
Others

No

No

REACTIVITY DATA
Chemical Stability

Stable

Incompatibility with other


material
Reactivity

None

Hazardous Reaction Products


HEALTH HAZARD DATA
Routes of Entry

Inhalation, ingestion, contact

Effects of Exposure/
Inhalation
Symptoms
Ingestion
Contact

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 26

Emergency Treatment

Obtain immediate medical attention.

Inhalation

Remove affected person to fresh air. If


respiratory problems develop.

Ingestion
Contact

Kerobit is harmful to health and toxic after


ingestion or contact with skin. It irritates the
eyes, respiratory tract and skin and may
cause burns. There is a risk of sensitization
and absorption vis skin. Vapours should not
be inhaled and contaminated clothes to be
removed immediately.
LD50 ,
mg/kg

LD50 (Oral-Rat),
mg/kg
Permissible
mg/kg
Exposure Limit
ppm

Odor Threshold,
ppm

TLV (ACGIH)
ppm

STEL,
ppm

mg/kg

mg/kg

mg/kg

NFPA Hazard
Signals

Health

Flammability

Reactivity/Stabilit
y

Special

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Personal Protective Equipment

Handling and Storage


Precautions

Gloves, footwear, coveralls, and/or apron as


necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged
skin contact. Any clothing which becomes
wet with product should be removed
immediately and laundered before reuse.
Chemical goggles or face shield as
necessary to prevent eye contact.
Kerobit must be stored in closed containers
and should be kept under nitrogen
atmosphere to avoid contact with atospheric
oxygen.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-12- 27

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES


FIRE

EXPOSUR
E

Fire Extinguishing
Media

Use water fog, foam, dry chemical powder,


CO2

Special Procedure
Unusual Hazards
First Aid Measures

Use water to cool fire exposed


components.
Obtain immediate medical attention.
Inhalation : Remove affected person to
fresh air. If respiratory problems develop.
Kerobit is harmful to health and toxic after
ingestion or contact with skin. It irritates the
eyes, respiratory tract and skin and may
cause burns. There is a risk of sensitization
and absorption vis skin. Vapours should not
be inhaled and contaminated clothes to be
removed immediately.

Antidotes/ Dosage
SPILLS

Steps to be taken

Waste Disposal
Method

Standard hydrocarbon spill procedures


apply to this product. Remove all sources
of ignition. Isolate the affected area.
Confirne entry into the affected area to
those persons properly protected. Stop
leak at the source. Cut off and redirect
surface runoff by trenching of diking. Spills
should be contained through the use of
commercial oil adsorbent, but other
materials such as earth, sand or sawdust
may be more expedient to limit the extent
of the spill. Prevent the release of this
product into the waterway or sewer. To
prevent further losses, reposition, plug or
place the leaking container into an
oversized recovery drum/container.
Wear protective equipment. Absorb spilled
product using a commercial oil absorbent
soaking up as much product as possible.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/ REFERENCES

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-12- 28

PART-H

13.0 ALARM LIST:


SNO

TAG NAME

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

m3/hr
m3/hr
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
%
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
M3/hr
M3/hr
Deg C
Kg/cm2
M3/Hr
%
M3/hr
M3/hr
M3/hr
M3/hr
M3/hr
M3/hr
Deg C
mmwc
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C

9C1 FEED EX STABILISER


9C1 FEED EX STORAGE
9C1 FEED TEMP
9C1 TOP TEMP CONT
9C1 TRAY TEMP
9C1 TRAY 36 TEMP
9C1 LEVEL
9C1 BOTTOM TEMP
9P2A/B/C DISCHARGE
9AC3A/B OUTLET
9E4 OUTLET
9C1 TOP PRESSURE
9C1 REFLUX FLOW
HY NAPHTHA STORAGE
9F1 OUTLET TEMP
DELTA P ACROSS 9V5
9C1 BOTTOM TO HTU
9V5 BOOT LEVEL
9F1 PASS FLOW
9F1 PASS FLOW
9F1 PASS FLOW
9F1 PASS FLOW
9F1 PASS FLOW
9F1 PASS FLOW
9F1 EX CONVE TEMP
9F1 ARCH PRESSURE
9F1 PASS OUTLET TEMP
9F1 PASS OUTLET TEMP
9F1 PASS OUTLET TEMP
9F1 PASS OUTLET TEMP
9F1 PASS OUTLET TEMP
9F1 PASS OUTLET TEMP
9F1 OUTLET TEMP
9F1 OUTLET TEMP
FG TO 9F1
9F1 ARCH LEVEL TEMP
9F1 ARCH LEVEL TEMP
HEARTH LEVEL OF 9F1
HEARTH LEVEL OF 9F1
FG TO 9F1
9F1 PASS TEMP
9F1 PASS TEMP
9F1 PASS TEMP
9F1 PASS TEMP
9F1 PASS TEMP

80
80
70
70
100
100
30
110
110
30
20
0.6
30
30
110
0.4
5
5
20
20
20
20
20
20
130
-8
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
200
100
100
100
100
0.2
100
100
100
100
100

100
100
80
80
110
110
40
120
120
40
25
0.7
40
40
120
0.6
10
10
25
25
25
25
25
25
150
-7
120
120
120
120
120
120
110
110
300
110
110
110
110
0.4
110
110
110
110
110

265
265
120
100
160
160
70
150
150
75
45
1.6
120
120
160
1.0
70
40
65
65
65
65
65
65
230
1.0
170
170
170
170
170
170
160
160
960
580
580
400
400
2.8
170
170
170
170
170

275
275
130
110
165
165
80
160
160
80
50
1.8
130
150
170
1.5
80
50
70
70
70
70
70
70
260
1.5
220
220
220
220
220
220
170
170
1000
600
600
420
420
2.9
180
180
180
180
180

NSU
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

9 F1 1101
9 FC 1104
9 TI 1101
9 TIC 1102
9 TC 1103A
9 TI 1103B
9 LC 1101
9 TI 1104
9 TI 1216
9 TI 1105
9 TI 1106
9 PC 1101
9 FI 1102
9 FI 1103
9 TI 1201B
9 PDI 1109
9 FC 1105
9 LI 1104A
9 FC 1211A
9 FC 1210A
9 FC 1201A
9 FC 1202A
9 FC 1203
9 FC 1204
15 TI 3115
15 PI 3112
9 TI 1206
9 TI 1205
9 TI 1204
9 TI 1203
9 TI 1217
9 TI 1218
9 TC 1103A
9 TC 1201A
9 FI 1206
15 TI 3117
15 TI 3118
15 TI 3120
15 TI 3121
9 PC 1206
15 TI 138A
15 TI 138B
15 TI 138C
15 TI 138D
15 TI 138E

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-13- 01

PART-H

SNO

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71

TAG NAME

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

15 TI 138F
9 PC 1302
9 LC 1301
9 TI 1302
9 FI 1301
9 TI 1301
9 LI 1303
15 TI 116A
15 TI 116B
15 TI 116C
15 TI 116D
15 TI 116E
15 TI 116F
15 TI 119A
15 TI 119B
15 TI 119C
15 TI 119D
15 TI 119E
15 TI 119F
15 HC 3103
15 AC 3107
15 TI 3141
15 AI 3102
15 AI 3101
15 FC 1301
15 FC 3103

Deg C
Kg/cm2
%
Deg C
M3/Hr
Deg C
%
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
%
%
Deg C
Ppm
Ppm
T/Hr
T/Hr

9F1 PASS TEMP


9V1 PRESSURE
9V1 SHELL LEVEL
9E1 OUTLET
LN TO STORAGE
9V1 BOTTOM TEMP
9V1 BOOT LEVEL
9F1 CONV. SKIN
9F1 CONV. SKIN
9F1 CONV. SKIN
9F1 CONV. SKIN
9F1 CONV. SKIN
9F1 CONV. SKIN
9F1 RADIATION SKIN
9F1 RADIATION SKIN
9F1 RADIATION SKIN
9F1 RADIATION SKIN
9F1 RADIATION SKIN
9F1 RADIATION SKIN
9F1 DAMPER OPENING
9F1 STACK OXYGEN
COMBINED STACK
NON-IFP NOX
NON-IFP SOX
AIR TO 9FI
TOTAL AIR FLOW

100
0.4
30
20
5
20
10
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
20
1.0
110
60
150
4.0
8.0

110
0.6
35
25
10
25
15
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
25
2.0
120
80
175
5.0
15.0

170
1.6
70
40
130
75
40
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
65
6.0
180
160
420
9.5
45

180
1.8
75
45
140
85
50
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
80
7.0
200
170
450
10.0
54

14 FC 33
14 FC 40
14 FC 34
14 FI 01
14 PDI 02
14 TI 60
14 TI 70
14 TI 61
14 TI 01
14 PC 01
14 LC 01
14 LI 02
14 TI 39
14 FC 02
14 PI 50
14 TI 06
14 TC 04
14 TI 03
14 PC 22
14 PDI 06
15 TI 3101
14 FI 21

Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
T/Hr
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Cm2
%
%
Deg C
T/Hr
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Cm2
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Kg/Hr

FCCG TO UNIT
VBN EX STORAGE
VBN EX VBU
SRN EX STORAGE
DELTA P ACROSS 14G1
FCCG TEMP
VBN EX STORAGE TEMP
VBN EX VBU TEMP
SRN TO UNIT TEMP
14V1 PRESSURE
14V1 LEVEL
14V1 BOOT LEVEL
NAPHTHA EX 14V1
FEED PUMP DISCHARGE
FEED PUMP DISCHARGE
NAPHTHA TO 14E1A
NAPHTHA TO 14R1
NAPHTHA TO 14R1
FG TO 14F1
14R1 DELTA P
14F1 EX CONVECTION
FG TO 14F1

