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[MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT]

2016

Transport Master Plan


For
Western Region
Megapolis Planning
Project
-Draft V2.2-

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Table of Content
TABLE OF CONTENT....................................................................................................................................... 1
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................................. 3
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................................... 5
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 6
2. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 16
3. VISION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT
STRATEGY ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
4. TRANSPORT ISSUES IN COLOMBO METROPOLITAN AREA ..................................................... 30
5. TRANSPORT SUB-COMMITTEE OF MEGAPOLIS PROJECT ....................................................... 39
6. PROPOSED SUB SECTORS FOR INTERVENTION .......................................................................... 41
I.

Public Transport Improvement ................................................................................................................. 41

II.

Road Infrastructure Development............................................................................................................ 41

III.

Transport Demand Management (TDM) ......................................................................................... 41

IV.

Environmental Sustainable Transport .............................................................................................. 42

7. DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS .............................................................................................................. 43


7.1

PUBLIC TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT ......................................................................................................... 43

7.1.1

Restructure and Revision of Public Bus Service ....................................................................... 43

7.1.2.

Modernize and Improving the Quality of Buses and Services ............................................ 45

7.1.3.

RailwayElectrification & Modernization .................................................................................... 47

7.1.4.

Introducing a Rapid Transit System (RTS) ................................................................................ 52

7.1.5.

Introducing New Inland Water Transport System ................................................................. 60

7.1.6.

Develop Multimodal Transport Hub and Centres ................................................................... 63

7.1.7.

Regulate and Improvement of School Bus Services and Office Van Services .............. 65

7.1.8.

Regulate and Improve Taxi Services ............................................................................................. 67

7.1.9.

Improvementof Facilities at Suburban Interchange Bus Terminals and Stands. .... 69

7.1.10.

Establishment of Transport Information Analysis and Dissemination Centre .......... 70

7.2

ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................. 73

7.2.1.

Capacity Improvement of Existing Roads ................................................................................... 73

7.2.2.

Improve the Capacity of Existing Expressway Network / Improve the Expressway

Network ........................................................................................................................................................................ 75
7.2.3.

Construction of new Expressways .................................................................................................. 76

7.2.4

Policy on use of Road/Rail Right of Way / Policy of use of Road Right of Way ........ 78

7.3

TRANSPORT DEMAND MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................... 82


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2016

7.3.1

FLEXIBLE & STAGGERING WORK HOURS ............................................................................................. 82

7.3.2

PARKING MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................... 83

7.3.3

INTERSECTION CONTROL ........................................................................................................................ 88

7.3.4

TRAFFIC FLOW MANAGEMENT .............................................................................................................. 89

7.3.5

ROAD PRICING /ROAD PRICING OF ENTRY ROADS TO CBD .............................................................. 91

7.3.6

TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT THROUGH CCTV MONITORING .................................................................. 92

7.4

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ........................................................................................................... 96

7.4.1

IMPROVE FACILITIES FOR PEDESTRIAN................................................................................................ 96

7.4.2

ENCOURAGEMENT OF BICYCLE USE AND INTRODUCTION OF CYCLE/MOTORCYCLE PATHS ....... 97

7.4.3

REDUCTION OF VEHICLE EMISSION ....................................................................................................... 99

7.4.4

MINIMIZING FUEL USAGE .................................................................................................................... 100

7.4.5

SUPPLY OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) AND ESTABLISH ELECTRIC CHARGING

FACILITIES FOR BUSES AND OTHER VEHICLES .................................................................................................... 101


8. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ................................................................................................................. 102
8.1

PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED IMMEDIATELY (WITHIN 6 MONTHS) ................................................ 103

8.2

PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED IN SHORT TERM (6 MONTHS 3 YEARS) ........................................ 105

8.3

PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED IN MEDIUM TERM (3 5 YEARS) ..................................................... 107

8.4

PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED LONG TERM (MORE THAN 5 YEARS) ................................................ 108

9. ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN .......................................................................... 110


9.1

TRANSPORT DEMAND MODELLING AND ANALYSIS ............................................................................. 110

9.1.1

MODEL OUTPUTS FOR PROJECT CASE (CASE A) FOR YEAR 2020 ............................................... 115

9.1.2

MODEL OUTPUTS FOR PROJECT CASE (CASE B) FOR YEAR 2025 ............................................... 115

9.1.3

MODEL OUTPUTS FOR PROJECT CASE (CASE D) FOR YEAR 2035 ............................................... 116

9.2

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................ 120

10. APPENDICES ......................................................................................................................................... 125

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

List of Figures
Figure 1: Western Province of Sri Lanka ........................................................................................................... 16
Figure 2: Proposed Mega City Structure Plan .................................................................................................. 20
Figure 3: Planning Areas and Key Project Plan ............................................................................................... 22
Figure 4: Population Forecast for 2020 by TAZ .............................................................................................. 24
Figure 5: Population Forecast for 2025 by TAZ .............................................................................................. 25
Figure 6: Population Forecast for 2035 by TAZ .............................................................................................. 26
Figure 7: Employment Forecast for 2035 by TAZ .......................................................................................... 27
Figure 8: Population Density in 2035 by TAZ .................................................................................................. 28
Figure 9: Employment Density in 2035 by TAZ .............................................................................................. 29
Figure 10: Difference of 2035 population between the Megapolis Plan and ComTrans Plan by
TAZ .................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Figure 11: Transport Corridors in Western Region ...................................................................................... 33
Figure 12: Bus Origin Destination Patterns in Galle Road .......................................................................... 34
Figure 13: Desire Lines for 2035 Trips between TAZ .................................................................................. 35
Figure 14: Modern Technologies and its Capacities ..................................................................................... 38
Figure 15: Proposed Railway Lines for Railway Electrification and Modernization....................... 51
Figure 16: Proposed RTS network in CBD area .............................................................................................. 58
Figure 17: Proposed RTS network in CBD & suburbs .................................................................................. 59
Figure 18: Proposed Inland Water Transport System ................................................................................. 63
Figure 19: Proposed Public Transport Interventions in Western Region ........................................... 71
Figure 20: Proposed Public Transport Interventions in Core Area ........................................................ 72
Figure 21: Proposed Road Improvements in Western Region ................................................................. 79
Figure 22: Proposed Road Improvements in Core Area.............................................................................. 80
Figure 23: Proposed Interventions in Western Region ............................................................................... 81
Figure 24: Land Availability within Western Region.................................................................................... 86
Figure 25: Land Availability within CMC Region ............................................................................................ 87
Figure 26: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2020......................................... 117
Figure 27: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2025......................................... 118
Figure 28: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2035......................................... 119
Figure 29: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 ............................... 177
Figure 30: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 ...... 178
Figure 31: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020.............. 179
Figure 32: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 ...................... 180
Figure 33: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year
2020 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 181
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Figure 34: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 ..................... 182
Figure 35: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025 ............................... 183
Figure 36: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025 ...... 184
Figure 37: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025.............. 185
Figure 38: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025 ...................... 186
Figure 39: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year
2025 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 187
Figure 40: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025 ..................... 188
Figure 41: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035 ............................... 189
Figure 42: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case BD) for Year 2035 ... 190
Figure 43: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035 ............. 191
Figure 44: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035...................... 192
Figure 45: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year
2035 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 193
Figure 46: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035 ..................... 194

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

List of Tables
Table 1: Planning areas and Population Growth ............................................................................................ 21
Table 2: Daily Passenger Flows at the CMC Boundary Both Directions ............................................ 36
Table 3: Financial Cost of Projects by Sector by Project Commencement Period ........................ 109
Table 4: Project Scenarios for Transport Demand Analysis ................................................................... 112
Table 5: Aggregate Outputs of Demand Model for Project scenarios ................................................. 114
Table 6: Demand Model Outputs for All Scnearios ..................................................................................... 176

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

1. Executive Summary
Western Region Megapolis Plan has been developed encompassing all aspects of
transportation to provide a framework for urban transport development in Western Region up
to 2035. The development plan priorities have been prepared based on the urgency of the
developments to resolve the critical urban transport problems, and based on a logical
sequence of implementation in order to maximize the outcomes in achieving the urban
mobility objectives. Megapolis will be implemented as an integrated transport development
project, incorporating all modes of transport as well as ensuring sustainability and ease of
integration to existing operating conditions and infrastructure.
To assist the authorities, implement it in the most effective manner, the development plan is
set out with 4 categories
i.

Public Transport Improvements,

ii.

Road Infrastructure Development,

iii.

Transport Demand Management,

iv.

Environment Sustainable Transport.

Public Transport Improvement


Project

Action

Duration

to Responsibility

commence
the project
Restructure of Develop Institutional Reforms for Immediate
Public

WPTA, NTC

Bus Public Bus Service

Service

Develop the revised bus route Immediate

WPTA

network for Western Province.


Identify

the

new

bus

route Immediate

WPTA

requirement for Western province


Introducing Shuttle or feeder bus
services connecting railway stations
Redesign

the

public

WPTA, NTC,
Immediate

transport immediate

MOTWP
NTC

system on expressways.
Modernize and Low floor buses to be introduced Medium

to WPTA, NTC

Improving the whenreplacing the old buses. DMT Long Term


quality of buses act to be reviewed on passenger
and services

transport vehicles.
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


Project

Action

2016

Duration

to Responsibility

commence
the project
IT based Smart Bus Service

Long Term

Provide adequate terminal facilities Medium


and modernized bus shelters.

WPTA, NTC
to WPTA, NTC,

Long Term

MOTWP, CGR

Study the provisions to provide Short Term to WPTA, NTC,


separate

Bus

lane

on

major Medium Term

MOTWP

corridors and bus priority.


Improvement
of

office

To form regulatory mechanism for Immediate

MOTWP

and office and school services

school services

To form separate bodies to operate Immediate

MOTWP

school services in parallel to existing


public school service
Improve the reliability and extend Immediate

MOTWP, WPTA

the services of existing public school


buses
Regulate

and Introduce a common identification Immediate

Improve

Taxi system for all taxies.

Services

Promote

and

supply

adequate Immediate

WPTA, NTC
WPTA, NTC, UDA

parking space for taxies at major


transit node
Review charging regulations
Develop IT based Smart Taxi Service

Immediate

Develop a regulatory authority and Medium Term

WPTA, NTC,
MOT

policy document for taxi operations


Develop

Develop detailed designs for Fort / Immediate to UDA, MOT

Multimodal

Pettah Transport Hub(MMTH)

Transport
Hubs
Centres

Medium Term

Carryout the feasibility study for Immediate to WRMP, UDA


Multimodal
transport
centres
and
Medium Term
(MMC)
Proposed locations are:
Kaduwela
Kadawatha
Kottawa
Horana
Panadura
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

Railway
Electrification
&
Modernization

2016

Negambo
Gampaha
Ragama
Moratuwa
Meerigama
Awissawella
Electrification
of
following Immediate
existing railway lines
1. Panadura - Veyangoda Polgahawela (RL-M1)
110km
2. Ragama - Negombo with
airport Access (RL-M2)26km
3. Kelani Valley (KV) line (RLM3) -60km
Medium
Electrification of following new
railway lines
Term
4. Kottawa to Horana (RL-NR1)
22km
5. Kelaniya to Kosgama via Long Term
Biyagama, and Dompe (RLNR2)- 30km
Upgrading of railway infrastructure. Immediate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CGR, MOT

CGR , MOT

Stations
Ticketing system
Signal system
Telecommunication System
Track Improvements

Identify the park and Ride demands.

Immediate

Identify the facilities such as drop off

CGR, UDA, Local


Authorities

areas for three wheelers and taxies


Develop feeder bus services for Immediate

CGR, WPTA

identified major stations.


Introducing

CBD
RTS
system connecting
new
Rapid identified main nodes. This is a
complete elevated system.
Transit System
1. Green Line (RTS1) -15km Fort
(RTS)
Kollupitiya-Bambalapitiya- BorellaUnion Place- Maradana)
2. Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km FortMaradana- Mattakkuliya/Peliyagoda
3. Red Line (RTS3) 10km
Dematagoda-Borella-KirulaponeHavelock City- Bambalapitiya
Outer core area RTS system

Short
WPMPP, UDA
Term
Medium
term

Short
Term-

WPMPP, UDA
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


connecting identified main nodes.

2016

Medium
term

1. Purple Line (RTS4) - Borella


Malabe 10km
2. Pink Line (RTS5) - Malabe
Kottawa 9.6km
3. Olive Line (RTS6) - Malabe Kaduwela 6km
4. Ash Line (RTS7)
Peliyagoda Kadawatha
13km
Introducing
New

Introducing

new

inland

Water transport system

Transit System

water Immediate - UDA, SLLRDC,


Medium term
MOT

1. Wellawatte and Battaramulla


(IW1)
2. Fort - Union Place (IW2)
3. Mattakkuliya - Hanwella on Kelani
River (IW3)

Road Infrastructure Development


Project

Action

Duration

to Responsibility

commence
the project
Capacity

RDA to identify the required links Immediate

improvement

within each district to maintaining

by

average speed of 40 km/h

Development of Develop the High Mobility road Immediate


road links

RDA

RDA

network connecting districts with an


average speed of 60 km/h which has
developed by RDA for next 10 years
Horana to Meerigama via Paddukka Medium Term

RDA

and Kirindiwela
Negombo- Divlapitiya - Mirigama (4 Medium Term

RDA

lane road, to cater mainly future


industrial

and

business

tourism

traffic)
Ja-ela to Divlapitiya via Ekala and Medium Term

RDA

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Minuwangoda (4 lane road, to cater


mainly future industrial and business
tourism traffic)
Identification of missing links and Medium Term

RDA, CMC

improvement of selected sections of


road network as appropriate to
Western Region Megapolis Plan

Improve

a) Marine drive extension to


Galle Face and Dehiwela
b) Baseline Extension up to
Maliban junction
c) Duplication road extension up
to Kalubowila Hospital Road.
the Analyse the new demand on the Immediate

Capacity

of highways

Existing

Review existing toll

Expressway

Introduce electronic toll collection Medium term

Network

system

Immediate

Use real time information systems

Expressways

RDA
RDA

Medium term

RDA

Immediate

RDA

and Immediate

RDA

Construction of 1.) Ruwanpura Expressway


new

RDA

2.) Central expressway


3.)

New

Kelaniya

Bridge

elevated road to Colombo Port &


Fort area (CKE extension)
4.) Elevated urban Expressway from Long Term

RDA

New Kelani Bridge to Battaramulla


Policy on use of Strict

restrictions

apply

and Immediate

Road/Rail

demarcate Road Right of Way Lands

Right of Way

Relocate people who unauthorized


acquires

and

provide

RDA, UDA

adequate

space for pedestrians

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Transport Demand Management


Duration to
Project

Action

commence

Responsibility

the project
Flexible

Work Develop policy plans to promote Short Term

Hours

Ministry

of

flexible work hours in selected

Public

institutes

Administration

Flexi hours to be introduced

Medium Term

Chamber

of

Commerce
Develop policy plans to promote Short Term to
staggering work hours in selected Medium Term
institutes
Parking

Develop a Pricing mechanism for Immediate

Management

Parking
Implement

parking

metering Immediate

Local Authorities
CMC, RDA

system to Colombo district as a


preliminary stage.
Time limited parking enforced at Immediate

Traffic

Police,

identified roadside parking lots (e.g.

RDA, UDA, Local

30 min Maximum).

Authorities

Provide overflow parking facility for Immediate

UDA, NTC

long distance private buses.


Outsource

the

Towing

of Medium Term

Traffic Police

unauthorized parking.
Provision

of

off-street

parking Medium Term

facilities in required locations.

RDA, UDA, Local


Authorities, CMC,
WRMP

Identify suitable locations for 3- Immediate

Traffic

Police,

wheel parking.

RDA, CMC, Local


Authorities

Implement

strict

Parking restrictions

compliance

of Long Term

Traffic

Police,

RDA, UDA, Local


Authorities, CMC

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Duration to
Project

Action

commence

Responsibility

the project
Intersection

Minor improvements to signalized

Immediate

RDA, CMC

Control

intersections (capacity

Upgrading signal lights system along Immediate

RDA, CMC

improvements) and signal timing


updates
with traffic flow detection. Develop
Specifications for all signal lights.
New

traffic

signals

to

major Immediate

RDA, CMC

intersections

Installation of Traffic control centre Long Term

RDA, Police, CMC,

with traffic flow detection (CCTV,


Magnetic loop, Infar red) and real
time traffic management
Synchronize signal lights along main Long Term

RDA, Police, CMC,

corridors

Traffic

Flow Converting two-way streets to one- Immediate

Management

RDA, Police

way operation where technically


feasible
Roadway and intersection widening Immediate to RDA, UDA, Local
and reconstructions

Medium Term

Priority for HOV (high occupancy Long Term

Authorities
RDA, CMC

vehicles).
Relocation of bus stops/pedestrian Immediate

RDA,

crossings to minimize unnecessary

Police

WRMPP,

conflicts and delays


Reductions of Traffic Density closer Medium Term

City

to Schools

WRMPP

Schools,

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Duration to
Project

Action

commence

Responsibility

the project
Traffic

Identify

Enforcement

locations.

through

the

Camera

instalment Immediate

RDA, Police, CMC,


UDA

CCTV

monitoring

Implement Traffic Enforcement

Immediate

RDA, Police, CMC,


UDA

Road pricing of Identify toll gates, Corridors needed Long Term

UDA, RDA

entry roads to to be controlled,


CBD

Develop the Pricing Structure

Long Term

RDA, UDA, Local


Authorities

Environmental Sustainable Transport


Project

Action

Duration

to Responsibility

commence
the project
Improve
Facilities
pedestrian

Provide
for vegetation/concrete

appropriate Immediate

Local Authority,

cover

RDA, UDA

&

adequate lighting along the roads


Improve the quality of walk ways by Immediate

Local Authority,

providing

RDA, UDA

continuous

and

interconnected sidewalks accessible


by everyone by designing it

Separate sidewalks from the road Immediate

Local Authority,

way using suitable buffer, on street

RDA, UDA

parking, by appropriate curb or by


landscaping between the sidewalk
and the roadway

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Ensure safety of pedestrians at Immediate

Local Authority,

intersections

RDA, UDA

marked

through

crosswalks,

clearly
overhead

bridges /underpass and fences

Provide

pedestrian

signals

to Immediate

increase the safety of pedestrians at

Local Authority,
RDA, UDA

the crosswalk. Conduct awareness


programs on how to use pedestrian
crossings at signalized intersections,
Relocate vendors from pedestrian Immediate

Local Authority,

areas to alternative locations

RDA, UDA

Provision of pedestrian facilities for

Local Authority,

disable people

RDA, UDA

Encourage

Provide

appropriate

vegetation Immediate

Bicycle Use

cover or paved area at either side of

Local Authority,
RDA, UDA

the roads
Provide

separate

lane

for Medium Term

bicycle/Motor Cycle use.

RDA, UDA

Reduce vehicle Introduction of higher quality fuel Immediate


emission

Local Authority,
DMT

for vehicles
Introduction of catalytic convertors

Immediate

The vehicle emission standards to be Immediate

DMT
CEA, DMT

reviewed yearly.
Facilitate

LNG

use

for

three Medium Term

DMT

wheelers and taxies


Introduce monitoring system

Immediate

DMT

Minimize Fuel Reduce taxes for electric and hybrid Immediate


Usage

vehicles while increase taxes for


other cars
Discourage vehicles having poor Immediate

DMT

emission standards
Introduce a policy to remove poor Medium Term

DMT

conditioned vehicles from the roads

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Encourage walkways and bicycle Medium Term

RDA, Local

users

Authorities

Megapolis will become acentre for comprehensive monitoring of all the sectors that will
manage the Transport and Land use development together in a totally integrated
manner.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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2. INTRODUCTION
Sri Lanka, which currently stands in middle-income category1, is focusing on long-term
strategic and structural development challenges as it strives to transition to an upper middleincome country. One of the key initiatives with respect to this is the proposed Western Region
Megapolis Planning Project (WRMPP). The Western Region Megapolis Projectis expected to
initiate integrated development in the region, to make Western Region (WR) the economic hub
of the Country, facilitating geographic concentration and economic integration, while ensuring
more uniform basic living standards across the country.
Colombo and other cities especially in the Western Region has witnessed a rapid change in the
urban transport in the past decade. The continual degradation of traffic congestion of urban
roads and the deterioration of quality of public transport service has escalated to such an
extent that it has major negative impact on the economic performance of the region, the
environmental quality and liveability.

Figure 1: Western Province of Sri Lanka

World Bank- Sri Lanka, http://data.worldbank.org/country/sri-lanka

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Western Province(WP) also identified as Western Region (WR) in Sri Lanka is the main
economic hub of the country as its share of the countrys GDP is nearly 42% (3643.2 Billion
Rupees out of 8674.2 Billion Rupees in 2013)2 and nearly 60% attributed to the service sector
and more than 30% to the industry sector. It also has recorded the highest per capita income
of Rs. 372,814 (approx. USD 2,922) in 2012. It has three administrative districts; Colombo,
Gampaha and Kalutara and 33 divisional secretariat divisions. Colombo district accounts for
the highest urban population in Sri Lanka with 54.6% while Gampaha and Kalutara account for
14.6% and 10.6% respectively.
The population of Western Region was 5.8 million in 2012 spread over a 3,684 sq.km of land
area. It is estimated that the total population ofthe Region will increase to 7.8 million by 2025
with the development anticipated under the Megapolis Structure Plan and it is projected to
further increase to 9.1 million in year 2035, with the planned economic growth targets. This
development would further increase the transport demand. As the nations busiest
international seaport and airport are located within the area, and expansion of such facilities
are also in the pipeline, introduction of structural changes to the transport system is of
paramount importance to make the metropolitan area a modern, liveable, environment and
investor friendly area.

3. VISION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORT


MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
The Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) believes that the current policy direction is insufficient to
manage and regulate the mobility needs in Western Region, and therefore a vision that will
progressively take the urban transport development into a new direction is required. The
existing public transport system, which serves as an important mode of travel currently has
serious issues with respect to service quality, capacity and the operating mechanism and is
unable to meet the mobility needs of the population. Strict application of transport demand
management (TDM) measures such as parking restrictions, road pricing and vehicle taxation
policies, to reduce traffic levels are deemed inappropriate without viable alternative ways to

Central Bank of Sri Lanka,


http://www.cbsl.gov.lk/pics_n_docs/10_pub/_docs/efr/annual_report/AR2014/English/17_Appendix.p
df
2

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travel. Any attempt at a strict application of TDM initiatives may cause unwelcome social
issues and adversely burden the economic activities in the area.
The Government has therefore decided to adopt urban mobility solutions as the most
appropriate way forward. This approach will focus on facilitating the mobility needs for
people, not vehicles, by encouraging and maximizing the use of sustainable transport modes,
such as public transport and non-motorized transport (NMT).
A tag line Promoting/inclusive and Sustainable Urban Mobility which agreed by the NPD as a
policy, has therefore been chosen by WRMP as the key policy statement that will drive the
urban mobility development in Colombo. This initiative will promote greater accessibility and
connectivity within Western Region for all modes of transport and in the same time will
transform the capital city into a vibrant and liveable urban environment that supports
inclusive economic growth and environmental sustainability.
The modern concept, as well as the commonly adopted model of Megapolis, is based on the
premise that, if the cities in adjacent region work together can create a new urban form that
will increase economic opportunity and global competitiveness for each individual city and for
the nation as a whole.
The proposed Megapolis plan is aimed at transforming the whole Western Region as the most
vibrant and liveable cosmopolitan Smart City Region in South Asia- creating opportunities for
all its inhabitants and investors, achieving the highest environmental standard and quality of
life, ensuring socio-cultural harmony, and expanding its position as the preferred location for
business and industry, to accommodate about 9.1 million people by 2035 with the Colombo as
the core. To achieve this vision, the Megapolis plan promotes the polycentric & multi centric
spatial structure by directing the developments towards Eastern, Southern and Northern
segments of the Western region and thus spreading the development away from the Colombo
core area. The Megapolis plan proposes new major growth areas such as shown in Figure 2.
i.

Aviation Hub Aero City Zone in Katunayake,

ii.

Industrial townships in Mirigama and Horana,

iii.

Free Port and Logistics corridor between Katunayake and Colombo,

iv.

Science & Technology city corridor between Kaduwela to Homogama,

v.

Plantation City in Avissawella,

vi.

Plantation & Forest City in Matugama&Baduraliya area,

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vii.

Tourism resort areas

viii.

Eco-tourism in Negombo&Muthurajwela and Airport city in Rathmalana,

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Figure 2: Proposed Mega City Structure Plan

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These growth areas are located in the Northern, Eastern and Southern parts of the Western
region and will be developed with necessary infrastructure and more land supply to create
new living environment for its people.
In order to support proposed growth pattern, a poly-centric and multi centric spatial structure
will be established connecting the important urban centres such as Kaduwela, Kottawa,
Moratuwa, Panadura, Horana, Matugama, Aluthgama, Avissawella, Gampaha, Ja-Ela, Mirigama,
Pugoda, Diulapitiya, Katunayake and Negombo, to facilitate better living environment for the
residents and the commuting population in the new growth areas.
Twelve (12) planning areas were defined as shown in Figure 3 where the population growth
has been forecasted for year 2020, 2025 and 2030 to achieve the expected growth for the
Megapolis. The forecasted population by each planning areas are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Planning areas and Population Growth

The Western Region is divided in to 467 Transport Analysis Zones (TAZ) for transport
planning purposes and Population forecasts for 2020,2025 and 2035 are shown in Figure 4,
Figure 5 and Figure 6. The employment forecast for 2035 is shown in Figure 7. The densities
are shown in Figure 8 and Figure 9.
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Figure 3: Planning Areas and Key Project Plan

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The Plan will provide efficient connectivity system for its people to have easy access to
facilities and at the same time avoid overcrowding in the Colombo core area. Employment
opportunities in manufacturing and service sectors will be distributed to proposed growth
areas or townships to ensure that there will be jobs available near home. It is anticipated that
well-planned essential facilities such as health, education and basic recreational facilities like
public spaces; parks, public pool and sport facilities will be provided in easily accessible
distances.
In this context, transportation sector plays a key role to support the envisaged rapid
development in the Western Region. The need to take an integrated approach which covers all
modes of transportwhen making planning decisions on road development, public transport
services and rail transport system as a part of the Megapolis planning process have been well
recognized as essential aspect to ensure the efficient connectivity and mobility systems for the
movement of people and goods within the region and the rest of the country.

