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316.4
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Meaning of Social Life. First Edition


in Englih in 2003.
This tranlation is pulished arrangement with Ox(ord Uniuerity r.
Oxford Uniuersity Press.

originally

puished

ISBN 978-5-901574-96-6 (.)


ISBN 978-0-19-530640-8 (.)
2003 Oxford Univerity r lnc.
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33


<< >>

,
,

"Cultural Sociology or Sociology of Culture: Towards


Strong Progra for Sociology's Second Wind", with
Philip Sith, in Sociologie et Societes 30 ( 1) 1998.
"Modern, Ante, Post and Neo: Intellectuals
Have Tried to Understand the 'Crisis of Our i', in
Zeitschrift fr Soziologie 23 ( 3) 1994.
"The Discours of Aerican Civil Society: New
Proposal for Cultural Studies", with Philip Sith, in
Theory and Society 22 ( 2) 1993.
"The Proise of Cultural Sociology: Technical
Discourse and the Sacred and Profane I nforation
Machine", N. Selser and R. Mnch, eds. In Theory of
Culture, niversity of California Press, 1993.
"Towards Sociology of Evil: Getting Beyond
odernist Sense About the Alternative to the
Good", inM. . Lara, ed., Rethinking Evil: Conteporary
Perspectives. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of
California Press, 2001.

36

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2001

CADIS -

1985-1986

1998-1999

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1993-1994

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(moral textures)

(sociology-of approach)

, 6 ;

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46

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Alexander

(1996).

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Bloor, 1976; Latour & Woolgar, 1986).

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(Rorty, 1979),

60

. ,

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,

1992).

(Alexander, 1988; Kane,

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("weak program"),


, .

(1971),

(elaborated theoretical code),

(restricted code),

, (haitus).

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61

("thic~

description")

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("thin description")

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(1962),

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Alexander, 1987, 316-29).


62

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(1971),

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structures) (Rambo & Chan, 1990),

(culture

(1971, [1957]) (1985).

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(Kane,

1992).

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la

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(agencies)

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(1978),

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(1998) ,

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64

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(1958),

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,

Alexander, 1988),
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(1968)

(Alexander, 1982),

(1963)

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66

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1963

[1867], 71-

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(Smith,

1998).

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5"

(coherent enterprise).

(Lockwood, 1992).

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(1977)

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("lads").

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6

(1978),

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71

, , ,

& Alexander, 1993).

(Sherwood, Smith,

(Gramsci, 1971). ,
("articulation")
("anchoring")
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(Anderson, 1979)

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1995;

Honneth, 1986; Sewell, 1992).

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Lamont, 1992).

74


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(Brenner, 1994),

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76

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ad hoc,

(self)

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(1972)

("governmentality")
(Miller
& Rose, 1990; Rose, 1993),

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77


(, ,

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(Miller & Rose, 1990: 7).

(thin description)

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(1978),

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(Edward Heat, 1916-2005) -


1970 . 1974 .- ..
78

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Crane, 1992).

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1985)

Blau, 1989; Peterson,

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79

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(production of culture approach)

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(1983)

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80

(1988)

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(cultural messages)
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continuities),

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6


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(1973, [1964]),

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(webs of significance),

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(causal specificity) -
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83

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85

. , ,

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1989; Peterson, 1985).

Blau,

,
(,

Davis, 1992; Gottdiener, 1995).


DiMaggio & Powell,

(.

1991)

,
(.

Friedland & Alford, 1991).

, ,

(, Fiske, 1987; Grossberg,


Nelson & Treichler, 1991),

,
,

Smith,

1998).

86

Sherwood, 2002),

(1970;

Alexander &
(1974)

(1976),

,

.

).
,

,
,

,
.

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87

(1986),

(1992),

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Emirbayer & Goodwin, 1996; Emirbayer & Mische,


1998) (1987),
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88

, .

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,

1996).

Emirbayer, 1996; Smith & Alexander,

(boundary maintenance),

(
.

Lamont & Fournier, 1993),


89

("othering").

(. Alexander & Smith, 1993; Edles, 1998;


Magnuson, 1997; Smith, 1991).


. ,

(1974)

(1996),
(1976, 1981)-


,
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,
,

(1988).

-,

(,

1989),


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,

90

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. ,

(1986, 1994, 2000;


Wagner-Pacifici & Schwartz, 1991),
(1995), (1983),
(1996, 2000), (1999),
(1994),
,

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, ,

(.

Lara, 1998).


.


.

, ,

.
, , -,

(Wagner-Pacifici,1986, 1994).
(Jacobs,

1996)
(civic engagement),
(Alexander, 1995;
91

Eyerman, 2001).
,

(social inclusion) (Jacobs & Smith,


1997; Smith, 1994).

(Jacobs & Smith,

1997; Smith, 1996).


, .

(,

Kane, 1992).

(Barthes,

1977),


, ,

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92

,
, ,

(exclusion) (Beisel, 1993),


(Jacobs, 1996), (Seidrnan,
1988), (Gibson, 1994; Srnith, 1991, 1996;
Wagner-Pacifici, 1994)
-

(Alexander,

1995 ).

.
,

(Ku, 1999; Srnith, 1996).

93

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101

(January 6, 1945:

62)9

1945

_
, .

,

10

,
,


, ,

,
. ,
.

, 9

,


. Laqueur (1980). ,

(Thompson, 1997).
.
,
.
10

, ,
, , ,
,
,
,


,
.

Zelizer (1998: 49-140).


102

(symbolic extension)

.
. ,
,

, ,

,
, , ,


.

.


, ,


.

,

. ,

103

, .
, , - .
,


,
,

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.
,

11
11

1945

,
,

, _


. ,
, ,

_
, .
,


. , ,
,
, , -,
, , ,

104


, ,

,
.

?
-,

("radical evil"),

.

,

,
.
,
,
, . . ..
, ,
,

(Octoer 8, 1945: 453).


:
. ,
,

Friiulein,

. ,

- ,
, - .
,
,
. (October 8, 1945: 31-2)

, , -

,
, ,

...

, ,
,

(October 3, 1945: 18).



. Abzug (1985).

105

(Kant, 1960)12 ,

? ,
, ,

,
,
,

.

, ,
,

,.
12

("lay trauma theory") 13

("Radical Evil: Kant at War with Himself"


(Bernstein, 2001))
. ,

,

,
,


.
. ,
,
. ,
, -
.
(2001)
, ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
,

.
,
, ,


. .
.
13

,
,

106

14 .

. ,
,

, ,
-

, ,

.
" .
, ,


, , , .

- 1998-1999 .

,
.
,

3,
(Cultural Trauma and
Collective Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press,
)). , ,
,
(Friedland, Roger,
& John Mohr, eds., The Cultural Turn (Cabridge: Cabridge
University Press, )).


, .
14

-
, , , ,

(. :
Enlightment thinking ). - . .

107

.

,
.
, ,

15
15

n n
, n
, ,
. n
, (1981-1982)
,
, ,
,

. n n
(1992) -
. ,

n
[ ..],
. , .
, ,

.


,

,
,
.
,

,
(Higham, 1984: 154).
,
, ,

n

108


, ,

,
.
,
,
,

, ;

. .
(
)


, ,

. , ,

(171).

,
,

.
, ,

109

16 ,

( ), ,
,

(in and of itself),

2000: 178).

(Diner,

(badness),

("evilness")

, .
,
.
,
,
.

,
,
,

. ,


16

. , -

(2001: 43):

,
,

110

, ,

(1982)
(Axial Age civilizations).


.
,

, ,
, ,

(pollution),

<<>>:


,

, ,
.

,
:

? 17 ,

, , ,
17


. Collins (1992) , , ,
, Language and Symbolic Power(1991).

111

. -

. , ,

1945

-
, ,
,


, .
,

, ,
,

18. , 18

, 6 ,
.


, ,
(Fatherland) ,
(Harris, 1992). 1967

.
,
,
,
.

. ,

. ,
,
,

.
,

. , , ,

112

, ,
, ,
, ,

-
19. , ,

.
:.
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,

: ?
,

, ,
.
19



, 3,
,
1944
,

: ,
,
.
,

, []

(Zelizer, 1998: 51).

113
8

.
,

, ,

.

.

,

, ,

, .
:

?
? ?

?

,


,
. ,

. ;
, .

-
, ,
,
< ,

114

20 -
. ,
,

, .

,
( )

. ,

. ""

1945

? ,
, .
,

20


, ,
,
, ,

(ad-hocing),
" " ("etc. clause"),

(indexicality)

,
.