2000
2000
2000
5
0.2
20
20
20
20
0.5
40
5
20
20
15
200
240
240
0.8
0.2
180
100

2500
2200
2200
15
0.22
25
25
25
25
0.8
45
10
25
25
20
250
250
250
1.0
0.4
22.
120

11100

11500

7100
7100
65
1.5
75
75
75
75
2.0
60
40
75
65
29
325
310
310
2.5
1.0
350
380

7500
7500
69
1.8
85
85
85
85
2.5
70
50
85
70
30
330
320
320
2.9
1.5
380
400

HTU
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 02

SNO

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

TAG NAME

15 TI 3104
15 PI 3114
15 AI 3103
14 TIC 34
14 FC 05
14 FI 03
14 PI 55
14 TIC 43
14 PDI 52A
14 TI 02
14 TI 45
14 PDI 07
14 TI 08
14 TI 09
14 TI 10
14 TI 11
14 FI 10
14 FI 11A
14 PC 08
14 FC 06
14 FI 08
14 LC 05
14 LC 06
14 FC 07
14 TI 51
14 TI 52
14 TI 50
14 PC 42
14 TC 31
14 TI 30
14 TIC 24
14 TI 21
14 TC 23
14 TC 31
14 LC 12
14 TI 29
14 TI 28
14 TIC 53
14 FI 20
14 FI 14
14 TI 27
14 TC 25
14 LC 14
14 LC 15
14 TI 26
14 PC 11
14 FI 13

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

Deg C
mmwc
%
Deg C
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
%
%
T/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
%
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
T/Hr
Kg/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
%
%
Deg C
Kg/cm2
M3/Hr

14F1 ARCH TEMP


14F1 ARCH PRESSURE
14F1 STACK OXYGEN
14F1 FEED TEMP
PLANT AIR TO R1 REGEN
STEAM TO R1 REGEN
FEED TO 14R2
14E1 D/E/F B/P TEMP
14R2 DELTA P
R/G TO 14E1F
NAPHTHA TO 14E1G
DELTA P ACROSS 14E1F
NAPHTHA TO 14AC1
NAPHTHA TO 14E2
NAPHTHA TO 14V2
BFW TO 14V2
SUCTION OF 14P5
R/G TO 14E1C
14V2 PRESSURE
14V2 PURGE
SOUR WATER FLOW
14V2 LEVEL
14V2 BOOT LEVEL
14P2A/B DISCHARGE
14E7 S/S INLET
14E7 S/S OUTLET
14E7 T/S OUTLET
FG TO 14F2
14C1 TEMP CONTROL
14F2 OUTLET
14C1 TOP TEMP
NAPHTHA TO 14C1
14C1 TEMP CONTROL
14C1 TEMP CONTROL
14C1 LEVEL
DSN TO STORAGE
CRU FEED TEMP
FEED TEMP CONTROL
DSN TO STORAGE
14C1 REFLUX
14C1 BOTTOM TEMP
14AC2 OUTLET
14V4 LEVEL
14V4 BOOT LEVEL
14V4 INLET TEMP
14C1 PRESSURE
14V1 PURGE GAS

350
-08
1.0
180
100
3500
15
150
0.1
15
60
0.2
20
20
20
100
1000
1000
14
5
100
25
30
20
15
30
40
0.8
190
100
110
100
200
190
40
20
90
90
5
2000
200
40
15
05
15
09
60

450
-07
2.0
200
200
4500
20
160
0.15
20
70
0.4
30
30
30
150
1100
1500
15
10
120
30
30
25
25
35
45
1.0
200
120
115
120
220
200
50
25
100
100
10
2500
220
50
20
10
20
11
80

600
1.0
6.0
260
700

650
1.5
7.0
280
800

20000

21000

28
210
0.5
70
130
0.6
120
85
50
280
4800
3000
17.5
25
300
60
40
65
50
80
95
2.5
250
280
180
250
250
250
70
40
150
150
55
8000
255
100
55
50
45
14
250

30
225
0.6
85
150
0.8
140
100
70
300
5000
3200
18.0
30
330
70
50
70
60
90
110
2.9
255
300
190
275
260
260
80
45
160
160
60
9500
260
110
60
60
60
15
350

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 03

SNO

TAG NAME

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116

14 FI 25
14 FC 18A
14 FC 18B
14 FC 18C
14 FC 18D
15 TI 110A
15 TI 110B
15 TI 110C
15 TI 110D
14 TI 37 A
14 TI 37B
14 TI 37C
14 TI 37D
15 HC 3101
15 HC 3102
15 AI 3103
15 TI 103A
15 TI 103B
15 TI 103C
15 TI 103D
15 TI 105A
15 TI 105B
15 TI 105C
15 TI 105D
15 TI 105E
15 TI 105F
15 TI 105G
15 TI 105H
14 PI 79
14 PC 86
14 FI 36
14 FI 35
14 FC 32
14 PI 203 A/B
14 PI 205 A/B
14 TI 16
14 TI 18
15 TI 3108
15 TI 3111
14 FI 101A
14 PI 101A
14 PI 101B
14 PI 103A
14 PI 103B
14 PI 102A
14 PI 102B
14 TI 56

M3/Hr
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
%
%
%
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C

FG TO 14F2
14F2 PASS FLOW
14F2 PASS FLOW
14F2 PASS FLOW
14F2 PASS FLOW
14F1 XOVER PASS TEMP
14F1 XOVER PASS TEMP
14F1 XOVER PASS TEMP
14F1 XOVER PASS TEMP
14F2 OUTLET PASS TEMP
14F2 OUTLET PASS TEMP
14F2 OUTLET PASS TEMP
14F2 OUTLET PASS TEMP
14F1 DAMPER
14F2 DAMPER
14F1 OXYGEN
14F1 PASS TEMP
14F1 PASS TEMP
14F1 PASS TEMP
14F1 PASS TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
14R1 SKIN TEMP
H2 EX NETWORK
H2 EX BULLET
SUCTION OF 14K2A/B
MU GAS TO 14R2
MU GAS TO 14R1
14K2 A/B SUCTION
14K2 A/B LO PRESSURE
14K2A DISCHARGE
14K2B DISCHARGE
EX CONVEXTION 14F2
ARCH LEVEL OF 14F2
14K1 JCW RETURN
SUCTION PRESS K1A
SUCTION PRESS KIB
LOP 14K1A
LOP 14K1B
DISCHARGE PRESS K1A
DISCHARGE PRESS K1B
14E1C S/S INLET

100
14
14
14
14
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
20
20
1.0
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
18
18
80
80
10
12
1.5
0
0
150
150
5
14
14
1.5
1.5
15
15
100

120
15
15
15
15
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
25
25
2.0
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
19
19
100
100
30
13
2.0
0
0
240
250
8
15
15
2.0
2.0
19
19
120

300
45
45
45
45
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
65
65
6.0
300
300
300
300
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
22
22
200
200
200
16
4.5
112
112
360
700
25
17
17
4.5
4.5
23
23
150

350
50
50
50
50
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
80
80
7.0
350
350
350
350
340
340
340
340
340
340
340
340
25
25
250
230
220
17
6.0
115
115
400
720
30
18
18
6.0
6.0
25
25
160

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 04

SNO

117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162

TAG NAME

14 PC 53
14 TI 42A
14 TI 42B
14 TI 42C
14 TI 42D
14 TI 42E
14 TI 42F
14 TI 42G
14 TI 42H
14 TI 42I
14 TI 42J
14 TI 42K
14 TI 42L
14 TI 42M
14 TI 42N
14 TI 42O
14 TI 42P
14 TI 42Q
14 TI 42R
14 TI 42S
14 TI 42T
15 TI 102A
15 TI 102B
15 TI 102C
15 TI 102D
15 TI 105A
15 TI 105B
15 TI 105C
15 TI 105D
15 TI 109A
15 TI 109B
15 TI 109C
15 TI 109D
15 TI 112A
15 TI 112B
15 TI 112C
15 TI 112D
15 TI 3106
15 TI 3113
15 TI 3129
15 TI 3137
15 TI 3131
15 TI 3130
15 TI 3133
15 PC 3112
15 PI 3107

UNIT

Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
mmwc
mmwc

DESCRIPTION

14R2 OUTLET PRESS


14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14R2 SKIN TEMP
14F1 CONV PASS TEMP
14F1 CONV PASS TEMP
14F1 CONV PASS TEMP
14F1 CONV PASS TEMP
RADIATION O/L PASS
RADIATION O/L PASS
RADIATION O/L PASS
RADIATION O/L PASS
14F2 CONV PASS TEMP
14F2 CONV PASS TEMP
14F2 CONV PASS TEMP
14F2 CONV PASS TEMP
RADIATION O/L PASS
RADIATION O/L PASS
RADIATION O/L PASS
RADIATION O/L PASS
14F1 HEARTH LEVEL
14F2 HEARTH LEVEL
CAST APH INLET
9F1 INLET TEMP
ON CAST APH
ON CAST APH
GAPH OUTLET
15K3 SPEED CONTROL
ID FAN SUCTION

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

23.5
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
130
130
130
130
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
250
350
100
100
100
100
150
-20
-120

24.0
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
300
370
115
120
120
120
160
-5
-110

26.8
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
330
330
330
330
380
380
380
380
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
500
280
235
235
250
185
1
-40

27.2
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
350
350
350
350
400
400
400
400
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
550
520
320
250
250
260
200
5
-35

MISC-13- 05

SNO

TAG NAME

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
%
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
%
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C