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Figure 4: Population Forecast for 2020 by TAZ

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Figure 5: Population Forecast for 2025 by TAZ

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Figure 6: Population Forecast for 2035 by TAZ

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Figure 7: Employment Forecast for 2035 by TAZ

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Figure 8: Population Density in 2035 by TAZ

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Figure 9: Employment Density in 2035 by TAZ

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4. Transport Issues in Colombo Metropolitan Area


Numerous studies have been undertaken to assess thecharacteristics urban transport s in
Colombo Metropolitan area, and its issues with the objective of finding solutions. Any
transportation master plan needs urban structure plan to forecast the transportation trends
for the future. The following two of more recent master plan studies are considered as
significant efforts carried out in order to propose comprehensive transport plan for the
Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR).
1. JICA CoMTrans Master Plan Study undertaken by JICA in 2013/2014 formulated a
comprehensive urban transport master plan for the Colombo Metropolitan Region and
selected six transport corridors to implement projects in short-term, medium-term and
long-term.
2. The Strategic Plan for Traffic Management in Colombo Metropolitan Region (Master
Plan Review) by Ministry of Transport in 2015 prepared a transport master plan
covering next 20 years up to 2035, which includes reviewing the master plan proposed
by the CoMTrans study.

Department of National Planning has made an initiative by drafting a policy paper on Urban
Transport Strategy in Colombo by 2020/2035 in order to promote inclusive and sustainable
urban mobilityin Colombo. The draft policy paper has recognized that the JICA study has
identified a number of public transport related issues in CMA and forms the basis of the said
report and a basis for the prioritizing the investments. However, both of the above transport
plans have used the 1998 CMRSP structure plan with updates to accommodate potential
growth centres which is contrastingly different from the proposed Megapolis Structure Plan.
The JICA CoMTrans was planned with a population forecast of 7.8 Million people in 2035 with
a CAGR of 1.4% while The Megapolis Structure Plan has a population forecast of 9.1 million by
2035 with CAGR 2.1%.

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Figure 10: Difference of 2035 population between the Megapolis Plan and ComTrans Plan by TAZ

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Although the future growth percentages in both above studies and Megapolis are not
considerably different, the areas of growth are significantly different. The Figure 10shows the
difference of 2035 population between the Megapolis Plan and CoMTrans Plan at Transport
Analysis Zones (TAZ). The blue coloured areas have a higher population and green coloured
areas have a lower population in Megapolis Structure Plan in contrast to CoMTrans Plan. These
show a forecasted population difference up to 100% in the Megapolis Structure Plan in areas
such as Divulapitiya and Mirigama. A similar variation is forecasted for employment for the
Megapolis Plan. Higher population centres are expected to generate more trips than the
previous studies forecasted, while the higher employment centres are expected to attract the
trips generated from the population centres. These changes in population and employment in
Megapolis Plan is expected to change the trip patterns within the region.
Therefore, it was required to re consider the transportation solutions by the two previous
studies with updated population and employment, taking the scenario under Megapolis
development in to account. The both studies have used the JAICA STRADA travel demand
model to forecast for the future demand of transport needs and the analysis of the options.
The two previous studies discuss in depth the current transportation issues, current demands
and current transport supply in the region. Therefore this study does not intend to replicate
the work but acknowledge the work that has been done and incorporates the information for
development of the master plan for the Megapolis. The above studies have highlighted that 10
million daily passenger trips are generated within CMR, out of which 7.8 million are motorized
trips. Therefore 2.2 million are non-motorized trips such as walking and bicycle trips. The
motorized trips are carried by different modes comprising Car 14%, Rail 3.4 %, Bus 48.1%,
Motor Cycle 17.9%, Three Wheelers 16.3% and Taxis 0.3%, which shows that almost 52% is
still carried by public transport modes. There are 1.9 million daily passenger entering Colombo
Municipality (CMC) limits from 7 main corridors shown in Figure 11. The average trip length
for trips within CMC is 4km while 6 km for trips made outside from CMC which is a
measurement of distance people need to travel for the daily needs. The Average trip length
with CMR is 12km. The average travel speeds within CMR is 17km/h which drops to 12km/h
when within CMC limits which outlines the current problem within the CMR.
The Megapolis master plan was also developed using the same JAICA STRADA model with
necessary improvements and corrections. The modelling was carried out to check the
suitability of proposed transport interventions for planning horizon year 2020, 2025 and

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2035. The technical document outlining the technical and economic analysis is prepared as a
separate document, Technical and Economic Analysis of Megapolis Transport Plan.

Figure 11: Transport Corridors in Western Region

The seven transport corridors shown in Figure 7 are radial connections to the CBD from major
urban centres of CMA. The practice had been providing solution for each corridor; however,
people not necessarily travel just on corridors but between corridors as well. This is further
highlighted by Figure 12 showing the origin destination of bus passengers on Galle Road. It
reflects that only around 50% of the passengers originating from Panadura, Moratuwa
Katubedda, Rathmalana and Dehiwela continue beyond the CMC boundary at Wellawatte. This
means that the 50% of the passengers have moved out of the corridor by the time the bus is
reached at Wellawatte. It also reflects that only around 10% of the passengers originating at
above locations are continuing to the Fort as their final destination.

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Figure 12: Bus Origin Destination Patterns in Galle Road3

The Origin Destination (OD) desire lines as shown in Figure 13shows the pattern of trips
within region forecasted for 2035. This explains where people would like to travel from their
trip origin. The desire lines further explain that people do not necessarily travel on corridors
and actually travel between corridors as well. Therefore, it is paramount important that the
technology that is selected has to evolve beyond single corridors and connects multiple
corridors and provide mobility for the total trip since people consider the total trip when they
make a choice of selecting the mode of travel and is vital to achieve the mode shift from private
vehicles to public transport.The desire lines further show that a concentration of trips towards
Colombo CBD with a cluster of lines merging to CBD still exists. However, it also shows
patterns of short trips around Mega cities shown in circles in line with the envisaged structure
plan of providing employment and necessary services around the city itself providing shorter
trip lengths within the CMR.

Study of Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit on Galle Road, MoT, 2015

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Figure 13: Desire Lines for 2035 Trips between TAZ

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Table 2: Daily Passenger Flows at the CMC Boundary Both Directions

Table 2shows the number of daily passengers entering the CMC boundary in 2013 and 2035.
The 2013 numbers are based on ComTrans Study while the 2035 projected values are based
on Megapolis Transport Plan forecasted values for do nothing scenario. It shows that current
1.9 million passengers will increase to around 4.4 million by 2035 doubling the current
passenger flows to CMC. It should be noted that the 2035 numbers are based on do nothing
scenario and does change and tends to increase in some corridors with improved mobility
provided.
It was highlighted in both JAICA study and the subsequent master plan review that public
transport improvements are required and should be the priority. The Megapolis Transport
Plan also share the same view of improvement to public transport, however it focus on
providing mobility solution of all sectors as well including the road users. The focus is to use
the scientific approach to determine the demand for transport for the full study period until
2035 and limit only to one new major transport interventions per each corridor to provide the
supply to the demand.

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There are different urban transport technologies available to provide solution for the current
transport problems. As depicted in Figure 14, the identified technologies can be categorized
based on cost of the technology in million US$ per kilometre and the capacity of the technology
based on passengers per hour per direction (PPHPD) for a single lane/track. While the cost
plays a role in economics of the intervention, the capacity plays a role in the sustainability of
the intervention. An intervention with under capacity to cater for the project planning horizon
is detrimental similar to intervention with a high cost. It is vital that technologies that can cater
for the total project duration is selected.
The figure shows the 2013 bus passenger per hour per direction for selected corridors which
shows that some of the technologies are almost at capacity even at current stage and some are
beyond providing a solution for these corridors. Trams shown in light green in the figure
which has about 5,000 PPHPD is beyond providing any solution for the current problem even
at 2013. Convention buses can carry around 10,000 PPHPD while technologies such as BRT
could increase the capacity to about 13,000 PPHP. The BRT is almost at capacity on Galle Road
and Negombo corridor at 2013 if only one lane of BRT is provided per direction and is beyond
its capacities for Kandy and Malabe corridors even at current state .Elevated or underground
Metro have a significant costs associated with the technology although they can provide a high
capacity. A viable solution was to consider Electrified urban rail and Rapid Transit Systems
(LRT, Monorail) which could provide 30,000 PPHPD per line. Another solution might be to
provide two technologies to supply for the demand of each corridor which are over the
capacity for individual technology.However, the potential of providing a solution with one
technology that has enough capacity has to be considered as a priority.
Figure 14 further shows the public transport demand for 2035 based on forecasted values for
each corridor which confirms that technology such as BRT is unable to meet the demand as a
single technology unless supported by another new technology which confirms the findings on
BRT study4 that BRT on Galle Road will meet its capacity by 2025 and that it would be required
to be supported by a system such as LRT at that time. It should be noted that the BRT study
projections are based on lower population growth rates considered and further confirmed
through the Megapolis transport analysis that the capacity will be reached on Galle Road
between 2020 and 2025.

Study of Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit on Galle Road, MoT, 2015

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Therefore, the Megapolis transport plan focus on providing a solution with incorporating the
existing buses with bus modernization to provide a bus with high level of service with
necessary institutional and infrastructure development, along with improved and modernized
railway, Rapid Transit Systems (RTS) such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT) and Monorail along
with new transport modes such as inland water transport.

Figure 14: Modern Technologies and its Capacities

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5. TRANSPORT SUB-COMMITTEE OF MEGAPOLIS PROJECT

The Western Region Megapolis Project appointed following Transport Sub-Committee consists
of Transport professionals, relevant stakeholders representing various agencies to propose a
transport strategy for Megapolisarea considering recent changes. The committee comprises of
a core team that developed the transport plan with contributions from the resource team with
planned weekly meetings. The WRMPP wishes to acknowledge the contribution of all teams to
preparing the Transport plan for the Megapolis.
Core Team
1. Dr. Dimantha De Silva (WRMPP Consultant, Team Leader, Transport
Planner/Modeller)
2. Prof. J.M.S.J. Bandara, (WRMPP Consultant, Transport Planner, Traffic Engineer)
3. Dr. Namali Sirisoma (WRMPP Consultant, Public Transport Specialist)
4. Mr. Kaushan Devasurendra (WRMPP Transport Engineer)
5. Ms. Wanuji Abewickrema (WRMPP Transport Engineer)
6. Mrs. I.K. Wijeratne (WRMPP Transport System Analyst)
Resource Team
1. Prof. P.K.S. Mahanama (WRMPP Advisor)
2. Eng. Lal Premanath (WRMPP Consultant)
3. Mr.AvanthiJayathilake (WRMPP Consultant)
4. Prof. Amal Kumarage (University of Moratuwa)
5. Eng. NamalieSiyambalapitiya (Road Development Authority)
6. Mr. W.W. Harrison, (Ministry of Transport)
7. Eng. Nihal Wickramarathna, (Colombo Municipal Council)
8. Mr. Amarasiri Senarathna, (DIG Police, Traffic)
9. Mr. T.P. Gamalath (CCTV Division, Police Traffic Department)
10. Mr. G. Wanniarachchi, (Western Province Transport Authority)
11. Mr. H.W. Wipulasena, (National Transport Commission)
12. Mr. Janak Ranaweera (UDA)
13. Mrs. Hemanthi Mapitigama (UDA)
14. Mr. Sanjaya Ranaweera (UDA)
15. Mr. J.M. Thilakarathna Banda (MOT)
16. Eng. R.A. Sudath (RDA)
17. Mr. S.A.L. Subasinghe (Colombo Municipal Council)
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18. Mr. B.A.P. Ariyarathne (MOT)


19. Mr. A.W.M. Sarathchandra (MOT)
20. Mr. I. Biyanwila (UDA)
21. Mr. J.I.D. Jayasundara (SLR)
22. Mr. J.A.D.R. Pushpa Kumara (SLR)
23. Mr. G. Wanniarachchi (WPTA)
24. Eng. E. Wickramarachchi (CMC)
25. Eng. S.A.K. Subasinghe (CMC)
26. Eng. Mangala Karunarathne (CMC)
27. Eng. Manjula Kularathne (CMC)
28. Mr. B.M. Ifthikar (NTC)
29. Ms. Pushpa R. Soyza (CSPA)
30. Mr. M.M. Anura Prasanne (UDA)
31. Mr. S.C. Diddeniya
32. Ms. Aloka Karunarathne (NTC)
33. Mr. Kumar Rathnayake (Western Province Transport Authority)
34. Mr. Vishvajith Peiris (WRMPP Urban & Regional Planner)
35. Mr. Dilan Sampath Kumara (WRMPP Research Associate)
36. Mr. Dineth Jewanka Perera (WRMPP Research Associate)
The Committee, after a number of deliberations and consultation with the relevant
stakeholders and with due consideration of the previous studies has identified four subsectors under transport sector, with the view to address identified issues.

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6. PROPOSED SUB SECTORS FOR INTERVENTION


It is planned to intervene at the following subsector level with the view to address the
transport issues that are identified under JICA study and the Megapolis Development within
the region. Proposals are identified under the following transport sub sectors.

I.

I.

Public Transport Improvement (PTI)

II.

Road Infrastructure Development (RID)

III.

Transport Demand Management (TDM)

IV.

Environmental Sustainable Transport (EST)

Public Transport Improvement

Public transport system development is seen as the most sustainable solution for to meet the
ever increasing transport demand thereby reducing road congestion and minimizing
environmental pollution. A public transport system should be reliable and safety and
comfortable to the user. At the same time, it should have good accessibility to all the demand
centres, with adequate operating frequencies the different demand levels at peak and off peak
periods. An efficient public transport system contributes to having more productive employees
whilst ensuring minimum usage of resources.

II.

Road Infrastructure Development

Road infrastructure development will ensure the capacity improvements of roads, connectivity
of main cities and improvement of mobility in the system, whilst ensuring the safety standards
are improved as well. Infrastructure requirement should be identified in separate street
hierarchy as expressways, roads belongs to RDA and access roads.

III.

Transport Demand Management (TDM)

Transport Demand Management essentially managing the transport demand with the available
infrastructure by implementing schemes that changes road user behaviour.

A major

component of TDM is to understand the user behaviour in order to assess what will be most
effective method to alter it. Identifying the travel demand, trip purposes, travel times and
travel modes it is required to define TDM strategies for the system. The areas of interventions
are such as service designs, enforcement, control and land use planning. Ultimate goals of TDM
should make the travel options more affordable, reliable and convenient to the travellers.
Several measures that can be introduced under the Western Region Development plan have
been identified.

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IV.

2016

Environmental Sustainable Transport

Environmental sustainable transport is a very important factor to be considered in regional


planning. Use of energy efficient transport modes, reduction of vehicle emissions, air pollution,
and noise pollution will improve the health condition of the residents in the region in addition
to the road users who are directly affected. A development of this scale needs to pay careful
attention to the environmental impact, due to the long term implications it can pose.

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7. DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS
In formulation of the proposals under the above sub sector, the Committee with due
consideration to the cost factor, has agreed that the lands required for implementation of the
proposals to be made available by the Megapolis Plan. In order to bridge the cost revenue gap
in investment in the transport sector projects, part of the revenue that will be derived from
commercial utilization of land for other than transport projects, should be utilized for
implementation of transport projects or to compensate the revenue gap in operation, as
provision of transport facilities would eventually improve the land utilization. Identification of
lands available for development in Western Region is carried out separately by the project.
Following Interventions are proposed under the 4 sub sectors identified. Also it is identified
when the intervention has to commence along with estimated cost and the project duration.

7.1 Public Transport Improvement


7.1.1 Restructure and Revision of Public Bus Service
Some of the existing bus routes do not cover important areas and some areas do not have
adequate bus services. Bus route network has not been revised for about forty years. This will
improve the accessibility to newly developed areas as well as support the Megapolis structure
plan. Provision of bus services along identified important routes, that does not prevail, will
minimize the number of transfers a passenger would undergo. Further, this revision will
enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed transit systems and railway
electrification by increasing the accessibility. Adjustment, extension or creation of bus routes
will ensure the safe destination of a passenger and will reduce competition between bus
operators by reducing overlapping routes. Restructuring of public bus service will promote a
higher level of service for bus commuters while preserving and enhancing the mobility of the
non-driving population. Further, it will minimize number of private vehicles engaging in Para
transit modes especially three wheelers on roads. Moreover, reduction of the travel time and
transfer time of passengers are added benefits while enhancing the connectivity between
major generators and attractors.The restructuring and revision of the Bus service is intended
for the whole western region.

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Thedevelopment of institutional reforms for public bus service is a crucial necessity that needs
immediate action. The feasibility is sorted for creating cluster companies for private bus
operators to ensure benchmark revue for all operators is. This will ensure that the all
operators are provided revenue, based on vehicle km travelled rather than revenue earned
from each trip which will eliminate the necessity for competition for peak hour period and
competition on the providing the service. The operators have to be incorporated in to the
cluster companies ensuring that the minimum number of buses required providing the service
aredeployed in the road. It will also ensure that the vehicle is run continuously with change of
operating crew.
The revision of bus routes has to be considered for the whole western region and should come
in to immediate action.This will enhance the connectivity of the system and minimize number
of transfers.It will ensure that the operator can gain adequate revenue at the end of the day
providing a satisfactory service to the commuter. It can commence with identification of new
bus route requirement for Western province to provide a better accessibility.Introducing
Shuttle or feeder bus services connecting railway stations. New routes should be identified
using expressways to connect cities within the province with higher mobility.
Action Plan

Feasibility and implementation of Institutional reforms.

Identification of new routes on local roads and implementation using routes that have
over supply of buses

Identifying express bus services using expressways connecting cities within the
province

Identifying pick and go locations along the expressway interchanges for out of province
bus services using the expressways with feeder bus services to expressway
interchanges

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Route revisions along with connectivity to main transport nodes such as railway
stations and RTS station to provide smooth transfer between modes.

Revision of time tables with completion of intuitional reforms so that both private and
SLTB bus services run on single time table.

The project is planned to be commenced within 6 months and the duration of the project is
estimated to be one year. The estimated cost is 0.2 million USD. The project will include
restructure of bus route network, revision of time tables and development and implementation
of institutional reforms.
Responsible agencies: WPTA/NTC/MOTWP

7.1.2. Modernize and Improving the Quality of Buses and Services


The intervention is intended to provide a bus with higher quality of service for the existing bus
passengers thereby retaining them and also attracting private vehicle users to public
transport. Public transport will be made more attractive through providing modernized bus
service extended to the whole region. Better facilities for children and elderly passengers are
to be provided by providing low floor buses with kneeling feature for easy and safe access
together with facility for differently. Feasibility of converting the whole fleet to AC services
should be considered providing a comfortable environment for passengers. It is intended for a
regional bus system that will operate within a corporative environment that strikes a balance
between service quality and cost. Under this project, less crowded service and more frequent
service will be provided to the commuters with improved mobility and reliability thus
enhancing the safety and security of passengers. It will not only provide better quality
ridership for passengers but improve the driver performance to a higher level.
The specification for buses with Low floor, AC and IT enabled systems with GPS technology
and passenger information systems with cash less technologies have to be identified for
different size categories as to cover the total network coverage. The new specification has to be
formulated as a priori immediately so that new buses can be introduced as part of the 8 year
bus replacement policy that is in function currently. DMT act to be reviewed on passenger
transport vehicles to enable the change in bus specification.IT based Smart Bus Service to be
adopted, with provisions for passengers to access information on bus arrival time, tracking bus
availability on a given route. The necessary subsidies to be identified to keep the bus fare the
same or acceptable level while bridging the gap between the cost of new and older
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specification if the buses. The replacement time from currently at 8 years can be considered to
be increased with the better quality buses that are been proposed. The replacement of buses
for the new specification can be commenced with SLTB within 6 months with private bus fleet
to be replaced within 8 years or earlier.
The provision of adequate terminal facilities and modernized bus shelters parallel to bus
service upgrade has been considered as a separate project therefore not part of the current
project
Feasibility and implementing of providing bus priority at intersections and separate bus lanes
to be identified to improve the ride time of the bus passengers.
Action Plan

Develop new specification for a smart bus service with low floor kneeling, AC, IT
enabled smart bus services for the whole region under different categories with
necessary subsidies to provide the service at the current fare structure.

Implement new specification for private buses with new routes identified under
previous project 7.1.1

Implement the new specification for SLTB buses after 6 months.

The project is planned to be commenced within 6 months and the duration is estimated to be 2
8 years. The project cost is estimated to be 431 million USD. The cost estimation is based on
replacing the SLTB buses and subsidies necessary to bridge the gap of new private buses.
Responsible Agencies: WPTA/NTC/MOTWP

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7.1.3. Railway Electrification & Modernization

Rail based transport modes are proven around the world to provide the solution for urban
transport problems along with proper access by bus services. Under the Western Region
Megapolis development plan, entire railway system within Western Province will be upgraded,
electrified and modernized to provide a quality and comfortable ride to passengers. The
project will encourage the passengers shift to rail from other modes of transport, thereby
reducing the demand on the congested road space. Passengers and the region in whole will get
many benefits including travel time savings, reduction on road accidents and reduction on
environmental emissions.
The modernization includes upgrade of a) stations, b) Signal System c) Communication system
d) Rail Track e) Ticketing and f)new rolling stock to provide a complete new mode of travel
for passengers. Better connectivity to rail stations has to be ensured through route revisions of
bus services to either terminate or provide enough accessibility. The coordination of rail and
bus time tables has to be ensured to provide better transfer time for passengers. Electrification
of the railway with new signal and communication system will allow for higher frequencies up
to 3-5minute headway in peak period and new rolling stock will supplement faster
acceleration and deceleration times to increase frequencies. The passengers will be benefited
with greater service reliability, better user comfort, better station ambience, additional seating
capacity and shorter journey time. Lesser emissions and noise will ensure a sustainable and
eco-friendly transport service.
Secured Park and a ride facility in selected stations have to be provided as part of station
upgrades to attract more passengers. More focus should be made for motor cycle and bicycle
users along with adequate car parking facilities. Further drop off and pick up areas along with
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taxi parking areas have to be provided for better access to the stations. Relocation of station in
some instances might be required to facilitate better connectivity between modes. One such
instance is relocation of Wellawatte Station toward the Wellwatte Canal so that better transfer
facility can be provided for the Wellawatte Battaramulla Canal service. Other locations will
have to be identified as part of the feasibility study. The 2-3 minute frequencies will require
grade separation by fly overs at major roads to avoid delays for road users and such locations
will have to be identified in the feasibility study.
The following railway lines have been identified for modernization and electrification. The first
three lines are existing lines while the last two lines are new lines to be added to the railway
network. The lines are illustrated in
1. Panadura - Veyangoda - Polgahawela (RL-M1) -110km (85 kms within WR)
2. Kelani Valley (KV) line (RL-M3) -60km
3. Ragama Negombo line with new airport Access (RL-M2) -26km
4. Kottawa to Horana (RL-NR1) 22km
5. Kelaniya to Kosgama via Biyagama, and Dompe (RL-NR2) - 30km
The feasibility study on Railway Electrification and Modernization of PanaduraVeyangoda
line has been proposed under the Colombo Suburban Railway Project under ADB assistance.
Ministry of Transport has commenced shortlisting the consultants as of April 2016 to
commence the feasibility. It is proposed to be extended the scope of the feasibility to extend
the study up to Polgahawela. The existing signalling and communication system along the
existing line from Panadura to Polgahawela is up to 40 years old and needs upgrade.
Therefore, leaving a part of old signal system
between Veyangoda to Polgahawela have the
potential to cause operational problems. Further
the

Megapolis

structure

plan

has

major

developments proposed for Meerigama and


Divulapitiya area which warrants the line to be
extended at least up to Meerigama. Therefore the
proposal

is

to

extend the

feasibility up

Polgahawela. The feasibility to determine the


possibility

of

communication

phasing
and

track

out

the

upgrades

signal,
from

Meerigama to Polgahawela as an initial measure


and electrification to follow subsequently.
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Kelani Valley (KV) line (RL-M3 -60km) connects major town centres such as Kottawa,
Homagama, Nugegoda Dompe and Avissawella on High Level corridor and also it spans
through Baseline road making it one of the potential connection to the city. The current single
line with slow speeds due to tight curves has already reached its capacity at peak time. The KV
line is proposed to be double tracked and alignment to be as a short term project which
requires the feasibility study to be started immediately.
Electrification of Ragama Negombo line with an airport Access (RL-M2-26km) connecting the
Bandaranayke International airport is to be carried out as a medium term intervention
providing the connectivity to the Negambo corridor.
A new railway line fromKottawa to Horana (RL-NR122km) is proposed as a short term
measure where the economic feasibility of the trace and EIA has been already completed. The
detailed design and the implementation is and the full feasibility of the project is yet to be
completed and it will have to consider the electrification of the line as well. TheKelaniya to
Kosgama via Biyagama, and Dompe (RL-NR2- 30km) to be constructed which gives access to
the proposed plantation city at Avissawella, and the proposed logistics zone. This project is to
be commenced as a long term intervention. A feasibility study needs to identify the demand
and finalise trace. This can be either electrified or use the locomotives that are taken out due to
electrification on other lines. This line targets as a passenger line as well as for freight
transportation. The line passes through the Sapugaskanda oil refinery making necessary
connection for oil transportation as well.
Action Plan

Feasibility on railway electrification and modernization on Panadura-Veyangoda


extended to Polgahawela (RL-M1-110km).

