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Tobacco Use

Chapter 11

What is nicotine?
The addictive drug that is found in all
tobacco products
Low doses = mild stimulant, muscle relaxant
Higher doses = nerve poison

60 mg. enough to kill most people; 1-2

mg. is inhaled when cigarette is smoked

Key terms
Nicotine: a highly addictive drug that is found
in all tobacco products
Carcinogen: any chemical or agent that causes
Tar: a sticky, black substance in tobacco smoke
that coats the inside of the airways and that
contains many carcinogens
Carbon monoxide: a gas that blocks oxygen
from getting into the blood stream

What is in cigarettes?
4,800 chemicals
69 of the chemicals are carcinogens (cancer causing
Tar: sticky black substance that coats the insides of the
airways and contains many carcinogens
Cyanide: poisonous gas used to develop photographs
Formaldehyde: substance used to preserve lab animals and as
embalming fluid
Lead: dangerous metal
Vinyl chloride: a flammable gas used to make plastic products
Carbon monoxide: gas that blocks oxygen from getting into
the bloodstream
Ammonia: chemical found in bathroom cleaners

Smokeless tobacco
Snuff (dip)
Chewing tobacco
Polonium (gives off radiation)

Can lead to mouth sores and oral cancer

Herbal cigarettes
Cloves, bidis, kreteks
Contain tobacco, and spices

Nicotine is addictive
Cigarette smoking kills more than 400,000
people in the U.S. each year
Most people start smoking in their teens

Section 1.2
Dangers of Tobacco Use


: The short-term effects of tobacco use.

Summarize : The long-term health risks associated with

tobacco use.

State: The effects of secondhand smoke on a nonsmoker.

Describe: How smoking affects unborn children whose mothers
smoke during pregnancy.

List: Three reasons you would give a friend to encourage him or her not
to smoke.

Key Terms
Emphysema: A respiratory disease in which air cannot move in
and out of alveoli because they become blocked or lose their
Sidestream Smoke: Smoke thats escapes from the tip of a
cigarette and then exhaled by a cigarette smokers.
Mainstream Smoke: smoke thats is inhaled through a cigarette
and then exhaled by a cigarette smoker
Environmental tobacco smoke (second hand smoke): a
combination of exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream

What are the short-term effects of

Tobacco use?
Stimulates the brain reward system
Increases heart rate and blood pressure
Increases breathing rate

Increases blood sugar levels

Stimulates the vomit reflex

It predominantly works on the pleasure centres within your brain

stimulating both serotonin and dopamine centres, so in effect you have
a very powerful reward system within your mind. Every time you smoke
a cigarette so its plain to see why it can be hard to get rid of your
nicotine addiction.

What are the long-term effects of

tobacco use?
an acute inflammation of the air passages
within the lungs

A respiratory disease in which air cannot
move in and out of the lungs because the
alveoli become blocked or lose their elasticity

Heart and artery disease

Immune system suppression
Damages stomachs ability to neutralize
Leads to ulcers and cancer

Effects of smoke to nonsmokers

Sidestream smoke
Smoke that escapes from the tip of the cigarette or

Mainstream smoke
Smoke that is inhaled through a tobacco product and
exhaled by a tobacco smoker

Environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand

Exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke
Inhaled by anyone near the smoker

Did you know?

It is illegal to smoke in a car with a child
(anyone under 18 years of age)

Dangers of secondhand smoke

Lung cancer caused by environmental tobacco
smoke kills 3,000 nonsmokers in the U.S.. each

Heart function in healthy young men is reduced

Children of smokers suffer more: lower respiratory
infections, asthma, ear infections

Dangers of tobacco use during


Risk of miscarriage
Risk of premature birth
Low birth weight
Slow growth rate
Risk of sudden infant death syndrome
Risk of developing respiratory illness
Risk of developing learning difficulties

Why do people use tobacco?

Family and friends
Messages arent clear
Messages about the dangers are incorrect

They make it look cool

To go against your parents, etc.

How does tobacco use affect family

and society?
Costs to families
Over $1,500 per year
Lost wages due to illness
Medical bills
Funeral costs

Costs to society
Medical costs increase to pay the fees of

Uncomfortable physical and psychological
symptoms produced when a physically
dependent drug user stops using drugs