Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12


Department of Electrical Engineering

Short Answer Type Questions
Made by: - Er. Rajbir Kaur

DC Power Transmission and Technology

Qus:-1 What is HVDC?

Ans: - HVDC stands for High Voltage Direct Current. Direct current is the type of electrical current
provided by a battery, such as that used for a flashlight or to operate the radio and headlights on a car.

Qus:-2 What is HVDC transmission?

Ans High voltage direct current transmission(HVDC) system use to transmit the power from one network to
another , there are various application of high dc voltages in industries, research medical sciences etc . HVDC
transmission over both overhead lines and underground cables is becoming more and more popular HVDC is
used for testing HVDC cables.

Qus: -3 What are the advantages of the high voltage transmission?

Ans:-1. Reduction in the cross area of conductor
2. Increase in transmission efficiency
3. Better voltage regulation
4. Increase in transmission capacity of line

Qus:-4 Give the comparison between ac and dc transmission?

Ans:DC Transmission
AC Transmission
There are two conductors used in DC
.There are three conductors required in AC
Due to absence of inductance, there are very High voltage drop occur in AC transmission
low voltage drop in DC transmission lines
comparing with AC

Qus:-5 Give brief description of DC transmission system?

Ans: - The main components of DC transmission system are given below:1.

DC Links
Converter Station
Converter transformer
Reactive power source

6. Smoothing reactor
7. DC switchgear

Qus:-6 What are various Types of DC Links?

Ans: - 1. Mono-polar
2. Bipolar
3. Homo-polar

Qus:-7 What is the function of Smoothing reactor?

Ans: - A sufficiently large series reactor is used on DC side to smooth DC current and also for protection.
The reactor is designed as a linear reactor and is connected on the line side, neutral side or at intermediate

Qus:-8 Give the factors on which planning of HVDC transmission system depended.
Ans: - The system planner must consider DC alternative in transmission expansion. The factors to be
considered are:
(i) Cost,
(ii) Technical performance
(iii) Reliability

Qus:-9 Give a Schematic diagram of a typical HVDC converter station.


Qus:-10 What is twelve pulse converter unit?

Ans: - This usually consists of two three phase converter bridges connected in series to form a 12 pulse
converter unit as shown in following fig. The total numbers of valves in such a unit are twelve. The valves
can be packaged as a single valve, double valve or quadrivalve arrangements. Each valve is used to switch
in a segment of an AC voltage waveform. The converter is fed by converter transformers connected in
star/star and star/delta arrangements.

Twelve pulse converter unit

Qus:-11 What do you mean by thyristor?
Ans:- A thyristor is a two- to four-lead solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of
alternating N and P-type material. They act exclusively as bi-stable switches, conducting when their gate
receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage
across the device is not reversed). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two
leads by combining that current with the smaller current or voltage of its other lead - known as its control

Qus:-12 What is the function of thyristor in HVDC transmission?

Ans:- Thyristor valves have become the heart of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) conversion either to
or from alternating current. In the realm of this and other very high power applications, both electrically
triggered (ETT) and light triggered (LTT) thyristors are still the primary choice. The valves are arranged in
stacks usually suspended from the ceiling of a transmission building called a valve hall. Thyristors are
arranged into a diode bridge circuit and to reduce harmonics are connected in series to form a 12 pulse

Qus:-13 What do you mean by mono polar DC link?

Ans:- Mono-polar link has one conductor usually of negative polarity and use ground or sea return.
Sometimes metallic return is also used.

Mono-Polar DC Link
Qus:- 14 What do you mean by Bipolar DC link?
Ans:- Bipolar link has two conductors, one positive and the other negative. Each may be a bundled
conductor in EHV lines. Each terminal has two sets of converters of identical ratings, connected in series
on the DC side.

Bipolar DC Link
Qus:- 15 What do you mean by Homo polar DC link?
Ans:- Homo-polar Link has two or more conductors all having the same polarity (usually negative) and
always operated with ground or metallic return.