FG SUPPLY TO UNIT
FG PRESSURE
FG KO DRUM LEVEL
FG EX CRU FLOW
15F1 FG PRESS
15F2 FG PRESS
15F3 FG PRESS
15F1 FG FLOW
15F2 FG FLOW
15F3 FG FLOW
IFP STACK OXYGEN
15F1 INLET PASS SKIN
15F1 INLET PASS SKIN
15F1 INLET PASS SKIN
15F1 INLET PASS SKIN
15F1 INLET PASS SKIN
15F1 INLET PASS SKIN
15F1 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 INLET
15F1 OUTLET
15R1 ILET TEMP
15F1 ARCH LEVEL
15F2 ARCH LEVEL
15F3 ARCH LEVEL
15F2 INLET PASS SKIN
15F2 INLET PASS SKIN
15F2 INLET PASS SKIN
15F2 INLET PASS SKIN
15F2 INLET PASS SKIN
15F2 INLET PASS SKIN
15F2 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F2 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F2 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F2 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F2 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F2 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F1 BURNER LEVEL
15F2 BURNER LEVEL
15F2 CROSS OVER
15F2 OUTLET
15R2 INLET TEMP
15R2 OUTLET

300
2.5
5
300
0.8
0.8
0.8
100
100
100
1.0
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
100
200
435
00
0
0
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
0
0
200
200
435
200

500
2.6
10
600
1.0
1.0
1.0
150
150
150
2.0
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
120
250
440
00
0
0
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
0
0
250
250
440
380

4000
3.2
30
6000
2.8
2.8
2.8
1000
1000
1000
6.0
590
590
590
590
590
590
590
590
590
590
590
590
450
550
525
750
750
750
590
590
590
590
590
590
630
630
630
630
630
630
650
650
550
550
530
500

4300
3.5
50
6500
2.9
2.9
2.9
1200
1200
1200
7.0
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
500
600
530
780
780
780
600
600
600
600
600
600
640
640
640
640
640
640
700
700
600
600
535
650

CRU
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

15 FI 2301
15 PC 91
15 LI 302B
15 FI 2304
15 PC 51
15 PC 61
15 PC 71
15 FI 31
15 FI 41
15 FI 51
15 AI 1506
15 TI 167 A
15 TI 167 B
15 TI 167 C
15 TI 167 D
15 TI 167 E
15 TI 167 F
15 TI 67 A
15 TI 67 B
15 TI 67 C
15 TI 67 D
15 TI 67 E
15 TI 67 F
15 TI 02
15 TI 03
15 TC 05
15 TI 66A
15 TI 66B
15 TI 66C
15 TI 169 A
15 TI 169 B
15 TI 169 C
15 TI 169 D
15 TI 169 E
15 TI 169 F
15 TI 69 A
15 TI 69 B
15 TI 69 C
15 TI 69 D
15 TI 69 E
15 TI 69 F
15 TI 65
15 TI 68
15 TI 73
15 TI 13
15 TC 15
15 TI 16

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 06

SNO

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93

TAG NAME

15 TI 17
15 TI 19
15 TI 172 A
15 TI 172 B
15 TI 172 C
15 TI 172 D
15 TI 172 E
15 TI 172 F
15 TI 72 A
15 TI 72 B
15 TI 72 C
15 TI 72 D
15 TI 72 E
15 TI 72 F
15 TI 70
15 PDI 02
15 PDI 03
15 PDI 04
17 PI 27
15 TI 06
15 TI 07
15 TI 08
15 TI 09
15 TI 10
15 TI 11
15 TI 20
15 TI 21
15 TI 02
15 TI 01
15 PDI 01
15 FC 01
15 FC 02
15 PDI 15
15 PDI 16
15 FI 03
15 PDI 22
15 AI 02
15 PI 06
15 TI 22
15 TI 23
15 FI 05
15 PC 05
15 LC 01
15 FC 01A
15 TI 25
15 TI 26

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
T/Hr
T/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
T/Hr
Kg/cm2
%
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
%
M3/Hr
Deg C
Deg C

15F3 OUTLET
15R3 INLET
15F3 INLET PASS SKIN
15F3 INLET PASS SKIN
15F3 INLET PASS SKIN
15F3 INLET PASS SKIN
15F3 INLET PASS SKIN
15F3 INLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15F3 OUTLET PASS SKIN
15R1 DELTA P
15R2 DELTA P
15R3 DELTA P
15R1 PRESSURE
15R1 SKIN TEMP
15R1 SKIN TEMP
15R1 SKIN TEMP
15R1 SKIN TEMP
15R1 SKIN TEMP
15R1 SKIN TEMP
15R3 OUTLET TEMP
EFFLUENT TO 15AC1
15F1 INLET
FEED FROM 14E3B
DELTA P ACROSS 15G1
FEED TO 15E1
FEED TO 15E1
FEED SIDE DELTA P
EFFLUENT SIDE DELTA P
R/G TO 15E1
DELTA P ACROSS HC
R/G PURITY
R/G TO 15E1
EFFLUENT TO 15E2
EFFLUENT TO 15V1
FG TO FLARE
15V1 PRESSURE
15V1 LEVEL
15PIA/B DISCHARGE
15V1 BOTTOM TO E3
EFFLUENT TO 15E4

200
435
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
0.01
0.01
0.01
3.0
460
460
460
460
460
460
200
70
100
80
0
12
12
0.2
0.2
8.0
0
60
2.0
25
25
0
2.2
20
10
25
20

350
440
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
0.02
0.02
0.02
3.5
470
470
470
470
470
470
250
80
120
100
0
15
15
0.3
0.3
10.5
0.08
65
2.5
30
30
0
2.6
30
15
30
25

550
530
590
590
590
590
590
590
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
0.1
0.1
0.1
5.0
510
510
510
510
510
510
500
120
450
140
1.2
32
32
1.0
1.0
14
0.9
95
5.5
65
50
1000
3.5
50
50
65
50

650
535
600
600
600
600
600
600
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
0.2
0.2
0.2
5.2
520
520
520
520
520
520
550
125
600
150
1.5
35
35
1.1
1.1
16
1.0
99
6.0
85
70
1100
4.0
65
60
70
60

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 07

SNO

TAG NAME

94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134

15 PC 07
15 TI 31
15 PC 78
15 PI 08
15 FI 07
15 TI 30
15 TI 32
15 LC 05
15 PC 09
15 FI 08
15 LC 06
15 FC 09
15 PC 14
15 PC 81
15 TC 41
15 TI 42
15 LC 11
15 FI 18
XI 4101 A/B
XI 4102 A/B
YI 4101 A/B
YI 4102 A/B
AI 4101 A/B
AI 4102 A/B
TI 4101 A/B
TI 4102 A/B
15 PC 4209
15 PI 4003
15 TI 4011
15 FI 4301 A
15 TI 4012
15 PI 4004
15 PI 4005
15 TI 4013
15 FI 06
15 TI 4007
15 TI 4008
15 PI 4006
15 TI 4009
15 TI 4010

135
136
137
138
139
140

15 TI 4014
15 PI 4007
15 PC 2406
SI 4101
15 FI 1904
15 LC 1901

15 PI 4008

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

Kg/cm2
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
%
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
%
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
%
T/Hr
Micro m
Micro m
Micro m
Micro m
Mm
mm
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
T/Hr
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Kg/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2

15V2 PRESSURE
15C1 VAPOUR TEMP
H2 TO HGU
15E4 TO FG
15E4 TO FG
15V2 INLET
15P2 DISCHARGE
15V2 L2V2L
15V3 PRESSURE
15V3 TO FG
15V3 LEVEL
NAPHTHA TO E7
15V4 PRESSURE
FG TO 15F4
15F4 COIL OUTLET
15C1 BOTTOM
15C1 LEVEL
REFORMATE RUNDOWN
COMP RADIAL VIB SUCT
TURBINE RAD VIB EX
COMP RADIAL VIB DISCH
TURBIE RAD VIB INLET
COMP AXIAL DISP
TURBINE AXIAL DISP
COMP THRUST BNG
TURBINE JRNL BNG
OIL BACK PRESSURE
COMP DISCH PRESSURE
COMP DIS TEMP
15K1 DISCH FLOW
COMP SUCTION TEMP
COMP SUCTION PRESS
TURBINE I/L STEAM
TURBINE I/L STEAM
HP STEAM FLOW TO K1
BEARING OUTLET TEMP
BEARING OUTLET TEMP
CHEST PRESSURE
TURBINE OUTLET BNG
TURBINE O/L BNG TEMP
TURBINE
EXH
PRESSURE
TURBINE EXH TEMP
TURBINE IST STAGE
LP EXHAUST PRESSURE
15K1 RPM
WATER TO B/L
15V16 LEVEL

Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Rpm
Kg/Hr
%

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

3.9
20
2.0
4.1
1000
-15
10
25
1.0
0
25
15
2.0
0.8
50
100
30
15
0
0
0
0
-1.0
-1.0
50
50
8.0
4.0
40
11.5
20
1.0
48
300
2800
30
30
15
30
30

4.0
25
2.3
4.2
1600
-12
15
30
3.0
0
30
25
3.0
1.0
100
120
35
20
0
0
0
0
-0.5
-0.5
60
60
8.5
4.5
45
12.0
30
1.5
50
350
3200
35
35
20
35
35

4.9
50
4.0
4.8
3500
10
45
60
5.0
210
60
80
8.5
2.8
250
260
60
65
80
80
80
80
0.5
0.5
110
110
10.5
6.0
110
23
80
4.0
65
440

6.0
60
4.5
5.5
3600
12
50
70
6.0
230
70
90
9.5
2.9
300
300
70
70
100
100
100
100
1.0
1.0
130
130
11.0
6.5
120
25
90
5.0
68
460