115


.


~
,

, , ,

21
-

.
,

,
,

.
,
, , .

,
,


, , 21


. Fussel

(1975).

116

,
.

, ,

22

, .

, .


. ,

,
,

, ,

-
.

.
,

22

Herf (1984),

117

(Smith,

1998).

,
,
,

23 , ,
, ,

24


, , ,

, ,
,
. ,
-
, ,


.
23

,

. Alexander (1998).

24

,
,
;

,
.
. (The Collapse
of the Third Repuic (1969)).

118

<< >>:
::

(Kristallnacht)

.
,

.
, ,

1938

..

(Diamond, 1969: 198).

(201),

119

,
.

, , ,
,

(197).

,
,

.

,

,
,

. ,

- >
,

:
, -

120

,
,
,

(. :

Diamond, 1969: 198).

' ,
, []
, ,

(. :

Diamond, 1969: 199).

(. :

Diamond, 1969: 198-9).


,
,


, . --,

, -
, ,

(. :

Diamond, 1969: 200).


. . ,

-
,

121

...

, (. :

Diamond, 1969: 201).


.... ,

(. :

Diamond, 1969: 205).


, , ,

,
...
,


, [] (.

Diamond, 1969: 207),

. ,

,
.

,
(. :

Diamond, 1969: 198, 199, 201).

122

.
, - ,

1969: 205.

(Diamond,

. -. ) ,

.
:

.

,


, ,

,
.

-:

,

.
,

,
, ,

123

25
,

.
,


. ,
.
- ,

-
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,



,

25

(Gleason, 1981; Higham, 1984)26


:

,

,
, ,

. (July 7,
1941: 44). ,


, ,
,

,
(Stember, 1966).


. Hollinger (1996).
26

,
, ,

n .
n,
n.

124

27,
,

:
.

(Shapiro, 1992: 16).


,
.

(Silk, 1984).

. ,

weltgeschichte

( ),

,
27

(Geertz, 1984),


-. ,
,

, .


, , , -

125

28 ,

("progressive narrative"),

,
,

. , ,


, .
, , ,

,
. ,
,

, ,

,
,

,
28

(liminal)

,

.

126

29 ,
,

, .
(
)

, 30
, ,

,
, ,

, ,
,

29 .

("liminality")
- n
(The Ritual Process (Turner, 1969))
.

30

,
, , ,

1919 ,
,

,
.
, ,
, , n
, .

127

: ,

,
. , -
,

31 ,
, ,

.
31

,
,
- ,
, ,

. (
.) ,

,
.

,
,


, . , ,
,

,
.
, , ,

,
.

128

1942 (Dawidowicz, 1982;


Laqueur, 1980; Norich, 1998-99).

,
,
, ,
,
.

1943


. ,
,

32
32

1944 ,

1943


("The Extermination of the Jews" (Februay 1943: 194203)),
,
. :
, ,

, ,
[ ] ,
, . 1942
, , 2 000 000 .
Vernichtungskolonnen ( )
,

,
. :
("Total Murder," March 8, 1943: 29).

:
, ,

129
9

, ,
-

(Dawidowicz, 1982).
, ,

.
, , -


,
.

, , ,


, , .
450 000 , "judenrein" (
).
( 24, 1943: 54). 1944

1944: 18-9).

(October 28,

(1985) ,
,
, ,
,
,
1942 (Abzug, 1985:
17).
- ,
-

,

, ,


,
,
, ,

(17).

,
,
, -

130

,
.

, ,

(Feingold, 1974: 250).

themselves).

(the mass killings in and of

, ,

.
, ,

.
, ,
. ,
,

.
33

1945

,
>

(. :
33

Benn, 1995: 102).

131

(. :

Benn, 1995: 102)34

,
, ,


, ,
.
:
,

. ,


, ,


,

34

, , :
,
[]
.
,
,
.
....

1938

, , -,
- .

, ,
, ,
,
(Novick,

1994: 160).

132

.
,

-
(Zelizer, 1998: 63). ,

>

> ("Chronicles of Liberation")


(63-85). -
- 16
,

,
-,

, ,

(183). 5

. ,

.
:

(129).

.
, ,
, >

133

. ?
,

? (.
:

Zelizer, 1998: 128).

. .
""
.

, ,

,
,


(. :

Zelizer, 1998: 129).

, ,

,
,

.
, ,
,

134

,
(. :

Abzug, 1985: 19).

. ,

. , ,
,

.
:

, ,

35

,

.
,

36

(Lemkin,1944)).

1944

(Axis Rule in Occupied Europe


,
,

, , , ,

.

,
.
, ,

,
.

135


. ,
, ,

, ,

(<
- (.
:

Benn, 1995: 102).

,
. ,
,

(<

. ,

(<-


,

(<
. (<

, (<

136

9, 1945: 20).

(October

, ,

1945



.
,

. , ,
, ,
, ....
, ,
,

, , ,
.

137

("an-

other")

(Lipstadt, 1996: 195-214).

[ ] ,

: ,
,

; ,

, ,
....


""

(Rosenfeld, 1995: 37-8).

,
,
,
, []
,

....

-, : ,
,

" ",

(Novick, 1994: 160).

,
.

,
.

.
, -

138

, . ,


.
,

,
,
.

, .

,


.... ,

,
. ,

,
,

.... ,
, ,

,
,

(Welles, 1945: 511).


139

.
-,

(Stember, 1966).

,

,

.
-

-
. ,


,
... -

140

>>

(New York Times, October

1, 1945: 32).


1945

1948

(Dinnerstein, 1981-82).

,

,

1950

,
,

. ,

- -
,

,
,

, ,

.
,
,


.
,
, .

[ ] , []
,

141

...

... .

...

, ....
,
,



, []

,


. [] -

(October, 1945:391-9. .

..).

, ,

.
,
,

: ,
" ",
.
36

, ,
.

142

(<

(. :

or Non-sense?"

i,

August 20, 1945: 92).

"Sense

, ,
(<

,
, (<



..
,
: (<

, ;
,

1945: 208-9.

(August 20,

.- . .).

1946

(<
,

(<

.
,

.
,
, ,

, . ,

143

268.

(Dodson, 1946:

. -..).

1946

], ,
,
,
,

""

(Hart, 1947: 61).

1949

,
,

"

" .
,

-, ,

, Q .

(Whitman, 1949: 34-5).

1943-45

1945

, ,

144

, -
. ,
,

, ; ,
.
,

- ,

. , ,

[
]

(Dinnerstein, 1981-1982: 137)

,

,

.

,
, ?

.

, ,
,

(Buck, 1947: 135.


145

.- ..).

, (<

, (<
,
: (<,
,
,

(Carter, 1947: 180).

(<

(<

.

.

(<
, ,
, ,
; ,


.
, ,
,

,
, .
.

(Perry, 1948: 96.

. -..)


(<"" -:

(October 13, 1952:

170-6).
-
.

1945

(Pride of the Marines)


146

, ,


: , ,

, , ,

1930

? ,

, ?

(Short, 1981: 161).

, ,

,
, , ,

: ,
.
,

... , ;
!
, , ,
... ?

(Short, 1981: 161).

"America the

eautiful",

:
, ,

. , , , , , .
,

, .

147
10

, .
, ,

(Short, 1981: 161-2).

,
-,

(Gentleman' sAgreement),

,
,

(Crossfire),
-

, .

,
,

, ,
?

, -
, (. :

Short, 1981:

180)37

,


. ,

38
37


(December 13, 1947: 20) ,
- [] ,
, ,

, ,
- .
38


, , ,
, -

148

,
,

1945 .

(Dinnerstein, 1981-82: 140).

,
.

, -
,


, .
,

(
) (Short, 1981: 157. .- . .).

149

(Realpolitik)

. ,

,

, ,

, ,
,
-,

,

.

.

,

.
, ,

150

,
,

1945

1945

("nation").


,
.
,

1945


.
,

(Shapiro, 1992: 28). -

-,


39 . igham

(53)39

, -

(1984) Silk (1984).


151

.
.
,


Shapiro, 1992: 143).

(. :

, ,

,
.
:
, ,

40 40

,

, -

.
-

:
, ,
; - ; - (.
: Shapiro, 1992: 3 : Abzug, 1985: vii). ,


, -
, ,
.

,
,
.
post hoc
,

- ,
,
, - ,
.

152

, ,

, ,

. ,

,
, ,

, ,
,
-,

.
,

.

