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Md. Shamim Reza, Student Member, IEEE, Mihai Ciobotaru, Member, IEEE, and Vassilios G. Agelidis, Senior Member, IEEE

Australian Energy Research Institute and School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications

The University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

E-mail: m.reza@student.unsw.edu.au, mihai.ciobotaru@unsw.edu.au, vassilios.agelidis@unsw.edu.au

single-phase grid voltage fundamental frequency under distorted

conditions. The proposed frequency estimation technique relies

on a band-pass filter and an algorithm based on three

consecutive samples. The band-pass filter relying on the recursive

discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and inverse recursive DFT is

used to extract the instantaneous grid voltage fundamental

component. The algorithm based on three consecutive samples is

then used to estimate the grid voltage fundamental frequency.

The estimated frequency is used to synchronize the window size

of the band-pass filter with the period of the grid voltage

waveform. The proposed frequency estimation technique is

relatively simple, computationally efficient and can also estimate

the fundamental frequency accurately from a grid voltage

waveform distorted by DC offset and harmonics. Simulation

results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed

technique.

Index Terms: Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), frequency

estimation, recursive DFT, and single-phase voltage system.

I. INTRODUCTION

The grid voltage waveform becomes distorted mainly by

harmonics due to the widespread use of the nonlinear loads

[1]. The grid voltage waveform may also contain DC offset

due to the analog-to-digital conversion for fixed point DSP

application, the grid faults or the saturation phenomenon in

current transformer [2, 3]. Moreover, the grid voltage

waveform is time-varying in nature due to the continuous

change of the load conditions, system configurations and rapid

proliferation of the distributed energy sources.

The grid voltage frequency is a fundamental operational

parameter for effective power control, load shedding, load

restoration, safety, stability and efficiency of the electrical grid

[4, 5]. The grid voltage fundamental frequency is time-varying

in nature mainly due to the mismatch of the power generation

and consumption and hence reflects the dynamic energy

balance between the load demand and generated power [4, 5].

The variation of the fundamental frequency is much more

likely to occur, if the loads are supplied by a generator isolated

from the grid [4]. The fundamental frequency decreases when

large loads are connected or when a large generation source

goes offline [4]. On the other hand, the grid frequency

increases when the generation exceeds the consumption i.e.

due to the disconnection of large block of loads or when a

large generation source comes online. Under frequency or

over frequency relays are used to automatically shed blocks of

frequency to its operating range. An accurate and fast

estimation of frequency is required for proper operation of the

under frequency and over frequency relays. The reliable

estimation of the fundamental frequency is also required for

the grid-connected power converters [6], monitoring and

power quality analysis [7], to mention just a few. Thus, a

suitable computationally efficient digital signal processing

(DSP) technique is required which would be able to deal with

a distorted grid voltage waveform to provide a fast and

accurate estimation of fundamental frequency.

In the technical literature, zero crossing detection (ZCD) [8],

phase-locked loop (PLL) [9], frequency-locked loop (FLL)

[10], discrete Fourier transform (DFT) [11, 12], least-square

(LS) [13, 14], least-mean-square (LMS) [15], Kalman filter

(KF) [16], differentiation filter [17, 18] and finite-impulseresponse (FIR) filter [4, 19-23] are some of the used DSP

techniques for the estimation of grid voltage frequency.

The ZCD technique is simple to implement but may provide

inaccurate results under the noise condition [8]. The challenge

of the single-phase PLL is that it requires a virtual orthogonal

voltage system to be generated [9, 24], unlike the three-phase

systems where the orthogonal voltage system is provided by

the Clarke transformation. Moreover, the presence of DC

offset and harmonics introduces oscillations into the PLL

estimated parameters [2, 3, 25]. Therefore, the PLL requires

an optimal tuning of the controller parameters to obtain a

trade-off between good dynamics and estimation accuracy.

