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Last lecture discussed how past

approaches understood their problems


and acted in response.

This lecture outlines a basis regarding how to approach


design of urban space now based on Toward

Design Manifesto.

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an Urban

How to design urban space, the Manifesto argues, is also based on


our understanding of-

What the problems for modern urban design are?


What our goals for urban life are?
What the (structural) qualities of built environment are?

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Problems for modern urban design

1. Poor living environments

Problems of sun, air and spaces are resolved


BUT Environment surrounding homes suffers from pollution,

noise and proximity to dangerous (such as) wasteland.

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Parallel Readings
The rapid urban development process taking place in developing countries leads
to swift and drastic changes in the physical, economic, social, political and
administrative structures of the countries and the cities.
Moore (1978) has described three main justifications for such government
interventions into the private urban land market:
?
Eliminating market defect and failures to increase operating efficiencies
Removing externalities so that the social costs for land market outcomes
correspond more closely to private costs
Redistributing society's scarce resources so that disadvantaged groups can
share in society's output.

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A general problem is that, although most Asian cities have more characteristics
in common with European cities, such as being fairly compact and usually
having an old city core, than with North American and Australian cities which sprawl
over vast areas. There are many characteristics which make design tools mostly
developed in European countries unsuitable for Asian cities. European

planning models used are usually old and out-dated


models which most often are not being used in the
country of origin any more.
Physical planning in developing countries is most often regarded as essentially static in nature,

lacking effective

land-use control mechanisms and investment priorities. Planning is restricted by the


lack of feasible means to ensure implementation, anticipate market reactions,
as well as means to consider the cost implications for various government
agencies and the economic impact on various income groups (Courtney,
1983).
?

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2. Gigantism and loss of control


Large-scale developers and public agencies took control of the city
City grows in large size; massive road-transportation system is used only for
cars
People become irrelevant; have less control over their homes and neighborhoods.

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1940

1989

1953

2000

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Achieving Density? Breathing Ensured?


Losing entity > identity
Capitalistic overwhelmingness Are we Urban termites ! !

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People becomes irrelevant


Shine and Shown
Momentary Face-lifting
Resulting into Aristocratic Slums

Not hidden
Too hidden
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Lack of openness

We are not against the apartment culture, we are to seek the appropriateness, the quality of
living. The role of Large scale developers and Public agencies has to be investigated. There
should be a framework for land price, construction cost control and distribution.

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Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England

A better show
As part of the overall transportation system, Chesterfield's transportation engineers
are determined to make the county's road system a model of safety, efficiency,
and convenience. The result is a primary and secondary highway system that is
continuously evaluated and improved as needed.

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Where am i?
Who am i?
Entangled Destiny
Shanghai

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3. Large-scale privatization and the loss of public life


Focus on individual in a culture of consumer society - Resulted 'private
affluence and public meanness'

Crime is both a cause and consequence of this form of city


Loss of public spaces where different social groups meet; social
interactions take place in protected

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internal locations.

'private affluence Pleasant and Serene*?!!

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Living in a co-locational
dichotomy
Loss of public spaces where
different social groups meet;
social interactions take place in
protected internal locations due to
Large-scale privatization.

Profit Profit Profit


No Accountability
Market control flux

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Living in a co-locational dichotomy

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Parallel Readings
In an increasingly complex

pattern of settlement, linked with


socioeconomic polarization, no single measure can represent all
of the distinct aspects of settlement structure, which will be of interest to
public policy.
Urban area definitions vary greatly between countries but usually involve
the adoption of one or several of the following criteria:
A population size threshold
Population density
Political status
Proportion of the population in non-agricultural occupations
Presence of particular services or activities

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The central bank's low-cost home loans under refinance scheme has so far failed
to reach the target group -- the middle and lower income people mainly because
the banks

and other financial institutions believe the


group is risky for repayment of loans.