Homo polar DC Link

Qus:-15 Give your views about Technical Performance of HVDC transmission system.
Ans:- The DC transmission has some positive features which are lacking in AC transmission. These are
mainly due to the fast controllability of power in DC lines through converter control. The advantages are:
1. Full control over power transmitted
2. The ability to enhance transient and small signal stability in associated AC networks
3. Fast control to limit fault currents in DC lines. This makes it feasible to avoid DC breakers in two
terminal DC links.

Qus:-16 What are the Advantages of DC transmission system?

Ans: - Advantages of DC transmission system:1. More power can be transmitted per conductor per circuit
2. Use of Ground Return Possible
3. Smaller Tower Size
4. Higher Capacity available for cables
5. No skin effect Less corona and radio interference
6. No Stability Problem
7. Lower short circuit fault levels

Qus:-17 What are the applications application of dc transmission?

Ans:- Application for DC transmission:
1. Long distance bulk power transmission
2. Underground or underwater cables
3. Asynchronous interconnection of AC systems operating at different frequencies or where
independent control of systems is desired.
4. Control and stabilization of power flows in AC ties in an integrated power system.

Qus:-18 Give disadvantages of DC transmission.

Ans:-` Disadvantages of DC transmission:The scope of application of DC transmission is limited by the following factors:
(a) The difficulty of breaking DC currents which results in high cost of DC breakers
(b) Inability to use transformers to change voltage levels
(c) High cost of conversion equipment
(d) Generation of harmonics which require AC and DC filters, adding to the cost of converter stations
(e) Complexity of control.

Qus:-19 Name the filters used in HVDC transmission.

Ans: - There are three types of filters used:
1. AC filters
2. DC filters
3. High frequency filters

Qus:-20 Where High Pass Filters are installed?

Ans:- High frequency (RF/PLC) filters: These are connected between the converter transformer and the
station AC bus to suppress any high frequency currents. Sometimes such filters are provided on high
voltage DC bus connected between the DC filter and DC line and also on the neutral side.

Analysis of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) converters and Converter and HVDC system control

Qus:-1What is HVDC converter?

Ans:- An HVDC converter converts electric power from high voltage alternating current (AC) to highvoltage direct current (HVDC), or vice-versa. HVDC is used as an alternative to AC for transmitting
electrical energy over long distances or between AC power systems of different frequencies.

Qus:-2 What is pulse number?

Ans:- The number of pulsations or ripples of dc voltage per cycle of ac voltage is known as pulse number
of a converter.
If q is the number of valves in a commutation group and r of these are connected in parallel and s
Of them are connected in series, the pulse number is given by

Qus:-3 What is Basic principles of control of HVDC transmission?

Ans: - The following figure shows a simplified diagram for a two-terminal h.v.d.c. link, with elementary
controls. The configuration of rectifier and inverter is identical. With delay angle less than 900, the
converter acts in rectifier mode and with between 900 and 1800 in inverter mode.

Qus:-4 Define angle of overlap.

Ans:- Angle of overlap is defined as the angle expressed in electrical angular measure during with the
two consecutive converter arms carry current simultaneously. It is denoted by u.

Qus:- 5 Draw the diagram Graetz bridge circuit

Ans:- Circuit is shown in following figure:-

Qus:-6 What Assumptions are made for analysis of converter?

Ans:- The following assumptions are made to make analysis simpler.
1. The ac power source is a balanced sinusoidal source with constant amplitude and frequency and has no
2. The dc current is ripple free i.e. the dc load has innte inductance.
3. Valves have zero forward resistance when conducting and infinite resistance when not con ducting.
4. Valves are ignited at equal intervals of 60

Qus:-7 What are the choice of converter conguration?