,
,

.
,

.
,
,

153

41
,
,
,

,
.

,
,

, .

" cmpy"mypa
,
, xapaepGeisteswissenschaften,
,

,
.

. ,

,
,
, .

,
,
(Geertz, 1973 [1964]).

-
-
.

154

-.
-


42

,
.

.

, , ,


. , ,

, 43
42 . ,

(Dilthey, 1976).

. Anne Kane (1998) Eric Ramo and Elaine Chan (1990).
43

.
,
,
, -,
,
.

155

,
~

,
( )

44

45 , , , ,
. ,
, ,
,
,
, , ,
(Novick, 1999: 232).
44


(Holocast and Genocide
Stdies)
weltgeschichte ( ):
,

: ,


... ,
: ,
,
, , ,
, - ,
, , ,

(1 (1): 1986: 1. .- . .).



,
;

,
. , , ,

,
1988 , ,

, , ,


, ,
,
(3 [3] 1988: 255. .- . .).
45

, , ,
( -

156

....

...

(Diner, 2000: 1).



,

(sacred-evil),

. -
, .

,
.

-,
, .


, - .
,

1968

("The Jewish

Tragedy and the Historian")

.- .. .) 1972 ,
,
,
; ,

164-5).
157

(Zelizer, 1998:


. ,
.
,

, ,
, , .

? , , ,

, .
,

...

(Deutscher, 1968:163).

,

,

, .
,

,- ,-
,

(Deutscher, 1968: 164).

1981

,
:


,
;

158

, ,

,
.... - ...

....
.

: .
?

(Hartman, 1996: 3-4).


, .

1999

The Gathering,

(van Gelder, 1999:1).


- ,
. ,
,

, ,

(Garber & Zuckerman, 1989: 199),- 159

, 46

(Shoah),

132).

1948

(Novick, 1999:

, 46

1949
, .

t ... , ,

.
, . 1953


,

... Shoah
....
.
, .
... 1957 1959
... .
,
,
,
.
...
, ,

... .

(Korman, 1972: 25961).


160

("awe-fullness")

.
,

, 47
,
47

shoah

Ofer (1996).

, n
,

n shoah,
,
,
: shoah
n ,

.
-

. ,
-
" :
" (The Liberal
Mind in Conservative Age: American I ntellectuals in the 1940s and
1950s), ,
(Higham,
). (1989: 202),

-
27 1963 , ,
n, , . ,
, ,
1961
,
. ,
,
.
- 1963
,
,- ,
, ,

. ,


, ,
.


. , - ,
(Bier,

1986: 203);

""

(Zielinski, 1986: 273).


161
11

""

(nonreferential quality)

(. :

Garber & Zuckerman,

1989: 201).

(bridging metaphor):

, ,

.
,

, .

, ,
.


, .

,
,


-, ,

48 ,
48

162

8.

.
.
,

,
.

,
,


,
, ,

" ". ,
,

, .
,
,

.
, ,
,

.
.

, ,

. , , ,

- . ,
, ,

,
, .

,,.

163

.

,

[.. , ]~ 49

(Aristotle, 1987: 3. 2. 1. .- . .)

.
,

. ,

,


, , ,

. ,
.
.

, , ,
.

(tragic narrative)

, ,
--.
,
,
, ,

.. .

164

. ,

, .
, ,

, ,

,
.
-

- ,
,


, .

- 50 50

, , ,

.
,
,

,
.
,

,
,

, (Amishai-Maisels, 1988:
457).
,
, ,
. -

165

, ,
, , ,


. , -
,



, ,
, .


, ,
, ,
(464).

- ,
. ,
,

,
,

....

, ,
. , ,
- ,

(467).

.
,
, :,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.

166

n,
.
: , .

. ,

1933-1945

. ; ,
,
, .

(Admitting

the Holocaust),

, ,

, "


"

(Hartman, 1996: 2, 5).


,
.
,

- , ,

(Frye, 1971 [1957]).

,

(

)
. ,
, , ,

,
,

167

51 ,


,

, .

, .
,
,

,
.
,

...

> 52

(Aristotle, 1987: 4 .. 1.2).


: -

[] ,
,

,
51

, .
, , ,
.
, ....
:
? ... ? ?
? , (Rorty, 1992: 12-3).
,
,
,
,
.

(sage-house)
. , , ,

,
, (Hartman, 1996: 157).
52

.. .

168

. ,

53

.1.. 1.3).

(Aristotle, 1987: 4. 2. 1, 4 .

,
.


, , ,

(displacemen t )54

.. ..

("trauma drama"),

~ .

,
.

53

. . .

54

, . ,

,
, ;
,
.

. Brooks (1995).
,

, .

169

. ,
,

, ,
,

.
,

. , ,
. .


.

,
, ,

,
.

55 55

170


,
;

(Bauman, 1989)56

, ,

,

57 , ,
. ,
1941 ,
: ,
,
.
,
, (Zelizer, 1998: 43).
56


(
Modernity and the Holocaust (1989)).
,
,
. ,
, ,

,
(Postmodern Ethics (Bauman, 1993)), n
, , ,
n n.
n

, nn

n;

n ,


. n
n n (Winter
in the Morning(Bauman, 1986)). n
: , ,
n.
57

n ,

, . ,
n
, n
.

171

j
,
,

, 58
,
, j

>~

1992)59

(Nussbaum,

()
() .

,
. j, j

fin-de-siecle.
,
-
,
- ,
, , ,
,
.
, , ,

, ,
,
,


. . Liberles (1995).
58

, ,
, ,

. ,
,
. ,
.

59

, n ...
.

172

. ,

, ,
.

,
,



. ,

,
,


60

60

... ,
.

,
,
, .
,
, ....
,
,

(Lear,

1992: 318).
,

? ,
, , ,
, , .

173


- , 4

, .
,

.
, ,

, -
. ,

61


,
,

. ,
, .

,

.

,

,
,

61

, ,

, ,
.

174

1978

--

,


. ,

(Wiesel, 1978:1).

,
, ,
,
,

(. :
62

Hartman, 1996: 84)62

, , ,

,
.


. ,
,
-.
. :

, -
(Braun, 1994: 82).
, , -

- ,

, ,

.
,
:

,

,

. , ,
. , ,
, -

. ,
.
-

175

,
.
,
,

, ,

-,

,
.

, ,

63
.


,

. ,
,
,

, , ,
()
.
, (Problng the
Limits of Representation (Friedlander, 1992)).

,

,
,
, ,

.
,
, ,
,

, ,
,
. ,

, ,
.

63

, , ,
, ,

. , , -

176

,
.
, ,
;

.
.
-



.
, ,

,
, -
64.


,
,
, [] ...
(Diner, 2000: 218). ,
- , ,
, .

64

, , - ,

,


, , , ,

.
, , ,

. ,

177
12

,

,
.
, ,
,

, ,
. ,

,

. ,
, ,

. ,
,
,
.


, ,
, - (The olocaust
in American Life (Novick, 1999)).
, ,

la

-
,
. ,
,
,
,

,
,
,

(207).
, n
,

(186),
,
,
(185).
,

(152),
(152) ,
(187).

.
- , -

178

. , I' ,
. ,

,

.
, ,
. ,

, .

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,

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.
(Preserving Memory: The Struggle to Create the Holocaust
Museum (1995)).


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194

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Novick, 1999: 137)74

1992

101
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75 .

Browning, "Ordinary Germans or Ordinary


Men? Reply to the Critics" : Berenbaum & Peck (1998: 25265)
Goldhagen, "Ordinary Men or Ordinary Germans?" : erenbaum
& Peck (1998: 301-8).

76

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196



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1995 ,
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202

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Linenthal, 1995: 37).


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(1980)

Dawidowicz (1982).

Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust (Wyman,


1984)).
203

,
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31

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Linenthal, 1995: 217).


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14

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217-8).

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219-24)

82

Linenthal, 1995:

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n n ,
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pitie} . (La
France de Vichy). n
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206

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2000: 3).

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("engorgement of evil").

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209
14

("post-Holocaust morality")86

,
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86

("Post-Holocaust

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212

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Kampe, 1987: 63).

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213

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1999

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214

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800 000 , ....

, []
, -
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1981 ,
. . ..
[]
("U.S. Reopens 22-Year Case against
Retiree Accused of Being Nazi Guard": 4).

215

,
,
.

89


89


("Ethnocide and
Ethnogenesis: Case Study of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw,
Genocide Avoided" (1 [1], 1986: 91-100)).
(American Holocaust: The
Conquest of the New World (1991)):
...
6
.