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4. Centrifugal fragmentation

Healthy ? Do matters
Unhealthy? Doesnt matter

People live in homogenous social groups


if

Social interactions
safety security
Belongingness
Religious and cultural homogeneity

The upper half of a six-storey building at Shankhari


Bazar in Dhaka tilts and after its collapse killed 11
people.

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Photo: The Daily Star
Update: 11 June 2004: death toll reaches 19.

Warfare
De-Urbanization
in
Global Scale

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Residents of Geneva Camp today


20,000 so-called bihari people in an area of
136000 sq feet > 6.8
200 toilets

sft/person

more than half out of order

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Man

Space

(Conscious and subconscious


perception of his or her entity)

(Physical entity of place)

Culture
(Personal interpretation of
material) world)

The diagram shows a threefold relationship where man, space and culture all are
interconnected and complementary to each other to create a base for cultural
space. Here the conscious and subconscious perception of man creates his physical
entity of place into spaces, at the same time his personal interpretation of material world
creates a sense of sensitivity to culture.

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5. Destruction of valued place


The 600-year old mosque, one of the oldest buildings in the city, is being
demolished as part of a renovation plan which includes the building a 70-foot
high minaret and the extension of the current building from three stories to
seven !

!!

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Parallel Readings A Good Show


IAB Heritage Cell is now active to protect the oldest structure of Dhaka,
the Binat Bibi Mosque, from getting demolished. Initiated by Dr. A.
Sayeed M. Ahmed, Member Education & Research, A team from IAB
successfully convinced the Mosque Committee and the local

people about the historical importance of the structure.


The team also presented several design solutions that cater to the
increased demand for space by retaining the existing structure. Students
and the Faculty of Dept. of Architecture of the University of Asia Pacific
are actively supporting IAB in this effort.
The Heritage Cell is also actively helping Govt. of Bangladesh by
providing information to restoration Panam Nagar.

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The World Monuments


Fund rated SonargaonPanam City as one of the
most endangered
heritage sites in 2006.
The historic city of Sonargaon
survives only in name.
Sonargaon lost its eminence
with the rise of Dhaka and by
the second half of the
nineteenth century it was
reported to have decrease to a
village' with 'dense jungle'.

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Parallel Readings
According to Shamsul Wares, a noted architect, there would be hardly any testimony to the history, past
traditions and lifestyle if heritage properties are not preserved.

Panamnagar, a township set up by Hindu merchants during colonial era in


Sonargaon near Dhaka, has lost its originality and uniqueness as an architectural
heritage site in the way of restoration carried out by the government, said experts.

Conservationist architect Abu Sayeed M Ahmed said that Unesco

refused
to declare Lalbagh Fort as a world heritage site
because of wrong restoration.

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6. * Placeless ness
The antithesis of place is placelessness, a sort of non-place quality
manifest in uniformity, standardization and disconnection from context. If
a place is somewhere, placelessness can be anywhere.
Space formation has to go through few guidelines as architects and designers

see lot of discrepancies in urban situation not


forming spaces.
argue. We

Read, Life and Death of Great American Cities Jane JAcobs

>* For
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additional understanding
[ see: Public Places Urban Spaces page:101 ]

Places that lack a "sense of place" are sometimes referred to as


"placeless" or "inauthentic." Placeless spaces are those that have
no special relationship to the places in which they are locatedthey
could be anywhere.

Even some historic sites or districts that have been heavily


commercialized for tourism and new housing estates are sometimes
defined as having lost their sense of place.

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Anthropologist Clifford Geertz suggests that culture consists of webs of


significance woven by human beings, in which we are all suspended. Places
occur where these webs touch the earth and connect people to the world. Each
place is a territory of significance, distinguished from larger or smaller areas by
its name, by its particular environmental qualities, by the stories and shared
memories connected to it, and by the intensity of meanings people give to or
derive from it.
The parts of the world without names are undifferentiated space, and the
absence of a name is equivalent to the absence of place. Conversely, where
communities have deep roots, it seems that their named places fuse culture and
environment, and this fusion is then revealed in striking cultural landscapes.
There is a scale implication here because, when the term place is used
geographically (as in the expression, The place where I live is), the
reference usually seems to be to somewhere about the size of a landscape
that can potentially be seen in a single viewfor example, a village, small
town, or urban neighborhood.

