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Chapter 1

1.1 Theory about the Power Electronics:
The use of solid-state devices are very common in our daily life .They uses the power and
control circuit for their operation. These components depends upon the switching of the power
semi-conductor devices, with the advancement in technology the power handling capabilities of
power semiconductor has increased strongly. The new developments in the power semi-conductor
devices makes the applications of power electronics much vast. [1]

1.2 Applications
The applications of power electronics includes electronic ignition, elevators, food mixers,
garage door openers, generator exciters, grinders, laser power supplies, latching relays, motor
controls ,motor drives, movie projectors ,nuclear reactor control rod, solid-state relays, solidstate contactors, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, oven controls, servo systems, sewing
machines and much more. All these applications uses the power semiconductor devices ,such as
power diodes ,transistors(BJTs), Thyristors(Phase controlled thyristor SCRs, bidirectional phase
controlled Thyristors BCTs, fast switching thyristor, light activated silicon controlled rectifiers
LASCRs, bidirectional triode thyristor TRIACs, reverse conducting thyristor RCTs, gate turn off
thyristor GTOs, integrated gate commutated thyristor IGCTs ) ,power metal oxide
semiconductor transistors(MOSFETS).[1]

2 What is Power Electronics Trainer

As in our daily life we use a lot of electronic devices which are controlled from external circuit.
Such as Heating and lighting control, Induction heating, Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS),
Fluorescent lamp ballasts, Electric power transmission, automotive electronics, Electronic
ignitions, Motor drives, Battery chargers, Electric vehicles, Alternators, Flywheels, Electric
vehicles Motors, Regenerative braking ,Switching power supplies, Power conditioning for

Switching power supplies, Spacecraft power systems, Power conditioning for alternative power
sources, Solar cells ,Fuel cells, Flywheel powered Fuel cells, Wind turbines. To understand these
controlling circuits there must be a trainer by which the controlling devices can be studied.
By using power semiconductor switching devices such as Silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR),
TRIAC, DIACS, Uni-junction transistor (UJT) the output wave form is measured. Power
electronics trainer contains different blocks likewise dc supply block , Ac power supply block,
triggering block , potentiometer block ,characteristics block , power circuit block. The trainer is
designed to present and practice principle of basic power electronics.

The trainer shows the standard symbols of electronic control on desktop panel.
The system is supplied by power supplies required to run the experiment. The connection to and
from the modules are easy and save to build. It will give an ease to the user for understanding basic
concept of power electronics. In this project we make different modules for trainer on which we
performed lab experiments. Experiments will be discussed in last section of the report.

1.1. Block Diagram

1.2. About Block diagram

We made dc power supply using center tap transformer with primary voltage of 220Vac
and secondary voltage of 15+15Vac with 1 A. We make the fixed 12V dc using LM7812 and
fixed 5V dc using LM7805.For variable dc supply we use LM317 which gives us 0-40V dc. For
protection we use 2A fuse in series with the secondary winding.

Figure1-Centre tap transformer

1.4. AC Power Supply:

We make the ac supply using xr2206 from which we get 6Vp-p and variable frequency
from 0-1 MHz .Our sine wave generator will give square wave and triangular wave also.
XR-2206 is a 16 pin IC, pin 1 and pin 12 is put to ground .Vcc is given to pin 4, at pin 3
potentiometer is placed for varying amplitude. The frequency can be adjusted by the changing
the value of the capacitor attached at pin 5 and 6 and by adjusting the timing resistor at pin 7
will also affect the frequency.
F=1/RC Hz
At pin 2 we will get sine/triangle wave form and at pin 11 we get square wave form .for triangle
wave form pin 13 and pin 14 must be open circuit (s1 open).

1.5. Characteristic Block:

It contains three main components TRIAC (BT136), SCR (c106d), UJT (2n2646p) and
DIAC (DB3). For finding the characteristics values we put these component in this block.
1.6. Potentiometer Block:
It contains Variable resistors of values (1k,2k,10k ,5k,50k,500k,100k) 1/4
Watt with Fixed resistors of (33 ,56 ,100 ,150 ,220 ,470 ,1k,1.2k 1.5k
,5.6k ,47k ,100k ) 1/4 Watt and the resistance tolerance is 20%
Maximum Voltage: 500 VAC
Power Rating: 250mA, 0.25W
Total Rotation: 300

1.7. Triggering Block:

It contains the triggering components likewise UJT, resistors and capacitors for triggering
the SCR and TRIAC.

