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Question bank


1.What is reasoning?
When we require any knowledge system to do something it has not been
explicitly told how to do it must reason.
The system must figure out what it needs to know from what it already knows.
We have seen simple example of reasoning or drawing inferences already. For
example if we know: Robins are birds.
All birds have wings. Then if we ask: Do robins have wings?
Some reasoning (albeit very simple) has to go on answer the question.
2.List the types of reasoning.

Formal reasoning
Procedural reasoning
Reasoning by analogy
Generalisation and abstraction
Meta-level reasoning

3.Compare symbolic and statistical reasoning

The (Symbolic) methods basically represent uncertainty belief as being
False, or
Neither True nor False.
Statistical methods provide a method for representing beliefs that are not certain (or
uncertain) but for which there may be some supporting (or contradictory) evidence.

4.Write down the Bayes theorem

This states:

This reads that given some evidence E then probability that hypothesis
true is equal to the ratio of the probability that E will be true given
the a priori evidence on the probability of


and the sum of the probability

of E over the set of all hypotheses times the probability of these hypotheses.
The set of all hypotheses must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
5.What is basic idea behind Dempster-Shafer Calculus
The basic idea in representing uncertainty in this model is:
Set up a confidence interval -- an interval of probabilities within
which the true probability lies with a certain confidence -based on the Belief B and plausibility PL provided by some
evidence E for a proposition P.
The belief brings together all the evidence that would lead us
to believe in P with some certainty.
The plausibility brings together the evidence that is compatible
with P and is not inconsistent with it.
This method allows for further additions to the set of
knowledge and does not assume disjoint outcomes.

6. Compare the declarative knowledge with procedural knowledge

Declarative knowledge representation:

Static representation -- knowledge about objects, events etc. and their
relationships and states given.
Requires a program to know what to do with knowledge and how to do it.
Procedural representation:
control information necessary to use the knowledge is embedded in the
knowledge itself. e.g. how to find relevant facts, make inferences etc.
Requires an interpreter to follow instructions specified in knowledge.
7. Compare forward with backward chaining.

Backward chaining (Prolog) is more like finding what initial conditions form a path to your
goal. At a very basic level it is a backward search from your goal to find conditions that will fulfil
Forward chaining (CLIPS) matches conditions and then generates inferences from those
conditions. These conditions can in turn match other rules. Basically, this takes a set of initial
conditions and then draws all inferences it can from those conditions.

8. Why does uncertainty arise ?

Agents almost never have access to the whole truth about theirenvironment.
Agents cannot find a caterorial answer.
Uncertainty can also arise because of incompleteness, incorrectness inagents
understanding of properties of environment.
9. State the reason why first order, logic fails to cope with that the mind likemedical
Three reasons
1.It is hard to lift complete set of antecedents of consequence, needed to ensure and
exception less rule.
2.TheoriticalIgnorance: medical science has no complete theory for the domain.
3.Practical ignorance: even if we know all the rules, we may be uncertain about a
particular item needed.
10. What is the need for probability theory in uncertainty?
Probability provides the way of summarizing the uncertainty that comes from our
laziness and ignorance . Probability statements do not have quite the same kind of semantics
known as evidences.

11. Define Uncertainty.

Uncertainty means that many of the simplifications that are possible with deductive inference are
no longer valid.
12. What is the use of Fuzzy set theory?
Fuzzy set theory is a means of specifying how well an object satisfies a vague description.
13. What is meant by belief network (Bayseian network)?
A belief network is a graph in which the following holds
A set of random variables
A set of directive links or arrows connects pairs of nodes.
The conditional probability table for each node
The graph has no directed cycles.
14.Define the term matching.
The condition /premise pattern in the rules need to be matched with the known facts
E.g Consider s typical rule for horse that matches a set of facts.
IF: x is a horse
x is the parent of y
THEN: y is fast
x is valuable
15. What is called as Recognize -Act Cycle?
The production system will have a rule interpreter that takes the form of a Recognize-Act
cycle and this cycle has four stages:
1. Match:
2. Conflict resolution
3. Apply
4. Check

16. Define horn clause

A Horn clause is a clause (a disjunction of literals) with at most one positive, i.e.
unnegated, literal.
A Horn clause with exactly one positive literal is a definite clause
E.g: p q ... t u

A definite clause with no negative literals is sometimes called a fact

E.g: U, P v Q
A Horn clause without a positive literal is sometimes called a goal clause
E .g: p q ... t

17. What do you mean by Rule based system?

MYCIN represents most of its diagnostic knowledge as aset of rules. Each rule
has associated with it a certainty factor, which is the measure of the extent to which the
evidence that is described by the antecedent of the rule supports the conclusion that is
given in the rules consequent.

1. What is planning?
Planning refers to the process of computing several steps of a problem-solving procedure before
executing any of them.
2. What are the components of planning system?

3. What is nonlinear plan?

Most problems require an interwined plan in which multiple subproblems are worked on
simultaneously. Such plan is called as nonlinear plan because it is composed of a linearsequence
of complete sub plans.

4.What is Strips?

It is a new problem solving technique.

In STRIPS, a world model is represented by a set of well formed formulas (wffs) of the
first-order predicate calculus. Operators are the basic elements from which a solution is
For robot problems, each operator corresponds to an action routine 2 whose execution
causes a robot to take certain actions. For example, we might have a routine that causes it
to go through a doorway, a routine that causes it to push a box, and perhaps dozens of

5.What is ABstrips?
ABstripsare better approach for solving hard problems with long plans .This system planned in a
hierarchy of abstraction spaces,in each of which preconditions at a lower level of abstraction
were ignored
6.List the some of the other planning techniques ?

Triangle tables
Case-based planning

7.what is K Strips?