....
6
, .
,
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(Stannard, 1996: 2. .).
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216

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217

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218

2
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1992

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219

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14,

1999: 12).
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220


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91
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Perlez, 2001: 6).

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:

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(Erlanger, 2001: 8).

224

.
.

symbol of evil),

(master

92

( universal human rights ).

93

( the universal rights of man ),

.
,


.
,

,

92


n ,

, .

Zelizer

(1998: 210-30).
93


n
n ,

n (., homme
(.), man (.)). human rights
.

. .

225
15

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n n ,

(Minow, 1998: 1).

1945

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226

(Drinan, 1987: 334).

- , ,

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(October 9, 1945: 20).

95,

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Drinan, 1987: 334)94


,
,

95

1950

.
,

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,

94

11

1946 .

95

,
, ,
, , ,
,
(Ignatieff,

1999: 58).
227
15"

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Drinan,

1987: 334).
,

, ,

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(Drinan, 1987: 334).

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228

? ?

(lgnatieff, 1999: 62) 96


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229


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230

. ,
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(Rosenfeld, 1995: 35).


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Rosenfeld, 1995: 35)97

,
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231

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232

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233

(Clendinnen, 1999: 14. .- . .).

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(memorialization).



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234

, , ,

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,
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, , ,
(Weber,
1958 [1904]: 182). ,

,
, :
, -
,

( ..
. - .. .).
- ,
- ; : Ian Buruma,
The Wages of Guilt (1994) : Peter Novick, The Holocaust in

American Life (1999).


235

,
.


, ,

.
-

,
,

.
,

,
. ,
,

- ,

("comedization")-

.
.. :

, 100 100

. Alexander, 'Les Regles secretes: L'argument


souterrain de Durkheim pour la subjectification de la sociologie'
(1996).

236

.

.


,

.

,
:

. .

(Cohen, 1999: 3).

,
,

101

(Baer,

101 ,

237

CIIIA,

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).

1979

,
.

,
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,

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Linenthal, 1995:

37). , ,

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212) 102

Linenthal, 1995:

,

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102

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23 1989 .
238

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Linenthal, 1995: 169).

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Linenthal, 1995: 174) 103



103

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239

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1940-44&,


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(Linenthal, 1995: 169).

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181) 1 4

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104

n ,
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240

(174) 105 ,


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241
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106
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: ". . " (July 30, 2000: El.

). -
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242


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1945

, .

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243
16'

, .
,
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1993: 320-32).

(Young,

-,

1985

,
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>),
,

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244

. ,

(321).

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. ,

1981 . ,

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.
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2000: xiv).

(Langer,

,
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246

.
.
,

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'fiTO
. ,
,

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" "

(Greene & Kumar,

2000: xxv-xxvi).
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,
, ,

(Langer, 2000: xv).

,
.

,


. ,

247

2
- ,

, , , , .

, , -

(Greene & Kumar, 2000: xxiv).

,
. ,

,
,

1996: 153),

(Hartman,

,
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-,
:

, "
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...

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(153-4).


, , -

248

, ,

, ,
,

, ,
, ,

(Hartman,
1996: 154).
,
, -

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,
:

, ,
,

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(Berenbaum, 1998: ix).

weltgeschichte -

,

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249

r .

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r
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250

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251

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252

2


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(Hartman, 2000: 16).


- (storytelling animals).
.
.

.
, ,
,

.
, -

,
,

253

254


,
,

- ,

, ,


, ,

.
1

. 1998-1999

-

,
, ,
, .

.
,

. -
(Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity

(Alexander, Eyerman, Giesen, Smelser, and Sztompka: Berkeley:


University of California Press, )). . Eyerman,
2001.

255

, ,

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258

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259
17.

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:

(National Trauma and Collective Memory).

, ,

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, ,

(Neal, 1998: ix).

- ,
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260

(< ,

(< (< ...

(Neal, 1998:
3, 9-10.).

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(9-10).

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(4, 9-10).

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(18).

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(Everything in Its Path).



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(Erikson, 1976: 153-4. .- . .).


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),
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1974).

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263

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264

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4
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("working through")

(Friedlander, 1978,

1992).

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4

n
n n
(Presenting the Past: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of
Misremembering (Prager, 1998)); n
n, , n
.
n nn , n,
n n
n,
,

n,
.

265

.
,

. ,


, ,
,

.

, ,

, ,

: , (Unclaimed
Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History)
:

5

(Trauma: Explorations in Memory)

,
,

, . :
Rememer(l9B9).

266

Paul Connerton, How Societies

(Caruth, 1995, 1996)6

,
,
,


. ,

,
.

(Caruth, 1995: 2).

n .
.

...

,
.

,
,

(repetitive actions)

. ,

, , 6


., ,

"Traumatic Awakenings: Freud, Lacan, and the Ethics of Memory"


(Caruth, 1996: 91-112).
267

, -,

.
,
, ,
,

(3-4) 7

. ,

.
,

.

.
, , -

,
,

. 7


, , .

Dominick La Capra, Representing the Holocaust: History, Theory,

Trauma (1994).

268


,
, ,

,
,

.
,

:
("Layers of Memories: Twenty Years Mter
in Argentina")8

:
,

,
, ,
, ,

, " "

,
,

. , -

. .

269

5-7.

.
.


,
: < ,

...

, []
, ,

, , []

( ,

5-7).

OutJa



("naturalistic fallacy")

, .

. ,
, ,

(in and of themselves),

.
. ,
.

; ,
, -

270

, , ,

post hoc.

;

, ,
.

(an "imagined" traumatic event),

(Anderson, 1991).

(Imagined Communities)

, ,

.

.

, ,
, .
, ,
,

271

(primordial)


.
,

,
, .
,
,

, .
,



, ,

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,

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,
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,
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,
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272

- .


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,
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273
18


. ,

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.

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,
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274

.
,

.
,

,

.
,

.
,

. ,
.
,


.
~
, ,

.

,
.

:

~.
;

(Alexander,
1987; Alexander, Giesen, Munch, & Smelser, 1987;
Sztompka, 1991, 1993). ,
, 275
18"

- ,
, .

(claims)

,
,
.

(Thompson,

1997)9

, -
,


,
.

(Weber, 1968; 468-517) 10 ,


.
, ;

,

- 9

,
. . Thompson (1997).

10


.. (1982) ,
, (Intellectuals and

the Nation (1998)).

, ,

(Social Movements: Cognitive Approach (1991)).


(197 4) ,

("estate"), .

276

, >)

,
.

(Austin, 1962; Habermas,


1984; Lara, 1998; Searle, 1969) 11 ,

, :
11

, . .

( to Do Things with Words (1962)).
,
(symbolic understanding),
,
("illocutionary force"),
_

(Speech Acts (1969)).


, ,

Communicative Action (1984)).

(Theory of



. Maria Pia Lara, Feminist N arratives in
the i Sphere (1998).

277

: ,
,

-
.


,
,

, ,

. ,

,
.
,

("society at large").

:

,

("spiral of signification")

(Thompson, 1997: 20-4) 12

12

("representational

r").

278

,
,

.
,

-
,

(master narrative)

.
,

("value-added")

(Smelser, 1963).

. -
,

?
, ,
, , ,

, .

279

? ,
?
,

,
,

~ ? 13

, ,
?
,
?


? ,

-,


? ,
, ,
. , , ,

(Eyerman, 2001).

, ~

>, (. :

Maillot,

)?

13

n
n , n
n , , . J. William

Gibson (1994).

280

1938

(hng,

1997:206)?

.
?

, ?



, ,

? ,
,

? ,
,

(
) ?

281

?
.
.
, ,


.
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.

,
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, - ,

,
.

282

,
,

1965 ,

, ,
,


, ,

. , , ?
?
.


?

,
?

,
,

-?

283

. ()
,

14.
,

(transparent speech situation)

(Habermas, 1984). 15

,
.
:

.
,
. 14


, ,
.
" "
.
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(
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. " ,
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15 ,

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284

( )
.

1.

,
.

,
:

?-.
,

, ,
, .

2.

",
,

,

.


-.,


("survivor
literature")(Hayes, 1999, 2 ).

,

, -

...

285

. "
, , .,

10:26",

.
,
,

, .

, ;
.

.


. []

(Manz, 2002).

,

,

, ,
,
-.