Feasibility study of railway electrification and modernization on;


o

Kelani Valley line (RL-M3)

Ragama Negambo Line (RL-M2)

New Kelaniya Kosgama Passenger/Freight line (RL-NR2)

Detail design and implementation of Panadura Polgahawela line (RL-M1)

Detail design and Implementation of Kelani Valley line (RL-M3)

Detail design and implementation of Kottawa Horana line (RL-NR1)

Detail design and implementation of Ragma Negambo line (RL-M2)

Detail design and implementation of Kelaniya Kosgama line (RL-NR2)


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The feasibility of Panadura Polgahawela


Line (RL M1) is to be commenced
immediately (within 6 months) where
the duration is estimated to be 1 year and
the cost is estimated to be 1.1 million
USD. Implementation of this project
(PanaduraPolgahawela Line) is planned
to be commenced after 6 months
(immediately after the completion of feasibility study) to be completed on or before 2020 and
the total cost is estimated to be 1,540 million USD at 14 milllion USD/km. The effective cost for
the Western Region for the 85 km railway line within the province is 1,190 million USD.
Feasibility studies of the electrification of Kelani Valley line (RL-M3), RagamaNegambo Line
(RL-M2) and KelaniyaKosgama freight line (RL-NR2) are planned to be commenced after 6
months and before 3 years. Feasibility studies are estimated to be completed within a year
after the commencement and the cost is estimated to be 2.5 million USD. Implementation of
the railway electrification of Kelani Valley line (60km) is planned to be commenced within 3
years and the total duration is estimated to be 3 years where the cost is estimated to be 840
million USD.The KV line is recommended to be completed in two phases with first phase up to
Kottawa to be completed on or before 2020 and the second phase from Kottawa to Avissawella
to be completed on or before 2025. Implementation of the railway electrification of Ragama
Negambo line with airport connection is planned to be commenced after 3 years but before 5
years and the cost is estimated to be 364 million USD. Project duration is estimated as 2 years.
The rail line is phased out to be operational on or before 2025.
The detailed design and implementation of KottawaHorana new rail line (22km) is planned to
be commenced after 6 months and before 3 years to be completed on or before 2020. The
estimated project duration for the whole project is 3 years and the cost is estimated to be 309
million USD.Detailed design and implementation of KelaniyaKosgama line is planned to be
commenced after 5 years where the project duration is estimated to be 3 years to be
completed by 2025. This line can be either be electrified or used as normal line with rolling
stock retired from other lines, which will be decided through the feasibility study. The cost is
estimated to be 420 million USD (if electrified, the cost will be lower if electrification is not
needed).
Responsible Agencies:MOT/CGR/WPTA
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Figure 15: Proposed Railway Lines for Railway Electrification and Modernization

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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7.1.4. Introducing a Rapid Transit System (RTS)

The existing road and public transport service has virtually come to a standstill in the peak
time especially within the Colombo CBD area, the existing passenger demand is almost
exceeding the supply of transportation infrastructure. The average travel speeds is around
17km/h in the western region and even lesser at 12km/h in the CMC area. While road
expansions have been the usual practice that has been adopted it has been proven that more
expansion of roads will only attract more and more private vehicles. Further, CBD does not
have the luxury of available land for expansion of the road the improvement of public
transport has been long felt for decades which has been addressed by the Megapolis Transport
Plan which gives the highest priority to public transport improvements. In line with the
transport plan one of the public transport improvements proposed is a new Rapid Transit
System to be introduced in the CBD and extended to the out of the CBD of Western Region. It
will introduce the new transit mode and will provide easy access to the major attractions in
the system. It will ensure a higher quality service for everyone in terms of cost, time and safety.
Introducing a new mode will help the rider to choose most appropriate mode of transport
based on his trip purpose and hence will increase the modal shift towards the public
transportation reducing the traffic congestion significantly. All the major points in the CBD will
be connected by the new system. The RTS has to be elevated within CBD since road space is
not available for dedicated service while there are possibilities of going on ground where it is
extended to the suburbs.
Following three technologies with the capacities in parenthesis were considered.
1. Light Rail Transit (LRT) or Light Metro (30,000 PPHPD)
2. Monorail (30,000 PPHPD)
3. Bus Rapid Transit (13,000 PPHPD)

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JAICA study has identified monorail as the suitable system while the MoT study has been based
on more road based system with BRT technology. The transport committee in its consultation
has identified that introduction of a modern urban rail based public transport system gives the
best option for offering the private vehicle users an alternative to consider change the mode of
travel whilst experiencing reasonably high service quality and reliability. This eradicates the
complexities with respect to operating time tables, red tape with the administrative processes,
pressure from unions, political influences, and the general inefficiency, that are part and parcel
of the current public transport options available that is preventing it from becoming a viable
alternative for private vehicle users. Therefore LRT was selected as the most suitable
technology with due consideration given to the previous studies that were conducted.
The transport committee identified that BRT was not sustainable to meet the demands for
design period of next 20 years. BRT requiring at least 3 lanes in each direction with the vehicle
composition in the western regions does not have the capability of evolving as a network
without considerable acquisition and road expansions. With only marginal increase in capacity
from 10,000 PPHPD of a higher level bus service to 13,000 PPHPD for BRT, the increase in
supply is marginal to the investment that has to be made. There were two main BRT lines that
were proposed by the MoT review which were for Galle Road between Fort and Moratuwa and
Fort and Kadawatha. Practical situation is that both cannot be implemented in short term. The
feasibility study on Galle Road has identified that Galle Road BRT would require a 6km
elevated road between Wellawatte and Maliban junction, which raises the question whether
such elevated structure on the existing roadway feasible (not addressed in the study) and also
questions the possibility construction of an elevated road in short term. The Kadawatha
expansion is more a practical problem where the extra lane that is required for BRT would
need additional acquisition from the section that was acquired in 2015. The people who have
demolished their properties and rebuilding will be required to be given acquisition notice that
is practically not possible. The remaining BRT lines have similar acquisition issues while they
are running on expressways which technically do not need a BRT system but rather an express
bus service. Further, It has been identified by the feasibility study itself that Galle Road BRT
will reach capacity by 2025 even when running in parallel with the electrified rail network
thus creating an under supply just after 5-6 of operation of the system. However it should be
noted that the BRT study was conducted based on 1998 CMRSP plan which has lower growth
scenario than the Megapolis plan and the Megapolis demand analysis has identified that the
BRT will reach its capacity even sooner between 2020 and 2025. A detail description on why
the BRT was not selected is given in Annex 2: The Reasons for not including BRT in the
Megapolis Plan.
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Main cause for the selection of LRT (Light Rail Transit) over monorail was its popularity
corresponding to its versatility.Light rail can run on all possible types of alignment (elevated,
at-grade, underground), depending on the particular situation in a given area of a given city,
while monorail is limited to elevated only. Since the proposed Rapid Transit system spreads
through suburbs such as Battaramulla, Kottawa, Malabe, Kaduwela and Kadawatha, as
discussed later, approximately 17% can be accommodated at-ground level while blended
facilities such as deports, yards andstations can be located at ground level irrespective to line
been at-grade or elevated, significantly reducing the overall cost.LRT also have the advantage
of lower operations costs and does not pose incurred higher costs on switching as in monorail.
Monorail has been popular in cases of stand along lines connecting two places; however it has
rarely evolved as a network especially with crossing that is limited with monorail. Proposal by
JAICA for monorail can be justified with the two lines that had been considered from Malabe to
Fort and towards Mattakuliya since both of these lines will have to be elevated, however when
considering a network evolving to the suburbs that can have ground operation the LRT is a
better choice. Further the fact that LRT has more providers across the world enables to acquire
a system at a competitive rate with the best technology. The modern LRT system technology
permits slender contemporary structural supports ensuring the aesthetic beauty of the urban
context which could be enhanced with the involvement of an urban design expert.
The RTS route and selection of stations were done according to a comprehensive methodology
using major trip attraction, generation points and minimum spanning tree method. A detail
description of the RTS route formulation methodology is given inAppendix 04.
The RTS lines that were identified are listed below and shown in Figure 16 and Figure 17.
1. Green Line (RTS1) -15km FortKollupitiya-Bambalapitiya-Borella-Union PlaceMaradana - Elevated
2. Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km Fort- Maradana- Mattakkuliya/Peliyagoda- Elevated
3. Red Line (RTS3) 10km Dematagoda-Borella-Narahenpita-Kirulapone-Havelock CityBambalapitiya - Elevated
4. Purple Line (RTS4) 10km -BorellaRajagiriyaBattramulla-Malabe Elevated/at
Ground
5. Pink Line (RTS5) 9.6km - Malabe Kottawa Elevated/at Ground
6. Olive Line (RTS6) 6km - Malabe - Kaduwela - Elevated/at Ground
7. Ash Line (RTS7) 13km - Peliyagoda - Kadawatha - Elevated/at Ground

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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RTS1, RTS2 and RTS 3 are within CBD and are completely elevated systems. RTS1 supply for
the demand with the inner CBD and is a circular route that connects the Fort MMH and inner
city future high density residential complexes and economic centres. It connects to the railway
lines at Fort, Kolupitiya and Bambalapitiya. RTS2 connects Mattakuliya/Kotahena area with
the city starting beyond Kelani river at Hekitta at one end and at Peliyagoda at the other end.
There are possibilities of having park and ride facilities at both of these locations so that
number of vehicles entering across the river can be limited. RTS3 starting from Bambalapitiya
and going across thunmulla and going down high level road to Kirilopone and coming along
Baseline road to Dematagoda connects residential and institutional land use such as Havelock
city, schools, hospitals and transferability from Rail at Bambalapitiya, Narahenpita and
Dematagoda.
RTS4 from Borella to Malabe could have at ground stations but most likely to be elevated
systems as well. This line connects to the RTS1 at Borella and goes along the centre island of
the Parliament Road/Cotta Road towards Battaramulla. RTS5 starting from Malabe However,
RTS5, RTS6 and RTS7 have potential of a total 12.5 kms of at ground operation where RTS5
with 5kms, RTS6 with 2.5 kms and RTS7 having closer to 5kms of at ground operation.
Efficient transfer facilities between urban rail to RTS is critical that continuous mobility is
ensured for the public transport users first to provide an efficient service to current users plus
attract more passengers from other modes. Urban rail RTS transfers from Coastal line are
provided at Bambalapitiya and Kollupitiya, from main line at Kelaniya, Dematagoda and Fort,
from KV line at Kottawa, Narahenpita, Cotta road and Dematagoda as shown in Figure 17. The
Kaduwela transfer facility is for transfer from Inland water transport mode as discussed in
next section. Secured park and ride facilities for cars, motor cycles and also for non-motorized
transport such a bicycles have to be identified and provided where land is available so that
people are able to access the RTS stations. Further, park and ride facilities at Kadawatha,
Peliyagoda and Kottawa to attract people arriving on expressways are to be provided.
As a result of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology proposed above, faster connectivity to
their final destination for people brought in from urban railway is ensure. Further, it is an
addition of new mode and increase of capacity to the total transit system that will avoid the
overloading of existing transit systems, reduce the number of private vehicles especially motor
cycles and three wheelers on roads, improve the quality of ridership with better travel time,
safety and comfort, attract more investors and tourists to the country and it will reduce land
acquisition problem for road widening.
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Action Plan

Feasibility Study of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology for all identified lines in
CBD and Suburbs:

Green Line (RTS1)

Yellow Line (RTS2)

Red Line (RTS3)

Puple Line (RTS4)

Pink Line (RTS5)

Olive Line (RTS6)

Ash Line (RTS 7)

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;
o

Green Line (RTS1) -15km Fort Kollupitiya-Bambalapitiya- Borella-Union


Place- Maradana

Purple Line (RTS4) 10km - Borella Rajagiriya Battramulla-Malabe

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;
o

Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km Fort- Maradana- Mattakkuliya/Peliyagoda

Pink Line (RTS5) 9.6km - Malabe Kottawa

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;
o

Red Line (RTS3) 10km Dematagoda-Borella-Narahenpita - KirulaponeHavelock City- Bambalapitiya

Olive Line (RTS6) 6km - Malabe - Kaduwela

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;
o

Ash Line (RTS7) 13km - Peliyagoda - Kadawatha

Feasibility study of the whole RTS network is planned to be commenced within 6 months. The
duration for the feasibility is estimated as 1 year and the cost is estimated as 1 million USD.
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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The feasibility of Green Line (RTS1) and Purple Line (RTS4) are to be expedited, so that detail
design and construction could be started immediately.
The detail design and implementation of the RTS lines proposed above are in phases as
described below. The detailed design and implementation of RTS1 and RTS4 are planned to be
commenced after 6 months and within 3 years (as soon as the feasibility study completed) to
be operational in year 2020. The duration of the project is estimated to be 3 years and the cost
of RTS 1 and d RTS 4 are estimated to be 750 and 500 million USD respectively.
Detailed design and implementation of RTS2 and RTS5 are planned to be commenced after 3
years and within 5 years. The duration of the projects is estimated to be 3 years and the cost of
RTS 2 and d RTS 5 are estimated to be 575 and 380 million USD respectively. Detailed design
and implementation of RTS3, RTS6 and RTS7 are planned to be commenced after 5 years. The
duration of the projects is estimated to be 3 years, 2 years and 3 years respectively and the
cost is estimated for RTS3 as 500 million USD, RTS6 as 260 million USD and RTS7 as 550
million USD. The total cost of the RTS network of 75kms is 3.5 billion USD.
Responsible Agencies: WRMPP

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Figure 16: Proposed RTS network in CBD area

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Kelaniya
Fort
MMH
Dematagoda
Kaduwela

Cotta Rd

Kollupitiya

Narahenpita
Bambalapitiya

RTS5

Kottawa MMC

Figure 17: Proposed RTS network in CBD & suburbs

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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7.1.5. Introducing New Inland Water Transport System


Use of inland waterways has the potential to reduce the travel time drastically on certain travel
corridors. Presently, there is no proper connecting mode in the East-West direction in the
Colombo region unless the prevailing bus services cater that necessity. By using the existing
canal systems, strong east-west transport connectivity can be generated for the commuters
convenience. Comfortable air conditioned boats will ensure a smooth comfortable ride for
passengers At the off peak periods, especially at night time this system can be used to promote
ecotourism around the Colombo city making this city an active and an attractive area during
night time as well.This will add a facet to the citys transport infrastructure. Boat jetties will be
placed at main linking points where the canals cross the main roads and in other places where
necessary improving the accessibility and the inter connectivity between other modes.
Following three inland water transport lines were identified as shown in Figure 18;

Wellawatta Battaramulla Line (IW1)

Fort Union Place (along Beire Lake) (IW2)

Mattakkuliya Hanwella (along Kelani River) (IW3)

The Wellawatta-Battaramulla (IW1) has the most potential to provide an urban transport
solution. It intersects 6 main road including Marine Drive, Galle Road, Highlevel Road, Baseline
Road, Nawala Road and Parliament Road out of which 3 of them are main 7 corridors. This is
one of interventions identified under the Megapolis plan that can come in to action immediately
as a detail feasibility of the project was conducted in 2005 which needs update to current traffic
condition.
The shuttle boat service proposed in the Beire Lake from Fort to Union Place (IW2) will save a
lot of time for passengers who have to use bus service to connect these points especially during
peak time. The feasibility of the line has to be conducted.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


The

line

along

Kelani

River

2016

from

Mattakkuliya up to Hanwella (IW3) has a


high potential to provide an alternate mode
for the low level corridor where the public
transport is poor. Due consideration has to
be made in regards to environmental
impacts prior to implementation as the
main water intake is from Kelani river for distribution of water Colombo. The feasibility of the
mode with electrified or solar powered boards can be considered when the study on the route is
done. Prior to the canal boat system, the cleaning and dredging of the canals should be done in
addition. Parallel to the provision of boats, construction of boat stations, yards and access roads
should come in to action. A proper type of boats should be used during this service and a
proper regulatory mechanism should be established for the continuous monitoring and for the
operation and maintenance processes. As this is connected with the environment much more,
necessary studies must be carried out to identify the environmental problems and action to
mitigate where possible.
Action Plan

Feasibility Study update and detail design on;


o

Implementation of the service on;


o

Wellawatta Battaramulla Line (IW1)


Wellawatta Battaramulla Line (IW1)

Feasibility Study and detail design on;


o

Fort Union Place (along Beire Lake) (IW2)

Mattakkuliya Hanwella (along Kelani River) (IW3)

Implementation of the service on;


o

Fort Union Place (along Beire Lake) (IW2)

Mattakkuliya Hanwella (along Kelani River) (IW3)

Since a prior feasibility study and a detailed design has been carried out for IW1 (Wellawatta
Battaramulla line) in 2005 the commencement of this particular project is planned within 6
months where the duration is estimated to be 6 months and the cost is estimated to be 60
million USD.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Feasibility studies in IW2 and IW3 are also planned to be commenced within 6 months where
the projected duration is 6 months. The estimated cost for the feasibility study is 0.1 million
USD.
Detailed design and implementation of IW2 and IW3 are planned to be commenced after 3
years. The durations of the projects are estimated to be 1 year and 2 years respectively and the
cost of IW2 and d IW3 are estimated to be 5 and 60 million USD respectively.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Figure 18: Proposed Inland Water Transport System

7.1.6. Develop Multimodal Transport Hub and Centres


Development of anintegrated transit system that provides satisfactory service coverage for
people and freight transport,as practically as possible by enhancing the connectivity will be
achieved through construction of multimodal transport hubs and centres. The main trip
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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generation zones within the region will be connected by both railway and roads to ensure
seamless travel especially for the public transport users. For this purpose, there needs to be
integration of the modes via multi-modal hubs for smooth transitions for the users from one
mode to the other. Ultimately, transport Hub and centres will provide a better connectivity and
transfer facilities for passengers.
These benefits will not only be confined to passenger transport but would also be derived for
goods transport.Improved logistic facilitiesfor their goods could open up access to previously
unreachable areas as well as link key economic centres to national markets. Such improved
infrastructure facilities will attract more investors to the country improving business
opportunities and also will increase the tourist demand in the country providing comfortable
and safer transport system.
The main Transport Multimodal Hub is being proposed to construct at Fort/Pettah, in Colombo.
Development of the detailed designs for Fort / Pettah transport hub (MMTH) should be done
immediately.

Source: ComTrans Feasibility Study Report

In order to support the proposal, conversion of OlcottMawatha/ BasitianMawatha to one-way


operation so that all buses can circulate should come in to action. Parallel actions such asrerouting of short distance buses, provision of Park & Ride facilities in order to accommodate the
private vehicles must accommodate this implementation. Inter connectivity of transit modes
should be achieved as well.Access to port by road and rail should be provided enhancing a
better connectivity.
Several other transport terminal locations have been identified to be improved as Multi Modal
Centres (MMC). These have been identified into two levels,major MMCs and minor MMCs.
The proposed major Multimodal Transport Centres are;
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

Kottawa

Horana

Kadawatha

Kaduwela

Panadura

Negombo/18th Mile post

2016

The minor Multi Modal Transport Centres (MMC) are;

Gampaha

Ragama

Moratuwa

Meerigama

Avissawella

Bus re-routing and related development activities have to be identified for each location
separately to cater the passenger demand. Park & Ride facilities should be developed at
respective areas. Develop ICD facilities if required. Need to carry out a feasibility study to
identify the types of developments and land availability in selected locations.
Action Plan

Detailed design and construction of Multimodal Transport Hub (MMTH) at Fort/Pettah.

Detail design and construction of multimodal centres at 11 locations identified.

The development of Fort/Pettah transport hub is planned to be commenced after 6 months


time (before 3 years) and planned to be completed within two years. The project cost for the
Fort/Pettah hub is estimated to be 200 million USD.
Development of major and minor multi modal centres is planned to be commenced after 3
years. The feasibility study should be completed before that. The estimated project duration is 2
years and the project cost is estimated to be 100 million USD.
Responsible Agencies: UDA/MOT/WRMP

7.1.7. Regulate and Improvement of School Bus Services and Office Van Services
The existing school transport service is not enough to meet the demand and not up to the
required standards by upper middle class of the society. As a result, majority of school children
are travelling by private vehicles that consists a significant portion of the morning peak traffic.
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Changing this traffic to a few reliable and quality school transport service vehicles which
operates from home to school can relieve the traffic congestion significantly. Attraction to such
service is only possible through providing higher quality service that is comfortable, safe and
reliable. Higher level of service with air conditioning to provide comfortability, regulated so that
the service is limited to seated students and safety to be ensured with monitoring facilities
provided to the parents. The form of private school bus companies that could provide a service
with increased reliability so that in an event of a breakdown the company has to have the ability
to replace the bus by another vehicle in a short time which is lacking at current public school
bus service.
In the process of implementation, a regulatory mechanism school services should be formed
immediately. Development of Policy Documents to facilitate a better operation it is a must prior
to the installation of regulatory body.Operational guidelines including, seating capacity,
driver/assistant registration, vehicle fitness, maximum travel time should be specified in order
to gain the necessary output up to the required standards. Moreover, separate bodies to operate
school services in parallel to existing public school service should come in to action
immediately.Providing higher quality door to door service with air condition, monitoring and
reliability facilities will result in attracting more customers from private vehicles. The cost of
the service does not have to be subsidies as the intention is to attract the students from
passenger vehicles rather than from existing school bus service. The above service is to be run
in parallel to Sisuseriya program. In parallel Sisusariya program has to be extended more so
that public school bus service is also improved
The program can be extended to office vans with furtherstudies.
Action Plan

Form regulatory mechanism for school services.

Specification of operational guidelines including, seating capacity, driver/assistant


registration, vehicle fitness and maximum travel time

Formation of separate organization to operate school services with buses equipped with
air condition, GPS systemsto detect the busses and monitoring facilities. (In parallel to
existing public school service)

Sisuseriya project to be continued and improved as it is in identified routes by NTC.

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The project is to be commenced within 6 months and the duration of the project is estimated to
be 1 year. A feasibility study and formulation of policy documents are to be carried out
immediately. The estimated project cost is 1.42 million USD.
Responsible agencies: MOTWP/NTC/WPTA

7.1.8. Regulate and Improve Taxi Services


Taxies are an integral part of any urban transport systems and it provides door to door service
to the users providing the last mile connection. With the increase in number of taxi operators
and the number of taxis on the road,without any formal regulations had led to many social and
traffic issues in the country. An improved and a relatively cheap taxi service will act as
supplementary service to public transport system users which in turn may increase the modal
share of public transport. This especially is relevant in attracting the car users to public
transport. Regularization and maintaining high standards with respect to vehicle condition etc.
is even beneficial to the taxi operators, as evident from the now successful mobile phone based
taxi booking systems such as Pickme, three-wheel drivers are motivated to join such a system
as they have seen it gives them more dividends with respect to getting more hires and
decreasing the percentage time the taxis are idling either parking at a stand or travelling around
without a passenger. Regularized Taxi services can be converted into another public transport
mode in the city limits.This will create employment opportunities to the community, reduce
unnecessary cruising of taxi drivers on roads,reduce traffic accidents, congestion and vehicle
emission.Control the number of taxis entering the system and enhance the job security of taxi
drivers as well.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Introduction of a common identification system for all taxies are proposed immediately. A
regulatory body to be established and policy documents available for taxi services and all the
taxies must get registered under the regulator. Promoting and supplying adequate parking
space for taxies at major transit nodes should come in to action immediately. The charging
regulations associated with taxi services should be reviewed in parallel. Modern technologies
can be incorporated to the taxi services such as to use the internet to find taxi locations, contact
numbers and the usage of GPS tracking systems. Development of such IT based smart taxi
service will make it convenient and more attractive for the commuters.
Action Plan

Introduction of a common identification system for all taxis

Establishment of a regulatory body and the preparation of policy documents

Promoting and supplying adequate parking space for registered taxies at major transit
nodes

Review of charging regulations associated with taxi services

Development of such IT based smart taxi service

The project is planned to be commenced after 6 months and before 3 years and the duration of
the project is estimated to be one year. The cost of the project is estimated to be 0.35 million
USD.
Responsible Agencies: WPTA/NTC/UDA/MOT

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7.1.9. Improvementof Facilities at Suburban Interchange Bus Terminals and Stands.


Almost all bus terminals where the passengers interchange buses and the bus stands located at
many strategic locations on different routes lack facilities and information useful for users.
Available basic facilities are not maintained properly due to lack of resources and had been
dilapidated most of the terminal buildings located in prime locations in suburbs are eye sores as
the buildings have not been designed to suit its surroundings or user needs in mind. These
places are patronized by large number of passengers daily and are excellent places to develop
many SME services needed by them and have a great commercial value that can not only
provide employment but also good income to those who wish to own and operate them. Hence
it is proposed to develop these bus terminals across the Colombo and its suburbs with all
amenities and services needed by the general users. As these could be built and operated by
local entrepreneurs it is recommended to float local tenders to lease these lands/spaces for
private builders to build and maintain these services. The objectives are to redevelop and
improve the appearance, design and operational qualities of the bus terminals and bus stands to
provide better facilities to passengers and minimize the operational costs of the bus terminals
by the government while the services to bus passengers continue.
As the first step, the required suburban interchange bus terminals and stands will be identified
through a proper study. Then Private sector will be invited to undertake the reconstruction and
improvement of the bus terminals to be equipped with all modern amenities on leased out lands
on a long term lease basis by calling Design build and operate proposals for each site. The
properties will be subleased and construction will be carried out. Public services and the
facilities to be provided by the operators.The National Transport Commission and Western
Megapolis to agree on terms and conditions to be stipulated and monitor the quality of
services.200 strategically located bus stands will be improved to help passengers. The bus
stands will be developed to have a kiosk which will be sub leased by the developers to operators
(SMEs) who will maintain these bus stands while engaged in business of selling goods and
services and provide information to passengers thru modern communication equipment.

Action Plan
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Identification of Suburban interchange bus terminals

Private sector to be invited in the process of reconstruction and improvement

Selected terminals to be equipped with modern amenities

200 strategically located bus stands will be improved to help passengers

2016

The project is planned to be commenced within 3 years and the duration of the project is
estimated to be 2 years. Cost of the project is estimated to be 230 million USD.

7.1.10. Establishment of Transport Information Analysis and Dissemination Centre


The information on transportation is many folds. The public as well as the transport planners
and regulators of the urban services constantly need this information on a daily basis. Regular
surveys on the performance of transport services as well as feedback from public to make
management decision are essential for improvement of transport sector. Currently the
universities carries out some of the research activities related to this. It is recommended a
Transport Information Centre that collects, analysed and disseminate this information on
commercial basis be established. The objective of this project is to improve the transport
services with real time data and facilitate transport management decision making process. An
institutional mechanism will be set up
whereby the NTC will form a joint venture
with a private sector or form a public
company that will provide the services. Then
the company will train the staff and
introduce the GIS based information system
and provide required information thru the
telecom network to the public.
Action Plan

Establishment of Institutional mechanism

Introduction of IT based information system

The project is planned to be commenced within 3 years where the duration is projected to be 2
years. The cost of the project is estimated to be 2 million USD.

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Figure 19: Proposed Public Transport Interventions in Western Region

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Figure 20: Proposed Public Transport Interventions in Core Area

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7.2 Road Infrastructure Development


7.2.1. Capacity Improvement of Existing Roads

The road expansions have been the common method that has been adopted in the past to
address the traffic congestion. Apart from, certain roads outside of the Colombo city limit, most
of the inner city roads does not have the luxury to expand with considerable acquisition been
required. In general the roads that have been identified by the RDA for capacity improvements
have been incorporated to the WRMPP transport plan. The RDA has identified the required
links within each district to maintaining average speed of 40 km/h and development of the High
Mobility road network connecting districts with an average speed of 60 km/h which has
developed by RDA for next 10 years. In addition following existing roads that RDA has not
selected have been proposed with the new growth plan on Western region.