Ans:- The choice of converter conguration is made on the following requirements:
1. High pulse number
2. Valve utilization factor, PIV /Vd0 should be as low as possible
3. Vd0/E should be as high as possible
4. Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) should be as low as possible

Qus:-8 Define Valve utilization factor (VUF)

Ans:- The valve utilization factor (VUF) is given by:VUF = PIV /Vd0

Qus:-9 Define Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)

Ans:-TUF is dened as the ratio of transformer rating (of the valve side) to the dc power output. This value
should be as low as possible.

Qus:-10What is meant by neglecting overlap in Graetz in bridge circuit?

Ans:- Due to the inductance of the transformer, the current in it can vary only at a nite rate and thus the
transfer of current from one phase to another phase will take nite time, called the commutation time or
overlap time.

Qus:-11What Features of HVDC control Systems?


1. The control system should not be sensitive to normal variation in voltage and frequency of the

ac supply system.
2. Control should be fast, reliable and easy (simple) to implement.
3. It should have continuous operating range from full rectication to full inversion.
4. Control should be such that, it should less reactive power (require in order to have a good power factor).
5. Under steady state conditions, the values must be red symmetrically.

Qus:-12What are the types of Firing Angle Control scheme?


There are basically two types of ring angle control schemes.

1. Individual Phase Control (IPC), and

2. Equidistant Pulse Control (EPC)

Qus:-13What are the causes of overlap phenomena?

Ans:- The phenomenon of overlap is caused mainly due to
1. Leakage reactance of the transformer, and
2. The unsymmetrical ring of valves

Qus:-14 Define stability of ac system.

Ans:- The stability of an ac system is its ability to operate with all synchronous machines in synchronism.
If a long ac line is loaded to a certain value, known as its steady-state stability limit , the synchronous
machines at the sending end will go out of synchronism with those at the receiving end. This will in
turn give rise to objectionable uctuations in voltage.

Qus:-15 Define Transient Reliability.

Ans:- This is a factor specifying the performance of HVDC systems during recordable faults on the
associated AC systems.
Transient Reliability = No. of times HVDC system performed as designed / No. recordable ac faults

Qus:-16 What are the conditions for Start-up of dc link?

Ans:- HVDC links can be started by using either
1. Long gate pulses (120) or
2. Short gate pulses (60)

Qus:-17 What is short pulse firing?

Ans:- In this case, the problem of current extinction during start up is present as the valve with forward
bias is not put into conduction when the current in that transiently falls below holding current.

Qus:-18 How many SCRs used in Gratez circuit?

Ans:- Six

Qus:-19 Define valve blocking.

Ans:- Valve blocking is the process of preventing further firing of a controllable valve by inhibiting the
gate pulse.

Qus:-20 What do you mean by multiple valve unit.

Ans:- A single structure having two or more valves.

Smoothing reactor and DC line

Qus:-1 What is smoothing reactor?

Ans:-Smoothing reactor functions as a pure inductance. A DC Smoothing reactor is a high inductive coil
connected in series with main DC pole circuit.

Qus:-2 What is the Principle of smoothing effect?

Ans:- Current Id through the reactor cannot change instantaneously. Under changing current condition, the
emf is induced in the reactor coil given by
e=L di/dt
This emf opposes the rate of change of current. The current change takes nite time of the order of a
few micro or milli seconds. The above principle gives a smoothing effect to the dc waveform.

Qus:-3What Functions of smoothing reactors?

Ans:- 1. To prevent consequent commutation failures in inverters by reducing the rate of rise of direct
current during commutation in one bridge when the direct voltage of another series connected bridge
2. They reduce the incidence of commutation failure in inverters cause by dips in the ac voltage at the
converter bus.
3. It smoothens the dc current ripples.
4. To reduce the harmonic voltage and current in the dc line.
5. To reduce the requirement of dc lters and ac lters.

Qus:-4 What are the limitations of smoothing reactors?


1. High inductance of smoothing reactor on dc side results in slowing down of response

of current control of HVDC transmission systems

2. Reactor has additional losses.
3. The resonant frequency is reduced and the current stabilization control becomes difficult.
4. High stored energy causes high short circuit currents on dc side between pole bus and earth.