Another drawback is that the PLL presents a large

overshoot/undershoot in the frequency estimation during the

phase angle jumps under grid faults [26]. The performance of

the FLL based on the quadrature signal generator (QSG) using

a second order generalized integrator (SOGI) is sensitive to

the presence of the DC offset and it also requires a

compromise between good dynamics and estimation accuracy.

The DFT, as reported in [11], is not suitable for high number

of harmonics. On the other hand, during the time-varying

frequency cases, the DFT requires large moving window of

fixed size to avoid the interference caused by the low order

harmonics , as reported in [12]. The LS technique may suffer

from matrix singularities and also provides inaccurate results

from a small size window [27]. The LMS technique requires

orthogonal waveforms and may also diverge due to the

inaccurate tuning of the controller parameter [15]. The KF is a

computationally demanding technique due to the evaluation of

6420

the KF depends on the proper tuning of the parameters [16].

The adaptive technique, as reported in [17, 18], estimates

frequency from the instantaneous phase angle but requires

window based differentiation filter. On the other hand, the

frequency estimation technique relying on the three

consecutive samples requires the implementation of the

computationally complex FIR filter in order to reject the

harmonics and noise effect [4, 19-23].

The objective of this paper is to propose an estimation

technique of the single-phase grid voltage fundamental

frequency under distorted conditions. The proposed technique

relies on an adaptive band-pass filter (BPF) and an algorithm

based on three consecutive samples. The BPF is implemented

using recursive DFT and inverse recursive DFT. The three

consecutive samples based algorithm is used to estimate the

fundamental frequency from the instantaneous grid voltage

fundamental component. The proposed technique is relatively

simple, computationally efficient and can also reject the

negative effects caused by the presence of the DC offset and

harmonics.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: the proposed

fundamental frequency estimation technique is presented in

section II. Section III contains the simulation performance of

the proposed technique. Finally, conclusions of the paper are

summarized in section IV.

v n

v n v0

h 1,2,...

vh n

v h n Ah n sin h n nTs h

fundamental angular frequency, fundamental frequency and

sampling

time

period,

respectively,

and

Ah(n),

h(n)=h(n)nTs+h and h are the amplitude, instantaneous

and initial phase angle of the h (h=1,2,,M) frequency

component, respectively.

The proposed DSP technique, as shown in Fig. 1, is used to

track the fundamental frequency of the grid voltage waveform

given by (1). As it can be seen, the adaptive digital BPF based

on the recursive DFT and inverse recursive DFT is used to

extract the amplitude normalized instantaneous grid voltage

fundamental component v1u(n), where the superscript u

indicates that the instantaneous fundamental component has

unity amplitude [28]. The fundamental frequency is tracked by

using the algorithm based on the three consecutive samples of

the amplitude normalized instantaneous grid voltage

fundamental component. The actual fundamental frequency

information required by the adaptive BPF is also updated by

the estimated frequency. It can be noticed that the number of

f n

f s / .

follows: N =f s /f , where fs=1/Ts and f are the sampling and

estimated fundamental frequencies, respectively.

A. Digital Band-Pass Filter

In this subsection, the implementation of the digital BPF

based on the recursive DFT and inverse recursive DFT is

briefly discussed [28]. The DFT of the grid voltage waveform,

as given by (1), at the (n-1)th sampling instant can be

expressed by [28]

V k n 1

n 1

v i e

2 k i 1

(2)

in N

of N in (2) is chosen as the number of samples in one

fundamental time period, hence the frequency resolution (f)

of the DFT is fundamental frequency i.e. f=f. Similar to (2),

the DFT of (1) at the nth sampling instant can be expressed by

Vk n

v i e

2 k i 1

(3)

i n N 1

obtained.

(1)

where

Fundamental

Frequency

Estimation

frequency estimation technique.

