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Tobacco Use

Chapter 11

What is nicotine?
The addictive drug that is found in all
tobacco products
Low doses = mild stimulant, muscle relaxant
Higher doses = nerve poison

60 mg. enough to kill most people; 1-2


mg. is inhaled when cigarette is smoked

Key terms
Nicotine: a highly addictive drug that is found
in all tobacco products
Carcinogen: any chemical or agent that causes
cancer
Tar: a sticky, black substance in tobacco smoke
that coats the inside of the airways and that
contains many carcinogens
Carbon monoxide: a gas that blocks oxygen
from getting into the blood stream

What is in cigarettes?
4,800 chemicals
69 of the chemicals are carcinogens (cancer causing
agents/chemicals)
Tar: sticky black substance that coats the insides of the
airways and contains many carcinogens
Cyanide: poisonous gas used to develop photographs
Formaldehyde: substance used to preserve lab animals and as
embalming fluid
Lead: dangerous metal
Vinyl chloride: a flammable gas used to make plastic products
Carbon monoxide: gas that blocks oxygen from getting into
the bloodstream
Ammonia: chemical found in bathroom cleaners

Smokeless tobacco
Snuff (dip)
Chewing tobacco
Arsenic
Nickel
Benzopyrene
Polonium (gives off radiation)

Can lead to mouth sores and oral cancer

Herbal cigarettes
Cloves, bidis, kreteks
Contain tobacco, and spices

Nicotine is addictive
Cigarette smoking kills more than 400,000
people in the U.S. each year
Most people start smoking in their teens

Section 1.2
Dangers of Tobacco Use

Objectives
State

: The short-term effects of tobacco use.

Summarize : The long-term health risks associated with


tobacco use.

State: The effects of secondhand smoke on a nonsmoker.


Describe: How smoking affects unborn children whose mothers
smoke during pregnancy.

List: Three reasons you would give a friend to encourage him or her not
to smoke.

Key Terms
Emphysema: A respiratory disease in which air cannot move in
and out of alveoli because they become blocked or lose their
elasticity.
Sidestream Smoke: Smoke thats escapes from the tip of a
cigarette and then exhaled by a cigarette smokers.
Mainstream Smoke: smoke thats is inhaled through a cigarette
and then exhaled by a cigarette smoker
Environmental tobacco smoke (second hand smoke): a
combination of exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream
smoke

What are the short-term effects of


Tobacco use?
Stimulates the brain reward system
Increases heart rate and blood pressure
Increases breathing rate

Increases blood sugar levels


Stimulates the vomit reflex

It predominantly works on the pleasure centres within your brain


stimulating both serotonin and dopamine centres, so in effect you have
a very powerful reward system within your mind. Every time you smoke
a cigarette so its plain to see why it can be hard to get rid of your
nicotine addiction.

What are the long-term effects of


tobacco use?
Addiction
Bronchitis
an acute inflammation of the air passages
within the lungs

Emphysema
A respiratory disease in which air cannot
move in and out of the lungs because the
alveoli become blocked or lose their elasticity

Heart and artery disease


Cancer
Immune system suppression
Damages stomachs ability to neutralize
acids
Leads to ulcers and cancer

Effects of smoke to nonsmokers


Sidestream smoke
Smoke that escapes from the tip of the cigarette or
cigar

Mainstream smoke
Smoke that is inhaled through a tobacco product and
exhaled by a tobacco smoker

Environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand


smoke)
Exhaled mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke
Inhaled by anyone near the smoker

Did you know?


It is illegal to smoke in a car with a child
(anyone under 18 years of age)

Dangers of secondhand smoke


Lung cancer caused by environmental tobacco
smoke kills 3,000 nonsmokers in the U.S.. each
year
Illnesses

Heart function in healthy young men is reduced


Headaches
Nausea
Dizziness
Children of smokers suffer more: lower respiratory
infections, asthma, ear infections

Dangers of tobacco use during


pregnancy

Risk of miscarriage
Risk of premature birth
Low birth weight
Slow growth rate
Risk of sudden infant death syndrome
(SIDS)
Risk of developing respiratory illness
Risk of developing learning difficulties

Why do people use tobacco?


Family and friends
Misconceptions
Messages arent clear
Messages about the dangers are incorrect

Advertising
They make it look cool

Curiosity
Rebellion
To go against your parents, etc.

How does tobacco use affect family


and society?
Costs to families
Over $1,500 per year
Lost wages due to illness
Medical bills
Funeral costs

Costs to society
Medical costs increase to pay the fees of
smoker

withdrawal
Uncomfortable physical and psychological
symptoms produced when a physically
dependent drug user stops using drugs