Horana Meerigama via Padukka, Kirindiwela

Negombo Divulapitiya Meerigama

Ja-ela - Divulapitiyavia Ekala and Minuwangoda

The existing road link Horana to Meerigama via Padukka and Kirindiwela will be rehabilitated
asa medium term measure. The above road link will facilitate the inter corridor movement of
people easily and will connect down south with Negambo and Meerigama bypassing Colombo
core area. It will facilitate the transport requirements within the new cities such as Horana,
Meerigama and Divulapitiya that are to be developed under the Megapolis plan. Two other new
road links identified are Negombo- Divlapitiya - Mirigama as a 4 lane road and Ja-ela to
Divlapitiya via Ekala and Minuwangoda as a 4 lane road to cater mainly future industrial and
business tourism traffic in the region. These interventions would be Medium term
developments. A feasibility study is in progress to identify most suitable roads to be
rehabilitated under ADB assistance.
The transport plan also identifies following three missing links within Colombo to be improved
as appropriate to the Western region Megapolis plan as medium term interventions.
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Marine Drive extension to Galle Face Chathiya road and Dehiwela


Junction.

Baseline Road Extension from Kirulapone up to Maliban junction.

Duplication road extension up to Kalubowila Hospital Road.

Action Plan

Feasibility and Detail design and rehabilitation of existing road links


o

Horana to Meerigama via Padukka and Kirindiwela

Negombo- Divlapitiya - Mirigama

Ja-ela to Divlapitiya via Ekala and Minuwangoda

Detail design and construction of missing links;


o

Marine drive extension to Galle Face and Dehiwela,

Baseline Road extension up to Maliban junction and

Duplication Road extension up to Kalubowila Hospital Road.

The RDA will be the main implementing agency for all projects, with the CMC supporting the
initiatives within the Colombo Municipal limits.
The RDA previously identified projects to be commenced within 6 months at a cost of 345
million USD which will take around 3 years to complete. The feasibility studiesof Horana
Meerigama, Baseline extension and Duplication road extension to commence within 6 months
which has a cost of 0.5 million USD and 1.5 million USD.
The road improvements to commence after 6 months and within 3 years are; detail design and
construction of proposed Horana Meerigama road at a cost of 58 million USD, baseline road
extension to Maliban junction at a cost of 40 million USD, Marie drive extensions at a cost of 18
million USD. Further, a policy on right of way to relocate of unauthorized people has to be
completed.
The road projects to commence 3 years and within 5 years are detail design and construction of
Ja-ela Divulapitiya road at a cost of 20 million USD and detail design and construction of
Duplication road extension at a cost of 11 million USD.

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7.2.2. Improve the Capacity of Existing Expressway Network / Improve the Expressway
Network

The existing expressways are mainly utilized for long distance passenger transportation. Yet,
some of the nearby major towns can be connected through a route which runs through the
expressways reducing the time to travel in between. The existing tolls have not been revised as
per the changed demand over the past years and the capacity of the expressway is not fully
utilized due to reduction in capacity at toll gates which has manual toll collection method apart
from Colombo Katunayake Expressway.The efficient and effective use of existing expressways
under the Western Region Megapolis plan, is proposed with increase of regional express bus
services using expressways as discussed under section 7.1.1, reducing delays at toll collection
facilities and revising tolls to attract more users. Implementation of this project willsave time,
fuel and improve the connectivity of long distance nodes, improve regional bus transport
system, induce new land use developments in areas around interchanges, improve the
connectivity to transport hubs and will positively affect the economic development of the
country.
As per the action plan, analysing the new demand on the highways and reviewing the existing
toll will be undertaken as immediate measures.It is essential that due consideration is made to
identify ways to increase the use of expressways by commercial vehicles that currently use the
national highways. Introduction of new electronic toll collection system is a necessity in order to
eliminate the possible traffic congestion at the entrance and exit of expressways and it will come
into effect as a medium term measure. Introduction of a real time information management
system will also proposed as a medium term measure to improve the efficiency of expressway
operations.
Action Plan

Analysing the existing demand on the expressways and reviewing the existing toll

Introduction of new electronic toll collection system

Introduction of a real time information management system


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The Study on Expressway Capacity Improvements is expected to commence within the next six
months, and be completed within one year, at an estimated budget of 0.1 million USD. The RDA
will be responsible for the implementation of these projects.

7.2.3. Construction of new Expressways

The expressway network provides a high mobility to provide a connection from out of region
while providing connectivity within the region in the perimeter of the urban development. The
proposed expressways in the Megapolis Transport Plan comprise of elevatedas well as at grade
sections connecting the region outwards and provide a connection to the central business
district. It will reduce the travel time significantly between key areas. It also results in enabling
more inland connectivity and the expansion of existing expressway network.
Following national and urban expressway expansions are proposed;
1. Ruwanpura Expressways
2. Central Expressway.
3. Elevated expressway from New Kelani Bridge to Colombo Port (Port Access
Expressway).
4. Elevated expressway from New Kelani Bridge to Pore/OCH
The feasibility studies for Ruwanpura Expressway and Central Expressway have been
concluded with detailed designs and are been evaluated by the RDA. The preliminary feasibility
on New Kelaniya Bridge and elevated expressway from New Kelani Bridge to Colombo Port &
Fort area (CKE extension) is available and is a necessary connection not only for private vehicles
but for commercial vehicles. The connection is vital with the development of port city project.

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Elevated urban Expressway from New Kelani Bridge to Pore/OCH via Battaramulla is identified
as a necessary connection to connect the Southern Expressway/Outer Circular Expressway to
the inner city providing a quick connection to vehicles arriving on both of the expressways. A
feasibility study was conducted up to Rajagiriya, therefore extension of the study to include
connection to SE/OCH is required. Due consideration has to be made on the impact by higher
mobility for public transport in this corridor with the introduction of the RTS5 and RTS6
proposed under the Megapolis Transport Master Plan.
Action Plan

Feasibility study on elevated expressway from Kelani Bridge to Pore/OCH via


Battaramulla.

Construction of Ruwanpura Expressway

Construction of Central Expressway

Construction of New Kelaniya Bridge and elevated expressway from New Kelani Bridge
to Colombo Port & Fort area (CKE extension)

Construction of Elevated Urban Expressway from Kelani Bridge to Pore/OCH via


Battaramulla.

The cost of construction of the Central expressways is 992.21 million USD for the section within
western region (total cost 2979 million USD) which is identified to commence within 6 months
and project duration to be 4-5 years. The Ruwanpura Expressways cost is estimated at 529.55
million USD road sections within western region (total cost 1518 million USD) which is
identified to commence within 6 months and take 4-5 years to complete.
The elevated road from New Kelani Bridge to Colombo Port is estimated at 145 million USD is
identified to commence within 6 months anticipated to take 3 years to construct. The elevated
road from New Kelani Bridge to Pore via Battaramulla is estimated to cost 1100 million USD is
identified as required by 2025 that requires commencement after 5 years.

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7.2.4 Policy on use of Road/Rail Right of Way / Policy of use of Road Right of Way

Every Road / Railway line has its demarcated boundaries and over time most of the designated
area are acquired by unauthorized people. It makes inconvenience as well as the congestion
within the cities. Due to poor policies in land acquisition, road projects get delayed
unnecessarily. Under this project, a policy will be developed by professionals in the field to
avoid such circumstances in the future projects. A project of this type is needed in order to allow
necessary future expansion thus by result in a low expenditure on provision of low
compensation. Hence it will result in avoiding social controversy arising due to public property
acquisitions, expediting road improvement projects without unforeseen delays in land
acquisition having a clear Right of Way which will increase road capacity and level of service
and improve pedestrian safety &comfort.
Identification and demarcation of road and rail right of way boundaries need to be done
immediately with enforcing strict legal restrictions to avoid encroachers. Then, the relocation of
unauthorized settlers can be carried out as a short term intervention.
Action Plan

Identification and demarcation of Road and Rail Right

Enforcing strict restrictions on encroachers

Relocation of unauthorized settlers

This project will be carried out by the UDA and the RDA within the next 6 months to 3 years,
and will be completed within 2 years of commencement. The estimated cost of the project is
0.07 million USD.

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Figure 21: Proposed Road Improvements in Western Region

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Figure 22: Proposed Road Improvements in Core Area

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Figure 23: Proposed Interventions in Western Region

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7.3 Transport Demand Management


7.3.1 Flexible & Staggering Work Hours
Flexible working hours is proposed to be introduced in public and private institutions to spread
the peak demand of the traffic flow which increase the peak time period of traffic but at a lower
volume, thus providing relief for several years until public transport infrastructure is built.
Employees can adjust their working time without any negative effects to the working processes
of the institutes. Flexible work hours allow workers to determine their own schedule times, and
plan their work hours. Cooperatively, office working times can be employed by fixing the time
that all workers have to be at work (10 am to 3pm) and allowing the employee to decide the
starting time of their work. (7am to 10am). The end time will be based on the start time. That is
if someone starts at 7am he can leave at 3pm while someone starting at 10 and will finish at 6
pm. Implementation of flexible workhours will increase the time period the public services
available spreading through the day and also improve passenger and rider satisfaction. The
increase on peak period will also be beneficial for the current public transport providers
especially to the private bus operators who are currently competing to provide the service in
the peak time period.
Development of policy plans to promote flexible work hours in selected institutes should initiate
in short term. Study and identify possible areas of application and necessary policy
introductions should come along while acknowledging and promoting systematic schedule
within the institutions. Next, flexi
hours can be introduced in medium
term. In order to cater the spread of
demand,

Trains

and buses

are

needed to be rescheduled to ensure


the convenience of the employees.
Development of policy plans to
promote staggering work hours in
selected institutes should be done
Short to Medium Termly.
Action Plan

Development of directive to promote flexible work hours in selected institutes

Necessary administrative and legal amendments to the procedures

Rescheduling trains and buses


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Estimated Approximate cost for the above project is 0.05 Million USD that will be mainly
utilized for the preliminary studies to be under taken. This project should be commenced
immediately (within 6 months) and the expected project duration is 6 months from the date of
commencement.
Responsible Agencies: Ministry of Public Administration/Chamber of Commerce

7.3.2 Parking Management


The aim of parking management is to reduce vehicle trips by controlling on street parking, and
charge for currently free service, on the assumption that people will change modes or carpool.
Shifting from free parking to cost-recovery parking will result in automobile commuter trip
reduction. Further, minimize the impacts of parking on impervious surfaces and minimizing the
requirements for parking spaces will equal a significant reduction in public expenditures;
charging for the cost of parking would help reduce parking congestion. It will ultimately result
in on street parking demand reduction by eliminate illegal parking on roads. Provision of off
street parking will help to improve the capacity on roadsand provision of on-street parking for
short time periods at identified locations.
Immediate actions should be taken to develop a Pricing mechanism for Parking. Under this
process, Implementation of parking metering system to Colombo district can be done in the
preliminary stage estimated approximate cost for this immediate action is 0.28 Million USD with
a project duration of 6 months from the date of start. Parallel, Adequate on- street spacing
should be availablerestricting parking on pedestrian walkways. Further, time limited parking
enforced at identified roadside parking lots (e.g. 30 min Maximum) should bring in to action
immediately. Prior to this, pedestrian walkways should be completed up to requirements.

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Action Plan

Develop a pricing mechanism for Parking.

Implementation of parking metering system

Provision of adequate on- street spacing

restricting parking on pedestrian walkways

Allowing time limited parking enforced at identified roadside parking lots (e.g. 30 min
Maximum)

Pedestrian walkways should be completed up to requirements.

The following measures must be taken for successful implementation of this.

Provision of overflow parking facility for long distance private buses should draw the
immediate attention. A budget of approximately 0.53 Million USD will be allocated in
providing necessary facilities and the projected time duration is 1 year from the date of
commencement.

Provision of necessary facilities to mitigate unauthorized parking on roads.

Outsource the towing of unauthorized parking can come in to action.

Revision of legal procedure relevant with particular subject will smooth the process of
implementation.

Increase awareness of traffic law among public by using social and mass media will
reduce the surveillances related to parking.

In order to mitigate the on street parking, necessary parking areas should be provided
out of the roads. Provision of off-street parking facilities in required locations should
come in to action medium termly to cater the parking demand arising within the
western region. For this, Necessity of identifying the type of parking facilities e.g. Multi
storied car parks, mechanical car parks, roof top car parks etc. is needed through a
study. Estimated cost for this process is 40.38 Million USD and will be commenced short
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termly (between 6 months 3 years). Projected date of completion is 2 years from the
date of commencement.

Parking issue is also prevalent with respect to the three wheelers on roadways. To
mitigate this problem, identification of suitable locations for 3-wheel parking should be
done on immediate time scale. Cost of 0.01 Million USD has been allocated for the study
purposes in identifying suitable locations for the parking slots.

Apart for above, proper assessment should be done on intersection layout, bus stops
location and traffic management measures prior to implementation. Strict compliance of
parking restrictions should come in to action long termly after adequate facilities such
as off street parking slots are provided.

Responsible

Agencies:

Local

Authorities/Traffic

Police/RDA/CMC/Local

Authorities/UDA/NTC/WRMP
Following map depicts the land availability identified by the UDA with in the Western Region.

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Figure 24: Land Availability within Western Region

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Figure 25: Land Availability within CMC Region

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7.3.3 Intersection Control


Intersection control will improve the turning movement capacity and the efficiency. This will
help to initiate signal synchronization of the area as well, which will reduce delays at
intersections, reduce conflict points and make intersections more safe for all road users and
efficient in processing the traffic flow Other measures such as public transit priority can also be
introduced with improved intersection control measures.

During the process of implementation, firstly, Minor improvements to signalized intersections


(capacity improvements) and signal timing updates can start immediately. Some field
inspections have already been done related to minor capacity improvements at selected
intersections. Estimated cost for the above process is 4 Million USD and the projected time
period is 1 year from the date of commencement. Parallel to capacity improvements, upgrading
signal lights system along with traffic flow detection and the development of Specifications for
all signal lights should come in to action immediately. Intersection Improvements are already
done under KOICA study recently. While upgrading the existing signal systems, installation of
new traffic signals at major intersections where necessary should come in to action short
termly. 20.69 Million USD of cost is estimated for the signal light upgrading process that will
take minimum of 1 year for the date of completion from the date of start. New installation
locations have been already identified by the RDA. In the next stage, Installation of Traffic
control centre with traffic flow detection (CCTV, Magnetic loop, Infar red) and real time traffic
management should support the above mentioned controls short termly. Projected project
duration is 2 years from the date of commencement and the estimated approximate cost for the
control centre is 15.43 Million USD. Installation of signal lights under same specifications is a
prerequisite. Civil engineering works will be under progress on roads to interconnect the signal
lights. Proceeding works can be listed as Synchronization of signal lights along main
corridors(Medium Term). For this improvement of intersections and installation of one type of
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traffic lights, fibre optic network can be named as pre-requisites. Apart from above mentioned
costs 50 Million USD is estimated for the process of roadway and intersection widening and
reconstruction works. Projected time period for this action will be 2 years from the date of
commencement.
Action Plan

Minor improvements to signalized intersections and signal timing updates

Upgrading signal lights system along with traffic flow detection

Installation of new traffic signals at major intersections

Installation of Traffic control centre with traffic flow detection (CCTV, Magnetic loop,
Infar red) and real time traffic management

Synchronization of signal lights along main corridors

Responsible agencies: RDA/Police/CMC

7.3.4 Traffic Flow Management


Traffic flow management will enhance the mobility on corridors, reduction of congestion,
improvement in road safety and reduction of delay on roads. Demarcation of separate bus lane
and other separate lanes for different user groups such as bicycle can improve the traffic flow.
Travel time reductions of road users, reduced energy consumption and improved travel time
reliability can be listed as benefits gained through Traffic Flow Management. This will deliver
rapid, tangible and cost effective improvements targeting travel time variability and the most
extreme congestion incidents.Control traffic behaviour as it approaches the physical capacity of
the road system andcontrol of vehicle entry and circulation and pedestrian activity on roads.
During the process of Traffic Flow Management, converting two-way streets to one-way
operation where technically feasible should be done immediately. Roadway and intersection
widening and reconstructions should be progressed parallel to above to cater the demand and a
smooth flow of traffic. Studies should be carried out to identify the existing volume of traffic,
capacity of existing roads and land acquisition capacity. As another action Priority provision for
HOV (high occupancy vehicles) on separate lanes can be implement long termly.
Constructions of pedestrian walkways, Improvements of intersections, signal synchronization
are pre-requisites before accommodating separate provisions for HOVs. Overtaking facilities
must be provided time to time.Relocation of bus stops/pedestrian crossings to minimize
unnecessary conflicts and delays should come in to action immediately. Carryout safety audits/
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conflict studies to support the implementations is a must. Reductions of Traffic Density closer to
Schools should be done medium termly. This can be accompanied by requesting to submit the
current traffic management plans and form a traffic management committee by city schools.
Estimated Approximate cost for the above project is 20 Million USD that will be mainly utilized
for the preliminary studies to be under taken. This project should be commenced immediately
(within 6 months) and the expected project duration is 1 year from the date of commencement.

Action Plan

Converting two-way streets to one-way operation

Roadway and intersection widening and reconstructions

Studies should be carried out to identify the existing volume of traffic, capacity of
existing roads and land acquisition capacity

Priority provision for HOV (high occupancy vehicles)

Constructions of pedestrian walkways, Improvements of intersections, signal


synchronization

Relocation of bus stops/pedestrian crossings

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Reductions of Traffic Density closer to Schools

Estimated Approximate cost for the above project is 20 Million USD that will be mainly utilized
for the preliminary studies to be under taken. This project should be commenced immediately
(within 6 months) and the expected project duration is 1 year from the date of commencement.
Responsible Agencies: CitySchools/WRMP/RDA/Police/CMC/UDA/Local Authorities

7.3.5 Road Pricing /Road pricing of entry roads to CBD


Road pricing discourage traffic entering into CBD and particular roadways during periods of
peak congestion. Tolls are generally fixed amount charged on a single roadway while congestion
pricing involves variable charges based on levels of congestion or time of day & can be charged
over a wide area rather than only a single roadway. Further, road pricing will directly affect the
households & the freight costs of firms and further impacting on volume of travel, consumption,
production of companies and ultimately on GNP (Gross National Product). Revenue generated
through Toll collections can be directed for maintenance of the road network in the particular
area. Road pricing will result in the reduction of unnecessary movements or trips done by
travellers. Moreover, this encourage shift of private vehicle users to alternative transport modes
such as public transport, carpooling etc. Non regular travellers may tend to use off peak hours
or other transit modes in entering to the CBD.
Road pricing strategy is a long term implementation as it requires number of pre requisites to
be met before hand. Identification of toll gates, Corridors needed to be controlled should be
done Long Termly. In order to price the roads, firstly, enhancement of adequate public transport
services and carpooling facilities are to be provided to the passengers. Proceeding actions can
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be listed as electronic toll booths installation are needed in order to minimize the delay and
traffic impacts at toll gates. Parallel to this, Development of a Pricing Structure should be done
long termly. Beforehand, improve the facilities on park and ride for rail and RTS is a pre
requisite to be met.
Action Plan

Identification of toll gates locations (cordon for road pricing) orcorridors

Enhancement of adequate public transport services and carpooling facilities.

Electronic toll booths installation

Development of a Pricing Structure

Estimated Approximate cost for the above project is 19 Million USD that will be mainly utilized
for the preliminary studies to be under taken. This project should be commenced long termly
(after 5 years) and the expected project duration is 2 years from the date of commencement.
Responsible agencies: UDA/RDA/Local Authorities

7.3.6 Traffic Enforcement through CCTV monitoring


CCTV cameras installed at some key intersection points around Colombo CMC area, the fining
process is done manually by the police. Due to this many of the people who disobey the traffic
rules and regulations are hard to recognize and to act upon. Due to this prevailing situation the
introduction of the establishment of law enforcement with automated number plate recognition
and sending the fine to the registered owner of the vehicle will minimize the traffic law violation
in the roads. With time, this will result in a change in the attitudes of the people when using
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roads thus by reduce the accidents enhancing the road discipline and ensuring the passenger
and vehicle safety. Not only for the surveillance purposes but this CCTV monitoring can be used
in the traffic flow management on roads.

Up to date there are 33 locations where CCTV cameras are already installed within CMC area
according to the police (figure 22). The process is to expand this CCTV installation all around the
Western Region immediately (refer appendix 02 for the list of identified location list by police).
Initially, the traffic violation detection through CCTV monitoring should be done both manually
and automatically where long termly manual process will be completely replaced by the
automated system. The paying of fines will be done in the usual way to the post office where in
the future this will be upgraded so that the commuter can see his violation online and the fine
can be paid online. And of the violator will not have a chance to skip paying the fine and because
at the license renewal or at a transfer a person with a due fine will be identified.
Action Plan

Expansion of the coverage by installing CCTV Cameras within Western Region

Initially, the traffic violation detection through CCTV monitoring should be done both
manually and automatically where long termly manual process will be completely
replaced by the automated system.

The paying of fines will be done in the usual way to the post office where in the future
this will be upgraded so that the commuter can see his violation online and the fine can
be paid online.

Estimated Approximate cost for the above project is 25 Million USD that will be mainly utilized
for the preliminary studies and for the implementation to be under taken. This project should
be commenced immediately (within 6 months) and the expected project duration is 1 year from
the date of commencement.
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Responsible Agencies: Police/RMV/UDA/RDA/CMC

Police CCTV Division -Existing CCTV


Locations
1 Kadirana Bridge
2 Mattakkuliya Rassamulla kanda
3 Thotalaga Bridge
4 Kalani Kandy Bridge
5 Hettiyawaththa Junction
6 Vivekananda Rd. Junction
7 Amour Bamour Junction
8 Orugodawatta Junction
9 NSA Roundabout
10 Ceramic Junction
11 In front of Fort Railway Station
12 In front of CTB Bus stand
13 Top of Police Welfare Building
14 Maradana Junction
15 dematagoda Junction
16 Kandasami Junction
17 Galle face Roundabout
18 Kollupitiya Junction
19 Liberty Roundabout
20 Flower Rd Junction
21 Town hole
22 Prison Junction
23 Nelumpokuna Roundabout
24 Borella Junction
25 Ayurweda Junction
26 Polduwa ( Parliament) Junction
27 Kanaththa Junction
28 In front Of BMICH ( Bouddhaloka
MV.)
29 Thummulla Junction
30 Bambalapitiya Junction
31 Narahenpita Junction
32 Highlewel Base line Junction
33 Wellawaththa William Junction
Figure 21: Existing CCTV camera Locations

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Figure 22: CCTV Camera Location for Law enforcement and Traffic Management

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7.4 Environmental Sustainability


7.4.1 Improve Facilities for Pedestrian

Walking is an essential mode of transport. New and improved pedestrian facilities enable
greater access and mobility within our communities. A pedestrian-friendly environment plays
an important role in encouraging walking as a mode of travel, and this has proven health and
environmental benefits. Pedestrian facilities or the lack of it is one of the major impediments
when it comes to promoting public transport uses, since the users are inconvenienced by the
lack of adequate facilities during the first/last mile of the journey. Therefore, under this
project, several projects will be initiated with providing better facilities for pedestrians.
Improvements are intended to enhance pedestrian access to transit service by aiding street
crossings and providing more amenities at bus stops, including landscapes, sidewalks, curb
extensions and ramps and improved street lightings. New and improved pedestrian facilities
promote walking and provide greater access and mobility within our communities. Providing
such facilities will result in increased pedestrian rates, improved pedestrian facilities along with
a list of accompanying factors such as safety, delay and directness. It will reduce carbon foot
print, reduce the road encroachments by vendors, increase the road capacity, enhance the safety
of pedestrians. On the other hand, this is a prerequisite for development of other transit
systems.
Action Plan

Under this project, it is proposed to provide appropriate vegetation/concrete cover &


adequate lighting along the roads. Provide street furniture and lighting according to the
classification category of roads also needs to be done.

It is proposed to improvethe quality of walk ways by providing continuous and


interconnected sidewalks accessible by everyone by designing it.Separate sidewalks

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from the road way using suitable buffer, on street parking, by appropriate curb or by
landscaping between the sidewalk and the roadway will be implemented.

Pedestrians safety will be ensured at intersections through clearly marked crosswalks,


overhead bridges /underpass and fences.Pedestrian signals will also be provided to
increase the safety of pedestrians at the crosswalk.

Awareness programmes will be conducted on how to use pedestrian crossings at


signalized intersections. Provision of pedestrian facilities for disable people and
relocation of vendors from pedestrian areas to alternative locations has to be done
immediately to accommodate the above improvements.

The project will commence within the next one year, and will be carried out over a period of 2
years. The estimated cost of the project is 7.09 million USD.
Responsible Agencies: Local Authorities/ RDA/ UDA

7.4.2 Encouragement of Bicycle use and Introduction of Cycle/Motorcycle


paths

Usage of bicycles as a transport mode is very sustainable option that contributes in reducing
emission; reduce fuel cost and it is a healthy way totravelwhile reducing road congestion. Under
the Megapolis project in Western Region new cycle paths will be constructed to encourage
cycling. These paths will be connected to rail and bus terminals which are equipped with park
and ride facilities.Most people can walk or cycle, although many cannot use these modes for
transportation because they live in automobile-dependent areas. Programs that promote cycling
and walking for transportation can benefit lower-income people by increasing public
acceptance and support of non-motorized travel. This will result in shifts from driving to cycling
or walking which will reduce traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs and
environmental impacts, and increase community liveability and improved public health. Such
action on the other hand will reduce carbon Foot print and save fuel cost for individuals and for
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the country. Upon provision of these facilities it will promote park and ride facilities at railway
stations.
Under this project, it is proposed to provide appropriate vegetation cover or paved area at
either side of the roads and provide separate lane for bicycle/Motor Cycle use. Mostly the canal
banks will be converted Bicycle/Motor cycle lanes.
Action Plan

Provision of appropriate vegetation cover or paved areas at either side of the roads

Provision of separate lane for bicycle/Motor Cycles along the canal banks

Proposed traces for bicycle and motorcycle paths are as follows.

Figure 23: Pedestrian & Cycling paths

Responsible Agencies: Local Authority/RDA/UDA


The feasibility study for this project is expected to cost approximately USD 1.42 million and will
be carried out over a period of two years.