The DC offset and harmonically distorted single-phase grid

voltage waveform, v(n), at the nth sampling instant can be

expressed by

Band-Pass

Filter

Vk n Vk n 1 v n v n N e

2 k n 1

N

(4)

estimate the spectral content present in (1). On the other hand,

the time domain signal at the single frequency kf can be

extracted by taking the inverse transform of (4) i.e. the inverse

recursive DFT. Therefore, based on the inverse recursive DFT,

the time-domain signal at the frequency kf can be expressed

by [28]

vk n G k Vk n e

2 k n 1

N

(5)

where

1 / N for k 0, N /2

Gk

2 / N otherwise

implemented by cascading the recursive DFT and the inverse

recursive DFT, as given by (4) and (5), respectively, in series.

The implementation of the digital BPF at the center frequency

f (where k=1) based on the recursive DFT and the inverse

recursive DFT is shown in Fig. 2. As it can be seen, the BPF is

simple to implement and requires only few mathematical

6421

1

N

1 zN

1 zN

j 2 / N 1

j 2 / N 1

z

1 e

z

1 e

(6)

plot of (6) is shown in Fig. 3. As it can be seen, the BPF can

reject all the even and odd harmonics including the DC offset.

Moreover, the BPF does not introduce any lag/lead phaseangle at the fundamental frequency. Therefore, during the

time-varying fundamental frequency cases, the DC offset and

harmonics of the input grid voltage waveform can be

completely eliminated, if the value of N corresponding to the

actual fundamental frequency is updated. If the value of N is

not integer i.e. L<N<L+1, where L is a positive integer, then

linear interpolation is performed between the samples v(n-L)

and v(n-L-1) to obtain v(n-N). Thus, based on the adaptive

tuning, the output of the presented digital BPF {v1(n)}, as

shown in Fig. 2, at the nth sampling instant can be expressed

by

v1 n A1 n sin n nTs 1

(7)

Re V1 n Im V1 n

v1 n

2

N

Re V1 n + Im V1 n

v1 n

2/N

Im V1 n

N

Fig. 2. Digital band-pass filter based on the recursive DFT and inverse

recursive DFT to extract the instantaneous grid voltage fundamental

frequency component {v1(n)}.

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

180

90

0

-90

-180

10

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 3. Bode plot of the transfer function H(z) i.e. the frequency response of

the BPF based on the recursive DFT and inverse recursive DFT shown in Fig.

2, where f=50 Hz, fs=10 kHz and N=200.

cos{2 (n -1) / N }

(8)

v n

v1u n

. 2 . 2

zN

fundamental voltage component can be obtained by

v1u ( n )=

Re V1 n

sin{2 (n -1) / N }

amplitude can also be estimated from Re{V1(n)} and

Im{V1(n)}, respectively, and is given by

2

A1 n

N

z 1

v n

Magnitude (dB)

H ( z)

cos{2 (n -1) / N }

Phase (deg)

function can be estimated by cos{2(n-1)/N}=[1-sin2{2(n1)/N}] or vice versa). As it can also be seen, Re{V1(n)} and

Im{V1(n)} are the real and imaginary parts of the recursive

DFT of the fundamental frequency component. Similar to Fig.

2, other BPF for different values of k>1 can be implemented to

extract the instantaneous single harmonic component of

interest.

The frequency response of the BPF can be obtained from the

z-transform of (4) and (5), respectively. Therefore, the ztransform of the transfer functions {v1(n)/v(n), k=1}, as shown

in Fig. 2, can be expressed by [28]

sin{2 (n -1) / N }

=sin ( n ) nTs + 1

(9)

The estimation of v1u(n) by using the recursive DFT and

inverse recursive DFT based BPF is shown in Fig. 4. As it can

be seen, the amplitude factor 2/N is removed which does not

have any effect on the estimation of v1u(n).