15500

16500

60
60
30
60
60

65
65
35
65
65

1.0

1.5

4.4

5.0

160
5
2.5
5800
2500
30

180
10
3.2
6000
3000
35

220
20
4.5
7800

250
25
5.0
8200

15000

18000

60

65

MISC-13- 08

SNO

141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162

TAG NAME

15 FC 1901
15 TC 1908
15 LI 1901
15 AI 1902
15 FC 1902
15 AI 1903
15 FC 1903
15 TI 1903
15 TI 1904
15 TI 1905
15 TI 1906
15 TI 1907
15 TI 1921
15 TI 1922
15 TI 1923
15 PI 2208
15 FI 2201
15 TI 2204
15 PI 2209
15 FI 202A
15 TI 2205
15 FI 2403

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

Kg/Hr
Deg C
%
Ppm
T/Hr
Ppm
T/Hr
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
T/Hr
Deg C
Kg/cm2
T/Hr
Deg C
Kg/Hr

BFW FLOW TO DRUM


DE-SUPERHEATER TEMP
15V16 LEVEL
IFP SOX
BFW FLOW TO DRUM
IFP NOX
BFW TO COIL
IFP CONVE TEMP
IFP CONVE TEMP
IFP CONVE TEMP
IFP CONVE TEMP
IFP CONVE TEMP
SGI COIL TEMP
SGI COIL TEMP
SG2 COIL TEMP
HP STEAM PRESS
HP STEAM FLOW
HP STEAM TEMP
MP STEAM PRESS
MP STEAM FLOW
MP STEAM TEMP
INSTRUMENT AIR UNIT

4500
100
32
40
40
40
40
100
100
150
180
250
150
150
150
20
8000
200
12
5000
180
200

5000
150
35
50
45
50
45
120
150
180
200
300
200
200
200
30
9000
250
13
6000
200
240

16000

HIGH
HIGH
18000

450
60
150
150
150
150
220
300
450
500
550
450
450
450
65

480
65
200
170
200
170
250
350
500
550
650
480
480
480
68

16000

17000

440
15

460
16

18000

19000

300
600

320
700

Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Nm3/Hr
Nm3/Hr
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Nm3/Hr
Deg C
Kg/cm2
%
Kg/cm2
%
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Rpm
%
Kg/cm2
Nm3/Hr
Deg C

40AC1/2 DISCH TEMP


40AC1 DISCH PRESS
40AC2 DISCH PRESS
40AC1 DISCH FLOW
40AC2 DISCH FLOW
AIR TO PLANT AIR HDR
AIR EX 40E12
AIR TO REGEN
AIR TO COLD BOX
AIR TO COLD BOX
AIR TO MP COLUMN
MP COLUMN DIFF PRESS
MP COLUMN LEVEL
40E4 S/S PRESS
VAPORISER LEVEL
MP COLUMN PRESSURE
WN2 EX TURBINE
WN2 TO TURBINE
WN2 EX TURBINE
TURBINE SPEED
O2 IN PRDT NITROGEN
WN2 EX COLD BOX
WN2 TO REGEN
GN2 EX 40E16

10
3
3
1800
1500
3.0
3
3.0
6.9
1000
-150
1200
20
2.5
17
6.5
0.12
3.0
-190
1500
0
0
100
10

15
5
5
2000
2000
3.5
4
3.5
7.1
1500
-140
1300
25
3.1
20
6.9
0.15
3.1
-180
2000
0
0.05
200
20

48
8.5
8.5
4500
4500
7.0
15
7.0
7.8
2800
-90
2000
60
3.9
45
7.6
0.5
4.0
-90
4400
15
0.5
540
175

52
10
10
4800
4800
7.2
25
7.2
8.5
3300
-80
2200
80
4.0
55
7.8
0.6
4.1
-80
4600
25
0.6
550
195

NITROGEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

40 TI 201 A/B
40 PI 2201
40 PI 2202
40 FI 2201
40 FI 2202
40 PC 2203
40 TI 2202
40 PC 2230
40 PI 2227
40 FI 2229
40 TI 2248
40 PDI 245
40 LC 2241
40 PIC 2244
40 LIC 242A
40 PC 2243
40 PI 2256
40 PI 2251
40 TI 2255
40 SI 2251
40 AI 2219
40 PC 2218
40 FI 2217
40 TI 212A

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 09

SNO

25
26
27
28
29
30
31

TAG NAME

40 PI 2220
40 TI 2223
40 FC 2222
40 PC 3313
40 FI 3315
40 PC 3303
40 FI 3305

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

GN2 EX COLD BOX


GN2 EX COLD BOX
GN2 EX COLD BOX
GN2 EX E10/11
GN2 HEADER 1
GN2 HEADER 2
GNW HEADER 2

2
10
150
4.0
250
5
20

3
20
250
4.5
350
6.5
35

10
40
650
6.5
1500
11
160

12
50
700
7.0
1600
12
165

BULLET A PRESSURE
BULLET B PRESSURE
BULLET C PRESSURE
BULLET D PRESSURE
COMP STAGE 1 DIS PRES
COMP STAGE 2 DIS PRES
COMP STAGE 3 DIS PRES
STAGE I DIS TEMP
STAGE 2 DIS TEMP
STAGE 3 DIS TEMP
H2 TO CRU PRESS

26
26
26
26
3
8
15
15
15
15
3

28
28
28
28
5
10
20
25
25
25
3.5

41
41
41
41
10
20
45
90
90
90
5.0

42
42
42
42
12
24
48
100
100
100
6.0

3.5
10
10
2.0
100
700
5000
25
2000
90
500
2.0
10
4.0
40
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.05
350

4.0
15
15
3.0
150
1000
7000
35
3000
110
1000
3.0
20
4.5
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.08
0.08
400

5.8
75
75
6.0
350
4000

6.3
80
80
7.0
400
4500

15000

17000

70
8500
200
9000
6.0
60
6.0
100
200
540
518
520
450
450
500
500
0.3
0.3
500

80

UNIT

Kg/cm2
Deg C
Nm3/Hr
Kg/cm2
Nm3/Hr
Kg/cm2
Nm3/Hr

HYDROGEN BULLET
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

42 PI 2002
42 PI 2003
42 PI 2004
42 PI 0103
42 PI 1002
42 PI 1003
42 PI 1004
42 TI 1001
42 TI 1002
42 TI 1003
42 PC 2001

Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2

REGENERATION SECTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

17 PC 61
17 LC 20
17 LC 21
17 PI 16
17 FC 19
17 FI 17
17 FI 18
17 LI 22
17 FC 16
17 TC 2003
17 FC 2001
17 PI 2001
17 TI 2005
17 PI 03
17 LI 02
17 TI 03
17 TI 04
17 TI 05
17 TI 06
17 TI 07
17 TI 08
17 TI 09
17 TI 10
17 PDI 20
17 PDI 21
17 TC 51

Kg/cm2
%
%
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
%
Kg/Hr
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Kg/cm2
%
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C

REGEN PRESSURE
17V5 WATER SIDE LEVEL
17V5 CAUSTIC LEVEL
17V5 PRESSURE
DM WATER FLOW
PROCESS WATER
CASUTIC RECYCLE
CASUTIC TANL LEVEL
17K1 SPILL BACK
17DR1 D/S HEATER
REGEN GAS FLOW
DR1 PRE FILTER PRES.
DR1 D/S COOLER
17R1 PRESSURE
REGENERATOR LEVEL
REGEN TEMP
COMB ZONE TEMP
COMB ZONE TEMP
COMB ZONE TEMP
OXY CHLORINATION TEM
OXY CHLORINATION TEM
CALCINATION TEMP
CALCINATION TEMP
COMBUSTION DELTA P
OXY CHLORI DELTA P
COMBUSTION HEATER

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

MISC-13- 10

10000

230
9500
8.0
80
6.5
100
250
550
520
525
470
490
510
515
0.5
0.5
600

SNO

TAG NAME

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

17 TC 52
17 PI 10
17 AC 01
17 AC 03
17 AC 06
17 FI 20
17 FC 05
17 FC 01
17 FC 02

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

17 TI 12
17 TI 11
17 LI 01
17 LC 10
17 LC 12
17 LC 13
17 PI 02
17 PI 03
17 TC 53
17 TI 20
17 PDC 02
17 PDC 01
17 PDC 03

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

UNIT

DESCRIPTION

LOW
LOW

HIGH

HIGH
HIGH

400
8
0.4
0.15
3.0
5500
300
100
30
0.01
0
0
2.0
28
30
15
3.3
4.9
350
0
0.08
0.08
0.08

520
15
0.95
0.5
6.5
8500
800
280
200

650
18
1.0
0.6
7.0
9000
900
300
220

0.02

0.03

350
480
60
45
70
55
6.0
6.0
450
350
0.4
0.3
0.3

450
500
62
50
75
65
6.5
6.5
475
400
0.45
0.4
0.4

Deg C
Kg/cm2
%
%
%
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2

CALCINATION HEATER
17P4 DISCHARGE
REGEN GAS OXYGEN
COMB OUTLET OXYGEN
CALCINATION OXYGEN
REGEN GAS TO 17R1
CALCINATION GAS
AIR TO REGEN
AIR TO REGEN
COMB/OX DELTA P
EFFLUENT 17E2 O/L
17EH1 INLET TEMP
17V1 LEVEL
17V10 LEVEL
17V12 LEVEL
17V13 LEVEL
17V2 PRESSURE
IN 17R1
REDN HEATER TEMP
H2 TO REDN HEATER
17G1 DELTA P
17G2 DELTA P
N2 TO 4TH HOPPER DEL P
DELTA P-15R1/V21