, -,

1999


. -

286

, [
]

,
. [

, ] "
.... ,
, , -

. ,
, ,

. ,

"

(Paul Watson, "War's Over


in Yugoslavia, but Office Battles Have Begun,"
LosAngeles Times, January 3, 2001, 1-6).
3.
1,

1945

(inding

definitions)


, , ,

287

.
, ,

,
,

. ,

731,

, ,
,

,
, -

288

.... ,
,
. , ,

.... ,
,

, ,


. ,
,
,

,
,

(Howard W. French, "Japanese


Veteran Testifies in War Atrocity Lawsuit," New
York Times, December 21, 2000: 3).
4. ,

,
,

, .

.

.

?
?
?

289
19

, ,

Historikerstreit,

.
,

(mainstream)

Executioners)

(Hitler's Willing

5.

unopalfUU,

, ,

. ,
, -

290

.
,
,
,

, ,
,

.
, .
, -



,
,

,
.

6.
.. :,

.

,

,
,

, -

291

,
, ,

(Smelser, 1963)16

,
,
,
,

1983

, , ,

1981

, [ , ]

(Manz, 2002: 294).


,

, ,
16

,
, ,
,
, .

292

1994

(),

.
,
...

(. :

Manz, 2002: 293).

, .


,

:

, ,

(Manz, 2002: 294).

, ,
,

,
.

293

,

.

, ,

, ,

.
,

,
,

,
,

.
,

294

,
,

. ,
,

,
, ,

(Howard W. French, "Japanese Veteran


Testifies in War Atroci ty Lawsui t," N ew ork Times,
December 21, 2000: ).
..
,

1.

2.

3.

295

4.

5.


, ,


.
,

.

, .

,
,

.
.

,

, ,

1997).
296

(Thompson,

2000


.
-

,

,
.

,
,

. , ,

,

,
:

,
. []

,

,
,

York Times, December 22, 2000: 5).


297

(N ew

,
, ,

. ,

, ,

.
,
,

,
.

,
.


,
.
,

.
,

(effervescence) ,


, ,

17
17

,
,

298

1979

. ,

,
,

,
,
. ,


. (2001) ,

. ,
,
, ,
,



,

.

:
, "
"

- ...

:
, ?
,
,

, . ,
.
,

(December 16, 2000: New York Times,

Section page 18 !. 4).

299

DK [

] ,
, ,

,
,

...

,
,

,
.

PRK

[ ]

" ",

.


, "

"
" ,
...

".

(Eihara

& Ledgerwood in Hinton, 2002: 282-3).

,
,
,

,
.
,
,
. -

300


,
,

,
,

.

,

,

.

18
18

,
,

. ,

, ,
,

. ,

, -

, :

-
;>
, ,
.

301


. ,
,


. ,

.
.
,
, .
- -

,
,

.
,
.
, ,

.
,
,

, , ,
,
... ... ...
,
,
.... "

, , , ,
, " (July 29,

2001: 5).
302


:


,

-,

, ,
, ,


. ,


;

. , ,
,

.
, ,
, ,

303

,
,

(Hinton, 2002: 27).

...

,
-
:

(Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of


Genocide), ,

2002).

(Hinton,

, - ,

, ..,

...

(Hinton, 2002: 25). ,


, , ... ()
. ,


; ,

,
,

....

.... ,

-,

(26.

...

.- . .).

304


, ,

-
.

(Kuper, 1981) 19 ,


- :


,


,

.
,

(Kleinman, Das, & Lock, 1997).


(cultural

trauma theory)

, : ,
19

, ,
.

305
20

Kuper (1981)-

,

,

, .;;

,

? ,
,

, ,

1938


,
.

, ,
.
,

,
.
, ,

306

.
,


. ,

,

(Chang, 1997: 5-6),

.
,

.
,

.
,

. ,
, ,
,

1999)20

(Boltanski,

--

20
-

307
20'

, ,

,
,
.
,


. - ,
,

, .
.

.

.

, .


,
,
, .

308

- (
) ,

,
,

, ,

309


, .
,

,
.

, ,
-

,
.
,

. ,

,

1
1

,
, , ,
,
,
.... n (valuepattern), ,
n n

(Parsons, 1968: 136).


n . ,

n n: n

nn ,

. n
; "" ""
(Williams, 1971: 123-59, . 128).
,
-
- , -

310

(badness)

! ,


,
.

,
.


,
,

,
.

.
,

311

3

,

(Bildung)

6 ,
,

,
.

.
:

"Le Pensee
Bourgeoise," in Culture and Practical Reason (1976: 166-204).

. :
,

Caillois (1959 [1939]),

,
.


---

(1971 [1957])
(1969 [1928]).
. Roin Wagner-Pacifici, The Moro Morality

Play: Terrorism as Social Drama (1986).


5


: Victor Turner, The Ritual

Process (Chicago: Aldine, 1969).


6

-
, -
( ) (1964 [1922]); .

1.

312

. <<
,

.
,

.
. , , -

. ,

...

,
.
, - .

. ,
i

....

, ,

? 7

(Bataille, 1990 [1957]: 14)8

,
.
, .

.

.. .. .

Bataille (1990 [1957], 142-5).

313

, ,
,

9
,

philosophy)

(moral

,
.

(goodness).


.
,
,
, .

,
,
9

,
n " ",
, ,
... , n,
n , n
( .. , ..
, .. , .. , .. . - ..
.) (Arendt, 1951: 459).
:
n, n, n,
,
,
n, 6 ,
, (Bernstein, "Radical Evil: Kant at War
with Himself," 2001: 56). n
, : .

Rethinking Evil (2001) (-
) : Susan Neiman, Evil in Modern Thought: AnAlternative

History of Philosophy (2002).


314

:
,

, .

- 10


, .

, / /.

: :: : :: :
,

, .


.
.

, ,

, ,

, :

, ,
,

10

>

. . .

315

(Aristotle,

1962: 7. 1. 13) 11

.
, ,
; ,

,

; ,
, -

. ,
,

,
; ,


, .
.

.
, -

. 12
11



. . The

Foundations of Modern Political Thought (1978).


12

- ,
, ,

(Democracy and Education (1966 [1916])).


,
(agency)
(selfhood),
- - (goodness) n
n,
, .

316

,
,


. ,


, ,

(communal values)

,
,

("the other") 13

n ,

,
, n
, n n
.

,
, - , .

n
n ,
[] n , n

, ,
, n

n. n n
n
. ,
, , n
,
, n
, n . n

[] , ,
,
(Cushman, 1998: ).
13

, ,
- .

(Hablts of the

eart) .

n ,

n ,


n .... , ,

317

, ,

.
.

, -,

. ,

.
,
. ,
,

.. .

.. .

,
.... , [
]

, -
,

22-4).

(Bellah, Madsen, Sullivan, Swidler, & Tipton, 1985:


. ,
,

, , - ( 1990: 511 ), - , ,
-
.


/
,
(Spheres of Justice (1984)),
,
, ,
. (Postmodern
Ethics)
,


, .
, ,
,
, "
", ,
,
,
" " (1993: 42-3).

318

4
,

("transvalue")

. ,
,

14
,

(parochial) (
)

,
,

15 ,

16

"

, ,
, ,
, .
, , .
, -

, , .
- ,

( ..
.. .- . .) (1990:144).
15



. Alexander (2000: 271-310).

16

,
...
(. : Bernstein, 2001: 84).
,
sui generis,

:
, ,
.... ,
,
, [ ]
, .

319

4

,

--

-,

, ;


.
,

,
.

.

,

. ,

-
,

, ....

.
,

,
, (Bernstein,

2001: 84).
,
,
, , ,
.

320

,
,
,

, ,

.
,

, .

,
,

(systems-rationality)

(culture-creating)

17

, ,
,
17

., ,

Habermas ("Labor and Interaction: Remarks on Hegel's Jena


Philosophy of Mind" in Theory and Practice (1973: 142-69)).

.
(1984). ,
,

,
.
, ,


.

321
21

4
,

(1995)

18
,
--

. ,
,

,
19


,
, ,

,
,

, , ()
(
). ,

-,
,
. , 18

.
19

. :

Alexander and Lara (1996).


Richard Hecht, .

322

(,

1992),

(iconographic)

deus machina,

.

,

.
(
) ,
.

20 , , ,
20


,
.
- - ,

. ,

, .
,

. , ,
,

(
).
, , ,
.

323
21"

4
,

(specific)

(general)

. ,

(1978),

(1985)

,
.