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7.4.3 Reduction of vehicle emission

With the increase of air pollution in urban areas the requirement of controlling vehicle emission
has become an important requirement of the country. Since Western Province is highly
congested and polluted it is important to take necessary actions to reduce the vehicle emissions.
Under this project, the Western Region and Megapolis development plan will take the necessary
initiatives to provide solutions to these problems. Upon these interventions, it will result in
reducing transport costs, such as fuel bills and vehicle tax, by choosing vehicles that are more
environmentally friendly and using them more efficiently. Such initiatives will result in reduced
sickness absence, increased staff Retention and improved local air quality. This will improve the
public health especially in school children and help to reduce global warming.
Immediate actions will be taken to introduce higher quality fuel and catalytic convertorsfor
vehicles. The vehicle emission standards will be reviewed yearly.Analysis of past emission test
data is mandatory and hence, steps will be taken to conserve these test data. As another step,
initiatives will be taken to facilitate LNG use for three wheelers and taxies as a medium term
measure. Introduction of a monitoring system will be done immediately to maintain the laid
down standards.
Action Plan

Introduction of higher quality fuel and catalytic convertorsfor vehicles

Revision of vehicle emission standards yearly

Conservation of test data based on the analysis of past emission test data

Facilitate LNG use for three wheelers and taxies

Introduction of a monitoring systemto maintain the laid down standards

Identification of Environmentally Sustainable vehicles through test data analysis

Revision of taxations in order to discourage high level of emission vehicles

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This project is scheduled to commence within the next 6 months to 3 years, spearheaded by the
Department of Motor Traffic and the Central Environmental Authority. The project is expected
to cost 0.71 million USD. It will be implemented over a period of one year.

7.4.4 Minimizing Fuel Usage

Currently a high portion of the countrys foreign exchange isspent on to fuel purchasing (US $
289 Million in 2015, nearly 17% of total imports). There exists the risk related to fuel price
fluctuations and uncertainty surrounding a future environmental policy. Therefore, this project
will encourage people to use more public transport, trip planning and create awareness on
requirements of minimizing of fuel usage. Upon these interventions, it is possible to manage the
risk related to fuel price fluctuations and uncertainty surrounding a future environmental
policy. These interventions will result in economic benefits achieved through less fuel usage,
less environmental impact due to less output of CO2, encourage more users for public transport
systems, gain economic benefits to the country and will reduce air pollution significantly.
Under this project, immediate actions will be taken to reduce taxes for electric and hybrid
vehicles while increase taxes for other cars. Initiatives will be taken immediately to discourage
vehicles having poor emission standards. Analysis of past emission test data will be used for
this. As a medium term measure, a policy will be introduced to remove poor conditioned
vehicles from the roads and measures will be taken to encourage walkways and bicycle users.

Action Plan

Reduce taxes for electric and hybrid vehicles while increase taxes for other cars

Introduction of Policies to remove poor conditioned vehicles

Encouragement of walkways and bicycles

Responsible agencies: RDA/Local Authorities/DMT

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7.4.5 Supply of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Establish Electric


Charging Facilities for Buses and Other Vehicles
At present almost all busses and other vehicles in the Western Region Metropolitan area
consume diesel and petrol. This has caused high level of air pollution in the region posing
adverse impacts to the environment and to the human health. Use of CNG and electricity as a
source of fuel will reduce the pollution levels. There is an evidence of finding gas deposits in
Indian ocean within the Sri Lankan territory and can be utilized more effectively by converting
these vehicles in to CNG. This process will create healthy human life in the Western Province.
During the implementation process, first and fore mostly Identification of suitable locations to
store CNG is a prioritized need. Then next suitable locations should be identified for the gas
conversion process to be taken place. Charging centre locations should be identified parallel to
this. Moreover, purchasing necessary equipment and machinery and the technician trainings
should be conducted for a better implementation. In the process of delivering gas, a proper
network should be established and well maintained.
Action Plan

Identification of suitable locations to CNG storage

Identification of locations for the gas conversion process to be taken place

Identification of charging centre locations

Purchasing necessary equipment and machinery and the technician trainings

Establishment of a proper network for the delivery process of gases

The project is expected to be implemented within the next 3 years. It will be completed within 2
years of commencement.

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8. Implementation Plan
The Western Region Megapolis Planning Project will ensure a sustainable transport system
with higher mobility, connectivity and new transport mode choices for the commuters
enhancing a friendly and peaceful environment. The projects will be implemented in key
different areas namely: Transport Demand Management (TDM), Public Transport
Improvements (PTI), Road Infrastructure Development (RID) and Environment Sustainability
(ES). Improvement of transport policy is also an important requirement which needs to be
considered parallel to the implementation of identified projects.
Projects commencement period is identified under 4 stages namely immediately (within 6
Months), short term (6 months to 3 years), medium term (3 years to 5 years) and long term
(Beyond 5 years). The prerequisites for certain projects are also being identified in proposals
so that fulfilment of prerequisites will ensure the smooth implementation of new project and
acceptance of new projects by transport operators and users
.
Some short term projects may take medium to long term to complete the constructions and
commence operations. Project commencement period are listed as follows. The PID Ref.
Number is in reference to the projects identified in document Development Projects and
included in Appendix 04.

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8.1 Projects to be Commenced Immediately (within 6 months)


PID Ref.
Number

Project

Estimated
Project
Cost (US$
in Millions)

Project
Duration

Remarks

Need to develop the


policy documents
with regards to
enforcement through
CCTV camera
detection

Traffic Demand Management


1.1.21

Traffic enforcement through CCTV


monitoring

25

1 Year

1.1.16

Widening and Improvements of


Intersections with signal timing
updates

1 Year

1.1.20

Improvement of Traffic Flows


based on Identified Interventions

20

1 Year

1.1.13

Implementation
Metering System"

0.28

6 months

1 Year

0.53

1 Year

0.01

6 Months

0.01

6 Months

0.05

6 Months

1.0

1 Year

of

"Parking

1.1.12

Development
of
Parking
management
system,
Pricing
mechanism, and enforcing time
limited parking
1.1.15
Provision of overflow parking
facilities for long distance private
buses
1.1.12
Outsource
the
towing
of
unauthorized parking
1.1.12
Identification
of
three-wheel
parking locations
1.1.29
Study on Flexible working hours
and implementation
Public Transport Improvements
1.1.3

Feasibility Study of Rapid Transit


for all identified lines.

Extend to areas
beyond the roads
implemented by CMC

Green Line (RTS1)


Yellow Line (RTS2)
Red Line (RTS3)
Purple Line (RTS4) Borella
Malabe
Pink Line (RTS5) Malabe
Kottawa
Olive Line (RTS6) Malabe
Kaduwela
Ash Line (RTS7)
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1.1.1

Feasibility
on
Railway
Electrification& Modernization Panadura Polgahawela Line (RLM1)

1.1

1.1.4

Implementation of Inland Water


Transport on:

60

2016
1 Year

1 Year

1.1.4

Wellawatta Battaramulla
Trace (IW1)
Feasibility Study on Inland Water
Transport on:

0.1

1 Year

0.2
1.42

1 Year
1 Year

992.2

5 Years

529.5

5 Years

145

3 years

0.5

1 Year

1.5

1 Year

0.1

1 year

Extend the ADB


funded feasibility up
to Polgahawela.
Identification of park
and ride demands as
part of the Feasibility
Feasibility and
Detailed Designs
Available.

1.1.28
1.1.23

Fort Union Place Trace


(IW2)
Mattakkuliya Hanwella
Trace (IW3)
Restructure of Public Bus Service
Introduce New School Transport
Service

Road Infrastructure Development


1.1.6
Expressway Construction:

1.1.6

Expressway construction:

1.1.6

Central Expressway

Ruwanpura Expressway

Detailed
Design
and
Implementation on Expressway
construction-:

Feasibility study and


formulation of policy
documents are to be
commenced
immediately
Cost is provided only
for the section
included within the
Western Region
Cost is provided only
for the section
included within the
Western Region

1.1.10

1.1.11

1.1.5

Elevated road From New


Kelani Bridge to Colombo
Port
Feasibility Study of Road Capacity
Improvements on:
Horana-Meerigama
Ja-ela-Meerigama
Feasibility Study of Missing Links
on:
Marine Drive Extension
Baseline Extension
Duplication Road extension
Study on Expressway Capacity
Improvements-

Introduction of ETC
system, review
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2016
existing tolls, analyse
new demand on the
expressways

Environmental Sustainability
1.1.24
Provision of separate lanes of
bicycles/motor cycles Feasibility
Study

1.42

2 Years

8.2 Projects to be Commenced in Short Term (6 months 3 years)


PID Ref.
Number

Project

Estimated
Project
Cost (US$
in Millions)

Project
Duration

Remarks

at

20.69

1 Year

1.1.18

Development of a traffic control


centre with real time traffic
management

15.43

2 Years

Improvements of
Intersections is a
prerequisite for this
project
Upgrading and
Synchronizing of
traffic lights is a
prerequisite

1.1.20

Roadway and intersection widening


and reconstruction
Provision of off street parking
facilities

50

2 Years

40.38

2 Years

1,190

4 Years

431

2 Years

230

2 Years

2 Years

309

3 Years

Traffic Demand Management


1.1.17
Upgrade
signal
Intersections

1.1.12

lights

Public Transport Improvements


1.1.1
Implementation
of
Railway
Electrification& Modernization:

1.1.14
1.1.30
1.1.32
1.1.2

Panadura Polgahawela
Line (RL-M1) 110km (cost
for 85km in Western
Province)
Modernization of Public Transport
System in Western Region
Improvement of Facilities at
Suburban
Interchange
Bus
Terminals and Stands
Establishment
of
Transport
Information
Analysis
and
dissemination Centre
Feasibility, Detailed Design and
Implementation of New Rail Lines:

Kottawa Horana Line (RLNR1) 22km

Replacement of fleet
to start within 6
months

Feasibility completed
for the trace to be
extended for
Electrification

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1.1.1

Feasibility Study of Railway


Electrification& Modernization on:

2016

2.5

1 Year

840

3 Years

750

3 Years

500

3 years

200

2 years

0.35

1 Year

345

3 Years

58

3 Years

1.1.11

Horana Meerigama Road


Detailed design and Implementation
of Missing Links:

40

3 Years

1.1.11

Baseline road Extension


Detailed design and Implementation
of Missing Links:

18

2 Years

0.07

2 Years

7.09
0.71
220

2 Years
1 Year
2 Years

1.1.1

Kelani Valley line (RL-M3)


Ragama Negombo line (RLM2)
Kelaniya Kosgama Freight
Line (RL-NR2)
Implementation
of
Railway
Electrification& Modernization:

1.1.3

Kelani Valley line (RL-M3)


60km
Detailed
Design
and
Implementationof Rapid Transit
System on:

Green Line (RTS1) -15km


(Fort Kollupitiya-BambalapitiyaBorella-Union Place- Maradana)

1.1.3

Detailed
Design
Implementationof Rapid
System on:

and
Transit

Purple Line (RTS4) Borella


Malabe 10km
1.1.8
Detailed
Designs
and
Implementation of Multimodal
Transport Hub at Fort/Pettah
1.1.22
Development of IT based smart taxi
service
Road Infrastructure Development
1.1.9
Implementation
of
Road
improvements to Existing Roads
1.1.10
Detailed
Design
and
Implementation:

Marine Drive extension


1.1.25
Right of way policy - Relocation of
unauthorized People
Environmental Sustainability
1.1.19
Improvement of Pedestrian facilities
1.1.27
Reduction of vehicle emission
1.1.31
supply of Compressed Natural gas
(CNG) and establish electric
charging facilities for buses and

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other vehicles

8.3 Projects to be Commencedin Medium Term (3 5 years)


PID Ref.
Number

Project

Public Transport Improvements


1.1.1
Implementation
of
Railway
Electrification& Modernization:

Estimated
Project Cost
(US$ in
Millions)

Project
Duration

364

2 Years

575

3 Years

380

3 years

1 Year

60

2 years

100

2 years

Remarks

1.1.3

Ragama Negombo line (RLM2)


Detailed
Design
and
Implementationof Rapid Transit
System on:

1.1.3

Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km


Fort- MaradanaMattakkuliya/Peliyagoda

Detailed
Design
Implementationof Rapid
System on:

and
Transit

1.1.4

Pink Line (RTS5) Malabe


Kottawa 9.6km
Detailed
Design
and
Implementation
Inland
Water
Transport

1.1.4

Fort Union Place Trace


(IW2)
Detailed
Design
and
Implementation
Inland
Water
Transport

1.1.8

Mattakkuliya Hanwella
Line (IW3)
Development of Multimodal Centres

Kaduwela
Kadawatha
Kottawa
Horana
Panadura
Negombo
Gampaha
Ragama
Awissawella
Moratuwa
Meerigama
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Road Infrastructure Development
1.1.6
Feasibility Study of Expressway
construction -:
Elevated highway from New Kelani
Bridge to Pore via Battaramulla

1.1.10

1.1.11

Road Capacity improvement


Detailed
design
and
Implementation:
Ja-ela Divulapitiya Road
Detailed design and Implementation
of Missing Links:

2016

1.0

1 Year

20

2 Years

11

2 Years

Duplication road extension

8.4 Projects to be Commenced Long Term (more than 5 years)


PID Ref.
Number

Project

Traffic Demand Management


1.1.30
Road pricing of entry roads to CBD
(Central Business District)
Public Transport Improvements
1.1.3
Detailed
Design
Implementationof Rapid
System on:

and
Transit

Estimated
Project
Cost (US$
in Millions)

Project
Duration

Remarks

19

2 Years

Public Transport
Improvement in CBD
has to be completed

500

3 Years

260

2 Years

550

3 Years

1.1.3

Red Line (RTS3) 10kmDematagoda-BorellaKirulapone-Havelock CityBambalapitiya


Detailed
Design
and
Implementationof Rapid Transit
System on:

1.1.3

Olive Line (RTS6) Malabe Kaduwela 6km


Detailed
Design
and
Implementationof Rapid Transit
System on:
Ash Line (RTS7) 13km PeliyagodaKelaniya-Kiribathgoda-MaharaKadawatha

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1.1.2

Detained
design
and
Implementation of New Rail Line
on:

420

3 years

1100

3 Years

57

2 Years

2016

Kelaniya Kosgama Line


(RL-NR2) 30km
Road Infrastructure Development
1.1.6
Detailed
Design
and
Implementation of Expressway
construction -:

1.1.10

Elevated highway from New


Kelani Bridge to Pore
Detailed design and Implementation
Road Capacity improvement :

Negombo DivulapitiyaMeerigama Road

The summary of the above investments identified by each sector for each commencement
period is shown below in Table 4.
Table 3: Financial Cost of Projects by Sector by Project Commencement Period

The summary costs show that the total project costs for the Megapolis study is 11.5 billion USD
which is similar in total to MoT/UoM total of 11.1 billion USD. The investment of the Megapolis
is spread across all modes with 67% is spent on public transport and 29% on road
infrastructure improvements. Out of the 67% on public transport, 31% is spent on RTS, 27%on
railway, 6% on bus modernization and rest spread across improvements of water transport,
multimodal transport facilities and para transit improvements. The investment proposed
reflects a public transport intensive development and development of multimodal network
development across the CMR along corridors and in between corridors as well.

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9. Assessment of Transport Master Plan


9.1 Transport Demand Modelling and Analysis
The analysis of the transport master plan was achieved through a transport demand modelling
exercise. The JAICA STRADA model that was developed for the CoMTrans study was used with
its full capacity. The model is based on a traditional four step model which comprises trip
generation, trip distribution. Mode split and assignment. The same model has been used in the
previous master plan studies by both JAICA in the CoMTrans study and by MoT/UoM in the
masterplan review.
The mode choice component in this exercise is the most critical step, considering the study
been an analysis of people choosing the mode to travel with improvements to condition of
travel for private and public transport modes. While CoMTrans study has used the full model,
MoT/UoM have omitted the mode choice component. MoT/UoM have used fixed diversion
rates, 10% from cars, 30% from motor cycles and 20% from three wheelers to public transport
based when public transport is improved irrespective its speed, capacity of service quality in
the future. It reflects that people who will change in the above percentage when the new mode
is introduced will remain the same even when the speed or quality of service reduces. It is
practically inconsistent, as the delivery of service changes with increase of passengers and
change of speeds and people respond to the changes and make decisions in the future based on
such changes. The reason for using such rigid assumption was given as non-availability of
CUBE Voyager software which UoM claims was required to complete the mode choice
component. However, CUBE model was only required for editing the origin destination
matrices but not for mode choice modelling, therefore the mode choice model omission by
UoM in the analysis is questionable.
The demand forecasting using the STRADA model was completed under several project
scenarios for the analysis years 2020, 2025 and 2035. The key performance indices (KPI) were
developed and compared with a Do-Nothing Scenario (DNS) which included all ongoing
projects. The DNS was considered for each future year as the base case to identify the indirect
benefit for the economic analysis. DNS was also selected as the base case in MoT/UoM study
where it identified that it presents a good starting point to determine the best project although
DNS inflates the benefit since any intervention becomes a solution.It is vital that a master plans
study provides a solution for the entire analysis period. The key difference in the current study
is that selection of projects is based on providing transportation infrastructure supply for the
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demand for travel. This is contrastingly different from MoT/UoM study where the analysis has
been based on economic analysis. The main report and the technical report does not have any
reference to detail demand for the transport network by different modes apart from aggregate
statistics such as passenger kms and passengers hour etc. Therefore demand by each mode by
sections cannot be compared between the two studies. The economic analysis was done to
evaluate the economic indications for the project scenarios selected. However, it should be
noted that the costs that are considered for the projects are based on aggregate costing such as
per km, which can have variations with the detail designs. A detailed economic and financial
analysis will be required at individual project feasibilities to ascertain the true economic
feasibility of the projects. .The completed details of technical and economic analysis are
provided in a separate document titles, Technical and Economic Analysis of Megapolis
Transport Plan. The following scenarios were analysed with different implementation
methodology of projects identified in the masterplan as outlined in Table 4.
Scenario 1: Do-Nothing Scenario (DNS) for Year 2020
Scenario 2: Case A (Project Case) for Year 2020
Scenario 3: Do-Nothing Scenario (DNS) for Year 2025
Scenario 4: Case A for Year 2025
Scenario 5: Case B (Project Case) for Year 2025
Scenario 6: Case C for Year 2025
Scenario 7: Do-Nothing Scenario (DNS) for Year 2035
Scenario 8: Case A for Year 2035
Scenario 9: Case B for Year 2035
Scenario 10: Case C for Year 2035
Scenario 11: Case D (Project Case) for Year 2035
Scenario 12: Case E for Year 2035

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Table 4: Project Scenarios for Transport Demand Analysis

The summary of the STRADA modelling outputs for each of the scenarios outlined above is
provided in term of following parameters for measurement of KPI for the entire multimodal
transport system and performance across the CMR which consistent with the analysis of
Mot/UoM study.

Scenario Described in above

Total trips per day total estimated trips by each mode for each year in the CMR

Total Public transport trips

Total Car trips

Total motor cycle (MC) trips

Total three wheeler (3W) trips

Total Truck Trips

Vehicle km per day - Total daily vehicle kms estimated to be made by each mode in
the CMR.

Passenger km per day Total number of passenger km estimated to be made per


day in the CMR.

Trip length the average trip length in km


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Passenger hrs per day the total number of passenger hours spent in transport per
day in CMR.

Average speed- the Average speed by mode within the CMR.

Capital Cost- The capital costs of proposed interventions.

The system cost is the total estimated transport cost per year in the CMR made up
for the cost components.
o

Vehicle Operating Costs Speed based operating costs for road based on
National Planning Department (NPD)5, Cost of LRT

and railway from

CoMTrans study
o

Value of Time Costs values determined by NPD in 1999 and updated and
used in Colombo Metropolitan Region Transport Master Plan (MoT/UoM
Study).

Accident Costs - values determined by NPD in 1999 and updated and used
in Colombo Metropolitan Region Transport Master Plan (MoT/UoM Study).

Emission Costs - values determined by NPD and updated and used in


Colombo Metropolitan Region Transport Master Plan (MoT/UoM Study).

Cost per passenger km The total system cost divided by the passenger km
travelled by all motorised modes providing the average cost of transporting one
passenger km.

The following scenarios were considered as project scenarios for future years 2020, 2025 and
2035 and were used for further analysis and detail demand outputs.
Scenario 2: Case A (Project Case) for Year 2020
Scenario 5: Case B (Project Case) for Year 2025
Scenario 11: Case D (Project Case) for Year 2035
The project Case D in year 2035 comprise all of the interventions and Case A in year 2020 and
Case B in year 2025 are intermediate level of completion of the project as outlined in the
master plan. The aggregate outputs of demand model for do nothing and project scenarios
are given in Table 5, while the complete list of outputs for all the scenarios are given in
Appendix 5.

National Planning Department (1999), Assessment of Capital Projects in Transport Sector, edited by Kumarage, Gunaruwan et al

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Table 5: Aggregate Outputs of Demand Model for Project scenarios

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9.1.1 Model Outputs for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020
The demand model outputs for the project case A for year 2020 shows that the public
transport share in terms of trips within CMR would increase to 59% with the proposed
interventions. The share would be 61% in terms of passenger kms. The average door to door
public transport speeds will increase to 24 km/h and the private will increase to 37km/h. The
average trip length with reduce to 5.9km for all motorized vehicles, which is due to
distribution of population, employment and other services based on Megapolis structure plan
which shows an effective land use planning exercise.
The public transport passenger volumes by the 4 modes, bus, rail, RTS and water is shown in
Figure 26 while the complete set of maps is attached in Appendix 5.The maximum section
volume for rail with the electrification of Panadura Polgahawela line is estimated as 432,000
passengers per day between Ragama and Dematagoda which comes to around 23,000
passengers per hour per direction (pphpd). The section would have 3 tracks of which 2 tracks
could be used for peak direction. The maximum passenger demand for RTS with RTS 1 and
RTS4 been operational is estimated as 190,000 passengers per day at the section between
Punchi Borella and Hospital Junction which comes to around 8,500 pphpd. A total of 2.1
million passengers are expected to be carried by railway per day within CMR while RTS is to
carry 0.6 million passengers.

9.1.2 Model Outputs for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025
The demand model outputs for the project case B for year 2025 shows that the public
transport share in terms of trips within CMR would be maintained at 59% with the proposed
interventions. The share would increase to 62% in terms of passenger kms. The average door
to door public transport speeds will increase further to 25 km/h and the private will reduce
slightly to 35 km/h. The average trip length will remain at 5.9km for all motorized vehicles.
The public transport passenger volumes by the 4 modes, bus, rail, RTS and water is shown in
Figure 27 while the complete set of maps is attached in Appendix 5. The maximum section
volume for rail with the all 248 km of railway electrification been completed is estimated as
539,000 passengers per day between Ragama and Dematagoda which comes to around 29,000
passengers per hour per direction (pphpd). The maximum passenger demand for RTS with
RTS 1 to RTS6 been operational is estimated as 333,000 passengers per day at the section
between Borella and Punchi Borella which comes to around 15,000 pphpd. A total of 2.7
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

million passengers are expected to be carried by railway per day within CMR while RTS is to
carry 2.1 million passengers.

9.1.3 Model Outputs for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035
The demand model outputs for the project case B for year 2035 shows that the public
transport share in terms of trips within CMR would be maintained at 59% with the proposed
interventions. The share would also maintain at 62% in terms of passenger kms. The average
door to door public transport speeds will be maintained at 25 km/h and the private will
reduce further to 32 km/h which is still an acceptable service level. The average trip length
will remain at 5.9km for all motorized vehicles.
The public transport passenger volumes by the 4 modes, bus, rail, RTS and water is shown in
Figure 28 while the complete set of maps is attached in Appendix 5. The maximum section
volume for rail with the no additional improvements is estimated as 605,000 passengers per
day between Ragama and Dematagoda which comes to around 32,000 passengers per hour per
direction (pphpd) where a maximum capacity of 60,000 pphpd is available with 2 tracks
available for peak direction. The maximum passenger demand for RTS with additional RTS7
been operational is estimated as 499,000 passengers per day at the section between
Peliyagoda and Maradana with passengers on Kandy corridor been served with the RTS which
comes to around 27,000 pphpd. A total of 3.1 million passengers are expected to be carried by
railway per day within CMR while RTS is to carry 3.2 million passengers.

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Figure 26: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2020

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Figure 27: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2025

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Figure 28: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2035

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9.2 Economic Analysis


An economic analysis was conducted for each phases of projects by taking Do Nothing Scenario
(DNA) as the base case for three different project scenarios comprised of different time
periods and project elements. The framework of the analysis is as follows;
Discount rate
A discount rate of 6% is considered to estimate the present value of benefits.
Project time periods
Three time periods and the respective project elements were considered in the economic
analysis. Each of them is comprised of a DNS and a Project Case. DNS reflects the status of the
transport system in terms of system costs in the absence of any intervention in the transport
infrastructure and service improvement. A project case represents a bundle of infrastructure
improvements planned for the respective year as outlines in Table 4 in section 9.1.
The report presents only three project cases, namely Project Case A in 2020, Case B in 2025
and Case D in 2035 against their respective DN scenarios. Benefits of the projects are derived
as cost savings from Vehicle Operating Costs (VOC), Value of Time (VOT) (travel time savings),
accident cost (ACC Cost), and Emission cost (EMM cost) in selected project cases against DN
scenarios for the respective time periods, 2020, 2025 and 2035.
The following equations were used to estimate the annual total system costs components both
in DN scenario and each project case.
Total VOC/km = Vehicle KM daily*317 days * VOC per km for each mode
VOT = Passenger hours (daily) * 317 days* VOT of each mode
Accident cost per vehicle km= Vehicle KM (daily) * 317*average accident costs of all modes
Emission costs = Vehicle KM (daily)*317*emission cost for each modes
The unit costs for VOC, VOT, Accident Cost and Emission cost were taken from Colombo
Metropolitan Region Transport Master Plan of Ministry of Internal Transport (2015) and are
shown in Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8.