0
0
0.5
20
20
10
3.0
4.5
260
0
0.06
0.05
0.05

17 PDI 16

Deg C
Deg C
%
%
%
%
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2

0.00
2

0.08

0.1

17 PDI 17
17 FC 10
17 FC 11
17 PDC 11
17 FC 12
17 PDC 12
17 FC 13
17 PDC 13
17 PDC 18
17 PC 62
17 FI 23
17 PC 63
17 PI 04 A/B
17 PI 03 A/B
17 TI 33
17 TI 34
17 PDC 14
17 FC 14
17PI 101A/B
17PI 301A/B
17PI 102A/B
17TI 101A/B
17TI 102A/B

Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Deg C
Deg C
Kg/cm2
Kg/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2

DELTA P-15R2/V22
H2 FLOW TO EH3
N2 TO 1ST HOPPER
1ST LIFT DELTA P
H2 TO 2ND LOW HOPPER
2ND LIFT DELTA P
H2 TO 3RD LOW HOPPER
3RD LIFT DELTA P
15R3/V23 DELTA P
N2 TO KOD
N2 TO KOD
K3 SPILL BACK
K3 DISCH PRESSURE
K3 SUCTION PRESSURE
K3A OUTLET
K3B OUTLET
4TH LOW HOPPER
4TH LOW HOPPER
SUCTION K1 A/B
LO PRESS K1 A/B
OUTLET K1 A/B PRESS
O/L CYCLE1 A/B
O/L CYCLE2 A/B

0.03
180
100
0.03
60
0.03
60
0.03
0.03
2
15
3
1.5
1.0
0
0
0.06
100
1.0
1.0
3.0
0
0

0.05
200
110
0.05
80
0.05
80
0.05
0.05
2.5
25
3.5
2.0
1.5
0
0
0.08
130
2.5
2.0
4.5
0
0

0.25
600
180
0.25
130
0.35
135
0.4
0.08
4
160
7
7.5
3.5
100
100
0.4
350
5.5
5.0
8.0
120
120

0.35
650
200
0.35
150
0.45
150
0.45
0.1
4.3
180
7.5
8.5
4.0
120
120
0.5
380
6.0
6.0
9.0
125
125

17 PDC 06

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

350
5
0.3
0.1
1.0
5000
250
50
10

LOW

-0.02

MISC-13- 11

14.0 Accident and Incident Reporting, Investigation & Analysis


14.1

INTRODUCTION:
A documented procedure to investigate accidents/incidents in order to meet
the legal requirement and to find out the fact & analyze in systematic way to
identify the route cause of incident is necessary as part of safety
management system. The recommendations to avoid recurrence shall be
followed to improve the safety & health standards at work place.
All incidents including accidents in the Refinery are required to be reported,
investigated and analyzed in systematic way.
The corrective actions need to be taken to avoid reoccurrence of similar
incidents in future. While analyzing the incidents, the prioritization has to be
done for High-potential incidents, which needs more attention to reduce the
losses in terms of PEME.

14.2

SCOPE:
All accidents / incidents within the Mathura Refinery premises.

14.3

RESPONSIBILITY:
Accident / Incident reporting system shall be applicable to all accidents /
incidents occurring within Mathura Refinery and records shall be maintained
in Fire & Safety Dept. The responsibility in details is as follows:

a.

Responsibility of Worker: Any employee, who meets with an accident during his duty hours,
however small it may be, shall immediately report the same to the
Engineer In charge/ his supervisor.
If the injured is not in position to report by self, any employees, who
are present at site, shall do reporting.
If any employee takes first aid by himself or with the help of co-worker
from first aid boxes, the same shall be recorded in Register kept with
first aid boxes. {Line Supervisor responsibility - In case of personnel
injury}

b.

Responsibility of Supervisor
I.

In case of accident resulting in personnel injury


In all cases where accidents occur and result in injury to personnel,
the first action to be taken by supervisor is to ensure the welfare /
medical assistance to the injured.
Inform Sectional Head / Dept. head and Fire & Safety Dept. over
telephone immediately & fill up accident / incident form no. A-1 with in
one Hour in four copies, original copy to hospital, 2nd copy to F&S
Dept., 3rd copy to Time Office and 4th copy for office record.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 01

PART-H

In case of fatal injury, the statutory obligation requires that the location
where the accident has occurred should remain undisturbed as far as

possible. Therefore with the exception of removing the causality from


the scene of accident, rest of the requirements must be strictly
observed.
The accident investigation form A-V shall be filled by Dy. Manager or
above of area concerned and safety representative of that area and
send the original copy to F&S Dept. and retain 2 nd copy for office
record and to take remedial action.
II

In case of Incident with no personnel injury


Informing Sectional Head / departmental head and Fire & Safety dept.
immediately & preparing Accident / incident from no. A-1 in Triplicate
issuing original copy to F&S, second copy to Time Office & retaining
3rd copy for office record and necessary remedial measures required
to be taken is to be recorded (for D1, D2, C1 & C2 matrix) and
informed to Fire station. It shall be filled immediately but not later than
four hours.
He has to ensure restoring operational condition to normal to avoid
any cascading effect of accident & incident.
The investigation of incident in form A-V shall be filled by Dy. Manager
or above of area concerned and safety representative of that area.
Send the original copy to F&S Dept. and retain 2 nd copy for office
record and to take remedial actions.

c.

Responsibility of HOD (Medical)


Reporting of occupational illness shall be done by medical officer on
the same day if it is detected, in form no. A-1. The A-1 form shall be
prepared in four copies. 1st copy shall be forwarded to concerned
department head, 2nd Copy to F&S Dept., 3rd copy to Time Office & 4th
copy shall be retained for Office record.
In case of injured employee the medical officer to whom the injured
person reports in emergency shall examine the employee. If the
injury is of such nature that the employee requires rest for 48 hours or
more, or disabling injury, the medical officer shall prepare the injury
report from A-II and forward the copies to F&S Dept.
In case of occupational illness the medical officer shall do the
investigation in form A-V and send the original copy to F&S Dept. and
retain 2nd copy for office record and to take remedial action.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 02

PART-H

d.

Responsibility of CM (F&S)
Informing DGM (PN) / ED (T) / ED immediately in case of Hi-Po
incident.

Sharing informing with other HODs on regular basis in RSM meeting.


Informing CHRM and CM (S&EP) immediately, if accident / incidents
reported, are required to be communicated to statutory bodies, as
defined in register of Legislative requirement.
e.

Responsibility of CHRM
To intimate Police, relative & Director of factories in case of fatal injury
immediately by telephone / Fax followed by letter & messenger.
Factory Directorate shall be intimated for reportable accident as
defined in U.P. factory rule 1950.

f.

Responsibility of CM (S&EP)
To intimate OISD, CCE, Pollution Control Board immediately over
telephone / fax/ followed by letter for accident / incident required to be
reported as per rules / regulation, as defined in register of Legislative & other
requirements.

g.

Contractor Responsibility
If any contractor personnel meet with injury, he shall immediately
report to concerned supervisor / engineer of IOCL supervising the job.
HOD (F&S) shall be responsible for compliance of this procedure. HOD
(F&S) & concerned HODs shall be responsible for corrective and preventive
actions.
All accidents and Incidents shall be reported by the Line Supervisor using
the approved Accident /Incident Report format A1.
Centralized records of accidents /Incidents reports will be maintained by
HOD (F&S) and analysis of records shall be presented to the Senior
Management every quarter through Management Safety Committee
Meetings (MSCM) and every month through LMC.

14.4

DEFINITION
ACCIDENT: Accident is an undesirable, unwanted, unplanned event, which
results in injury to persons or damage of property or equipment or damage
to Environment or any of the these combination.
INCIDENT (NEARMISS): An event that, under slightly different
circumstances, may
have resulted in harm to People or Damage of
equipment, Material and Environment or any of these combination.
PERSONAL INJURY: Any bodily harm to any person

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 03

PART-H

SAFETY: Control of Accidental Injury or Damage


MINOR ACCIDENT: Any Injury to a person during course of his official duty,
causing disablement for a period less than 48 hrs immediately after accident.

LOSS TIME ACCIDENT: Any Injury to a person during course of his official
duty, causing disablement for a period of 48 hrs or more immediately after
Accident or later as a effect of accident
FATALITY: Any event causing a loss of life immediately on the spot or
subsequently arising out of that accident.
OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS: Any illness, which results from exposure to the
working Environment.
PROPERTY DAMAGE: An unplanned or undesired event, which does not
result in any injury but
has caused damage to property in terms of
equipment & material.
PROCESS LOSS: An unplanned or undesired event, which does not result
in any injury but results in substandard or decreased production.
POLUTION/ UNDESIRED ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS: An event causing
damage to land, water or air beyond the permissible limits as specified in EP
Act or stipulated in Environment clearance of the refinery.
INSIGNIFICANT FIRE: Any Fire causing no direct loss. That fire would be
considered as insignificant fire such as grass fire/ Cotton fire/ jute fire / small
insulation fire / Electrical short circuit etc.
MINOR FIRE A fire not falling in any of the criteria of Major Fire but having
direct losses due to that fire would be deemed to be minor fire.
MAJOR FIRE: A fire would be considered as Major Fire if it meets at least
one of the following criteria:
o If the duration of the fire is more than 15 minutes and or
o if there is a plant shutdown because of fire.
o If the fire causes fatality.
o If the cost of loss of property exceeds 5 Lakhs.
COMPLAINT FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES: Any Accident / incident
complaint received from neighboring areas arising out of activities of
Mathura Refinery.
DANGEROUS OCCURANCES:
A. Bursting of plant used for containing or supplying steam under pressure
greater than atmospheric pressure.
B. Collapse or failure of a crane, derrick, winch, hoist or other appliances
used in raising or lowering persons or goods, any part thereof, or the
overturning of a crane.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 04

PART-H

C. Explosion , fire , bursting out ,leakage ,or escape of any molten metal , or
hot liquor or gas causing bodily injury to any person or damage to any room
or place in which persons are employed or fire in rooms of cotton pressing
factories, where a cotton opener is in use.