The BPF based on the recursive DFT and inverse recursive

DFT suffers from the accumulation errors in the estimated

amplitude and phase angle due to the input voltage dynamics

[29]. However, in the proposed technique, the amplitude

accumulation error is rejected due to the use of the amplitude

normalized instantaneous fundamental voltage waveform. On

Fig. 4. Digital band-pass filter based on the recursive DFT and inverse

recursive DFT to extract the amplitude normalized instantaneous grid voltage

fundamental frequency component {v1u(n)}.

neglected based on the assumption that the accumulated phase

angle error is constant within three consecutive samples. The

constant accumulated phase angle error does not have any

effect in the frequency estimation based on three consecutive

samples.

B. Fundamental Frequency Estimation

Based on the constant fundamental parameters within three

6422

v1u n

z 1

z 1

.

expressed which is defined as the Teager Energy Operator

(TEO) [30-35].

sin 1 .

LPF

f n

1/(2Ts )

consecutive samples of {v1u(n)}.

can be used to estimate the fundamental envelope of the grid

voltage waveform [30-35]. However, the TEO concept is used

in this paper to estimate the fundamental frequency. Based on

the amplitude normalized instantaneous fundamental voltage

waveform v1u(n), as obtained by (9), expression (10) can be

written as

harmonics, thus leading to a total harmonic distortion (THD)

of 7.42%.

sin n Ts v1u n 1

v1u n v1u n 2

(11)

(11) by using only three consecutive samples of the amplitude

normalized instantaneous fundamental voltage waveform and

is expressed by

v1u n v1u n 2

2 Ts

v n 1

seen, equation (12) requires three consecutive samples and can

provide fast estimation of frequency. However, as there is an

interdependent loop in Fig. 1, the faster tracking of frequency

as compared to the estimation of instantaneous fundamental

component will affect the stability of the proposed technique.

Therefore, a delay is used for the loop providing the estimated

frequency and hence a first-order infinite-impulse-response

(IIR) based low-pass filter (LPF) is used, as it can be seen in

Fig. 5 [36]. The time constant of the LPF determines the

dynamics of the estimated fundamental frequency. The

estimation of the fundamental frequency requires few

mathematical operations and one inverse sine function, and is

also simple to implement, as can be seen in Fig. 5.

(a)

(12)

Grid Voltage

Waveform (p.u.)

u

1

0.5

-0.5

-1

1

50.02

(b)

f n

sin 1

In this case, the grid voltage waveform is distorted by 5%

Fundamental

Frequency (Hz)

The steady-state grid voltage waveform, as shown in Fig.

6(a), contains 7.42% THD. The estimation of fundamental

frequency at steady-state by using the proposed technique is

shown in Fig. 6(b). As it can be seen, the proposed technique

can provide accurate estimation of fundamental frequency

from a grid voltage waveform containing harmonics.

1.01

1.02

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.06

Actual

Proposed

50.01

50

49.99

49.98

1

1.01

1.02

1.03

Time (s)

1.04

1.05

1.06

Fig. 6. Case-1: Steady-state with harmonics. (a) Grid voltage waveform. (b)

Fundamental Frequency.

0.5

-0.5

-1

1

50.02

(b)

Fundamental

Frequency (Hz)

estimation technique is tested in MATLAB/Simulink under

several cases as follows:

i. Steady-state with harmonics (Case-1)

ii. Steady-state with DC offset and harmonics (Case-2)

iii. Frequency step and harmonics (Case-3)

iv. Frequency sweep and harmonics (Case-4)

v. Voltage flicker and harmonics (Case-5)

vi. Voltage sag and harmonics (Case-6)

The sampling and nominal grid fundamental frequencies are

chosen as 10 kHz and 50 Hz, respectively. As the window size

of the BPF based on recursive DFT and inverse recursive DFT

is one fundamental time period, hence the time constant of the

first-order IIR based LPF, as shown in Fig. 5, is chosen as

20ms (=1/50). The fundamental component of the grid voltage

waveforms presented in all the case studies are distorted by

(a)

Grid Voltage

Waveform (p.u.)