, ,

,
,

,
,

.
,


. ,

, ,

.
,

324

, 21


, ,


.
,

.
,

.
, ,

, 22
21

, ,
,
,
- ,
,
-,
.
,
, . Alexander
(2001).

22

Niklas Luhmann, "Durkheim on Morality and the Division of


in The Differentiation of Society (1982: 9-10).
...
. . ..
Laor"


, , , ,


. ...
,

.
,
(Luhmann, 1982: 9-10).

325

~~

~
~, ,

? , , ,

.
, ,

~
~:
, .


; , ,

,
.

. ,

,
.

, ,

.
(,

1972 [194 7])

.
;

326

.

,


, .

---

- ,

(1989).


, ,


. ,

,
.
,
,

,

,

-,

.
,

327

, ,


. ,

(1996),

- 23
,


, . ,


,-

,
,



, ,

.
23

, ,

. George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual


Origins of the Third Reich (1964),
.

328

, ,

. ,
- ,

24

. ,
,
;

, 25

,

. ,

, ,
,

26 2

,

, , ,

.
,
,

, .

.

25

, ,
, ,

, ,
, . ,
, , ,
, , ,.

(2001: 189).
26


, ,

. Jacobs (2000), Smith (1996, 1991), Alexander (1987). -

329

, .

.
- ,

.
,

, .

,
, ,
,
.
,

, , ,

, ,

(primary communities).

,
,
, , ,

, ,
.

Thompson, Moral Panics (1997).


330

Kenneth

. ,
,

("inary

representations").

.
:
,


, ,

discursive terms).

(in

, ,

,
,
,

, .
, ,

331

(1933)

.
,

,
,

.
.
,

27
,
.
<.
,

;

27

, -

, .
,

- , -
, , ,
.

332

,
.

.
,

28 ,
,

, . ,


,
,

29

,

, .
,


.

28

, , : Franz Steiner, (1956).


(Stigma (1963))

.
28

. Stanley Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation


of the Mods and Rockers (1972) , , Thompson
(1997).
("boundary danger") . Kai Erikson, Wayward Puritans: Study
in the Sociology of Deviance (1966).

333

4
, ,

.
,


,
, ,

30
,

("revivifications")

.
(

) ,
- ,
: ,

, >, 30

.
.

334

. : ,
, ,

,
.
,

,
,
,
.
,

.
,



< , ,

,

.
,

335

. ,

,
, (

) .

(1990: 29, 21),

; ,

31

,

(transgression)

("limit experience")32

...


....
:
,

.
,

.... 31

.. .. .

32

, ,

,
: The Passion of Michel Foucault (1993: 29, 398

n. 49).

,
,

,
. ,
-
, .
, ,
,

.

336

(Bataille, 1986 [1957]: 68).

. ,
,

,
.
,

, ,

, .
-

.

33

. Michael Richardson, Georges Bataille


(1994) Carolyn Bailey Gill, ed., Bataille: Writing the Sacred
(1995).
- ,

.
n
(. Bataille, 1990 [1957]: 208 n. 48), ,
, ,

,
,

, College de
( (.). - ... .),

Sociologie


,
, ,
,
. . Michele Richman,

"The Sacred Group: Durkheimian Perspective on the


Sociologie" in Gill (1995: 58-76).
337
22

:g

de

4
,
,

("badass syndrome"),


--
.
(< ,

(< 34
,
,
,


, ,

.
,

,
, 34


.
, ,

,
,

, ,

.
,

.
,


(Katz,
Seductions of Crime: oral and Sensual Attractions of Doing Evil

[1988: 81]).
. :

(1982).

Richard Stivers, Evil in Modern Myth and Ritual


338

4
IU

. ,
, , ,

,
.

. ,
;

.
,

.


,

.
;


;

, ,


. ,

,

. ,

philosophe

maudit 35

,
86 (.)- .. .

339
22'


. ,
,
.
[ ]
, ,

(Bataille, 1986 [1957]: 67).


,
,

,
,

,
,
,

36

. ,
,

.
36


("Human Rights Language in Amnesty International"
4, 24-5.
, , ,

(n.d.)),

340

,
,
.

,
,
, ,

,

,

.
,

,
,
.

341



( )
,

,

-

.
,

.
,

, ,
.

,
.
: ,
,

(discourse of repression).

(civility)
Elias, 1978; Freud, 1961 [1930],
Shils, 1975; Walzer, 1970),
(., ,

, -

342

5

,

(,

Keane,

Cohen & Arato, 1992;

1988, ).

- , ,

.
,
.

,
. ,
, ,

1

;
,

, -
, -


. Alexander (1992). ,

,
(, 1989: 36-50).
,

.
, ,
(overdetermination) .
m
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
,

, .

343

. Brgerliche

Gesellschaft, societe

,
,

(,

Brubaker, 1992).

,
.
. -,

,
;
(

) ,

. -, ,


. -


, .

, ,
;

344

(repressive)

, ,

.

,


, ,

, 2
,
, ,

.
,

. 2

, -
,
,

-
-
.
,

,
,

. ,

, ,

, .

345

, , ,

,
, .

,
,
,

. ,

,


,
, ,
,

.
, ,

(factions),

346

5.1

5.2

,
,

. , ,
n, n
n

. ,
, ,
nn

n n.
,


. n,

.


. ,

,
.

347

5
5.3

t~.

~ l'fmiz4e.iuJtqn"'!Jec"u.A

:. . {

.. ;;~

....

,
, ,


. ,
,

3
,

, -

(1967)

,
,

.
. -,

(cultural bricolage) (. Uvi-Strauss,


1967).

,

, . -,


,

. ,

,
.

348

.
:
,

.
, ,

1975)

(Shils,

.
,
, ,

,
,
,
.

(
)

. ,
, ,
,

.
,

349

. ,

, ,
,
,

("accountale")
.

, ,

,- , ,
, ,

.

,

,
,

.

,


.
,

350

(1985)

(1981),


.
, , ,

. ,

.
,

(1944).

(1955)

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1972
1974


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.
,
.

, ,

,

,

.
, ,

,
.

447

. ,
.

(1)

(2)

, ,

,
, ,

, ;

(3)

,
.


.
,

. ? ,
,
, ,

.
, ,

1973
1973 -
-
,
.

, ,

448

8
,
,
,

1973

1974

,
,

,

,

. ,
,


,

,
,


, .

1973

, ,
, : Lang and Lang (1983: 88-93,
114-17). ,

, .

449
29

.
-,
,

.
, ,

.
,


. ,

1929

. ,
,

,
9

Watergate-

(r.)

450

- ,


, .
,

.
,

.
r

1974

, r
-

.
r
.
,

:
,

r.
r r ,

451
29'

, . ,



, ,

, ,

~ .
, ,



.
~
; , ~
,
,


. , ,

~ ,

452

.
,

.
,

,
,

, ,

.
, ,

,
. ,
:
,

,
,

,
- ,

.
,

453

, ,

,
,

,
. , ,
-

? ,
,
, .
,

,
,

.
,
,

,
.

, ,
, ,

454

.
,
.

,
,

.

,

.
,

.
,

, ,

.


,
,

. -
,
,
.

,
. -

455


, -

, .

>~,

.

,
, ,

. ,
,

, ,

,


, ,

. ,
,

.


.


.
,

.
, , ,

456

. , , ,
,
.

, , ,
.


, ,
,
, . ,

, ,
,

. ,

.
,
,

, ,

(backlash sentiments)

.
,

, -

457

j,

(. ,
,

2).


.
, -,

. .
,
,

,
,

1974

(specification),

,
,

(1959, 1963)
(Parsons & Bales, 1955: 35-132).

, ,

. ,

458

, ,

; ,

, ;
,

; ,


.
,

,

;
.

. , ,

,
,

459

(Weber, 1968: 246-55) 10

,
,

(nonvaluational),

(Alexander, 1982: 292-306).


,
,

(effervescence),

,
.

, ,
,


. ,

- - , -
,
10

(1975; . Eisenstadt, 1968)


, ,
.

.


,
(anxiety of influence),
,
,
.

460

, .

.

, ,

, ,
,

,
,

(.

Schudson, 1992).

"

" , .

1974

1976

Watergate morality").

""

("Post-

.
"" ,

461

,
.

,

,

.

, - ,

.
,
,

1983).

(Lipset & Schneider,

, ,

, ,

(.

1983).

Barber,

, .

462

, -.

, ,

. ,
,

. :
,
.

.

.

1973

1974

1.

, -
,

, ,
, , -

463

.
,

1976-1980

.
;

,
, ,

.
2.