D. Explosion of a receiver or , container used for the storage at a pressure


greater than atmospheric pressure of any gas or gases (including air ) or
any liquid or solid resulting from the compression of gas.
E. Collapse or subsidence of any floor , gallery ,roof ,bridge, tunnel, chimney,
wall, building or any other structure.
ACTURAL MATRIX FACTOR
Any Accident/Incident, which is as per risk analysis Matrix falling under D1,
D2, D3, C1 & C2 shall be treated as minor accidents/ Incident (including
near miss) and As per risk analysis Matrix, all Accident/Incident which fall
under RED & ORANGE (black in Xerox copies) boxes i.e.: A1, A2, A3, A4,
B1, B2, B3, B4, C3, C4 and D4 shall be treated as major Accident/ Incident
(including near-miss)
A A1
B
Y

C
D

B1
C1
D1
1

A2
B2
C2
D2
2

A3
B3
C3
D3
3

A4
B4
C4
D4
4

X
Consequence (Y-AXIS)
Code
A
B
C
D

1
2
3
4

Property Damage / Process


loss/Fire
Plant/Unit Shutdown/ loss
more than 50 lakhs.
Where loss is more than 5
lakhs
Where loss is less than 5
lakhs

Probable loss more than 50


lakhs or fatality
Probable loss more than 5
lakhs or LTA
Probable loss less than 5
lakhs or Minor injury.

Where loss is less than 1


lakh.

Probable loss less than 1 lakh


or First aid injury.

Near-Miss incidents

Environment Loss
Breach of Law
No breach of Law / but
media attention
No breach of Law / No
media attention But
Neighbour s Complain
Loss /Complain within
battery limit

Probability: - (X-AXIS)
: Incredible (no record of such accident)
: Unlikely (one can not rule out)
: Likely but not frequently (expected)
: Frequent (certain to happen no. of times)

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

HIGH POTENTIAL ACCIDENT / INCIDENT (NEARMISS):

MISC-14- 05

Any Accident / Incidents which has potential to convert Hi-Po Accidents under
slightly different circumstances shall be termed as Hi-Po Accident / Incident
(Including Near-miss).
As per risk analysis Matrix, all losses having potential to fall under RED &
ORANGE (black in Xerox copies) boxes ie: A1,A2,A3,A4, B1, B2,B3,B4, C3, C4
and D4 shall be treated as Hi-Po Accident / Incident ( Including near-miss)
A
B
C
D

A1
B1

14.5

A2
B2

A3
B3
C3
3

A4
B4
C4
D4
4

REPORTING PROCEDURES:

14.5.1 Accident (involving personal injury) reporting and investigation


All the Accidents, which occur within the precincts of the Factory, are
covered by relevant Section of Factory Act and U.P. State Factory rules
framed there under.
It is a statutory obligation on the part of a Factory that Notification of
Accidents and Dangerous Occurrences shall be done as per U.P. State
Factory Rules in Form no. 18
As soon as an accident occurs to any employee on duty the concern
supervisor will intimate fire station control room on telephone. Fire & Safety
officer in shift shall immediately go to site of accident for quick investigation
of the accident. For this purpose he may put questions to the injured
employee or his supervisor or any other employee and record the
statements of the witness, if required. If the accident causes some loss of
time he will prepare an accident report in consultation with the Engineer-incharge/ supervisor and the concerned Departmental Head. This report will
be submitted to the Deputy General Manager (PN) / Departmental Head
(F&S)/ Deputy Manager (Fire & Safety). DGM (PN)/ HOD (F&S) will decide
jointly with Concerned Departmental Head, whether a formal inquiry is
required. In case any inquiry committee constituted, the detailed accident
report will be prepared after the completion of such enquiry.
The concern supervisor will immediately fill up the accident form no. A-I in
four copies and send one copy each to Fire station, Time office and MR
Hospital within one hour, retaining the original copy.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 06

PART-H

All accidents involving personal injury are to be investigated by Dy.


Manager or above & safety representative or by representative

nominated by GM/ED, as per Accident and Incident Investigation Form


A-V and cost implication to be filled up in Accident cost form no. FS-AC. The original copy shall be sent to F&S and retaining other copy for record
and for taking corrective action by concerned Dept. / Section.
14.5.1.1

Loss Time Accident Form A-II

In case of loss time accident concerned medical officer shall fill-up form no.
A-II and sent to the Fire & Safety Department with section-I completed by
the Medical officer. Officer from Fire & Safety dept. will then complete
Section-II, send a copy to Personal & administration Officer for informing the
same to Directorate of factories. In form no. 18, one copy shall be sent to
Time Office & other copies to the Department concerned. The Department
concerned will then fill in Section-III, dispatch the copies to F&S Department.
The F&S Department will keep one copy with them & one copy to concerned
department / section for implementation of preventive measures.
14.5.1.2

Medical Fitness certificate Form NO. A-III

In case the injured person is fit to resume duty immediately after first aid or
after taking rest for some time (before the end of the shift) he shall be
allowed to resume duty accordingly.
In case the injured person is likely to become disabled for 24 hours or more
he shall be marked as on accident leave and shall be allowed to join duty
only on production of Fit for duty certificate on Form A-III from the Medical
Officer authorized for this purpose. The Medical Officer concerned shall send
the copies of Form A-III to the Fire & Safety Department, P&A Department
and the concerned department
14.5.1.3

Permanent Disability Form A-IV

If the employee has developed some permanent disability, the Medical


Officer shall also arrange to assess the disablement of the injured person on
form number A-IV. The copies of this form shall be sent to the P&A
department, Fire & Safety department, Finance department and the
concerned department.
The P&A Department, on receipt of the joining report of the injured person
shall take action for the payment of leave wages and compensation, if due,
as the recommendation of the Department head and the report of the
Medical Department on form number A-IV, , by issuing necessary memos to
the Finance Department.
Accident record shall be maintained in the accident register by F&S Dept. in
form no. 23 of U.P. Factory Rules. HOD (F&S) shall monitor the process
till the employee resumes duty. F&S Department shall prepare monthly
report on accident statistics for inclusion in monthly and quarterly
report.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 07

PART-H

14.5.2 Accidents/ Incidents (not involving personal injury) reporting and


investigation

All Accidents, Near miss incidents, Dangerous occurrence, Property


damage, Process loss and Undesired Environmental incident shall be
reported by concerned line supervisor to F&S dept. through telephone / email / Wireless / A-1 form / messenger / immediately.
Concerned Line Supervisor from Operation / maintenance/ Service dept.
shall fill the report Form No. A-I (including the analysis part of the form)
within 24 hrs and he shall identify High Potential Near-miss Incident (Hi-Po)
through matrix in Form No. A-I.
For Minor Accidents/ Incidents, recommendations and follow-up shall be
done locally by concerned dept. and records to be maintained in form no A-I.
The investigation shall be done for all Major/ Hi-Po Accidents and Incidents
by Dy. Manager or above & safety representative for category B1, B2, C3,
C4 & D4 of analysis matrix and by representative nominated by GM/ED for
category B3, B4, A1, A2, A3 & A4 of analysis matrix in Accident and
Incident Investigation Form A-V and attach Accident cost form no. FSA-C. The original copy shall be sent to F&S dept. retaining other copy for
record and for taking corrective action by concerned Dept. / Section.
F&S Department shall prepare monthly report on accident / Incident
statistics for inclusion in monthly and quarterly reports and
presentation in LMC on monthly basis and in Management Safety
committee meetings every quarter.
14.5.3

FIRE REPORTING
All Fire incident shall be reported by concerned supervisor to F&S through
telephone / email / Wireless / A-I report / messenger / immediately.
Concerned Line Supervisor from Operation / maintenance/ Service dept.
shall fill the report Form No. B-I (including the analysis part of the form)
within 24 hrs and he shall identify High Potential Incident (Hi-Po) through
matrix in Form No. B1.
For Minor fires, recommendations and follow-up to be done locally by
concerned dept. and records to be maintained in form no. B-I.
The investigation shall be done for all Major/ Minor fires by Dy. Manager or
above & safety officer or category B1, B2, C3, C4 & D4 of analysis matrix
and by representative nominated by GM/ED for category B3, B4, A1, A2, A3
& A4 of analysis matrix in FIRE REPORTING FORM A-V and attach
Accident cost form no. FS-A-C. The original copy shall be sent to F&S and
retaining other copy for record and for taking corrective action by concerned
Dept. / Section.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 08

PART-H

F&S Department shall prepare monthly report on accident / Incident


statistics for inclusion in monthly and quarterly reports and

presentation in LMC on monthly basis and in Management Safety


committee meetings every quarter.
14.5.4

COMPLIANT FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES


Report of any complaint from external sources regarding product of quality
shall be received at Technical Services Dept (P&C). . A register shall be
maintained by Tech. Services (P&C).
Report of any complaint from External sources w.r.t Environment/ Safety/
Health shall be received by S&EP Section, where a register shall be
maintained.
Complaint box shall also be placed at Time office to collect written complaint.
Actions for investigations of complaint from External sources shall be
initiated by S&EP Section/P&C Section. Report to be submitted to
management within 48 hrs. of receipt of complaint.