1.01

1.02

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.06

Actual

Proposed

50.01

50

49.99

49.98

1

1.01

1.02

1.03

Time (s)

1.04

1.05

1.06

Fig. 7. Case-2: Steady-state with DC offset and harmonics. (a) Grid voltage

waveform. (b) Fundamental Frequency.

6423

51.2

Actual

Proposed

(a)

Grid Voltage

Waveform (p.u.)

Fundamental

Frequency (Hz)

51

50.8

50.6

50.4

-0.5

-1

0.8

50.04

50.2

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.1

1.12

1.14

Time (s)

50.2

Actual

Proposed

(b)

Fundamental

Frequency (Hz)

50

49.8

0.98

0.5

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2

Actual

Proposed

50.02

50

49.98

49.96

0.8

49.8

49.4

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Time (s)

2.2

49

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.25

Time (s)

steady-state estimation of the fundamental frequency by using

the proposed technique is shown in Fig. 7(b). As it can be

noticed, the performance of the proposed frequency estimation

technique is not affected by the grid voltage waveform

distorted by DC offset and harmonics.

Case-3: Frequency Step and Harmonics

In this case, the performance of the proposed technique is

tested under +1 Hz fundamental frequency step and 7.42%

THD. The estimation of fundamental frequency step by using

the proposed technique is depicted in Fig. 8. As it can be

noticed, the proposed technique takes 76.6 ms as a settling

time and can track the frequency step accurately. After the

dynamics, the performance of the proposed technique is also

non-sensitive to the presence of the harmonics at off-nominal

fundamental frequency of 51 Hz, as can be seen from Fig. 8.

Case-4: Frequency Sweep and Harmonics

The grid voltage frequency varies slowly due to the large

inertia of the rotating shaft of the power generators. A -10

Hz/s fundamental frequency sweep is considered into the grid

voltage waveform containing 7.42% THD. The fundamental

frequency sweep estimation by the proposed technique is

shown in Fig. 9. As it can be noticed, the proposed technique

can track the fundamental frequency sweep accurately.

Case-5: Voltage Flicker and Harmonics

The grid voltage waveform, as shown in Fig. 10(a), contains

voltage flicker and 7.42% THD. The frequency and amplitude

of the triangular voltage flicker are 1 Hz and 5% of

fundamental amplitude, respectively. For this case, the

(a)

Grid Voltage

Waveform (p.u.)

49.2

48.8

0.95

Fig. 10. Case-5: Voltage flicker and harmonics. (a) Grid voltage waveform.

(b) Fundamental Frequency.

49.6

0.5

-0.5

-1

0.98

50.2

(b)

Fundamental

Frequency (Hz)

Fundamental

Frequency (Hz)

50

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.1

Proposed

1.12

1.14

Actual

50

49.8

49.6

49.4

49.2

0.98

1.02

1.04

1.06

Time (s)

1.08

1.1

1.12

1.14

Fig. 11. Case-6: Voltage sag and harmonics. (a) Grid voltage waveform. (b)

Fundamental Frequency.

can be seen, the performance of the proposed technique is

affected and provides ripples into the estimated frequency

during the voltage flicker.

Case-6: Voltage Sag and Harmonics

A grid voltage waveform containing 20% voltage sag and

7.42% THD is shown in Fig. 11(a). The estimation of the

fundamental frequency by using the proposed technique is

shown in Fig. 11(b). As it can be noticed, the proposed

technique provides undershoot during the voltage sag.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

A single-phase grid voltage fundamental frequency

estimation technique has been proposed in this paper. The

proposed frequency estimation technique relies on a band-pass

filter and three consecutive samples based algorithm. The

band-pass filter was implemented based on the recursive DFT

and inverse recursive DFT. The proposed estimation technique

6424

estimate the fundamental frequency accurately. Moreover, the

technique can reject the negative effects caused by the

presence of the DC offset and harmonics. The presented

simulation results confirmed the effective applications of the

proposed frequency estimation technique.

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