1.8. Power Circuit Block:

It contains power diodes used for uncontrolled rectifiers.

1.9. Testing Block:

It contains two analog meters i.e. dc Voltmeter and dc Ampere meter. The range of
voltmeter is 0-50 V dc and ampere meter has range about 0-500mA

Chapter 2

Theory Related to Project

The Power Electronics Trainer will be based on the basic principle of Power Electronics .To
develop a trainer in which all experiments of power electronics can be implemented.

2.1 Technique 1
2.1.1 Designing modules in Proteus 8:
First we have designed all our modules in proteus 8 i.e. dc supply module, ac supply
module, trainer module. In designing we checked all the possible errors and then removed. We
make the design in that way that user can use in easy way. To insure the safety we used fuses.
We also checked the compatibility of Power Electronics Trainer that how much experiments can
be performed in this trainer, which is minimum 14 lab experiments. We checked our circuit
layouts, measured there dimensions, port sizes, length from one port to another port and checked
the final shape of our modules in 3-d view.

Figure 2 - 3-D view of dc power supply

2.2 Technique 2
2.2.1 Hardware designing:
For implementation of our circuit first we used copper printable circuit board (PCB).but
as it is not too much good as fiber PCB .As fiber is strong and reliable to use in hardware thats
why we use it in our project .we print our required layouts on the yellow paper after that we put
these papers on the fiber PCB sheet and starts ironing it for 10 mints then after when the
complete circuit is transferred to the PCB Sheet. After that we put these PCB sheets in a tub with
some water and ferric chloride for etching, when etching is completely done then only circuit on
fiber sheet has the copper, its mean our etching is complete then it is cleaned by petrol. The
output points are drilled for putting connectors and components. After that soldering is done
with soldering iron, for connecting all modules hardware we used glue gun and magic depoxi.
All these modules are then adjusted in a plastic sheet panel of 2*2 foot.

2.3 Components Used:

SCR c106d
LED (red)
Resistors and potentiometers
Banana ports(male and female)
Analog Meters

2.3.1 Silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) (c106d):

We have used SCR (C106d) through hole in our trainer. The SCRs can be studied by two
transistor model. With one pnp and other npn transistor .the collector of the first transistor is
attached to the base of second one and the collector of second transistor is attached to the base of
first one.The gate signal is given to the base of npn transistor in the two transistor model.as
thyristor is a four layer and a three terminal device having anode ,gate and cathode. As there are
three junction j1 ,j2 and j3which are made by combining pn junction in series.according to the
operation of SCR when anode is more negative then cathode ,the first and last junction are reversed
biased and center junction will be forward biased and hence the thyristor oppose the flow of current

until the breakover voltage reaches.when the anode is set more positive then cathode,the outer two
junction are forward biased and center junction will be reversed biased .hence the current is again
opposed by reversed biased junction and current will not flow until the break down condition
reaches. The third terminal is attached to the p layer of which is further connected to the n layer
cathode. When this terminal is made more positive then cathode then this junction is in forward
biased, by this terminal we can on the thyristor for certain firing angle. This terminal is known
as Gate terminal. This terminal is also known as control terminal when the thyristor latches to its
on state than it loses control from gate signal and can be turned off by an external means .

Figure 3 SCR Diagram [4]


V-I characteristics of SCR

When the thyristor is turned on by giving gate signal to the gate terminal then the IA current will
flow in the in the thyristor and thyristor will conduct. With no gate signal the thyristor is in nonconducting state until breakover over voltage reaches and junction breaks. The forward break
over voltage is the voltage where junction breaks.by giving gate signal the thyristor will be on
before the forward break over voltage. The holding current is the minimum current to turn on the

Figure 4 V-I characteristics of SCR[5]

2.3.2 TRIAC (BT136)

The major drawback of an SCR is that it can conduct current in one direction only.
Therefore, an SCR can only control dc power or forward biased half-cycles of a.c. in a load.
However, in an a.c. system, it is often desirable and necessary to exercise control over both positive
and negative halfcycles. For this purpose, a semiconductor device called triac is used.

Figure 5 TRIAC Diagram [3]


Characteristics of TRIAC
As we know that TRIAC is a three terminal device with terminals MT1, G, MT2.When
MT2 is more positive with respect to MT1, the TRIAC can be on by applying positive gate
signal relative to MT1. On the other hand, if terminal MT2 is made negative relative to
MT1,the TRIAC can be turned on by applying a negative gate signal relative to MT1.In
practice the TRIAC is usually operated in the first quadrant (positive voltage and positive gate
current) or in the third quadrant (negative voltage and negative gate current).

