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NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,

GREATER NOIDA
Experiment No: 1
NODAL SLIDE
1.1 Objective 1.2 Apparatus required 1.3 Theory 1.4 Diagram 1.5 Ray Diagram 1.6 Procedure
1.7 Observation table 1.8 Calculations 1.9 Result 1.9 Precautions and Sources of error 1.11 Viva
- Voce

1.1OBJECTIVE:
To determine the focal length combination of two lenses separated by a distance with the help of
a nodal slide and to verify the formula:
1
1
1
x

F
f1 f 2 f1 f 2

Where,
F = Focal length of the combination.
f1, f = Focal lengths of the given lenses,
x = Separation of the two lenses.

1.2 APPARATUS REQUIRED:


Nodal slide, Optical Bench, Two Plano convex lens, Plane mirror, Cross slit, a lamp etc.

1.3 THEORY AND FORMULA USED:


In a coaxial optical system of two thin convergent lenses, the medium on either side of the
lenses and also between them is air, therefore nodal points coincides with the principal
points. Hence such an optical system has four cardinals points (i) Two principal points (h 1,
h2) or nodal points (n1, n2) and (ii) Two focal points (f1, f2)
1. The distance of the first principal point h1 from the first lens L1 is given.
2. The distance of the second principal point h 1 from the second lenses L1 is given Focal
length (F) of combination of two lenses separated by a distance x is given by:
1
1
1
x

F
f1 f 2 f1 f 2

Where, f1, f = focal lengths of the given lenses (L1 & L) respectively.

Department of Physics,

Engineering Physics Lab

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NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,


GREATER NOIDA

1.4 DIAGRAM:

1.5 Ray Diagram:

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NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,


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1.6 PROCEDURE:
a. One of the lenses L1, the source of light, cross slit and mirror, are mounted on upright of the
optical bench and the heights of uprights are adjusted in such a manner that the line joining
the centers of each part is parallel to the bed of the bench.
b. Illuminate the cross slit and adjusts the plane of the plane mirror to get image of cross slit
very near to it. The image may be blurred but will defined image is formed by moving the
upright of nodal slid away or toward the cross slits.
c. The lens is now rotated slightly about the verticals axis which shifts the position of image
either towards the left or right but no shift of the image is obtained by moving the carriage
carrying the lenses axially. In the solution, the cross slits are in the focal plane of the lens.
The distance between cross slits gives the focal length of the lens.
d. Remove the first lens and mount the second lens on the upright. As described above find the
focal length of the second lens.
e.

Mount both the convex lenses on the nodal slid arrangement and note down their positions.
This gives the distance between two lenses.

f. Move the upright carrying the lenses toward or away from the cross to obtain a sharp and
most intense defined image. Now rotate the carriage on its upright by a few degrees and if
there is a shift of the image, move the carriage on its upright by means of rack and pinion
arrangement till there is no shift. Note down the position of this uprights carrying the cross
slit and nodal slide assembly on the optical bench. This distance gives the combined focal
length of two lenses.
g. Rotate the lens system by 180 and repeat above procedure.
h. After this distance between two lenses and find out the combined focal lengths.

1.7 OBSERVATION TABLE:


Table for focal length of lenses L1 and L2
Lens L
S.
No.

Light
incident

Position
of cross
slit (a)
cm.

1.

Position
of lens
(b) cm.

Mean
f = (a-b)

cm.

cm.

Lens L
Position
of cross
slit (a)

Position
of lens
(b)

cm.

cm.

Mean
f = (a b)

c m.

cm.

One face
Other face

2.
3.

One face
Other face
One face
Other face

Table for focal length of the combination of lenses L1 and L2


Department of Physics,

Engineering Physics Lab

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NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,


GREATER NOIDA

S. No.

Distance
between lens

Position of
cross slit

Position of nodal slid


upright

(a)

(b)

F = (ab)
(c)

Calculated
value of F
(d)

Difference
(c-d)

1.
2.
3.

1.8 CALCULATION:
Calculate the combined focal length with the help of the formula:
1
1
1
x

F
f1 f 2 f1 f 2

1.9 RESULT:
The calculated and experimentally observed value of the focal length of the
combination are very nearly equal and hence the formula
1
1
1
x

F
f1 f 2 f1 f 2

is verified.
1.10 PRECAUTIONS AND SOURCE OF ERRORS:
a. Source, slits, nodal slid arrangement and plane mirror should be rotated about a vertical axis
by few degrees.
b. Slit should be well illuminated.
c. The carriage caring the nodal slid arrangement should be rotated about a vertical axis by
degree
d. No image shift position should be obtained accurately.
e.

Bench error should be determined.

f. The mirror should be truly plane.

1.11VIVA VOCE:
Qu.1.

Why do you call it nodal slide?

Ans.

It is used to determine the nodal points of a lens system.

Qu.2.

What are nodal points?

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Engineering Physics Lab

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NOIDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,


GREATER NOIDA
Ans.

Nodal points are a pair of conjugate points having unit positive angular magnification.

Qu.3.

What is the principle of this method?

Ans.

If a parallel beam of light is incident on a converging lens system thus forming an image
on a screen in its second focal plane, the image does not shift laterally when the system
is rotated about a vertical axis passing through its second nodal points. Thus the
principle is based on the property of nodal points.

Qu.4.

How will you make sure that the image used by you is the desired one?

Ans.

If by rotation of plane mirror the image moves on the screen then it is the desired image
otherwise not.

Qu.5. Will the position of the desired image be affected in any way
by alternating the position of plane mirror?
Ans.

No

Qu.6.

Is it necessary to rotate the lens combination by 1800?

Ans.

Yes, because the two nodal points are not symmetrical with respect to two lenses. It is
not necessary if the focal length is same for the two lenses.

Video link;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLPCfxMb7WQ

Department of Physics,

Engineering Physics Lab

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