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Improving the Seismic Resilience of Existing Braced-Frame

Office Buildings
The concept of seismic resilience is defined as the capability of a system to
maintain a level of functionality or performance in the aftermath of an
earthquake event. The evaluation can be based on non-dimensional analytical
functions related to variations of losses within a specified recovery period.
The resilience must refer to both direct and indirect losses. The path to recovery
usually depends on available resources and may take different shapes which can
be estimated by proper recovery functions. The loss functions have major
uncertainties due to the uncertain nature of the earthquake and structural
behavior as well as due to uncertain description of functionality limits.
Here a methodology for the seismic resilience assessment of existing
braced-frame office buildings was developed. In this context, damage levels
were defined as function of performance levels associated to earthquake
intensity. Furthermore, fragility curves were derived from incremental dynamic
analysis (IDA) curves obtained from timehistory analyses using computer
software and both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties were considered.
To illustrate the previously mentioned concept, a walkthrough of the
methodology is presented in a case study comprising of existing 3-story and 6story concentrically braced-frame (CBF) office buildings located in eastern
Canada (Montreal and Quebec City) and western Canada (Vancouver). These
buildings were designed in agreement with Canadian national code
requirements. The proposed retrofit strategy is according to a United States
standard and the retrofitted office buildings should meet the so-called basic
safety rehabilitation objective class. In addition, all studied retrofitted buildings
show enhanced earthquake resilience.
The proposed seismic resilience methodology consists in selecting the
Rehabilitation Objective Class and the associated performance levels
corresponding to earthquake hazard levels (e.g. 2%/50 yrs., 10%/50 yrs. and
50%/50 yrs.). To achieve this step, nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses are
required and fragility curves computed for different hazard levels for both
existing and retrofitted 3- and 6-storey fictitious buildings were generated from
the Incremental Dynamic Analysis curves (IDA). Both aleatoric and epistemic
uncertainties were considered. The loss estimation model is a function of

systems components deficiency determined by the use of performance limit

thresholds for different damage states.
1. Improving the Seismic Resilience of Existing Braced-Frame Office
Buildings; Lucia Tirca,; Ovidiu Serban; Lan Lin,; Mingzheng
Wang; and Nenghui Lin
2. Quantification Of Seismic Resilience; G. P. Cimellaro, A. M.
Reinhorn And M. Bruneau
3. Seismically Resilient Building Technology: Examples of resilient
buildings constructed in New Zealand since 2013; S.J. Hogg
4. Seismic resilience: concept, metrics and integration with other
hazards; Georgios Tsionis
5. Integrated Design for Achieving Building Seismic resilience
Resilience ; A. Liu
6. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Existing Multi-Storey
Concentrically Braced Frames Office Buildings in Moderate to
High Seismic Zones ; Ovidiu Mircea Serban (Thesis)
7. Pragmatic approaches to improving the seismic resilience of NonStructural Elements in existing buildings; H. Ferner, M. Lander, G.
Douglas & A. Baird
8. Analytical Fragility Assessment Of A Low-Rise URM Building J.
Park, P. Towashiraporn, J.I. Craig and B.J. Goodno
9. Seismic Loss and Downtime Assessment of ExistingTall SteelFramed Buildings and Strategies for Increased Resilience; Carlos
Molina Hutt; Ibrahim Almufti; Michael Willford; and Gregory
10. Exploring The Concept Of Seismic Resilience For Acute Care
Facilities; Michel Bruneau and Andrei Reinhorn