V-I characteristics of TRIAC

Figure 6 - V-I characteristics of TRIAC

2.3.3 DIAC (DB3)

A DIAC is a bi-directional device having two terminals and three layers either PnP or NPN and it
is turned on from its off state by certain breakover voltage. When a positive or negative voltage is
applied across this device then only small leakage current IBO will flow until it reaches to break
over voltage. So at that point avalanche break down occurs. When a breakover voltage reaches
then the device will conduct and voltage across the device starts decreasing up to few volts the
forward and reversed break over voltage of DB3 varies from 28- 32V.

Figure 7 -Voltage-current characteristic curve


Figure 8 -Diagram for rise time of DB3

2.3.4 UJT (2n2646p)

This device is a three terminal device having two bases and one emitter, this device is also
some called as double base diode. The main property of UJT is that when it is triggered by an
external source the emitter current increases regeneratively until the emitter power supply is
decreased. There are variety of application for this device i.e. used in switching purposes, as a
pulse generator and a saw-tooth generator

a. Characteristics of UJT
When voltage VE is increased across the device the minority current will only flow due to
the cut off region. But when its further increased the IE current flows and it reaches to its
peak current Ip at Vp and conduction starts. However when VE is further increased the
transistor will goes into negative resistance region and shows dramatic increase in IE
current and VE is decreased. The device, therefore, has a negative resistance region which
is stable enough to be used with a great deal of reliability in many areas e.g., trigger circuits,
saw tooth generators, timing circuits..


Figure 9-V-I graph for UJT

Figure 10 Diagram of UJT


Chapter 3

Implementation of Project
3.1 Experiments Performed
About 14 experiments are implemented in our trainer and we performed all of them one by
one. Result are given below.
3.2 Identify the terminals of SCR:
Set the digital meter at ohmmeter of any suitable range. Checked all the terminals of SCR.
Only two terminals give one specified resistance. The common terminal of digital meter was
The active wire (+ve wire) of digital meter was gate.

After completing this experiment, we have identified the terminals of SCR and also
confirmed the working and functionality of SCR.


3.3 Uncontrolled rectifiers of power diodes

We connected power diodes in the form of the bridge circuit as given below. We applied
the ac signal from 0-10Vp-p to the rectifier circuit .oscilloscope was connected on the output
across the R1 .The output was less than the input applied because some voltage drop occurs across
the power diodes.

Circuit for uncontrolled rectifier.

Serial Number

Vin (peak to peak)




Vo across (each
D1=5.5v D2=5.5v
D3=5.4 D4=5.5
D1=4v D2=4v D3=4
D1=3v D2=3v D3=3

Vo total across R1

After completing this experiment, we have shown the characteristics of the power
diode.in the uncontrolled bridge rectifier circuit, we have shown the working and functionality of
power diode.
3.3 Characteristics of SCR when anode and gate both are DC
We have connected the circuit as below. We measured the IAk which flows in the SCR
when SCR is in on state. The thyristor is turned off in two ways.
1) By decreasing V1 2) By increasing the load.
Apply these two conditions to reduce IH. The gate voltage and current should be enough to turn on
the thyristor.in our experiment voltage is 5V and current is more than 1mA.




Circuit for characteristics of SCR

V1 (v)

IG (mA)


2.02 mA
2.55 mA

IAK measured
3.61 mA
3.61 mA
3.60 mA

VAK (v)
0.55 V
0.65 V
0.65 V

IAK calculated
3.7 mA
3.65 mA
3.625 mA

In this experiment we have proved that a thyristor needed a signal triggering to conduct.
The thyristor will remain conducting even if the gate signal is removed.


3.4 To adjust the firing angle of SCR

Firing angle is that angle after this angle SCR will turn on. We can adjust this angle from
0- .firing angle is adjusted through gate voltage and current.it is also possible to change the
output voltage by varying firing angle.

Circuit for adjusting firing angle of SCR



After completing this experiment, we are able to change the firing angle of SCR by
changing the different values of gate voltage and gate current at gate control circuit.
3.5 characteristics of SCR when anode source is AC and gate source is DC
By changing the variable resistance gate current can be controlled and hence firing angle is
varied. The Ig must be greater than 200A to turn on the SCR.