.
,
,


. ,

.

,

464

3.

, ,

.

.

,
.
>

, .

.
,

,
.

465
30

6
,

, . ,
,
. ,
,

, .
, ,

, ,
. ,
,

.

, .

,
, , ,

, .

,
,
, ,

466

,
. ,
,

. ,

,
(

4), ,

,.

("liquid impure").


, .
,.,
-,
.

-,
,
. ,
,

.
, ,

. ,
,

.
,

,
. ,

467

(
),
,
.

,
, ,

.

,

.
.
,

,
,

. ,
,

.

,

>

468

. ,
,

.
,

.
,


.
,
:
. ,

. ,
,
,

. ,

,
, ,
,

. ,

469

1986-1987

1986

, .


, n ,

5).

470

.
,.,
, ,

,
.

, .

471

, ,

.
,

>.

,
,

.
,

.
,

,
.

.

,

,
.

,
, -

472

,
.

,
.

?
,

, , ?

,


. ,
,

, ,
,
.

, .
,

,
. ,

.
.

473

,
, ,

,
.

.
, , ,

.
,
,

, ,
, ,

. ,

. , ,
,


, -

474

, . 1
,
, ,

.
,

(Marx, 1962).

, .
,

.
,

,
,


. ,

(1986: 117-8),-

.
, 1


(1968: 58),

.

475

,
,
,

. ,

(1967)

;
,

- ,
,

(Science, Technology, and


Society in Seventeenth-Century England)

. ,
,

(1970: 144);

(146).

(1959)

.
-

476

.
,
,

.
.
,

behavior)-

(generalized

, ,

-
(mundane)
(Smelser, 1959: 21-50).


. ,

,

(1960: 135)

("usale

knowledge").

, ,
,
,

(135).

, ,

, ,

,
,

. -

477

(1973),

(American University)

. (, 1946)
,

,

, ,

.
,

...

,-

88),
,

(1971:

, [ ]

(93) 3

, ,

. .

. .

. .

478

(88. .) 4 ,

,
.

, , ,

,
.
,

,
. ,

(1963: xiii),

(xii) 5

(xvi),

, ,

. .

. .

479

, . ,

;
,

.
, ,

: ,
,

(1979: 24.

.- . .). , ,
,

.
, , ,

lt .

(1987)

480

(1976)

,
, (


. (

, (

(
. ,

(1976)

, ,

,
.
( ()
. ,
,

,
,

. , (

(Ellul, 1964: 19), ,


(5).
> (5)

(.

, (

481
31

, )
(,
)
. (1968:

57)


, ,

. ,

(1968:

81),-


, ,
,

[],

, ,

... ,
(1968:

96).

,
:


'

(105-6).

, ,

482

(98).

,
;
, [ ],

, ,
"

".
,

.
,

;
.

. ,

,
,

(Parsons, 1951)

.
-

483
31.

, ,
.
-


,
,

.

,

.
,

,

. ''

,
,

. ,

484

,
,
;

(constraints)

.
,
, .

, ,
,

, .

- ,

(1958)


, ,
. ,

(1964)


. ,

485

,

,

,
,

, ,

, .
,

,
, ,


, ,

(1958: 181-3), .

,

. ,
.

(Alexander,

2000).

(Alexander,

1986)

, -

486

, ;
,

.
,

. ,

,
,

. ,
,

(Morgan, 1958);

, 7

.

,
,

.
,

(Lewis, 1983),

,

.

487


,
. ,

,

8 ,


.
,

(1959 [1939]),

(routine).

,
,

,
8

. . . .

488

,
. ,

, .



. ,
, ,

(Pool, 1983)

. ,
,

, .

.
,
,

, .

489

.
,
- ,

,
. . , -
.

..

(Pynchon, 1984).

,

.


,
,

.
.,

.

(1981: 31),

,
.

., ,

1944

1975

, ,

490

,

,

1944


.
, ,

, ,
.
,

. ,

, ,

,
,
(8/44).
.

,

.

- ,
1944
1984 .

: (), (N), (BW),


(F), (SEP),
(PS), (RD), ..
(USN), () ().
,

, : , TS/63
, 1963 .
,

.
.

491

1944

-,
,
< ,

(PS10/44).

1965


, ,

.
,
,


, ,


(4/65).
, ,
, .

. ,

1949 ,

492

(Nll/49).


,
, ,
- ,

(PSl0/44).



,
,

(RD/60).


,

.
, ,

...

(4/65).
,

,
. ,

(Nl/66).

,
[]

:

(/68).

493

,
,

(/68).

,

.
,
,
,

(RD5/60).


(W/65). ,

, ,

.
.
,

1949

(N8/49).

, .

(N9/49)

. , []
,- >
,

494

[]

(4/65).
: ,

,
.

,
. ,

,
,

. , ,

(1/74)

,
.

,
,

, ,
. ,
,

,
. -

(1963), , ,

495

,
-.

,
.

(8/44,

(PSl0/44),

N8j49),

(PSl0/44),
(PSl0/44, SEP 2/50),
(PSl0/44),
(PSl0/44), (N8/49),
(N8/49),
(SEP 2/50), (SEP 2/50)
(SEP 2/50). 1949
(9/49) ,

,
, , ,

, ,
.


,
,

, ,

(N8/49).

(PSl0/44)

496

(SEP2/50)

(Nl0/49).

. ,
, ~

(9/49), , ~

(SEP2/50),

(T2j51)
(SEP2/50). ,
~ (N4j50),

~ ~ (4/65).
, . ~

(4/65), , ~
, - ~

.
,

10

,
,
,

.
,

. ,

~

.


.

,

.
10

,
,
, ,
, .

497
32

(9/49) ,

(PSl0/44).

(Tll/50).

:
,

, ,

(SEP2j50).

(N7 /54).

1960

(PSl/55).

(RD3j60).

.
, .
,

, .
, . <<

(RD3/60).

(RD3/60).

,
, -

498

(Mc5j65) 11

(RD5/71),

, ,
,

(BW7 /71).

, .

, -

(RD5/71).

, ,

(USN/67).
.


.
,

.
,

, - ,

.
,
.
11 ,

, -;

499
32"

. ,
,

.
,

, .
,
, ,

(9/49).

. ,

.
, .

(N8/68),

(RD/60).

(N9j69).

, ;
. ,

(Tll/50).

(RDl/71).

(USNll/67).

,
.

1975

- ,
(RDll/75). ,

.
... -

500

(SEP2/50).

(RD/60).
- >

(N8/66).
, ,

1944

. - []

, ...

(Tll/50).

>

,
-

(BW1/68).

(RD4/60).

[ ]

(BW7 /71).

(N8/66).

1975

~
,

(,

Turkle, 1984: 165-96).


, -

501


-
.


, .
,

,
.

, ,
. ,

?

,

12
12 ,
,

- .
,
.

(1984),

. ,
, ,
.

, ,
, .
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
"".
, (13).

.

502

-. , ,
.
,


. ,

10

1945

,
.

, ,

,

.

<< ,

,
, ,
, .


(165).
.
, (308).

503

504

(1985 [1945]: 264).

, -, - -:

< 1

,

, . ,
,

.
,


.
,
.
,

,
, .
, ,

,
1


- ,
/ "modern"/"contemporary"
.
, -, - -,
,

. ,
,
:

, ,

505

. .

. -

, ,

, .

2
.

.

.
-

,
. ,

("modern man")

(lnkeles & Smith, 1974)

.
2

-
,
, ,
_ ~ .. .

506

, , -

(1979: 133) ,

,
.

,
.
,

(135,

),

America

Sociological Review

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
,

, ,
3

,
, .

,

,

- .
,
,

. , ,

1979 ,
, ,
.
(1991)

,
, .

507

. ,
,

,
.
, ,

, , ,

.
, ,

,
, ,

, ,

(1989: 665).
-

,

. , ,

(666).

.
,

(666).

. -

508

,
.

, ,

, .

.
, ,
- ,

.

,

, ,

.
,

.
-
, , ,

509

,
,

(1957),

, .

, 4 ,

5
4


cri de coeur ( (.)- . .),
,
:
,
,

, ....
, [ ],

. (Ishitsuka, 1994).
. Hobsbawm (1991): ....
- ,
, . , ,
,
. Bobblo (1991: 3):
, -, ...
.

,- (1990: 574)
. ,

510

, ,

,

,

. ,
,

, ,

(Hawthorn, 1991),

-, ,

. ,
,

,
,

, ,
. ,

,

. ,

,
, .