14.6.0
14.6.1

GUIDELINE FOR CONDUCTING INVESTIGATION


Respond Immediately
Investigator should immediately visit accident site to take mental picture of
case, and passing instruction to concerned officer to preserve evidence
before alteration & removal.

14.6.2

Gathering Information
It is always a good idea to talk over the scene and the environment around
it. This gives a mental picture of actual accident. Following Source of
evidence may be looked into:-

a).

People Evidence (Interviewing Witness)


Witness: - A witness is any one who knows some things related to accident.
Eyewitnesses are those who sound the accident happens. Other witness
may be co-worker, supervisor, Designer, ordered material, and trained
operator. It is advisable to start with eyewitness & people involved.
Memories, as well as willingness to talk, can be affected by the way people
are questioned. Following guideline may be followed: Interview separately
Interview at appropriate place.
Put the person at ease.
Get the individual version & try to convince him , this is not blame
fixing process.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

Ask necessary question at the right time.


Give the witness some feed back
Record critical information quickly.

MISC-14- 09

Use visual aids.


End on a positive note.
Keep the line open.
Incident re-enactment should be used only, when the information cannot be
gained from the other source.
b).

Position Evidence
Drawing & Sketches help other people visualise what happened.
For major accident, a scale map is must, accurate drawing are
required for legal purpose.
Photo & video tape of accident scene can reveal much about an
accident & some hours of not making & drawing.
Three tips for most useful photograph
Photograph the scene from all sides. This helps orient people to the
incident.
Use a long / medium / close up sequence:- General Scene.
- Equipment / work Station
-Put a pencil to show the actual damage.
Take assistance of professional photographer.

c).

Part Evidences
Following shall be looked into:Proper item for talks - tool / equipment.
Damage.
Previous damage.
Wear.
Safe guards.
Label, signs & marking.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

d).

Paper Evidences
Following shall be looked into:Log Book.
Training record.
Job request.

MISC-14- 10

Work Permit.
Tasks procedures.
MOM.
Statement.
Analyzing Causes
Once all the facts are gathered, the team is faced with a large
quantity of information by classifying information into five stages of
loss caution, the tasks may become simple
Losses
Contacts
Immediate Causes
Basic Causes
Lack of control areas.

Lack of
Control

Inadequate

Basic
Causes
Personal
Factors

System
Standard
Complianc
e

Substandar
d
Acts

Job
Factors

Immediate
Cause

Substandar
d
Conditions

Incident

Events

Losses
Unintende
d
Harm
or
Damage

-----------------------Problem Solving Model----------------Systematic analysis is a cyclic process of examining evidence, forming


hypotheses, testing them against criteria, making assumptions, examining
alternatives, seeking more evidence, and each conclusion. The following
guidelines can help in conducting the analysis:
Fit the analysis technique to the loss situation. A basic consideration
for choosing the type and degree of analysis is the actual and
potential losses. The greater the loss, or loss potential, the greater
the need for thorough, systematic analysis.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 11

PART-H

Develop early hypotheses to guide evidence collection, but be willing


to discard them when they do not meet the criteria tests or are
disproved by later evidence.
An investigative analysis may require several cycles of gathering
facts, forming hypotheses, and testing the hypotheses.

Try to create or discover alternative possibilities. Unless there are


alternatives there is nothing to weight and choose. Aim not simply to
come up with a solution, but the most effective solution.
Always apply the principle of Multiple causes: "Problems and lossproducing" events are seldom, if ever the result of a single cause.
Analyze for:-

Unsafe / substandard acts

Unsafe /substandard conditions

Personal facts.

Job factors

System deficiencies.

Avoid the Satisfaction of Search syndrome, i.e, don't stop the analysis
when you first find some evidence to support your favorite hypothesis.
Explore alternatives.
Process should include all contributing factor. Apply principle of
critical few.
The investigation team decide which critical few
immediate & basis causes contributed to the accident or Near-miss.
14.6.3

Suggest Remedial Action


Investigator should keep in mind the question "What can I do right now to
keep this from happening again". So the investigator may suggest some
temporary recommendations to avoid reoccurrence of such accident.
Investigator should develop remedial action based on looking in control of
basic causes

14.7

COST ANALYSES:
The cost involved with accidents, fire, High Potential Near Miss Incidents
(Hi-Po), process Loss, Occupational illness and Undesired Environmental
events shall be analyzed and evaluated as per form no. FS-A-C.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 12

PART-H

14.8.0

CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE ACTION

14.8.1 The report shall be jointly signed by the investigating officers and forwarded
to the respective departmental HODs for their comments and
implementation of the recommendations for appropriate corrective and
preventive actions.
14.8.2 Investigation Report duly filled shall be forwarded to Fire Safety Department
for purpose of record.

14.8.3 Follow up / Records of accidents / Incidents recommendations shall be done


by Departments as follows:
Personal Injury / Fire/ Near-Miss Incidents/ Occupational Illness / Property
Damage / Process Loss / Undesired Environmental Events: Fire & Safety
Department / Concern Department.
Complaint from External Sources: Technical Services (P&C)/S&EP/F&S.
14.9.0

COLLECTING INFORMATION ON NEARMISS


a)

The incident recall technique to be used to collect significantly


more near miss data. In this technique, during safety meetings
or personnel contact, member may be asked to recall any
accident or Near miss which they have faced and noticed.

b)

During this process, employee must be assured (by any means)


that intent is to identify loss exposure not be blame, fix
responsibility

14.10.0

MOTIVATING PERSONNEL TO REPORT ACCIDENT / INCIDENTS

Experience research & experience indicate that due to following reasons


employees generally not reports the accident / incidents.
Fear.
Concerned about the record.
Concerned about reputation.
Fear of medical treatment.
Desire to avoid work interruption.
Desire to keep personnel record clear.
Avoidance of paper work.
Poor understanding of importance.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 13

PART-H

b)

A Register shall be kept at following location to record accident


/Incident.

LOCATION
First Aid Center
First Aid Box
Emergency response
Maint record / accidental damage
Customer Complaint
Personnel record
Waste disposal

RESPONSIBILITY
Medical Officer
Area Incharge
F&SM (TS)
CMNM / CMNCL / CITM / CPUM
CTSM
CHRM
CPNM

All concerned responsible shall prepare a Quarterly report & submit to DMFS.
DMFS shall prepare a report on Accident /Incident reports with investigation.
14.11 CO-ORDINATION WITH EXTERNAL AGENCY
If External Auditor turn up for investigation of any accident, CM(S&EP) will coordinate with them.
14.12 CIRCULATION OF LESSON LEARNED REPORT
CM (F&S) shall issue the lesson learned report to all concerned on form no.
FS-A-L
14.13 MAJOR ACCIDENT/ INCIDENT ANNOUNCEMENT:
Concerned HOD shall announce Major accident/ Incident (Including Hi-Po) in
format no. FS-A-M (A).
14.14 MAJOR ACCIDENT/ INCIDENT REVIEW:
Concerned HOD shall review Major accident/ Incident (Including Hi-Po) in
format no. FS-A-M (R).
14.15 TRAINING ON ACCIDENT / INCIDENT INVESTIGATION
Regular training shall be arranged for Dy. Manager or above / section head on
accident reporting and investigation for effective reporting and investigation
by all concerned. Following topics shall be covered:-

Causes & effect of Loss.

Accident investigation system of Mathura Refinery

Evidence gathering technique

Accident / incident analysis techniques.

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 14

PART-H

14.16 ACCIDENT / INCIDENT ANALYSIS


14.16.1
A).

Consequence Measurement

Computing Monthly Man Power Returns


Following shall be taken in to account while computing man-hours worked
Numbers of Employees 48 hrs & 36 hrs.
Overtime by workers.
Overstay by officers.
Average numbers of Contractor personnel

B).

Formula for computing Man hours


1 For employee working 48 hrs. in a week
= No. of employees x 268 x 8 x No. of days
365
2 For employee working 36 hrs in a week
= No. of employees x 216x7.25x No. of days
365
3 Overtime by workers = Direct in Hrs.
4. Overstay by Officers =

x Total Amount of Meal Allowances


250

5. For Contractor Personnel


= No. of contractors personnel x 313 x 8 x No. of days
365
Total of (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) shall be actual man hours.
C).

Computing the Nos. of Accident by Categories


First Aid

Minor

Lost time

Major injury

Fatalities

Non Disabling Injury

Disabling Injury

Property damage
Major Property damage
Process Loss
Major Process Loss
Near Miss
Occupation illness.
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 15

PART-H

D).

Computing frequency rate


: Following formula shall be used for
computing frequency rate & Severity rate for various category:Frequency rate (Based on non-disabling injury)
= No. of Non disabling injury x 106
Man hours worked
Frequency rate (based on Occupational illness)
= No. of Occupational Injury x 106
Man-hours worked
Frequency rate (based on disabling injury)

= No. of disabling injury x 106


Man Hours worked
Frequency rate (Total Injury)
= (No, of non-disabling injury + No. of disabling injury) x 10 6
Man Hours worked
Frequency rate (Near-miss)
= No. of Near miss incident x 106
Man hours worked
Frequency Rate (Hi-potential Injury)
= No. of High Potential injury x 106
Man hours worked
Frequency rate (Major Property damage)
= No. of Major property damage x 106
Man hours worked
Frequency rate (Hi-Potential Near Miss)
= No. of Hi-Potential Near Miss x 106
Man hours worked
Frequency rate (Based on Fire Accident)
No. of Fires x 106
Man-hours worked

Frequency rate (Based on Undesired Environment event)


= No. of Undesired Environment Event x 106
Man hours worked
Frequency rate (Based on Process Loss)
= No. of Process Loss x 106
Man hours worked

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

E).