Ig (on) 200A
Vg (on) 0.7 V

Circuit for SCR when anode source is AC and gate source is DC.


After completing this experiment, we are able to adjust the firing angle of SCR when
anode source is AC and gate source is DC. It is also possible to vary the output voltage of the
circuit by changing the firing angle of SCR.

3.6 To observe and measure the 180 angle of the SCR

By changing the variable resistor we can change the value of RC time constant, the time
constant RC circuit controls the firing angle of SCR.
When negative cycle comes D2 on and C begins to change up to its peak value, AT full negative
peak D2 turns off during remaining negative cycle C continuously discharges.
During positive half cycle C continue its charging because of time constant. After C fully
discharged it again start to charge with opposite polarity. When it charge to a certain value it
turns the diode D1.so the SCR switch like short circuit and load current starts flow. Firing angle
is measured by comparing the output signal with input signal, where the difference of the
position of the output to the input signal is firing angle.


Circuit for measuring 180 firing angle of SCR

Wave forms
After completing this experiment, we are able to vary the firing angle of thyristor in full
range by using the RC phase shift circuit.


3.7 Single phase half wave control rectifiers

For positive half cycle of input ac supply SCR is forward biased and turned on and output
voltage is appeared across the load. the instant of time where the SCR turns on is called the firing
angle of the SCR. the firing angle of SCR is varied by changing the value of the potentiometer
in the circuit the positive half of output can also control by changing the value of .the average
dc output voltage can be calculated as



When =0 then maximum output appears at the load.

Circuit for half wave controlled rectifier

Wave forms


After completing this experiment, we are able to measure and calculate the average
controlled dc output voltage in the single phase half wave control rectifiers by using thyristor as

3.8 Single phase full wave control rectifiers

The bridge rectifier circuit provides the full wave rectified output voltage. This
rectified voltage will apply on the SCR with the help of voltage divider circuit. The voltage
divider circuit consists of two resistors.one resistor is fixed and other is variable which is used to
control the firing angle of SCR in the full wave controlled circuit. The output voltage is varied by
changing this firing angle. The dc value at O/P may be given as

Vdc (average) =


Circuit of full wave controlled rectifier



Serial number

Vin(input voltage)

Vout (measured)

Vout ( calculated )

After completing this experiment, we are able to measure and calculate the average controlled dc
output voltage across the load in the single phase full wave controlled rectifier.


3.9 Characteristics of DIAC

The circuit is connected as below, to measure the breakover voltage of DIAC we give it a dc
power supply and we measured the forward break over voltage is 31V and in reverse the break
over voltage is measured which is 31V.In circuit when LED is on then it means the current flows
in the circuit when its breakover voltage occur.

Circuit diagram for characteristics of DIAC

After completing this experiment, we are able to know that DIAC can turn on from the off state
to the on state on both directions, because it has bidirectional symmetrical directions switching.


3.10 & 3.11 Triggering response of TRIAC

The main objective of this experiment is to investigate the triggering response of
TRIAC in the four quadrants and determine the holding current of IH1 and IH2

Circuit diagram of first quadrant triggering..

Starting at 0V, increase the voltage V1 until the TRIAC triggers and the LED lights up .Record
the voltage at voltmeter and current on Amps meter when LED is on. This TRIAC triggers by
applying a positive voltage to the terminal A2 and opposite voltage to the gate G with respect to
the A1 and this is called as first quadrant triggering.



Circuit diagram of second quadrant triggering.

Starting at 0V, increase the voltage V1 until the TRIAC triggers and the LED lights up .Record
the voltage at voltmeter and current on Amps meter when LED is on. This TRIAC triggers by
applying a negative voltage to the terminal A2 and opposite voltage to the gate G with respect to
the A1 and this is called as second quadrant triggering.
Modify the circuit again by applying a negative voltage to terminal A2 and gate G. gate G is
given a negative voltage by reversing the polarity of V1 as given below.




Circuit diagram of third quadrant triggering

Triggered the TRIAC in previous step and record the voltage in voltmeter and current on amp
meter. TRIAC triggering by applying negative voltage to terminal A2 and to gate G is known as
third quadrant triggering.
Modified the circuit again by applying a positive voltage to terminal A2 and a negative voltage
to gate G, as given below.



Circuit diagram of fourth quadrant triggering


Pz = VI





Pz (mW)
4.79 mW

After completing this experiment, we are able to know that the TRIAC operates at four operation
quadrants with different response for each quadrant. As is the case with the thyristor, a TRIAC
also has a holding current IH but in (both directions).