Planning with knowledge

Extension of strips that takes into account that some information will be available at run
time.EgKf-is like normal STRIPS database but with open world.

8. What is reactive planning system?

In artificial intelligence, reactive planning denotes a group of techniques for action selection by
autonomous agents. These techniques differ from classical planning in two aspects. First, they
operate in a timely fashion and hence can cope with highly dynamic and unpredictable
environments. Second, they compute just one next action in every instant, based on the current
context. Reactive planners often (but not always) exploit reactive plans, which are stored
structures describing the agent's priorities and behavior.
10. What is machine learning?
Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed.
Machine learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make
predictions on data. Such algorithms operate by building a model from example inputs in order

to make data-driven predictions or decisions, rather than following strictly static program
11. Define supervised classification with an example.
Supervised learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function from labeled training
data. The training data consist of a set of training examples. In supervised learning, each example
is a pair consisting of an input object (typically a vector) and a desired output value (also called
the supervisory signal). A supervised learning algorithm analyzes the training data and produces
an inferred function, which can be used for mapping new examples.
Some of the supervised algorithms are HMM,GMM,K-nn and ANN
12. Define the term pattern, features and class and write a sample pattern.
Pattern is the object/article/ etc which has some shape and size and can be expressed. Featuresare
the attributes or properties of this pattern. The class is the group in which a pattern belongsto.
Example can be given for a fruit classification

13.What is feature selection?

Feature selection: In a pattern classification problem, usually unknown pattern (whoseclasses are
not given) are asked to be predicted for their class. For various cases, thedatabases have
redundant features and classification becomes in-accurate. In such cases, itis advised to reduce
the number of features so that the classifier classifies the unknownpattern more accurately.
Selection of features or a subset of features from a complete set offeatures is called feature
14.What is feature extraction?
Feature Extraction: In some cases, the existing set of features is not suitable to give
wellClassification accuracy for a classifier. Rather than, if the existing features are processed
andcreate modified features then features in the modified form can be better choice than intheir
original forms. Modifying or processing features to create new features is calledfeature
extraction process. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is commonly used forfeature extraction
process. Take some example and use some technique to generate newfeatures from existing. This
is the main difference between feature selection and featureextraction processes.
15. Describe k-nn technique with example for classification.
The nearest neighbors are determined by finding the Euclidean distance between training pattern
and testing pattern. Suppose we have 100 patterns in training data set. To find the class of a test
pattern , find out the Euclidean distance of test pattern from all 100 training patterns. Thus we
have 100 values. If we take k=1, then take the training pattern with which test pattern has
minimum value (distance). The class of this pattern (which is already given in the training data)
will be class of the test p attern. If k=3, then take 3 minimum values and see the classes of

concerned pattern s. The class of the test pattern will be the class which is given by the majority
of the 3 classes. If P_tr and P_tt are training and test patterns respective ly with same number of
features f1,f2,f3. P_tr is represented by P_tr (f1, f2,f3) and P_tt by P_tt(f1t,f2t,f3t) then the
Euclidean distance between these pattern is given by


1. What are expert systems?
An expert system is software that attempts toreproduce the performance of one or more
human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain. Represent the expertiseknowledge
as data or rules within the computer and it can be called upon when needed to solve
2. What are the characteristics of expert system?
Instructing and assisting human in decision making
Deriving a solution
Predicting results
Justifying the conclusion

Suggesting alternative options to a problem

5. Who are all involved in the expert system building?

Human /domain expert
Knowledge engineer
6. Explain the role of domain expert?
Successful ES systems depend on the experience and application of knowledge that the people
can bring to it during its development. Large systems generally require multiple experts
7. Explain the role of knowledge engineer?
The knowledge engineer has a dual task. This person should be able to elicit knowledge from the expert,
gradually gaining an understanding of an area of expertise. Intelligence, tact, empathy, and proficiency in
specific techniques of knowledge acquisition are all required of a knowledge engineer. Knowledgeacquisition techniques include conducting interviews with varying degrees of structure, protocol analysis,
observation of experts at work, and analysis of cases.
On the other hand, the knowledge engineer must also select a tool appropriate for the project and use it to
represent the knowledge with the application of the knowledge acquisition facility.

8. Draw the Components of expert system.

9. Mention any two differences between traditional computer system programs and expert
Traditional computer systems do not exhibit any intelligence whereas expert systems do.
Traditional computer systems require Data Structures and algorithm to form a program whereas
an expert system requires inference engine and knowledge to develop an expert system.
10. What is an inference engine?
An inference engine is used to use the knowledge available in a knowledge base or otherwise
and able to answer the queries like a search engine, mainly used in an expert system
11. Define knowledge base.
The knowledge base consists of specific knowledge about some substantive domain. A
knowledge base differs from a data base in that the knowledge base includes both explicit
knowledge and implicit knowledge. Much of the knowledge in the knowledge base is not stated
explicitly, but inferred by the inference engine from explicit statements in the knowledge base.
12. Explain the knowledge acquisition process?
It provides a convenient and efficient means of capturing and storing all components of
the Knowledge base
13. What are the applications of MYCIN?
MYCIN was an early expert system that used artificial intelligence to identify bacteria causing severe
infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis, and to recommend antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for
patient's body weight the name derived from the antibiotics themselves, as many antibiotics have the
suffix "-mycin". The Mycin system was also used for the diagnosis of blood clotting diseases.

14. What are DART and XCON expert systems?

DART - Expert systems for automated computer faultdiagnosis.
XCON - eXpert CONfigurer for automatically selecting the computer system components based
on the customer's requirements
15. What is the use of expert system tools?
An expert system tool, or shell, is a software development environment containing the basic
components of expert systems. Associated with a shell is a prescribed method for building
applications by configuring and instantiating these components