. ,
: Goldfarb (1990), Katznelson (1990), Heilbroner (1990),
Campeanu (1990). .
{tr the Fall (Blackburn, 1991).

511

(lnkeles, 1991; Lipset, 1990).


,
, ,

, ,
. ,
,

,

. ,

(1992):


,
,
.

(neomodern theory), ,

(Barbour,
1974), ,
(Entrikin, 1991). ,
,

512

,
,

(1977).

(modernity)

(Bourricaud, 1987; Habermas, 1981; Pocock, 1987).


,

.
,
,

, ,
,
, -,
.
,

(Burn, 1974),

, ,

?

, ,

.

,

. ,

513
33


, ,

, ,

.
,
,


, .

,
.
,

,

, ,

(1973 [1964]).

,
.
,

-
:

; -

514

(reconvergence theory),

-,


, ,

,
,

. ,

, .
: ,

(1949)

- ,

,
,


. , -

515

8
,

(wissenschafliche)

7 :

1.

(coherently organized)

2.

, ,

3.

, ,


.
,
.
,

.

.

, , ,
, , , ,
.. , .

, , ,
.
,

.
, ,

, , .

(1993: 129-36).

516

Sztompka

-
.

3.

, .

4.

(1966)

(<,
,

, .

,
,
. ,
,
,

,
,

(<

8
8

,
(,

1968),


.
,
,

(Smelser, 1991),

517

,
, ,

.. --~.

.
,

(1971: 127)
..

, ,

~ 9 ,
, ,

,
.
,

. ,

474)

(1964: 466,

, , ,

..

]
,

,
""...

, -


.
9

.. .. .

518

.
,

, ,

10
, ,

,

,

(.

Mann, 1986).

(,

Alexander & Colomy, 1990; Meyer & Rowan, 1977),


(
,

Hall, 1985).

(,

1964).

,

,

, ; 10

(1992: 118)

(112)
. , ,
, []

(112).
519

,
. ,

11 ,
,

,
,

, , , .
, -

,
. ,

, ,
,

(Durkheim, 1937 [1897]).


("scientifically invalidated")


, ,

,
: ?

, , ,

11

""
, ,
,

-, ,

(Muller, 1992: 138).


520

(Alexander & Colomy, 1990)

,
.

12
,
,
,

, ,

(,

1984)

Boudon,

,., ,

(1973 [1964]).

,
,
,

,.

(Bellah, 1970).

, ,
.
12

, ,

, ,
(,
Gouldner, 1970).
,
,

. ,
,
, ,


(. : Levine, 1991: 90). , ,
, ,

.
,

. , ,

,
.

521

.
,

.
,

,
, .

, , ,

13

1977).

(Barthes,

13


, ,
, ,
, ,
, . . . . ,
, " ",

... ,
. ,
,

"", ,
, .
,

, - .
,
, ,

,
(White, 1980: 20).

522

, .
,

. ,
, ,

, , ,


.
,
,

, .


, ,..
,

.
, ,.

,.,
,. .

,

,.,

,.. (

, ) , ,
,

523

"", "
", ,

(Pocock, 1987: 48).


,
,

14

(Walzer, 1965;

Weber, 1964 [1922]).

,
, ,

(Bourdieu, 1984; Wagner-

Pacifici, 1986).
, (.

4) ,



, -

(1959 [1939])

),
,

("mundane").

. .
3.

524

, ,

, ,

, ,

,
.



, , ,

(pattern variales)

,


,

Konrad & Szelenyi, 1979),


,

(Eisenstadt, 1986;

. ,
,

, (,

1962),

Aron,


15.
15

,
,
:

[] ,

... ,

525

1994)

(1992;

Jamison & Eyerman,

,

,

16 . ,
"".
,
.... [ ]
.
"" (Lerner, 1968: 286).


.
, ,
,

, , ,
(1968), ,
,

(1962).
,
n
,
, n
n . . n

.
16

50 (Aron, 1990).

, ,
,

526

, . ,
,

.
,
, ,

17.
,

1957).

(Buckley, 1951; Rand,

, ,

. ,
, ,
, ,

,
;

. , ,
, -

"" (Mailer, 1987 [1960]: 14).
17

,
,

.
, 1937
, ,

,
.
( ),
,
, ,

. 1947

r ,
.
,

, .

527


/,

,
,

, .

, <<

(1971 [1957]),

(1980),
18

(1987),
(1984) (1975) 18

,

,
,
.
(1980: 130) n ,




.

,
, ,

, ,

...

(130).
,
, ,

. ,
-

528

,
,

>>

("inflated")

,
.
, ,

("deflationary")

, -
- (1980: 139).
,
, -, ,

.
,
,
(141).

(1973),
- (1986, 1994, 2000),
(1991), (2001),
(1999) (1992).


(1991, 1993) (1994),
.

529
34

19

,
,
.

~ 20 ,
.


.
-

,
, .
~
~.
,

. - ,
19

(Ltrd, 1984) ,
, ,

. ,
,
,

, ,
. ,

,

(in-turning),

.
20

,
.

530

. .

>> <<>>,
,
,

(1935)

(1950),

, ,

(,

Niebuhr, 1952).

- ,

, ,

(1962),

(Crossman, 1950).

, ,

(Bell, 1962)

(Aron, 1962; Lipset & Bendix, 1960),

. 21
,
21

n
, n (1971 [1957]),
, n
n , n ; n

n n

.

531
34"

,
,

,
, .

, , ,

. ,
, -


.
, ,

(Parsons & Shils, 1951)


(Etzioni, 1968)
,. (McClelland, 1953) .
,.

,. .

;
,

. ,
,

(Fiedler, 1955),

(Smith, 1950)

. ,

532

.

;
,

.
,

, .
, ,

(1955),
,

(1956)

vs.

22 ,

(inner-directed man).


,
, ,


, 22

.. .

533

. ,

~.

(1935),

(Rieff, 1959).

, , ,

.
,

, ,

, - ,

(1949)


~.

(1989),
(1985)

(1991)

(1989)

534

(1988), .

,
, ,
, ,

, .
,

,
,

(Fromm, 1956).
(1976)

~
.

,
. ~

, ,
~ .

,
,


-, -

23 ,
23

1969 ,
-
, - ,

.

535

,
, ,
,

, ,

,
.
,

. ,

; ,
, ,
.


. ,
,
, ,

24

.

. .
24

. ,
.
(. . NQ 27) ,
;
, ,

. ,

, ,
.
,

.
,
.

536

>>.

(1956)

(1955);

.

, -,

(1950).

32)

(.

, ,

1948).

(Mills,

.

.

,
,
,

.
:

- ,

1967

>

537

,
,

. ,

~
.

(Harrington, 1962),

, .

(Johnson, 1983),

, .

(Moore, 1966);

, ,

(Huntington, 1968)

(Bellah & Glock, 1976),


, ,
.
.

, 25
25

(Seeds of the Sixties) (1994),

, ,
n

n - n
. -, ,

538

,
.

. ,

, ,


(1964, 1966, 1971), (1970)
(1964). ,
,

, (,

Shils, 1972)-
(1963)-
(1964)-

,
,
. ,

-,
,

.
,


,
,
,
.

539

(Bellah, 1957; Cole, 1979).

(Smelser, 1963).

(Schluchter & Roth, 1979)


(Nettl & Robertson, 1968).
(Bellah, 1970)
(Gusfield,
1966).

, ,
,

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633

7, 13, 28,
31, 57, 61, 68-70, 72, 77, 80-83,
85,87,89,92-93,319,321,335

,
,

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(Modernity and the Holocaust)

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171

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177,180

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126, 178-179, 235-236, 276, 312,
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- .n
276

179,

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- 54, 126, 235236,488

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- 5354,66,75,312,485-488,581
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162-164,166,170,173,177,170,
180,190,193-194,198-200,204,
209-213, 215-216, 218-219, 221222, 225-226, 230-232, 237-238,
285, 310-317, 319-320, 322-323,
325-337,339-341,377,383,412,
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172, 176-177, 181, 189-190, 196,
208,213,216,218,236,250-251,
268, 274, 303, 310- 311, 314,
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465, 476-479, 481, 514-516, 518,
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538-539,541,544,546-548,554,
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217, 236, 241, 243-244, 246,
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278279,284-285,299,306,308,
310312, 330, 341342, 463, 506,
512,514515,522,528533,536,
539, 541, 543-545, 548549, 551,
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..
..

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