3.12 Triggering response of TRIAC

We connect the circuit given below diagram

Circuit for triggering TRIAC


Vs=1- + sin





4 V(p-p)
8 V(p-p)




5.3 V(p-p)

3.8 V(p-p)

3.7 V(p-p)

7.6 V(p-p)

8.466 V(p-p)


After completing this experiment, we are able to know the triggering of TRIAC by using RC
phase shifter circuit and also how to calculate the firing angle of TRIAC.
3.13 Generation of pulse triggering using a UJT
The unijunction transistor (UJT) is commonly used for generating triggering signals
for SCRs. The triggering voltage VB1 should be designed to be sufficiently large to turn ON the
SCR. The period of oscillation, T, is fairly independent of the dc supply voltage VS, and is given

T==RC ln1
Where parameter is called the intrinsic stand-off ratio. The value of lies between 0.51 and


We made the circuit given below

Circuit diagram of generation of pulse triggering using UJT.

Figure 11 -Waveforms
When the capacitor charges through power supply and when it charge to the value greater than
VP it conducts or UJT turns ON and capacitor at this instant goes to discharging mode. As C
reaches the value V,UJT and capacitor charging starts again. The output taken at VR2 and

R1 <
R2 >

If the circuit satisfies the above two criteria of R1 and R2, it works as relaxation oscillator.


After completing this experiment, we are able to observe that when R1 and C1
increases, the period of trigger signal increase to and oppositely frequency decreases. When R3
increase, the voltage drop between B2 and B1 decreases as well as the voltage up. The UJT will
only function at the negative region of the resistance the adjustment of the value of R in the
trigger circuit is meant to fulfill this condition.

3.14 UJT triggering circuit for SCR

We connect the circuit given below diagram.

Circuit diagram for UJT triggering circuit for SCR.


UJT output pulse is used here to trigger on SCR. UJT used in controlled circuit for SCR to
provide gate turn on pulse.
The bridge converts AC to DC and full wave dc. A zener
diode provides specific voltage or fix voltage to UJT. UJT
work here as relaxation oscillator which produces a pulse
used to turn on SCR.
SCR conducts only when gate pulse reaches at its gate
terminal and turn SCR on current flows through SCR and to
load. The SCR off only when voltage applied across it goes
to zero or in reverse direction polarity.

After completing this experiment, we are able to turn on the
SCR by using the UJT triggering circuit at the gate terminal
of SCR. By using voltage control at the triggering pulse
frequencies control enables to be controlled In closed loop

Figure 12 -Wave form

for the circuit diagram.


Chapter 4

Simulation Results
Dc Power supply circuit diagram:

PCB design (DC Power supply) :


3-D View:

Size = 195.584 X 129.546 mm (L X W)
Ac supply circuit diagram:


PCB Layout of Ac supply:

3-D View

Size = 134.62 X 66.04 mm (L X W)



Size = 304.8 X 256.54 mm (LXW)


3-D View:


Potentiometer layout:

Size = 236.22 X 204.47 mm (L X W)


3-D View:


We have implemented all modules given in the block diagram in chapter 1.we have made the
project much economical and cheaper. Our trainer will show the basic response of power electronic
components. The modules are safe and secure to achieve the reliability of the system. Experiments
are performed and results are showed in chapter3. This trainer will give an ease in making circuit
to user, as all modules are implemented in a single desktop panel.


Future Recommendations
We would like to recommend the following features to be incorporated in our developed software

We would recommend for improvement in design software, we used proteus 8.

We would recommend the use of multi meter instead of analog meters for the measurement
of resistance and ac voltage and current.

We would recommend the use of LCD with ac supply.

We would recommend to improve the body of the panel also.


LM7805 (3 pin voltage regulator)


LM 7812 (3-pin voltage regulator)


LM317 (3-Terminal Positive Adjustable Regulator)

Absolute maximum ratings


a. XR-2206



Diodes Data sheet

Data Sheet of SCR



Data Sheet of TRIAC



Data sheet of DIAC DB3



[1] Muhammad H. Rashid, Power Electronics circuits, Devices and application (3rd edition) paper
back August 14,2003, ISBN: 13: 978-0131011403
[2] John William motto, JR ,Introduction to Solid State Power Electronics, POWEREX, Inc. 200
Hillis Street Youngwood, PA 15697-1800