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Table 6: Operational Cost Estimates (Rs/hr, Rs/km)6

Table 7: Cost of Accidents (Rs)6

Colombo Metropolitan Region Transport Master Plan, Technical Appendix, MoT, 2015

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2016

Table 8: Cost of Air Emissions (Rs/km)6

The System costs were calculated for each scenario and the cost savings were identified as
shown in Table 9. In the calculation of yearly costs savings, 317 days were considered instead
of 365 days. It is primarily because transport modelling is for a typical weekday and travel
patterns during the weekend are considerably different. By considering reduced number of
days per year costs savings from each DN and Project case is also undervalued.
Table 9: Summary of Cost Savings for DNS and Project Cases

Capital costs of the projects comprises of three phases for each project year considered given
in Table 10.
Table 10: Capital Cost of Projects by Time Period

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2016

Benefit cost analysis is conducted for each project cases by taking the operating period up to
the next project case. For instance, the costs and benefits are discounted up to 2025, which the
benefit and the costs of project Case B in year 2025commence. This is primarily due to the fact
that costs savings (benefits) of project case B are accrued due to the implementation of project
case A. The same applies to project case D in 2035. The vehicle km growth rate and traffic
growth rate for the operating period is disregarded and however a growth factor of 2% for the
year 2020 to 2025 and a growth factor of 1% was applied to the period from 2025 to 2035.
The discount rate of 6% is applied in the calculation of present values of costs and benefits.
The output of the Benefit Cost Analysis is presented in the Table 11 below.
Table 11: Benefit Cost Analysis - NPV, EIRR and BC Ratio

For the Project Case A, considering an operation of 5 year period, the BC ratio is 1.32, however,
indicating a positive net present value of Rs 219 Billion. Economic Internal Rate of Return
(EIRR) is 10.9%, indicating that the project benefits exactly offsets costs (NPV = 0) at a
discount rate of 10.9%.
For the Project Case B for year 2025, considering a combine operation of 15 year period up
2035, the BC ratio is 3.41, however, indicating a positive net present value of 3,410 Billion at
Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) of 17.6%.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

For the all Project Case D for year 2035, considering a combine operation of 20 year period up
to 2040, the BC ratio is 4.49.6, however, indicating a positive net present value of 5,810 Billion
at Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) of 17.9%.
In summary all the project cases are economically feasible and the completion of each project
phases in sequence results in net benefits to the transport system.

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2016

10.APPENDICES
Appendix 01: Immediate Interventions for Capacity Improvements
Strategy
A

Major Activity

Minimizing effects
due

to

A1

freight

vehicle movements

Lead

Partner

Agency

Agency

Shift Orugodawatta container yard and SLPA

UDA

weighing place to the Colombo harbour.


A2

Container in and out from harbour should be SLPA

Police

restrict to night time (in off peak)


A3

Introduce a dedicated lane for Container RDA

CMC

traffic from Orugodawatta (Dry) Port to


Colombo Port
A4

Restrict the movement of container traffic Police


completely from

Port to

SLPA

Orugodawatta

between 7 -9 am and 5 -7 pm to allow other


traffic to move
A5

Identify possible truck routes to Port from CMC

RDA

City limits for all transport corridors


B

Improving

Road

B1

Network Capacity

One-way system in Colombo to be reviewed RDA

Police

identify locations where system can be


expanded without affecting public transport
access
B2

Study the possibility of making Olcott Police

CMC/

Mawatha and Basitian Mawatha one way such

WPPTA

that all buses can circulate without having


right turns
B3

Study the possibility of making A3 and By Police/


pass road oneway at Wattala such that there RDA
will be no congestion due to turning of prime
movers

B4

Provide temporary opening to J.D. Fernando RDA/C


Mw. From Baseline Road between Welikada MC
prison and Base line railway line only for
peak hours

B5

Open BodhirajaMawatha for buses to come to UDA


125

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

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Olcott Mw. Need to relocate the vendors


B6

Study the possibility of one way arrangement RDA


on Old Kottawa road and high level road,
from kottawa Junction to pannipitiya Fly over

B7

Construct

the

Malabe

ChandrikaKumarathungaMawatha

RDA
(starting

from SapumalUyana to Ambatale)


B8

Improve Torrington Avenue to attract traffic CMC


between

BaudhalokaMawatha

and

Thimbirigasyaya Road
C

Improving

Road

C1

Link Capacity

Allow three lanes on New Kelani Bridge from RDA


Peliyagoda up to Kelanitissa Power station

C2

Renovate

Avissawella

old

road

from RDA

Orugodawatta fly over to Orugodawatta


Junction
C3

Study the possibility of providing additional RDA


lanes on Baseline road over KunuEla by
providing separate bridge for pedestrians.

C4

Refurbished J. D. Fernando Mw., Siridamma CMC


Mw. & Annanda Rajakaruna Mw. From Botree to Siridamma Mw

C5

Widen Malay street, improve the road CMC


condition and provide safety fences for
Pedestrian paths

C6

Accelerate

the

rehabilitation

ColombageMawatha

from

of CMC

Polhengoda

Junction to Nawala
C7

Widen the Bridge on Highlevel Road near RDA


Havelock City

C8

Widening the bridges from Ambatale Junction RDA


to KelaniMulla on Low Level Road

C9

Improve traffic circulation at Pamankada CMC

RDA

Junction
C10

Widen

bridges

on

Marine

Drive

and RDA

Duplication Road over KirulapanaEla

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


D

Removal

of

D1

Bottlenecks

2016

Identify and remove all bottlenecks between RDA


Paliyagoda CKE Interchange and Kelaniya

D2

Improve

the

bus

Bays

located

near RDA

Bandaranayake roundabout and close to


Kelanibridge on Baseline Road
D3

Identify and remove bottlenecks on Galle RDA

DMMC

Road between William's Junction and Maliban


Junction
D4

Provide bus bays for bus stops on Srimavo CMC


BandaranayakeMawatha

(opposite

Sugathadasa Stadium), Sumanathissa Mw.


(from Sangaraja Round abound to Igurukade
junction.)
D5

Allow U-turning facility for vehicles at RDA


Orugodawatta

Junction,

close

to

LunawaDewalaya
E

Improving

E1

Coordinate traffic signals on Baseline Road RDA

Intersection

between Park Road and Thimbirigasyaya

Capacity

Road Junction after minor improvements to


road geometry an install traffic signal at
Koswatta Junction
E2

Revised signal timing at Baseline Road / High RDA


Level Road Junction after minor junction
improvement

E3

Improve turning facilities at Borellea Junction RDA


and revised signal timing

E4

Re activate traffic signal at Rajagiriya along RDA


with possible turn prohibitions to minimize
disruptions

to

through

traffic

on

Sri

Jayewardenepura Road
E5

Install traffic signal at Koswatta Junction with RDA


minor Junction improvements

E6

Improve

Jawatta

BouddhalokaMawatha

Road
intersection

/ CMC
to

facilitate turning traffic

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


F

Improve

F1

Pedestrian

2016

Renovate the underpass at Sedawatta and RDA


provide street lighting system.

Facilities

F2

Construct pedestrian overhead bridge close CMC


to BodhirajaMawathaPettah

F3

Renovate existing underpass for Pedestrians SLR

CMC

adjacent to Chief Secretariat Railway station


F4

Improve pedestrian facilities on Galle Road RDA


between

Williams

Junction

DMMC

and

MalibanJunction
F5

Improve pedestrian facilities on Maradana CMC


Road closer to Maradana and PunchiBorella
areas

F6

Construct pedestrian overhead bridge for RDA


pedestrian

crossing

in-front

of

AnulaVidyalaya, Nugegoda
G

Road

User

G1

Provide directional information signs at all RDA

Information

expressway entrances and exits indicating all

Systems

close by destinations
G2

Provide directional signboards for places CMC


where drivers have to make decisions
regarding the route changes

Improving

Road

H1

Safety

Construct Safety fences for Pedestrian path CMC


from Fort Railway station to Gunasinhapura
Junction

H2

Lane markings for main roads in Western CMC


Province

and

diamond

shape

RDA

warning

marking for pedestrian crossings, indication


of road signs and Bus route numbers to be
displayed in bus stops . Mark yellow t No
parking areas with yellow lines.
H3
H4

Develop and maintain road accident database Police

UOM,

with location identification facilities

NCRS

Develop data sharing mechanism among Police,

Custom

Police Department, Commission of Motor DMT

Traffic, Customs and National Identity Card

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Office

H5

Review and adjust signal heads especially RDA,

UOM

where arrow signal for turning is given along CMC


with pedestrian signals
H6

Upgrade data storage system for police Police


vehicles according to the modern technology.

Emergency Access

J1

Provide emergency vehicle turning facility RDA


between Borella cemetery and DMT office

Minimizing
Congestion

K1
in

Re assign bus routes for different bus NTC


terminals in Pettah until the proposed

Town Areas

integrated transport terminal com into


operation
K2

Re align Kottawa Junction roundabout with RDA


traffic signal control

K3

Shift Maharagama Bus stand to Arpico land RDA

and construct pedestrian overhead bridge to SLRC


railway station
P

Parking

P1

Management
P2

Clearly indicate no parking areas and strictly RDA

CMC,D

enforce parking restrictions along all main

MMC,SJ

roads

MC

Identify suitable places for three wheeler Police

RDA

parking near junctions


P3

Identify suitable places for school van CMC

DOE

parking within Colombo


P4

Appoint a separate team to remove the RDA

breakdowns and unauthorized parking or CMC


blocking vehicles (towing)

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Appendix 02: List of CCTV Camera Location for Law enforcement and Traffic
Management
Camera Type
Location

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

HandalaHunupitiya Rd-Hekitta Rd Junction


HandalaHunupitiya Rd-Handala Rd Junction
Kadirana Bridge
Mattakkuliya form Rd.- Mattakkuliya church Rd junction
(Mattakkuliya)
Mattakkuliya form Rd.- Vystwyke Rd Junction (
Mattakkuliya)
Mattakkuliyacenter Rd- St. Marys Rd junction
Mattakkuliya Church Rd- St. Marys Ln. junction
Mattakkuliya church Rd Fergusons Rd Junction (
Mattakkuliya)
Modara St. Vystwyke Rd. Dr. S.D. Fernando Mv.Junction
(Mattakkuliya)
MattakkuliyaRassamullakanda
ModaraAluthMawatha. Sri PannanandaMv. junction
Modara St. Madampitiya Rd Junction
ModaraAluthMawatha -Madampitiya Rd Junction
ModaraMadampitiya Rd K. Cyril C. Perera Mv. Junction
Madampitiya
Junction
(
Madampitiya
Rd.Jayanthamallimarachchi Rd)
Thotalaga Junction
Sedawatta Ambathale Rd. Nagalam St. Junction
Thotalaga Bridge
Nawaloka Roundabout
Negombo Colombo Rd-New Nuge Rd junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Katunayake Expressway Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-AvariwaththaHunupitiya Rd
junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Hekitta Rd Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Church Rd Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Old Negombo RD Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Hunupitiya Railway Station Rd
Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Handala Rd Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-MuthurajaMv Junction
Negombo Colombo Rd-Ragama Rd Junction ( Mahabage

Traffic

Automated

Total

Management

Number Plate

Camera

Law

Recognition

enforcement

(ANPR) / Law

& Surveillance

Enforcement

03
03
03
03

03
03
03
03

02

02

04
03
03

04
03
03

03

03

04
04
04
04
04
02

04

08
04
04
08
04
02

04
03
04
03
04
04
05

04

04
03
03
03

08
03
04
07
07
07
08

04
03
04
04

03
02
04
04

07
05
08
08

03
03
04

02
02
04

05
05
08

04

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Junction)
Kalani Kandy Bridge
Colombo Kandy Rd Biyagama Rd Junction
Colombo Kandy Rd New Nuge Rd Junction
Colombo Kandy Rd Station Rd Junction (Pattiya Junction)
Colombo Kandy Rd Wanawasala Rd Waragoda Rd
Junction

07
04
04
04
05

04
03
03
03
04

11
07
07
07
09

35. Colombo Kandy Rd Colombo Katunayake Expressway Junction

04

04

08

04
04

03
03

07
07

03
05

02
04

05
09

04
05
03
05
01
02
03

04
04

08
09
03
07
01
02
05

04
04
03
06

05
05

30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

( Thorana Junction)

36. Colombo Kandy Rd Bulugaha Junction


37. Colombo Kandy Rd Tyre Corporation Junction ( Tyre
Junction)
38. Colombo Kandy Rd sarasaviMv Junction
39. Colombo Kandy Rd KiribathgodaHunupitiya Rd Junction (
Hunupitiya Junction)
40. Colombo Kandy Rd Kiribathgoda Junction
41. Colombo Kandy Rd- JinadasaNandasenaMv junction
42. ModaraMuthuwellaMv St. James Street Junction
43. H. Joe Perera Mv- St James Street Junction
44. Walls Ln K. Cyril C. Perera Mv. Junction (Modara)
45. Ibbagewatta Junction
46. SirimavoBandaranayakeMv.

jayanthamallimaarachchiMv. Junction
47. Ingurukade Junction
48. Bandaranayake Roundabout
49. H. Joe Perera Mv. College Street Junction-Kotahena
50. Kotahena College Street Mayfield Rd Kotahena Street
Junction
51. KotahenaWasala Rd St Benadicts St. Bloemendhal Ln
Junction
52. Hettiyawaththa Junction
53. Opposite St. Anthonys Church - kotahena
54. K.B. Christie Perera Mv. New chatty St. Junction (
Kotahena)
55. Kotahena roundabout
56. K.B. Christie Perera Mv. Goerge R. De Silva Mv. Junction
57. K.Cyril C. Perera Mv.-Arthur de silva Mv. Junction (Near
Sugathadasa Stadium )
58. Jethawana Rd. Parackrama Rd. Junction
59. Koswatta Junction ( Stace Rd St.Joseps St.- M. Vincent
pereraMv Junction)
60. Orugodawatta Junction
61. Awissawella Rd-Meetotamulla Rd Junction
62. Awissawella Rd-SangabothiMv Junction
63. Awissawella Rd-Kolonnawa Rd Junction
64. Awissawella Rd-Ambagaha Junction
65. Awissawella
Rd-Manigamulla
Rd
Junction
(
mahabuthgamuwa Junction)

02

02

09
09
03
06

03

03

04
04
02

04
03

08
07
02

03
03
03

03
03

06
06
03

03
04

02
03

05
07

05
04
03
04
03
03

05
04
02
03
03
02

10
08
05
07
06
05

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


66. Awissawella Rd-Buthgamuwa Rd Junction ( Kotikawatta
Junction)
67. Awissawella Rd-Hospital Rd-Sri SumanaMv Junction
68. Awissawella Rd-SedawattaAmbatale Rd Junction
69. Sea beach Rd Sea Street St Anthonys Mv.
Roundabout- kotahena
70. Sea St. St. Pauls Mv. Junction
71. Vivekananda Rd. Junction
72. Mahroof Water tank Roundabout ( MahavidyalayaMv.MohomedzainMv. Hussainiya St. Junction)
73. MahavidyalayaMv.- sangamittaMv. Junction (Kotahena)
74. Amour Bamour Junction
75. Sri sumanathissaMv.- M. Vincent pereraMv. Junction (
Amour Street Junction (Near Amour Street Police station)
76. Sea Beach Rd Market Street Junction
77. Gaspahahandiya (Gabos Ln. MohomedZainMv.Dam St.BodhirajaMv. - Main St. Junction)
78. Mohamed ZainMv- Saunders Pl- junction
79. Saunders Pl Dam Street Junction
80. Dam Street San Sebastian Street - peersaibo Street
Junction
81. Hulfsdorp street- Old Moor Street junction
82. Abdul jabborMv.- MJM LafeerMv- Quarry Rd Junction
83. Meeraniya Street Abdul Hameed Street Junction
84. Meeraniya Street- Sri SumanathissaMv Junction
85. In front Of R. premadasa Stadium ( Maligawatta Ln.Khettarama Rd. Junction)
86. Khettarama temple Rd- Maligawatta Rd (Colombo kandy
Rd) Junction
87. Ingram Junction
88. Jumma Mos. Junction ( Colombo Kandy Rd-Maligawatta
Rd-Jumma Mos. Rd. Junction Maligawatta)
89. Sri Sangaraja Junction Maligawatta
90. In front of Court Complex Aluthkade
91. MihiduMv. Halfdorp Street -San Sebastian Hill Junction
92. Technical Junction
93. OlcottMv-W E Bastian Mv Junction
94. Gunasinghapura Junction
95. Saunders Rd. Junction ( BodhirajaMv.- Saunders Pl.
Junction
96. BodhirajaMv- Bodhiraja Rd Junction
97. In front of CTB Bus stand- OlcottMv
98. Main St.-2nd Cross St. Junction
99. Khan Roundabout
100. In front of Fort Railway Station- OlcottMv
101. York Street-Sir Boren JayathilakeMv. Junction (Fort)
102. York Street-Chatham St.-Lover Chatham St. Junction
103. Chatham St.-JanadipathiMv. Junction

2016

04

04

08

04
04
04

03
03

07
07
04

03
03
04

03

03
03
07

03
05
05

05
04

03
10
09

03
08

02
10

05
18

04
06
05

04
06
05

05
05
05
04
01

05
05
05
04
01

04

02

06

04
05

04
03

08
08

05
06
04
05
04
05
04

06
04

11
10
04
09
07
09
04

05
03
03
04
04
05
05
05

04
03
04

05
06
06
10
06
09
09
09

03
03
06
02
04
04
04
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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


104. In front Of World Trade center
105. NSA Roundabout
106. Ceramic Junction
107. In Front of Slave Island Police station (Roundabout)
108. Telecom C.T.O. Junction
109. In front Of Lotus Tower -D.R. WijewardenaMv. Junction
110. D R WijewardanaMv. In front of Central Mail Exchange
111. Gamini Roundabout (T.B. jayahMv.-D.R. WijewardenaMv.
Junction
112. Maradana Junction
113. Maradana
Junction
(Ven.
BaddegamaWimalawansaTheroMv.-P.D.S. KularathnaMv.
Junction)
114. Panchokawatta Rd. JayanthaweerasekaraMv. Junction
115. Between Panchikawatta Rd(JayanthaweerasekaraMv.-Sri
Sangaraja Junction )
116. JayanthaweerasekaraMv- J A milton Perera Mv Junction
117. Dematagoda Junction
118. Dematagoda Rd.-Sri DhammaMv. Junction
119. Kandasami Junction
120. Baseline Rd Sri NigrodharamaMv. Junction
121. Ananda Mv-Sri dhammaMv. Junction
122. Welikada Prison Junction
123. Ananda RajakarunaMv.- Sri DhammaMv. Junction
124. Punchiborella Junction
125. Ananda college Junction
126. Galle face Roundabout
127. Sir MohomedMacan Marker Mv.-Sri UththaranandaMv.
Junction ( In front of Army Headquarters)
128. Justic Akbar Mv Junction- Church Street Junction
129. Slave Island Junction
130. Vauxhall Street Kew Rd Junction
131. Vauxhall Street-Dawson Street Junction
132. Dr. Colvin R. de silva Mv.- Dawson St. Junction
133. Ibbanwala Junction ( T.B. jayahMv.-Dr. Colvin R. de silva
Mv. Junction)
134. T.B. Jaya Mawatha Arnold Rathnayake Mv Junction
135. Arnold Rathnayake Mv- Ven. BaddegamaWimalawansaTheroMv
Junction( Maradana)

136. VenBaddegamaWimalawansaMv Nayana


Junction
137. Town Hole
138. In front Of General hospital -EW Perera Mv
139. Kynsey Rd EW Perera Mv Junction
140. Ward place -Kynsey Rd Junction
141. Ward place -Kynseypl Junction
142. Kynsey Rd Kynsey Place Junction

Hospital

2016

03
05
06
05
03
03
03
04

02
04
04
02

03

05
09
10
07
03
03
03
07

05
04

04
03

09
07

04
03

03
04

07
07

04
05
02
03
04
04
04
03
05
03
04
04

04
09
02
05
04
04
07
05
09
07
08
04

04
02

03
02
04
04
04

04
06
04
04
05
05

03
06
03
03
03
05

07
12
07
07
08
10

04
04

04
04

08
08

04

04

08

08
03
05
04
03
05

10

18
03
08
07
05
07

03
03
02
02
133

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


143. Kynsey place - Gunarathna Pradeepa Mv Junction
144. Borrella Cross Rd Gunarathna Pradeepa Mv Junction
145. In Front of lady Ridgeway Hospital Baseline Rd.
146. Borella Junction
147. Cotta Rd Tickell Rd Junction
148. Kollupitiya Junction
149. Liberty Roundabout
150. Flower Rd Junction
151. Rotunda Garden Sri UththarannadaMv- PereheraMv
Junction
152. Galle Rd- Rotunda Gardens Junction
153. Galle Rd.-St. Michaels Rd Junction Kollupitiya
154. NawanMv. Junction (Sir James pierisMv.-NawanMv.
Junction)
155. Sir James PierisMv.- Muttaia Rd Junction
156. Sir James pierisMv.-PeraheraMv Junction
157. Piththala Junction
158. Sri uththaranandaMv. Michaels Rd roundabout
159. Sri UtharanandaMv-NawanMv junction
160. Park Street Braybrooke place Roundabout
161. SrimathAnagarikaDharmapalaMv. Park St. Junction
162. WAD RamanayakeMv Hunupitiya Rd Junction
163. Galle Rd. Deal Place junction ( Between Bambalapitiya
Junction Kollupitiya )
164. Galle Rd Alfred House Gardens Junction (Between Bambalapitiya
Junction Kollupitiya )

165. Marine Drave- Aloe Avenue Junction


166. Marine Drive Lower Bagathale Rd Junction
167. R.A. De Mal Mv. Walukarama Rd. Junction
168. R.A. De Mal Mv.- Bagathale Rd Junction
169. RAD Mel Mv.- Inner Flower Rd Junction
170. Duplication Rd. Bulas Junction - R.A. De Mal Mv.
171. High level Rd Philip Gunawardana Rd Junction ( Near
Colombo University)
172. High level Rd prof. Stanley wijesundaraMv. Junction (Near
Colombo University)

173. Thummulla Junction


174. Bambalapitiya Junction
175. Bagathale Rd Thurstan Rd Junction
176. Cambridge Place RajakeeyaMv. Junction ( JOC Junction)
177. Flower Rd.-Inter Flower Rd. Junction ( Near Prime minister
Office)
178. Public Library Roundabout
179. Sir Marcus Fernando Mv.- Cambridge Place Junction ( In
front of Museum)
180. Sri
Marcus
Fernando
Mv

SrimathAnagarikadharmapalaMv Junction
181. CWW Kannangara Mv-Independent Ave. Junction( In front

2016

04
05
04
07
03
04
04
04
05
04
04
03

02
03
03
05
02
04
05
04

06
08
07
12
05
08
09
08
05
04
07
06

03
03

04
03
04
04
04
08
04
04
03

03
02
04

04

07
05
08
04
04
12
07
04
07

03

04

07

03
04
03
03
05
05
04

03
03
03
03
04
04
03

06
07
06
06
09
09
07

04

03

07

04
04
05
04
03

04
04
04
04
02

08
08
09
08
05

05
04

04
03

09
07

04

03

07

03

04

07

04
03

134

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


of NelumPokuna)
182. NelumPokuna Roundabout
183. Independent Ave. Roundabout
184. WijeramaMv. Dudley Senanayake Mv. Junction ( Wijerama
Junction)
185. RajakeeyaMv Philip gunawardanaMv Junction
186. Rosmeand place - WijeramaMv Junction
187. Barnes Place - WijeramaMv Junction
188. DuddleSennayakeMv- Maitland Crescent Mv Junction
189. DuddleSennayakeMv Kynsey Rd Junction
190. Mailland Place Mailland Crescent Junction
191. R A Senanayake Mv WijerathnaMv Junction
192. F R Senanayake Mv - CWW Kannangara Mv Junction
193. BoudhalokaMv.-Jawatta Rd. Junction
194. In front of Arcade Independent square BoudhalokaMv.
195. Independence Ave VidyaMawatha Junction ( Torrington
Square)
196. CRD colour light Junction
197. MalalasekaraMv Sarana Rd Junction ( Near BMICH)
198. BoudhalokaMv.- WijeramaMv. Junction
199. D.S. junction - Borella
200. Kanaththa Junction
201. In front Of BMICH ( Bouddhaloka MV.)
202. Devi Balika Junction ( Modenform)
203. Ayurweda Junction
204. Between RajagiriyaBorella Rd. Railway Crossing and
RuhunukalaMv. (Cotta Rd)

205. Sri Jayawardanapura Rd.- sarana Rd Junction


206. RajagiriyaBorella Rd- sarana Rd Junction
207. Welikada Junction
208. Sri JayawardanaPura Rd-BorrellaRajagiriya Rd-Diyawanna
Rd Junction
209. Sri Jayawardanapura Rd.- Royal Gardens Junction
210. Sri Jayawardanapura Rd.- Kotte Rd. Junction 1
211. Sri Jayawardanapura Rd.- Kotte Rd. Junction 2
212. Parlimant Junction (Polduwa Junction )
213. Kaduwela Rd Sri subuthi Rd Junction
214. Battaramulla Junction
215. Parliament Rd Parliament Dr Junction
front
of
Parliament
Ground
Junction
(
216. In
DenzilkobbekaduwaMv.-Parlimant Rd

217. Pelawatta Junction


218. PalanThunaHandiya
219. Galle Rd Abdul GaffoorMv Junction
220. Galle Rd Makaram Street Junction
221. Marine Drive Retreat Rd. Junction ( In front of holy
family Convent)