Computing Severity rate


Severity rate (based on disabling injury)
= Man days lost due to disabling injury x 10 6
Man hours worked

MISC-14- 16

(For any Fatal accident, 6000 man days loss shall be taken into consideration)
Severity Rate (Based on Occupational illness)
=Man days Lost x 106
Man hours Worked
Severity rate (Major Property Damage)
=Cost of Major property damage x 106
Man hours worked
Severity rate (Major process Loss)
=Cost of Major process Loss x 106
Man hours worked
14.16.2
Cause & control Analysis
Refinery, Deptt,. Section & Occupation wise injury illness shall be analysis
for various factor as listed below:Location
Time of Accident
Activity at the time of accident.
Age of injured
Experience
Occupation
Type of injury
Location of injury
Cost of Accident
Sub-standard conditions
Substandard act
Personal Factor
Job Factor
Type of Contact
Management of control
Others
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-14- 17

PART-H

Property damage, fires, process loss and undesired environmental event shall
be analyzed for immediate causes, basic causes & lack of control.
The result of such analysis shall be distributed to all concerned on monthly /
quarterly basis.

Property damage / process loss identification & analysis repetitive property


damage & process loss shall be identified quarterly and cost of the same shall
be recorded.
14.17 PROBLEM SOLVING PROJECT TEAMS
Problem solving team shall be appointed by Management to address critical
problem identified through accident analysis or other system identification.
The team shall meet on Quarterly basis & submit the report to management
on Injuries, Property damage, Process Loss etc.
14.18 Accident Reporting (Injury/ Occupational Illness)
Process Map

ORIGINATOR
A-1

A-V

A-II

A-1

A-III/ A-IV

A-III/A-IV

FIRE & SAFETY

MEDICAL

A-II

A-II

A-I

A-III/ A--IV

P&A

A-I

:-Accident/ Incident Reporting form to be initiated by Line supervisor of


Dept./ Unit/ Section where accident occurred.

A-II :-Lost Time Accident form to be initiated by Medical department


A-III :-Certificate of fitness to be filled up by Medical department
A-IV :-Permanent Disability certificate to be filled by Medical
department.
A-V :-Investigation form to be filled up by Dy. Manager or above of
Dept./ Unit/ Section
CCRU OPERATING MANUAL
PART-H

14.19 Accident/ Incident (Near-Miss) Reporting


Process Map

Occurrence of Near Miss/ Incident

MISC-14- 18

Filling up of A-1 form and A-V A-V


form for Hi-Po/ major incident
with remedial action by concerned
section/ unit.

Action taken report sent to


Fire & Safety. Follow up
by concerned dept. / F&S
dept. for compliance.

Review of A-V by
HOD

Forms submitted to Fire


and Safety

Analysis/ Wide
Circulation

Records compiled

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL


PART-H

15.0 SAMPLING SCHEDULE:

MISC-14- 19

A regular schedule for sampling is followed in CRU. Hydrocarbon samples are sent
everyday in the morning shift at 7:00 am and water samples are collected both in
the morning and evening shifts. Samples are collected in corked sample bottles
after proper flushing. Gas samples are collected in fresh bladders, after purging
well and are clamped tight. Samples Collected are stored in the sampling point and
are taken to the laboratory by samplers by 8:00 am. The lab results are reported
over SAP and the same is noted down in the lab register. The schedule for the
same is as below;
SNO

STREAM
DEN.

1
2
3
4
5
6

SNO
1

NSU FEED
HY. NAPHTHA
LT. NAPHTHA
HTU FEED
CRU FEED
REFORMATE

SUL

H2S

TEST 0800 Hrs


MOIST
DIST

RVP

RON

BEN

94

<1%

1.0
0.75
0.75
0.79

<0.5

<4
<0.5

STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM (0800 & 1400 Hrs)


STREAM
pH
PO4 ppm
COND
DRUM WATER
9.8-10.2
10-16
<200

2
SH STEAM
** Give blow down if silica is higher

8.8-9.2

SILICA
<5

<10

<0.2

HYDROGEN GAS ANALYSIS:


SNO
1
2
3
4

STREAM
15K1 GAS
15V2 GAS
14V2 GAS
14V4 GAS

MON
MOIST

FLUE GAS SAMPLES:


SAMPLE
IFP HEATERS FLUE GAS
9F1 + 15F4 FLUE GAS
14F1 + 14F2 FLUE GAS

TUE

WED

DAY
THU
THU
THU

THU
MOIST

FRI

SAT

ANALYSIS FOR
O2,N2,CO,CO2
O2,N2,CO,CO2
O2,N2,CO,CO2

REGENERATION WASH DRUM: WHEN REGEN. IS ON WITH IOM


STREAM
DAY
ANALYSIS FOR
CAUSTIC FROM 17V5

EVERYDAY DURING REGN

DENSITY, pH

SOUR WATER: WHEN WATER CIRCULATION IS ON WITH IOM


SNO
SAMPLE
Ph
Fe
1
14V2 BOOT WATER
5.5 6.5
<2 ppm
2
14V4 BOOT WATER
>5

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

Cl
< 500 ppm

MISC-15- 01

PART-H

LUBE OIL SAMPLE:


STREAM

DAY

ANALYSIS FOR

15K1 LO
40AC1 LO

TUE + FRI
TUE + FRI

BS & W
BS & W, DEN, VIS, FLASH, ACIDITY

DAILY FIELD TEST:


15K1 RECYCLE GAS: H2S AND CHLORIDE / 14V2 GAS: H2S / 14V4 GAS: H2S
COOLING WATER SUPPLY/RETURN FOR HYDROCARBONS
DSN: DOCTOR TEST FOR H2S IN CRU FEED

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-15- 02

PART-H

16.0 INVENTORY LEVELS OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS


MAINTAINED IN FIELD:

The following is the list of hazardous chemicals used in CCRU with their normal
inventories maintained in field:
S.NO

PCE (C2CL4)

APA
(KEROBIT)

CI
(AHRULAN)

DMDS

STOCK,
DRUMS

Note:
PCE -APA -CI
-DMDS--

Perchloro ethylene
Anti-polymerization agent
Corrosion inhibitor
Di-methyl di sulfide

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-16- 01

PART-H

17.0 STANDARD BLIND LIST:


SL
NO

SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION/LOCATION

SIZE
(Inch)

NO
S

TYPE

LP STEAM TO UNIT BLIND BETWEEN ISBL&OSBL


B/Vs

14

SP

LIMIT

MP STEAM TO UNIT BETWEEN TWO B/VS

SP

NORTH

HP STEAM TO UNIT BETWEEN TWO B/VS

FG TO UNIT- B/L D/S B/V FLANGE

SP

FG FROM UNIT- B/L B/V U/S FLANGE

SP

DM WATER TO UNIT- B/L B/V D/S FLANGE

SP

CBD DISCH EX UNIT BETWEEN TWO B/VS

SP

CAUSTIC FROM UNIT- B/L B/V U/S FLANGE

TAIL

BATTERY

8
9

INSTRUMENT AIR TO UNIT BETWEEN B/VS

SP

10

CAUSTIC TO UNIT- B/L B/V D/S FLANGE

SP

11

BFW TO UNIT- B/L B/V D/S FLANGE

SP

12

FO SUPPLY TO UNIT

TAIL

13

FO RETURN FROM UNIT

TAIL

14

SOUR WATER EX UNIT-B/L B/V U/S FLANGE

1.5

SP

1.5

SP

15

VBN TO UNIT B/L B/V D/S FLANGE

16

OFF SPEC HTU R/D BETWEEN TWO B/VS

SP

17

HYDROGEN TO /FROM UNIT- BETWEEN TWO B/VS

SP

18

LPG EX UNIT-BETWEEN TWO B/VS

SP

19

SOUR GAS EX UNIT- B/L B/V U/S FLANGE

TAIL

20

HTU R/D TO TK 107 - BETWEEN TWO B/VS

SP

21

REFORMATE EX UNIT- BETWEEN TWO B/VS


OFFSPEC REFORMATE TO R/D B/L B/V U/S
FLANGE

SP

SP

SP

SP

22
23

24

FEED TO HTU (COLD FEED) BETWEEN TWO B/VS


NSU BOTTOM TO SLOP LINE BETWEEN B/VS AT
SLOP MANIFOLD

25

NSU RUN DOWN TO TANK- B/L B/V U/S FLANGE

SP

26

COLD FEED TO NSU BETWEEN TWO B/VS

11

SP

SIZE
(Inch)

NO
S

TYPE

SP

CCRU OPERATING MANUAL

MISC-17- 01

PART-H

SL
NO
27

SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION/LOCATION
C5-90 TO AVU-BETWEEN TWO B/VS

28
29

HOT FEED TO NSU- BETWEEN TWO B/VS


DSN TO 14P1A/B SUCTION-(BETWEEN TWO B/VS
AT GROUND FLOOR)

SP

TAIL

N2/ FG INLET AT NOZZLE

TAIL

NSU

NSU

HOT VAPOUR EX 9PDC1301 AT NOZZLE

10

TAIL

NSU

HC INLET EX 9AC1 AT NOZZLE

12

TAIL

NSU

PUMP OUT LINE EX 9V1 AT NOZZLE

12

TAIL

NSU

PC1302 TO FLARE AT NOZZLE

TAIL

NSU

BOOT WATER DRAIN TO CBD BETWEEN B/V

TAIL

NSU

9A/C VAPOUR INLET TO 9V1 AT NOZZLE

1.5

TAIL