You are on page 1of 4

Automatic Irrigation System on

Sensing Soil Moisture Content


Project Summary
The project is designed to develop an automatic irrigation system which switches the pump motor
ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content of the soil. In the field of agriculture, use of proper method
of irrigation is important. The advantage of using this method is to reduce human intervention and still
ensure proper irrigation.
The project uses an 8051 series microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of
varying moisture condition of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This is achieved by using an
op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the
microcontroller. Once the controller receives this signal, it generates an output that drives a relay for
operating the water pump. An LCD display is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display status of
the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made by using two stiff metallic rods inserted
into the field at a distance. Connections from the metallic rods are interfaced to the control unit.
The concept in future can be enhanced by integrating GSM technology, such that whenever the water
pump switches ON/OFF, an SMS is delivered to the concerned person regarding the status of the
pump. We can also control the pump through SMS.

Project Description
This project is designed to operate a pump for automatic irrigation. It comprises of moisture sensing
arrangement interfaced to an op-amp configured as a comparator. So whenver moisture in the soil
reduces, it turns the water pump ON.

Figure 1 Automatic irrigation System on Sensing Soil Moisture Content

Figure 2 Automatic irrigation System on Sensing Soil Moisture Content

Figure 3 Block Diagram

Ultra Fast Acting Electronic Circuit


Breaker
Project Summary
The project is designed to shut down the power supply when it is overloaded. Conventional circuit
breaker like MCB based is on thermal bimetal lever trip mechanism. It is very slow and the trip time is

dependent upon the percentage of overload. This project senses the current passing through a series
element and the corresponding voltage drop is compared against the preset voltage proportional to
the current by a level comparator to generate an output for the load to trip.
The concept of electronic circuit breaker came into focus realizing that conventional circuit breakers
such as MCBs take longer time to trip. Therefore, for sensitive loads it is very important to activate the
tripping mechanism at the shortest possible time, preferably instantaneously. This project is
demonstrates fast tripping mechanism as against the slow one like MCB. Electronic circuit breaker is
based on the voltage drop across a series element proportional to the load current, typically a low
value resistor. This voltage is sensed and rectified to DC which is and then compared with a preset
voltage by a level comparator to generate an output that drives a relay through a MOSFET to trip the
load. The unit is extremely fast and overcomes the drawback of the thermal type. It uses a
microcontroller from 8051 family.
Further the project can be enhanced by using a CT for galvanic isolation between mains and control
circuit. Power electronic devices such as thyristors / IGBTs can be used for ultra fast operation
compared to all the methods.

Project Description
This project is designed to shut down the power supply when it is overloaded. Conventional circuit
breaker like MCB based is on thermal bi-metal lever trip mechanism. It is very slow and the trip time is
dependent upon the percentage of overload.

Figure 1 Ultra Fast Acting Electronic Circuit Breaker

Figure 2 Ultra Fast Acting Electronic Circuit Breaker

Figure 3 Block Diagram