2016

05
04
05

05
04
04

10
08
09

04
04
04
04
04
04
05
04
04
01
04

03
04
04
04
04
03
04
03
03

07
08
08
08
08
07
09
07
07
01
07

05
03
05
05
05
01
05
06
03

04

05
05
02

09
03
09
09
10
01
10
11
05

03
05
08
04

03
03
06
02

06
08
14
06

03
03
03
04
03
04
03
05

02
02
02
04
02
04
04

05
05
05
08
05
08
03
09

05
05
04
04
03

04
04
03
03
02

09
09
07
07
05

03

04
04
05

135

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


222. Marine Drive Wellawatta station Rd Junction (
Wellawatta Railway Station )
223. Marine Drive- Ramakrishna Mv. Junction
224. Marine Drive Castle Ln Junction
225. Galle Rd.- Vajira Rd Junction
226. Galle Rd.- Dr Lester jamesperiesMv. junction
227. Galle Rd.- Lorenz Rd Junction
228. RA De Mel MawathaLorensz Rd Junction
229. Galle Rd.- W.A. Silva Mv. Junction
230. Galle Rd - Dhammarama Rd Junction
231. Galle Rd.- RudraMv. Junction
232. Galle Rd.- Ramakrishna Mv. Junction
233. Wellawaththa William Junction
234. Galle Rd.- Aththanayake Rd Junction
235. Galle Rd.- Waidya Rd Junction
236. Galle Rd.- Dehiwala Junction
237. Galle Rd.- Kawdana Rd Junction
238. Galle Rd.- Hotel Rd Junction
239. Galle Rd.- Watarappala Rd Junction
240. Galle Rd.- Station Rd Mount lavinia
241. Galle Rd.- Aththidiya Mount Lavinia Rd
242. R.A.De Mal Mv.- Vajira Rd Junction
243. R.A.De Mal Mv.- Dr Lester jamesperiesMv. junction
244. R.A.De Mal Mv.- Dhammaarama Rd. Junction ( Near St.
Peters College)
245. Havelock Rd- KeppetipolaMv Junction
246. Havelock Rd- Vajira Rd Junction
247. Havelock Rd-Thimbirigasyaya Junction
248. Havelock Rd-Dickman Rd Junction(Dr Lester James
PeriesMv)
249. Jawatta Rd - KeppetipolaMv Junction
250. Thimbirigasyaya Rd-FifeRd Junction
251. IsipathanaMv- FifeRd Junction
252. Havelock Rd- park Rd Junction
253. Park Rd- Park Place Junction
254. Maya Roundabout
255. Straford colour light junction
256. Highlewel Base line Junction
257. High-level Rd - Poorwarama Rd
258. High-level Rd Balapokuna Rd
259. High-level Rd In front of Anula College
260. High-level Rd In front Of St. Josephs girls School
261. High-level Rd Nugegoda Junction
262. High-level Rd St. Josephs Rd Junction
263. High-level Rd Gamsaba Junction
264. High-level Rd Delkanda Junction

2016

03

02

05

03
04
04
04
04
05
05
04
04
04
04
04
04
08
04
07
04
04
04
05
05
03

04
04
04
04
04
03
04
04
04
04
04
06
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
03

03
04
08
08
08
09
09
07
08
08
08
08
08
14
08
11
08
08
08
09
09
06

03
04
04
05

03
04
04
04

06
08
08
09

03
03
04
04
02
04
04
05
04
04
03
03
05
04
05
05

03
03
04
08
02
08
08
10
08
07
07
07
09
08
09
09

04
04
04
05
04
03
04
04
04
04
04
04
136

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT


265. High-level Rd Pathiragoda Rd Junction
266. High-level Rd Wijerama Junction
267. Parakumba Place Peterson Ln Junction
268. W.A.Silva Rd-Colombo Horana Rd Junction
269. W.A.Silva Rd-Hampden Ln Junction
270. Pamankada Junction - Colombo Horana Rd
271. Colombo Horana Rd-Balapokuna Rd Junction
272. Colombo Horana Rd-Sri Sunandarama Rd Junction
273. Colombo Horana Rd-Kohuwala Junction
274. Colombo Horana Rd-Green Path Junction
275. Colombo Horana Rd-Woodland Ave Junction
276. Colombo Horana Rd-Pepiliyana Rd Junction
277. Narahenpita Rd KirimandalaMv Junction
278. Narahenpita Rd Matha Rd Junction
279. Narahenpita Junction
280. ElvitigalaMv-Thimbirigasyaya Rd junction
281. Thimbirigasyaya Rd BernandSoysaMv Junction
282. Thimbirigasyaya Rd SamarasinghaMv Junction
283. ElvitigalaMv-Park Rd Junction ( in front of Lanka Hospital)
284. Polhengoda Junction( ElvitigalaMv-viaykumarathungaMv.
Junction)
Total

2016

03
04
04
04
03
04
03
03
05
03
03
05
04
03
05
05
04
04
04
04

03
04
03
04
02
04
02
02
05
03
03
04
04
05
04
03
03
04
05

06
08
07
08
05
08
05
05
10
026
06
09
08
03
10
09
07
07
08
09

1139

790

1929

137

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Appendix 03: RTS Route Formulation Method


Introduction
Under the Western Region Megapolis Planning Project it was set the top priority to mitigate
the existing traffic congestion in the region and to provide solutions to the traffic congestion to
be expected in future due to the future developments under Megapolis Planning Project. The
main concern under the project is the CBD (Central Business District) area which was specified
by the project where key developments are coming in. Going through the literature to find out
the possible interventions suggested that an elevated mode of transit is the best due to the
unavailability of lands and the very high costs of lands in this area. The other supporting
reasons for such a system is the aesthetic appearance, comfort, ease of access, not obstructing
the existing on road traffic and hence low travel time. Having these ideas in mind the
Transport Committee of Megapolis Planning Project followed the following methodology to
come up with the best RTS route to serve the existing and future demand.
Selection of Stations
In Colombo CBD map, major trip generation points (Residential areas, apartment buildings and
etc.), major trip attraction points (office complexes, schools, recreational facilities, transport
nodes, super markets and public places like hospitals and etc.) were marked on a map and the
possible major stations were selected within the walking distance (500m) of majority of these
trip attraction and generation points. The feasibility of setting up a station such as land
availability and security reasons were also considered. This way, the points where the new
RTS should go through were selected and marked on a map.

138

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Figure Selected Possible RTS Stations

Selection of Routes
The routes where the RTS should follow connecting the identified nodes were selected on a
specific process. As proposed RTS is to go elevated, it is suggested to go along the center
median of the roads since the land acquisition can be minimized. First the possible connections
between the nodes along the existing roads that are possible to connect were identified and
their distances were noted down. Then a distance matrix was formed between the nodes. The
matrix is as follows (distances are in km);
Table Distance Matrix
1
2
3
4
5
1
2.41 2.8
2 2.41
1.48 1.61 2.42
3 2.8 1.48
4
1.61
1.16
5
2.42
1.16
6
2.25 1.81 1.63 0.72
7
2 1.75
8
3.38
2.6
9
10
1.82
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1.15 1.44
29
2.52
30
31
1.03
32
33
34

2.25
1.81
3.38
1.63
2
0.72 1.75 2.6
2.33
3.74
2.3 3.74

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

30

31

32

33

34

1.03
1.51
2.15

1.58 1.88

0.76
0.68

1.43
2.39

1.03

1.4
1.6
1.7
1.28
3.45 1.7 2.44
2.31 2.38 1.23
2.39
1.48
2.39 1.48

1.92
0.79
1.7 1.25
1.35 1.51
1.35
0.54
1.51 0.54

1.58
1.88

1.51 2.15

29

0.79 0.79

2.18
1.79
2.43
1.4
2.25 2.24
1.6 0.53 3.5
4.2
3.15
2.14
3.86
2.25 2.11 1.2
1.3 2.15
2.05 1.8 1.9
1.3
2.15
1.11 1.64
2.16
1.11
1
1.19 1.89
3.15 2.25 2.05
1.64
1
0.63
1.65
2.11 1.8
0.63
1.04 2.09 1.75
1.2 1.9
1.04
2.5 2.07
2.16 1.19
2.09 2.5
1.23
1.89 1.65 1.75 2.07 1.23
1.03
1.28 3.45 2.31
1.7 2.38
2.44 1.23
1.43 2.39

2.43

28

1.15
1.44 2.52

1.82

1.56
2 1.29
2.05
1.56
2 2.05
2.22
1.29
2.22
1.34 2.19
1.34
0.81 0.77
2.19 0.81
1.05
0.77 1.05
2.18 1.4 2.25 1.6
2.14
2.24 0.53
1.79
3.5 4.2 3.86

0.79
0.79

20

0.68
1.92 0.79
0.76

1.4

1.6

1.7
1.25

1.6
1.6

1.7

139

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

The construction cost governs the feasibility of any project. Therefore, different aspects related
to the construction and implementation of the project need to be converted to a cost factor.
Higher the hardships to be undergone and time taken, higher the cost of the project and vice
versa.
Construction of columns for the elevated guideway has to be constructed on the center median
of the road. Not all roads have a center median and hence the widening of certain roads needs
to be carried out where land acquisition is required. This eventually increases the total cost of
guideway construction. On the other hand, certain road sections have sharp bends where again
the cost of construction is comparatively high. Then each of the above road links were assigned
a factor depending on the number of bends on the section, extent of land that needs to be
acquired (depending on the availability of center median) and other similar aspects.
For the project cost to be minimized, the cost of total guideway length has to be a minimum. It
should be pointed out that not always the minimum length gives the minimum cost. If the link
with the minimum length does not have a center median or have many sharp curves, the cost
of next available minimum length link will be less than that of the minimum length link.
Therefore, since we have to select the links with minimum cost, the link lengths were
converted to a cost dependent equivalent length by multiplying the length from a factor which
accounts the aforesaid issues (unavailability of center median, sharp curves) which affects the
cost.
Accordingly, each and every identified link was assigned a factor taking the length of
unavailability of center median and amount of sharp bends available along the link. The factor
matrix is as follows;
Table Factor Matrix
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

1.2
1.3

2
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.3

3
1.3
1.3

1.2

1.3

1.3
1
1.4
1

1.6
1.2

1
1

1
1.4
1.6

1.2

1
1.2
1.5

1.4

1.1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

1.5
1.4
1.3

1.1
1
1.4

1
1

1.4

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

1.2
1.5

1.6

1.3

30

31

32

33

34

1.3

1.2
1.2

1.2
1.3

1
1.1
1.2
1
1.2

1.5
1

1.1
1.3

1.3

1.2
1.3
1.2
1.2

1.3

1.3
1.4
1.4
1.3

1.2

1.2
1.3
1.3
1.2

1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4

1.2

1.3
1.4
1.3
1.2

1.2
1.4

1.15

1.4
1.3

1.5

1.2
1.2

1.3
1.4

1.4
1.5

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.5
1.5
1.3
1.2

1.3
1.3
1.5

1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1
1.5

1.2
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.1

1.2
1.5
1.5
1.3

1
1.4

1.2

1.4

1.5
1.1
1.2
1.4

1.3
1
1.35

1.2

1.2
1.2

1.3
1.3
1.1

1.3

1
1.2

1.1

1.3
1.2

1.2
1.3

1.3

1.15

1.3
1.3

1.3

1.2
1.3
1

1.1

1.3
1

1
1.15
1.1

1
1.4

1.4

1.2

22

1.1

1.3
1.1

1.5
1.6

21

1.2

1
1.5

1.2

20

1.2
1.2

1.2

1.2
1.2
0

1.15
1.3
1.2

1.2

1.2

1.35
1.2

1
1

1.2

140

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

2016

Then, the available lengths were multiplied by the related factor and another matrix is formed
where the cells represent the cost equivalent length between any two nodes. The final matrix
is as follows;
Table Final Matrix on factored lengths
1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2.892 3.64
2.892
1.924 1.932 3.146 2.925
3.64 1.924
1.81
4.056
1.932
1.16 2.282 3.2
3.146
1.16
0.72 2.1 3.9
2.925 1.81 2.282 0.72
3.262
3.2 2.1
4.862
4.056
3.9 3.22 4.862
2.002

10

1.03

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

29

30

1.027 0.79

2.616
2.148
2.916
1.82
2.7 2.912
1.92 0.53 4.2
5.46
4.095
2.782
5.018
3.15 2.954 1.56
1.56 2.58
2.665 2.34 2.66
1.56
2.58
1.332 2.296
2.808
1.332
1.5
1.428 2.268
4.095 3.15 2.665
2.296 1.5
0.756
2.145
2.954 2.34
0.756
1.56 2.717 2.1
1.56 2.66
1.56
3.25 2.691
2.808 1.428
2.717 3.25
1.722
2.268 2.145 2.1 2.691 1.722
1.133
1.92 5.175 3.003
1.7 3.332
3.66 1.353
1.43 2.868

31

32

33

34

1.03
1.737
2.365

2.054 2.444

0.912
0.782

1.43
2.868

1.133

1.68
1.92
2.04
1.92
5.175 1.7 3.66
3.003 3.332 1.353
2.868
2.072
2.868 2.072

2.496
0.79
2.295 1.5
1.62 1.812
1.62
0.648
1.812 0.648

2.054
2.444

1.737 2.365

28

1.38
2.16 4.032

1.716
2 1.29
2.87
1.716 2 2.87
3.108
1.29
3.108
1.34 3.285
1.34
0.81 0.847
3.285 0.81
1.365
0.847 1.365
2.616 1.82 2.7 1.92
2.782
2.912 0.53
2.148
4.2 5.46 5.018

1.027
0.79

20

2.002

2.916

1.38 2.16
4.032

11

0.782
2.496 0.79
0.912

1.68

1.92

2.295
1.5

1.6
1.6

2.04

In order for the cost to be a minimum, these nodes have to be connected with the links with
minimum possible costs. When these nodes are connected through a network through the
links with minimum possible length (cost) between two nodes and avoiding loops within
nodes. This is known as the minimum spanning tree. Using the above matrix, this minimum
spanning tree was developed for the identified possible RTS stations. A rough sketch of the
minimum spanning tree is as follows;

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Figure Minimum Spanning Tree

RTS Network
From the minimum spanning tree, the RTS network was derived while giving due attention to
the construction and operational aspects. Special attention was given to the possibility of
creating loops and connecting links with other available transport modes such as railway and
bus transport. Accordingly, the following network was developed.

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Figure Developed RTS Network

This network was then phased out to three phases and extended to Battaramulla, Malabe,
Kaduwela and Kottawa depending on the requirements of Megapolis structure plan, transport
plan and existing congestion situations. Therefore, the phase out and the extension are as
follows.

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Figure Phased out and extended network to the outer core area

The identified lines are;


RTS in Central Business District (CBD)
Line 1 : Green Line
Line 2 : Orange Line
Line 3 : Red Line

RTS in Suburbs
Line 1 : Borella Malabe
Line 2 : Malabe Kaduwela
Line 3: Peliyagoda - Kadawatha

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Appendix 04: Short PIDs

TRANSPORT
1.1.1 RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION AND MODERNIZATION
Unavailability of a reliable, comfortable, time saving and safe mode of public transport system has caused the commuters to transfer to their private transport modes.
Under the Western Region Megapolis Plan, entire railway system within Western Province and beyond will be upgraded, electrified and modernized to provide a
quality and comfortable ride to passengers. This project will encourage the passengers shift to rail from other modes of transport. Passengers will get many benefits as;
cost saving from travel time, reduction of road accidents, reduction of environmental emissions, provide an improve choice of rail use, improved stations, station
access, quality of carriages and speed of travel and modernized ticketing.

Objectives

Summary
Location

1.
2.

Required Land Area

3.

To increase the ridership by Rail


To improve the quality, efficiency
and reliability of rail transport
system
To improve passenger facilities

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Feasibility study
Improvement of tracks to facilitate electrification
Resettlement and relocation
Upgrading the existing railway stations including ticketing system
Upgrading the existing signal system
Purchasing new trains
Establishment of electronic train tracking system

of

the

Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

of

Project
a) Polgahawela to Panadura (110 km)
b) Kelani Valley line
c) Negombo line with airport access
a) Land is available
b) To be estimated and acquired
c) To be estimated and acquired
Concepts have been approved in principle
SLR 347,565 mn (US $ 2,397 mn)
Foreign funding
Open competitive
About 2,000 Direct and indirect employment
Medium Term (2016-2020)

Remarks: New trains are to be introduced for the system and existing
trains operating within Western Province can be used for long distance
services

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1.1.2 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW ELECTRIFIED RAILWAY LINES


In the present situation, there exist some corridors where the passenger demand has exceeded the capacity of available public bus transport service. Therefore, under
the Western Region Megapolis Plan, new railway lines will be introduced to improve the connectivity by rail especially for high demand areas as Kottawa to Horana. In
addition, new railway line will be introduced from Avissawella to Peliyagoda to facilitate the freight transport and improve the connectivity for the proposed logistics
zone.
Summary
Location

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

To improve
Railway

the

connectivity

by

To reduce road traffic congestion


To reduce the number of container
traffic on High Level and Low Level
roads
To increase the passenger and
freight handling capacity by rail

of

the Project
a) Kottawa to Horana
b) Paliyagoda to Kosgama via Dompe

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method

To be identified
Concept Stage
SLR 105,850 mn (US $ 730 mn)
Foreign and local funding

Method
Procurement
Employment

Open competitive

of

Implementation
Period

More than 1500 direct employment and


2000 indirect employment
Medium Term to Long term (2016/2020)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o
o

Conducting the feasibility study for the identified two lines


Detailed designs of tracks and railway stations
Land acquisition and resettlements if required
Construction of new railway tracks and stations
Installation of signaling system and train tracking center
Purchase new trains, loading/unloading equipment

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1.1.3 COLOMBO RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (RTS) PROJECT


Within Colombo CBD area, the existing passenger demand in almost all the roads and in the existing public bus transport service has been surpassed. Therefore, the
traffic congestion in the core area is at the maximum. The new Rapid Transit System will be introduced in the Core Area of Western Region. It will introduce new transit
modes and will provide easy access to the major attractions in the system. It will ensure a higher quality ride for everyone in terms of cost, time and mobility. Introducing
new modes will help the rider to choose most appropriate mode of transport based on his trip purpose and hence will increase the modal shift towards the public
transportation reducing the traffic congestion significantly. All the major points in the core are will be connected by the new system.

Objectives

Summary
Location

1.

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

To improve the connectivity and reduce


the travel time among main nodes in CBD
To introduce new rapid transit modes in
CBD
To improve
passengers

the

transfer

facilities

Reduce the traffic congestion


Increase the public transport ridership
Improve the quality of public transport

for

of

the Project
CBD area & suburbs

Concept Stage
SLR 509,820 mn (US $ 3,516 mn)
Foreign funding

Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
About 2,000 direct and indirect
Implementation
Short to Long term (2018/2030)
Period
Remarks: RTS mode/s will only be specified after the feasibility
study. Possible modes are elevated Monorail or elevated Light Rail.

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o

Feasibility study on identified traces


Detailed designs of tracks, signaling systems, stations and yard
Land acquisition
Construction of tracks/beams, stations, yards, signaling systems and controlling systems
Purchase new trains

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1.1.4 IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW INLAND WATER TRANSPORT SYSTEM


Now there is no connecting mode in the East - West direction in the Colombo region while the existing road network transport the passengers radially from Colombo.
Therefore, it is proposed to introduce new transit mode of inland water transport from Wellawatte to Battaramulla using the water connectivity via Wellawatte Canal,
Kirulapone canal and Diyawannaoya. Comfortable air conditioned boats will provide a good ridership for passengers and reduce their travel time drastically. Day time
this can be used as a public transport mode and it can be used as Eco tourism at night. Second system will be on Beira Lake from Fort to Gangarama.
Summary
Location

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

To introduce a new transport mode


Improve the
connectivity

accessibility

and

To reduce the on road traffic


congestion and travel time among
the connecting locations
To promote as both public
transport and echo tourism mode

of

the Project
(a) Wellawatta to Battaramulla
(b) Fort to Union Place
(c) Mattakkuliya to Hanwella
Required Land Area
Has been identified and belongs to Land
Reclamation Authority
Present Situation
Feasibility study and detailed designs are
completed for Wellawatte to Battaramulla
Project Cost
SLR 18,125 mn (US $ 125.1 mn)
Proposed Financing Foreign and local funding
Method
Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
500 Direct and indirect employment
Implementation
Medium term (2016/2020)
Period
Remarks: All the detailed designs are completed for the Wellawatte
Battaramulla section. Can commence the project once the canal is
dredged and cleaned.

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o

Clean and dredge the canal to suit the passenger service


Constructing boat stations, yards and access paths
Purchasing Boats
Develop a regulatory mechanism
Maintenance and operations

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1.1.5 IMPROVEMENT OF EXPRESSWAY NETWORK


The existing expressways are only being utilized for long distance passenger transportation. Yet, some of the nearby major towns can be connected through routes
which runs through the expressways reducing the time to travel in between. The existing tolls have not been revised as per the changed demand over the past years
and a lot of congestion occurs sometimes at the exit toll gates due to the prevailing manual toll collection method. Therefore, under the Western Region Megapolis
Plan, vehicle operations on expressways are to be improved by changing the demand on expressways and improving the public transit operations.

Objectives

1.

Provide an efficient public transport


system on expressway

2.

Introduce electronic toll collection


system and reduce delays at toll
gates

3.

Maintain a constant demand on

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province and connecting areas
through highways
Required Land Area
N/A
Present Situation
Concept stage
Project Cost
SLR 14 mn (US $ 0.1 mn)
Proposed Financing Local funding Consolidated fund
Method
Method
of Government
interventions.
Main
Procurement
responsible authority is RDA
100 employments
Employment
Implementation
Short term (2016/2018)
Period

highway by revising the toll

4.

Improve mobility on highways

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o

Analyse the new demand on the highways


Review existing tolls
Introduce electronic toll collection system
Use real time information systems
Redesign the public transport system on highways

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1.1.6 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW EXPRESSWAYS


There are some stretches and corridors where there is a huge direct demand where the commuters need a high mobility. If this issue can be addressed, a lot of people
will save their valuable time and draw new investments. Under this project it will develop the road network providing high mobility and connectivity in urban areas.
Some of these expressways are elevated and some of them are at grade. It will reduce the travel time significantly between key areas.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

Provide high mobility between


urban and sub urban areas

Summary
Location

of

the
a)
b)
c)

Improve the capacity of these links


Improve the access time to
Colombo
via
Katunayake
Expressway

Required Land Area


Present Situation

Project
Ruwanpura expressway
Central Expressway
New kelani bridge elevated road to
Colombo Port and Fort area (CKE
Extension)
d) Elevated road from New Kelani Bridge to
Pore via Battaramulla (New elevated urban
expressway)
Feasibility study for Ruwanpura expressway and
CKE extension are almost completed
SLR. 401,215 mn (US $ 2,767 mn)
Local / Foreign funding Consolidated fund

Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
Around 1000 direct or indirect employment
Implementation
Short term to Long term (2016/2025)
Period
Remarks: Feasibility studies of New Kelani Bridge, port access road and
Kandy Expressway are already completed

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

Carry out the feasibility studies for Kelani bridge to Pore elevated urban expressway
Implementation of Ruwanpura expressway and CKE Extension
Implementation of Kandy expressway

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1.1.8 DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT HUBS AND CENTERS


The poor connectivity between the available transport modes and unavailability of required facilities at transfer locations have caused a lot of problems and
inconveniences for the public. Under the Western Region Megapolis Plan, new Multimodal Transport Hubs will be developed to enhance the development of a diverse,
balanced, integrated transit service in many areas, people and freight transport. In addition, new transport hubs will co-ordinate the use of different modes with proper
integration for efficiency and cost

Objectives

effectiveness.
Summary of
Location

the

1. To

improve
the
connectivity
between different transport modes
in Western Province

2. To

improve the passenger transfer


facilities and quality of ride

3. To

accommodate
business,
accommodation and recreational
facilities

Required Land Area


Present Situation

Project
Hubs : Fort/Pettah
Centers : Negombo, Kaduwela, Kottawa,
Moratuwa, Panadura, Horana, Gampaha,
Ragama, Awissawella, Meerigama
To be Estimated
Multimodal Hubs are already being identified.
Concepts have been developed

Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method

SLR 43,500 mn (US $ 300 mn)


Public Private Partnership

Method
Procurement

Open Competitive

Employment
Implementation
Period

of

About 10,000 Direct and indirect employment


Medium term to Long Term (2018/2030)

Remarks: Fort/Pettah feasibility has already been completed by Com


Trans project

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o
o

Feasibility study for multimodal transport hubs


Identification of activities to be included in the hub
Identification and acquisition of lands
Resettlements if required
Detailed designs preparation
Implementation

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1.1.9 IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING ROADS


Apart from the traffic congestion, the low quality of roads has contributed towards the low capacity of certain road links which decreases the propagating speed of
the traffic and underutilize the capacity of the road network. Under this project it will develop road network providing high mobility in urban areas. It will improve the
surface conditions, shoulders, footwalls and drainage systems of roads. In addition, it will eliminate road bottlenecks and issues related to service lines, illegal
encroachments as well.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

To provide high mobility in urban areas


To improve the capacity of roads
To improve the roads to maintain and
average speed of 60 km/h between
urban centers

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment

To be estimated
Concept stage has been approved by
principle. Can start the detailed designs
SLR 50,025 mn (US $ 345 mn)
Local / Foreign funding - Consolidated
Open competitive
Around
500
direct
employment
Short term (2016/2018)

or

indirect

Implementation
Period
Remarks: Needed road links are already being identified by RDA

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Develop the High Mobility road network connecting districts with an average speed of 60 km/h which has
developed by RDA for next 10 years
Detailed designs to be done for identified networks
Land acquisition
Road improvements

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1.1.10 HORANA-MEERIGAMA, NEGOMBO- MEERIGAMA AND JA-ELA DIVLAPITIYA ROAD


IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
Existing roads are two lane undivided with less capacity and low mobility. Therefore, this project will improve the existing roads by widening into 4 lanes with required
intersection improvements. These new roads will improve the connectivity between Kalutara and Gampaha Districts, airport access and facilitate the proposed
logistics zone as well. Extension of road links within the core area will ensure a better connectivity and reduction of traffic congestion on existing roads

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To improve the capacity of key roads in


Western Province
To improve facilities for freight transport
To improve the capacity of selected
roads
To improve the mobility in core area
To provide a better connectivity and
access
speed
to
Katunayake
expressway using proposed new Kelani
bridge

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Horana to Meerigama via Paddukka
and Kirindiwela
Negombo- Divulapitiya - Mirigama
Ja-Ela to Divulapitiya via Ekala and
Minuwangoda
Required Land Area
To be Estimated
Present Situation
Concept stage
Project Cost
SLR 19,648 mn (US $ 135.5 mn)
Proposed Financing Local funding Consolidated fund
Method
Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Around 500 direct or indirect employment


Short term (2016/2020)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

Detailed designs of roads and intersections, pavement designs


Land acquisition and resettlement if required
Improvement of selected road links

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1.1.11 MARINE DRIVE, DUPLICATION ROAD & BASELINE ROAD EXTENTION PROJECT
There are some missing road links, where if provided, a lot of people will be willing to use which in turn can reduce a lot of unnecessary traffic movements reducing the
congestion significantly. Therefore, identification of such missing links and improvement of selected sections of the existing road network as appropriate to the Western
Region Megapolis Plan will address this issue. This will improve the connectivity of existing main corridors.
Summary

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

Capacity improvement
roads in Western Province
Improve
transport

of

the

Location

facilities

for

of

Required Land Area

Marine Drive extension to Galle Face


and Dehiwala

Baseline extension up to Maliban junction

Duplication road extension up to


Kalubowila hospital road
To be estimated

Present Situation

Concept stage

Project Cost

SLR 10,223 mn (US $ 70.5 mn)

Proposed Financing
Method

Local funding Consolidated fund

Method
Procurement

Open competitive

key

freight

Improve the capacity of selected


roads
Improve the mobility in core area

Project

of

Employment

Around 500 direct or indirect employment

Implementation
Period

Medium term (2016/2020)

Remarks: Needs land acquisition

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Feasibility study to be carried out for these three projects


Marine drive extension to Galle Face from Kollupitiya and to Dehiwela from Wellawatte
Baseline road xtension up to Maliban junction
Duplication road extension up to Kalubowila Hospital Road

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1.1.12 DEVELOPMENT OF 0FF-STREET PARKING FACILITIES


Now, there is a lot of traffic congestion being created due to the unavailability of proper and enough parking facilities within Colombo. It has paved the path for
abrupt on street parking. Under the Western Region Megapolis Plan, a new Parking Management System is proposed as off-street parking facilities. The aim of parking
management is to reduce vehicle trips by controlling on-street parking, on the assumption that people will change modes or carpool. Required parking facilities will be
provided in identified locations as surface car parks, multi-storied parking buildings, mechanical car parks and roof top car parks as required.