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Traditionally urbanization have some unique problems varying from context to


context.

Where is it ? How the feeling has been transformed into physicality


(still difficult for pin-pointing)

Urban enclaves
(peripheral facade)
Island surrounded by busy traffic (scale aspect)
Administrative and Political
(lack of access : statement of diffidence)
Co-Locational Open spaces
Centrifugal fragmentation
Density and Building gaps
(property demarcation attitude)
Vast open spaces under Flyovers
Colonial Railway land and generation of overwhelming unused space
Restricted access to abandoned sites

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Administrative and Political (lack of access : statement of diffidence)

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Island surrounded by busy traffic (positive in scale aspect)

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Traditional Urbanism looks back to an age of grids,


public squares, moderately dense housing and
pedestrian corridors.

Based on a critique of placeless ness of modern


vehicular city and urban sprawl, traditional urbanism
attempts to recover what it regards as a more authentic
urban framework.

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7. Injustice
Zone
Inappropriate handling of fringe area
Hausmannian approach
Haussmanns planning was that he viewed the city more like an engineer and
resolving technical problems. He has adapted the method of physical planning
as it had more visible effects. Also the people in Paris expected a drastic
change in the state of Paris. He did not aspire to make any changes in the
social structure.

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The le de la Cit and its medieval surroundings before the


Haussmann works (Vaugondy map of 1771)

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The le de la Cit transformed by Haussmann: new


transverse streets (red), public spaces (light blue) and
buildings (dark blue).

8. Rootless professionalism
Lack of Knowledge
Lack of coordination
Lack of Professional Ethics
Undermined co-professionals
Depending on Knowledge-base aid and financial aid
Profit in Shorter span

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Goals for Urban Life


1. Livability
A city should be a place where everyone can live in relative

comfort

2. Identity and control


People should feel that-

Some part of the environment belongs to them, individually and collectively.


Some part for which they care and are responsible, whether they own it or not.
Environments should be designed for those who use them or are affected by them, rather than for those
who own them.

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Some part of the environment belongs to them

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A Better Show

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Intelligent street and building lights


that can be accessed through the
Internet, changing colour and intensity
depending on the time of day or on the
demands or on the possible artistic
interest.

3. Access to opportunity, imagination, and joy


People should find the city a place where they can break from traditional molds,
extend their experience, meet new people, learn other viewpoints, have fun
People should have access to alternative housing and job choices and find the city
and enlightening cultural experience.
4. Authenticity and meaning
people should be able to understand their city (or other people's cities), its basic
layout, public functions, and institutions
They should be aware of its opportunities.
Livability, identity, authenticity and opportunity are characteristics of the
urban environment that serve the individual; there are other higher social
goals that a city should serve
5. Community and public life
6. Urban self-reliance
7. An environment for all

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Structural Qualities of Good Urban Environment


There are five essential physical characteristics to address problems and goals of
our (aspired) urban life. All five of the characteristics must be present.

Livable streets and neighborhood


People should live in reasonable safety, cleanliness and security. They will require
adequate sunlight, clean air, trees, vegetation, gardens, open space, pleasantly
scaled and designed buildings; without offensive noise; with cleanness and
physical safety.

Minimum density and intensity of land use


Density means the number of people (sometimes expressed in terns of housing
units) living on an area of land, or the number of people using and area of land
'Perceived' density is important than an ' objective' density.

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Integration of activities
The best urban places have some mixture of uses.
Living, working and shopping as well as public, spiritual and recreational activities

City would not be a patchwork quilt, or


and even-colored fabric. The fabric would be mixed.
to be present near each other.

Buildings are arranged to define and even enclose public space, rather that
sit in space.
Different buildings and space with complex arrangements and
relationships.

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