Summary

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

of

Location
Required Land Area
Present Situation

To improve the road capacity and flow


of traffic
street

Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method

To reduce circulation time for searching


of parking facilities

Method
of
Procurement
Employment/output

To minimize unnecessary
parking for long hours

on

To ensure the safety of the vehicles

the

Project

CBD and suburbs


3.85 Hectares
Concept has been developed and lands
have been identified by UDA
SLR 6,000 mn (US $ 42 mn)
Public Private Financing
Open competitive
Around
1000
Direct
employment
Short Term (2016 - 2018)

and

indirect

Implementation
Period
Remarks: UDA has confirmed the availability of lands in 26 locations.

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

Parking demand has to be identified


Detail designs of parking building or parking lots for surface parking
Construction of parking buildings and lots

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1.1.13 INTRODUCTION OF PARKING METERS


Irregular and long time on-street parking are two of the significant factors which contribute towards the urban traffic congestion. Regularizing and minimizing this helps
to reduce this problem. Therefore, under the Western Region Megapolis Plan, introduction of parking meters for on-street parking was identified as a key requirement.
The aim of parking meters is to reduce vehicle trips by controlling on-street parking and make it more expensive, on the assumption that people will change modes or
carpool. This should be implemented only after providing an adequate amount of off street parking.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

Summary of

the

Project

Location

CBD

Required Land Area

N/A

To regulate on-street parking

Present Situation

To discourage on-street parking


gradually

Project Cost

Concept has been developed and CMC has


started installing parking meters on several
locations
SLR 40 mn (US $ 0.28mn)

To eliminate the traffic congestion


due to illegal and irregular on street
parking

Proposed
Method

Financing

Method
Procurement

of

Public Private Financing


Open competitive

Employment/output

Around 100 Direct employment

Implementation
Period

Medium Term (2017 - 2020)

Remarks: Once adequate off street parking has been provided, on street
parking can be eliminated

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

Identification of suitable locations


Installing parking meters at the identified locations
Develop regulatory and fining mechanisms

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1.1.14 MODERNIZATION OF PUBLIC BUS TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN WESTERN REGION


The recent data shows a degrading trend of public transport usage while increasing the trend for private vehicle usage which has caused a lot of traffic problems at
present. We still have the route systems formulated for about 40 years ago which has caused a lot of inefficiencies. Therefore, public transport system development is
the main requirement to be achieved in reducing road congestion and environmental pollution. Reliable public transport system will always enhance the safety and
the comfort of the rider. Efficient transport system will reduce the stresses of commuters and the road rage. Productivity of employees can be increased drastically.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mitigate the prevailing quality slump in


public transportation
Introduce more comfortable buses for
passengers
Attract many passengers for public
transport systems
Improve the quality and reliability of
bus service

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

To be estimated
Conceptual stage
SLR 62,495 mn (US $ 431 mn)
Foreign funds, Consolidated fund
Open competitive
1000 Direct employee
Medium term (2016/2020)

This is a pre-requisite for electronic road


pricing of city entry points

Project Components / Activities


o
o

Change bus type to low floor A\C busses when replacing the existing buses to new ones
Design and implement a control center to monitor busses through GPS and establish real time information
system about busses for the public

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1.1.15 OVERFLOW PARKING FACILITY FOR LONG DISTANCE BUSSES ENTERING COLOMBO
Due to large number of long distance buses entering the city center daily and keep waiting for long hours for the return trips. At the moment, there is no such proper
place for these busses to wait compelling them to park them at random places. Hence Pettah and surrounding areas get congested during the day time. It is required
to provide parking facilities for buses in Pettah or nearby areas to overcome this issue. Further better facilities must be provided for bus crew in the identified areas.

Objectives

1.
2.

Reduce the congestion in Pettah


and surrounding area due to bus
parking
Provide more facilities for long
distance buses and crew

Summary of

the

Location
Required Land Area
Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method

Fort/Pettah
To be estimated
Concept has been developed
SLR 75 mn (US $ 0.50 mn)
Public Private Financing

Project

Method
of
Procurement
Employment/output
Implementation
Period

Open competitive
Around 100 Direct and indirect employment
Short Term (2016 - 2018)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o

Identification of suitable locations


Carryout the detailed design and specify a regulatory mechanism
Traffic impact assessment
Revision of bus schedules to minimize waiting
Project implementation

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1.1.16 WIDENING AND IMPROVEMENTS OF INTERSECTIONS IN COLOMBO


The limited capacities of the existing intersections, due to the geometric and other conditions, have limited the efficiency of traffic management. Widening and
improvements at some intersections will improve the turning movement capacity and the efficiency. This will help to initiate signal synchronization of the area as well.

Objectives

1.
2.

To facilitate the prerequisite for signal


synchronization & IT based traffic
management
To improve capacity of intersections

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


To be estimated
Present Situation
Conceptual stage
Project Cost
SLR 500 mn (US $ 4 mn)
Proposed Financing External source, Consolidated fund
Method
Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
100 employments
Implementation
Medium term (2016/2020)
Period
Remarks: Locations are already Identified by KOICA .

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Identify the intersections to be improved


Conduct a study on turning movement counts at intersections
Detailed designs of intersections
Construction of intersections

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1.1.17 UPGRADE SIGNAL LIGHTS AT INTERSECTIONS


Due to the unavailability of real time traffic detection and absence of synchronization of signal lights within the area, a considerable amount of time being wasted on
roads. This project will improve the travel time of riders, energy consumption and quality of ride by reducing the intersection delays for riders. Real time traffic
management measures will be introduced which will control the intersections, incident management and avoid illegal parking near intersection areas.
Summary
Location

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

To reduce congestion through real time


traffic management
To
improve
management
incident/accident at intersections

of

To Improve the intersection capacities

of

t h e P r o j e c td
Central Business District (CBD), Fringe Area

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period
Remarks: Intersections

N/A
Conceptual stage
SLR 3,000 mn (UD $ 20.7 mn)
Consolidated funds
Open competitive
Around 250 direct and indirect employments
Medium term
and geometries have been identified by KOICA

study and system requirements to be provided

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

Develop guidelines of standards for future signal lights synchronizing


Re install necessary signal lights which has specified standards
Operation and maintenance of signal lights

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1.1.18 IT BASED SMART TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Due to the unavailability of a control center for the traffic management of entire western province, the sudden incidents concentrated to certain areas affects the
traffic on roads significantly by managing all the real time traffic flows in the entire Western Province at once. Traffic flow management will enhance the mobility on
corridors, reduction of congestion, improvement in road safety and reduction of delay on roads. The roads users will have access to a real time information system on
the prevailing traffic conditions on roads through their smart phones.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

To Reduce traffic congestion


To improve vehicle & passenger
safety
To improve the travel time of different
road users such as public transport
users and private transport users

Summary
Location

of

the project
Colombo Municipal Council and Kotte
Urban Council
Required Land Area
0.3 Hectares
Present Situation
Conceptual stage
Project Cost
SLR 2,175 mn (US $ 15.4 mn)
Proposed Financing Foreign funding
Method
Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
Around 200 direct and indirect employments
Implementation
Medium term (2016/2020)
Period

Project Components / Activities


o

Installation of loop detectors/flow detection cameras at required locations

Incorporate CCTV cameras purchased and installed under project No. 3.21 for traffic flow detection

o
o

Design and installation of signal lights synchronization system (including civil works)
Formulate policy document with department of motor traffic, police and other relevant parties on sending
charges for road rule violators

Establishment of a control and monitoring center

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1.1.19 IMPROVEMENT OF PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES


The existing pedestrian facilities in the urban areas are very poor despite the high pedestrian movements. Providing attracti ve, comfortable and safe pedestrian
facilities will attract a lot of people to use them to fulfill their short distance trips rather than going for taxies. Under this project, Improvements are intended to enhance
pedestrian access to transit service by aiding street crossings and providing more amenities at bus stops, including landscapes, sidewalks, curb extensions and ramps
and improved street lightings. New and improved pedestrian facilities promote walking and provide greater access and mobility within our communities

Objectives

Summary
Location

1.

Required Land Area


Present Situation

2.
3.
4.
5.

Enhance pedestrian access to transit


service
Pedestrian safety and convenience
Promote walking
Improve road discipline
Improve road capacity by providing
a separate walkway for pedestrians

of

Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

the Project
CBD area
To be estimated
Some pedestrian walkways are already
completed. Remaining areas to be
constructed
SLR 1,000 mn (US $ 7 mn)
Local funding Consolidated fund
Open competitive
Around
1000
direct
employment
Short term (2016/2018)

and

indirect

Remarks: Needs land acquisition

Provide appropriate vegetation/concrete cover & adequate lighting along the roads
Improve the quality of walk ways by providing continuous and interconnected sidewalks accessible by
everyone by designing it
Separate sidewalks from the road way using suitable buffer, on street parking, by appropriate curb or by
landscaping between the sidewalk and the roadway
Ensure safety of pedestrians at intersections through clearly marked crosswalks, overhead bridges /underpass
and fences

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1.1.20 IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC FLOW BASED ON IDENTIFIED INTERVENTIONS


Issues concentrated into certain areas affects the traffic condition of comparatively a large area. Traffic flow management through physical interventions and
enforcement are identified to relieve the traffic congestion significantly. Here the carefully identified interventions by experts and required enforcements through
police are to be implemented.

Objectives

Summary
Location

1.

Required Land Area


Present Situation

2.

To
reduce
congestion
interventions

the existing
traffic
through
physical

To
reduce
the existing
traffic
congestion through law enforcement
strategies

of

the Project
Western Province

Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Not required
Required interventions have been identified
(Annex B)
SLR 10,000 mn(US $ 70 mn)
External source, Consolidated fund
Open competitive
150 Direct employees
Medium term (2016/2020)

Project Components / Activities


o
o

Prioritize the identified interventions (refer Annex No.5)


Implementation of the prioritized interventions

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1.1.21 LEGAL ENFORCEMENT OF TRAFFIC LAW VIOLATIONS THROUGH CCTV MONITORING


In the existing situation, law enforcement is only possible in the presence of law enforcement officers. Yet, traffic flow management through law enforcement is
regarded as one of the most efficient and direct methods to control the traffic congestion, violations and safety. This CCTV real time monitoring and fining system over
a large area has to be implemented without the presence of police officers on site.
Summary
Location

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

To make sure there are less or no


traffic violations within the considered
area
Reduce the congestion
enforced driver discipline

through

Safety assurance by eliminating the


violations

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Not required
Required intervention has been identified
SLR 3,500 mn (US $ 24 mn)
External source, Consolidated fund
Open competitive
75 direct employees
Medium term (2016/2020)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o

Identification of locations where cameras to be installed


Purchase and Installation of CCTV cameras at required locations
Install red running detection cameras at selected intersections
Development of policies to enable real time fining
Identify and propose a regulatory mechanism for the system

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1.1.22 IMPROVEMENT OF TAXI TRANSPORT SERVICE


Absence of a proper regulatory mechanism and an authority for management purposes of taxies in the country has paved the path for many social and traffic
problems. Yet, taxies are a part of a functioning community and it provides door to door service to the general public as a para transit mode. Numbers of taxies
operating on roads have been increasing without any control and it had led to many social and traffic issues in the country. Controlling and regulating these taxi
services can solve these issues successfully.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

Reduce the urban traffic congestion


Implement a reliable taxi transport
service which ensures the safety
Implement a quality and comfortable
taxi transport service

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Not required
Conceptual stage
SLR 50 mn (US $ 0.30 mn)
Consolidated fund
Open competitive
100 direct employments
Short term (2016/2018)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

o
o

Introduce a common identification system for all taxies


Promote and supply adequate parking space for taxies at major transit node
Use internet to find taxi locations, contact numbers, use GPS tracking systems etc.
Develop a regulatory authority and policy document for taxi operations
Register all the taxies under the regulator

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1.1.23 INTRODUCE NEW SCHOOL TRANSPORT SERVICE (CONSULTANCY)


The existing school transport service is not enough to meet the demand and not up to the required standards by upper middle c lass of the society. As a result, majority
of school children are coming by private vehicles and that consists a significant portion of the morning peak traffic. Changing this traffic to a few reliable and quality
school transport service vehicles which operates from home to school can relieve the traffic congestion significantly.
Summary
Location

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Not required
Present Situation
Conceptual stage
Project Cost
SLR 200 mn (US $ 1.30 mn )
Proposed Financing Private Public Partnership
Method
Method
of Open competitive
Procurement
Employment
100 direct employments
Implementation
Short term (2016/2018)
Period
Remarks: NTC is operating Sisuseriya in selected areas only. However

Reduce the urban traffic congestion


Implement a reliable school transport
service which ensures the safety and
well-being of children
Implement a quality and comfortable
transport service for the children
Ensure the safety of school children

this is not a Home Based service

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Form regulatory mechanism for school services (Operational guidelines including, seating c
driver/assistant registration, vehicle fitness, maximum travel time)
Establish new bus companies, purchase new air conditioned buses and install GPS systems
busses
Form a separate company/s to operate school services in parallel to existing public schoo
provide door to door higher quality service with air condition, monitoring and reliability)
Improve the reliability and extend the services of existing public school buses (Sisuseriya p
continued as it is in identified routes by NTC. It can be further improved)

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1.1.24 ENCOURAGEMENT OF BICYCLE USE AND FEASIBILITY STUDY ON CYCLE AND MOTORCYCLE
PATHS
Usage of bicycles as a transport mode is very sustainable, reducing emission; reduce fuel cost and healthy mode of transport and can reduce a lot of traffic
congestion. Under the Megapolis project in Western Region new cycle paths will be constructed to encourage cycling. These paths will be connected to rail and bus
terminals which are equipped with park and ride facilities.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

Promote cycling
Reduce on road traffic congestion
Encourage people to cycle to railway
or bus terminal and use park and ride
facilities.
Reduce fuel usage by motorized
vehicles

Summary
Location

of

the Project
CBD area

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

To be estimated
Concept stage
SLR 200 mn (US $ 1.30 mn)
Local funding Consolidated fund
Open competitive
Around
500
direct
employment
Short term (2016/2020)

and

indirect

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Provide appropriate vegetation cover or paved area at either side of the roads
Provide separate lane for bicycle uses. In suburban to rural areas it can be checked that the center
median can be converted into a bicycle path
Feasibility study on new cycle paths in CBD
Project implementation

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1.1.25 POLICY ON USE OF ROAD/RAIL RIGHT OF WAY


Each and every Road / Rail has its demarcated boundaries and most of them acquired by unauthorized people. It makes inconvenience as well as the congestion
within the cities. Due to poor policies in land acquisition, road projects get delayed unnecessarily. Under this project, a policy will be developed by professionals in the
field to avoid such circumstances in the future projects.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

Develop a policy on maintaining right


of way for roads and railway
Ensure the land availability and less
friction in land acquisition in the future
Make clear paths for land acquisition
for long term project proposals

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

N/A
Concept stage
SLR. 10 mn (US $ 0.07 mn)
Local funding Consolidated fund
Open competitive

Short term (2016/2018)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Strict restrictions apply and demarcate road right of way lands


Relocate people who unauthorized acquires and provide adequate space for pedestrians
Develop a policy document on maintaining right of way for roads and rail and future land acquisition for
development projects.
Public awareness and discussions with communities and investors

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1.1.26 MINIMIZE FUEL USAGE POLICY


Currently the biggest portion of the GDP is dedicated to buy fuel. There exists the risk related to fuel price fluctuations and uncertainty surrounding a future
environmental policy. Therefore, this project will encourage people to use more public transport, trip planning and create awareness on requirements of minimizing of
fuel usage.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.

Economic benefits achieving


through less fuel usage.
Less environmental impact due to
low output of CO2, lead and CO.
Encourage more users for public
transport systems.
Reduce air pollution

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Not required
Concept stage
SLR 50 mn (UD $ 0.3mn)
Local funding Consolidated fund
Open competitive
Around 80 direct and indirect employment
will be generated
Short term (2016/2018)

Project Components / Activities


o

o
o
o

Reduce taxes for electric and hybrid vehicles while increase taxes for other cars
Discourage vehicles having poor emission standards
Introduce a policy to remove poor conditioned vehicles from the roads
Encourage walkways and bicycle users

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1.1.27 REDUCE VEHICLE EMISSION


With the increase of air pollution in urban areas the requirement of controlling of vehicle emission has become an important requirement of the country. Since Western
Province is highly congested and polluted it is important to take necessary actions to reduce the vehicle emissions. Under this project, the Western Region and
Megapolis Plan will take the necessary initiatives to provide solutions to these problems.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.

To avoid climate change


Reduce air pollution
To preserve public health

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

Not required
Concept stage
SLR 100 mn (US $ 0.7 mn)
Local funding Consolidated fund
Open competitive
Around 200 direct and indirect employment
Short term (2016/2018)

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Introduction of higher quality fuel and catalytic converters for vehicles


Facilitate Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) use for three wheelers and taxies
Introduce monitoring system
The vehicle emission standards to be reviewed yearly

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1.1.28 RESTRUCTURE OF PUBLIC BUS TRANSPORT IN WESTERN REGION (CONSULTANCY)


The recent data shows a degrading trend of public transport usage while increasing the trend for private vehicle usage which has caused a lot of traffic problems at
present. We still have the route systems formulated for about 40 years ago which has caused a lot of inefficiencies. Therefore, public transport system development is
the main requirement to be achieved in reducing road congestion and environmental pollution. Reliable public transport system will always enhance the safety and
the comfort of the rider. Efficient transport system will reduce the stresses of commuters and the road rage. Productivity of employees can be increased drastically.

Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mitigate the prevailing quality slump in


public transportation
Introduce more comfortable buses for
passengers
Attract many passengers for public
transport systems
Improve the quality and reliability of
bus service

Summary
Location

of

the Project
Western Province

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost
Proposed Financing
Method
Method
of
Procurement
Employment
Implementation
Period

To be estimated
Conceptual stage
SLR 4000mn (US $ 28 mn)
Foreign funds , Consolidated fund
Open competitive
1000 Direct employee
Medium term (2016/2020)

This is a pre-request for electronic road


pricing of city entry points

Project Components / Activities


o
o

Change bus type to low floor A\C busses when replacing the existing buses to new ones
Design and implement a control center to monitor busses through GPS and establish real time information
system about busses for the public

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1.1.29 STUDY ON INTRODUCTION OF FLEXIBLE AND STAGGERING WORKING HOURS (CONSULTANCY)


Since all public and private institutions and organizations are following more or less the same time schedule to start and end their work, the peak hours are generated
where the existing traffic congestion is unbearable. In order to mitigate this, flexible work and staggering work hours can be introduced to public and private
organizations in the Western Region. By flexible work hours and staggering work hours different organizations can change their starting times and let employees to
choose their arrival and departure time which will help to dilute the heavy peak hour traffic in the morning and in the evening.

Objectives

Summary
Location

1.
2.

Required Land Area


Present Situation
Project Cost

3.
4.

Reduce peak hour traffic load


Reducing the overloading of Public Transportation System
(peak hour overloading)

of

the

Project

Proposed Financing Method

Entire Western Province (Kaluthara, Colombo &


Gampaha Districts)
N/A
Concept and design stage
Feasibility study - SLR 1 mn (US $ 0.01mn)
Preparing Policy document SLR 1 mn (US $
0.01 mn)
Awareness and stakeholder meetings SLR 5
mn (US $ 0.04 mn)
Total: SLR 7 mn (US $ 0.05 mn)
Local funding Consolidated fund

Method of Procurement

Government intervention

Employment
Implementation Period

Medium term (2016/2020)

Improvement of quality of ridership


Improvement of employee productivity

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o

Stakeholder meetings and public awareness


Conducting the feasibility study
Development of policy documents
Implementing flexible work hours and staggered work
hours in private and public sector

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1.1.30- IMPROVEMENT OF FACILITIES AT SUBURBAN INTERCHANGE BUS TERMINALS AND STANDS


Almost all bus terminals where the passengers interchange buses and the bus stands located at many strategic locations on different routes lack facilities and
information useful for users. Available basic facilities are not maintained properly due to lack of resources and had been dilapidated most of the terminal buildings
located in prime locations in suburbs are eye sores as the buildings have not been designed to suit its surroundings or user needs in mind. These places are patronized
by large number of passengers daily and are excellent places to develop many SME services needed by them and have a great commercial value that can not only
provide employment but also good income to those who wish to own and operate them. Hence it is proposed to develop these bus terminals across the Colombo and
its suburbs with all amenities and services needed by the general users. As these could be built and operated by local entrepreneurs it is recommended to float local
tenders to lease these lands/spaces for private builders to build and maintain these services.

Objectives

1. To

redevelop and improve


the appearance, design
and operational qualities of
the bus terminals and bus
stands to provide better
facilities to passengers.

2. To

minimize the operational


costs of the bus terminals by
the government while the
services to bus passengers
continue.

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o

Call Design build and operate proposals for each site


Construction and operation of the sites and sublease the
properties
Public services and facilities to be provided by the operators

Summary of
Location
Land Area
Present Situation
Project Cost

the

Project
Colombo and suburbs
Need no additional lands
Dilapidating buildings with minimum user facilities
SLR 33,350 mn (US $ 230 mn)
SLR 1300 mn per site. (US $. 9.0mn)
[Bus Terminals SLR 300mn. Per site / Bus Stands SLR 1.5mn. per
site]

Proposed
Financing
Method
Method of Procurement
Project Period
Employment
Remarks:

Public Private Partnership


Open competitive
Two years (short term)
3000 (Approx.)

1. Private sector will be invited to undertake the reconstruction and improvement


of the bus terminals to be equipped with all modern amenities on leased out
lands on a long term lease basis.
2. The National Transport Commission and Western Megaplois to agree on terms
and conditions to be stipulated and monitor the quality of services
3. Improve 200 strategically located bus stands to help passengers. The bus stands
to have a kiosk which will be sub leased by the developers to operators (SMEs)
who will maintain these bus stands while engaged in business of selling goods
and services and provide information to passengers thru modern
communication equipment.

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1.1.31 SUPPLY OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) AND ESTABLISH ELECTRIC CHARGING FACILITIES
(50 CENTRES) FOR BUSES AND OTHER VEHICLES
At present almost all busses and other vehicles in the WRM area consume diesel and patrol. This has caused high level of air pollution in the region posing adverse
impacts to the environment and to the human health. Use of CNG and electricity as a source of fuel will reduce the pollution levels. There is an evidence of finding gas
deposits in Indian ocean within the Sri Lankan territory and can be utilized more effectively by converting these vehicles in to CNG. Also CNG and electricity cheaper
than other petroleum fuels. This process will create healthy human life in the WP.

Objectives

Summary

1.

Location
Required Land Area
Present Situation

2.
3.

To reduce air pollution levels in the


WP
To
use
environmental
technologies in WMP area.

friendly

To introduce more economic use of


energy sources as well as the country
as well as improved health status of
the population.

of

the

Project Cost
Proposed
Financing
Method
Method of Procurement
Project Period
Employment/output

Project
Western Province
NA
Not a common practice of using CNG
for vehicles
SLR. 3350 mn (US $ 220 mn)
Private investment
Open competitive
Medium term

Project Components / Activities


o
o
o
o
o
o

Identify suitable locations to store CNG


Identify suitable locations for gas conversion centers
Identify suitable locations for 50 electric charging centres
Purchase machinery and equipment
Training of technicians
Develop a gas delivery network

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1.1.32 - ESTABLISHMENT OF TRANSPORT INFORMATION ANALYSIS AND DESSIMINATION CENTRE


The information on transportation are many fold. The public as well as the urban planners and regulators of the urban services constantly need this information online
on daily basis. Regular surveys on the performance of transport services as well as feedback from public to make management decision are essential for improvement
of transport sector. Currently the University of Moratuwa carries out some of the research functions it is recommended that a recommended that a private sector
based Transport Information Center that collects, analyzed and disseminate this information on commercial basis be established.

Objective

1.
2.

To improve the transport


services with real time
data
To
facilitate
management
making process

transport
decision

Summary
Location
Land Area

of

the

Present Situation
Project Cost

Proposed
Financing
Method
Method of Procurement
Project Period
Employment

Project
Colombo
Need no additional lands but to be housed
at the WRMP
No central information is in operation that
provide such services to public online
SLR 300 mn per site (US $. 2 mil) for setting up
of the equipment and providing training to
personal that will be recruited
Public Private Partnership
Open Competitive
two Years (short Term)
50 (Approx.)

Project Components / Activities


o Set up an institutional mechanism whereby the NTC will form a
joint venture with a private sector or form a public company
that will provide the services
o Train and introduce the GIS based information system and
provide required information thru the telecom network to the
public

Remarks:
4. Invite the private sector to collaborate with the National Transport
Commission to set up this center that will operate the Information
services both at the retail and strategic level.
5. It is expected that the techniques such as GIS and mobile
applications needed to make the data/information will be adopted
when developing the proposed data base and information center.

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Appendix 05: Demand Model Outputs and Maps


Table 12: Demand Model Outputs for All Scnearios

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Figure 29: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

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Figure 30: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

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Figure 31: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

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Figure 32: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

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Figure 33: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

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Figure 34: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

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Figure 35: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

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Figure 36: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

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Figure 37: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

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Figure 38: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

186

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Figure 39: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

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Figure 40: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

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Figure 41: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

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Figure 42: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case BD) for Year 2035

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Figure 43: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

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Figure 44: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

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Figure 45: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

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Figure 46: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

194