Qus:-5 Which Criterion is used for choice of smoothing reactor?


1. Inductance should be sufficient to ensure ow of dc current even when the delay angle

is close to 90.
2. The inductance should smoothen the dc voltage and current waveforms to acceptable limits. The
percentage of ripples should be reduced to acceptable limits.
3. During the inverter faults and dc line faults, the rate of rise of current should not exceed the limit.
4. The inductance value should remain practically constant with variations in the direct current.
5. Inductance should be low, so that the dc system current noise (due to magnetostriction) is low.


What are the different types of converter faults in general?

Ans:- According to the origin of the malfunction, converter faults can be divided into 3 main groups.
(a) Faults due to malfunction of valves and controllers
i. Arc backs (or back res) in mercury arc valves
ii. Arc through (re through)
iii. Misreiv. Quenching or current extinction
(b) Commutation failures in inverte
(c) Short circuits in a converter station

Qus:-7 What are the three types of ac lters? Explain each.

Ans:- (a) Single tuned lter
(b) Double tuned lter
(c) High pass lteri.

Qus:-8 Give any two functions of smoothing reactors.

Ans:- 1To decrease harmonic voltages and currents in the dc line.
2 To limit the crest current in the rectier due to a short circuit on the dc line.

Qus:-9List two applications of HVDC transmission.

Ans:- (a) Long distance bulk power transmission
(b) Power transmission using underground or underwater cables (for distance>32km)

Qus:-10 What is Synchronous Condenser?

Ans:-Synchronous condenser is essentially synchronous motors operating at no load, with excitation
control to maintain the terminal voltage.

Qus:-11 What are the advantages of Synchronous Condenser?

Ans:- 1. The availability of voltage source for commutation at the inverter even if the connection to the
ac system is temporarily interrupts. This also implies an increase in SCR as the fault level
is increased. When the load supplied by the inverter is passive, the synchronous condense is essential for
providing voltage sources for the line commutation at the inverter.

2. Better voltage regulation during a transient due to the maintenance of ux linkages in the rotor
windings. The effect of the armature reaction is counteracted during a transient by induced currents in the
eld and armature circuits.

Qus:-12 What are the disadvantages of Synchronous Condenser?


1. High maintenance and cost

2. Possibility of instability due to the machine going out of synchronism

Qus:-13 How check the effectiveness of DC filters?

Ans:- By using the following criteria:1. Maximum voltage Telephone Inuence Factor
2. Maximum induced noise voltage (INV) in milli volts/km in a parallel test line one kilometer away from
the HVDC line.
3. Maximum permissible noise to ground in dB in telephone lines close to HVDC lines.

Qus:-14 What is the purpose of harmonic filters?

Ans:- The purpose of using harmonic lters in ac circuits are
1. to reduce harmonic voltages and currents in the ac power network to acceptable levels and

2. to provide all or part of the reactive power

consumed by the converter. Whereas in dc, lters are used

to reduce harmonics in the dc line

Qus:-15 What are the causes of harmonics?

Ans:- The causes are
1. Normally valves are not red at equal intervals due to unbalance of 3-phase supply.
2. Even balanced circuits with jitter in electronic circuitry produces non-characteristic harmonics
.3. Controller action (especially CEA)
4. Interaction of characteristic harmonics and fundamental current in non-linear elements in power system
5. Saturation of transformers

Qus:-16 What is DC System?

Ans:- DC system consists of DC cables, DC filters and smoothing reactors.

Qus:-17 What is DC line?

Ans:- DC line is modeled using an equivalent T network shown in Fig. This model is based on Bergons
travelling wave method used by EMTP. DC Filters are used to eliminate the higher order harmonics which
may cause interference with nearby voice frequency communication circuits. For an HVDC system using a
cable as a transmission link, this interference problem will not arise. Hence DC filters are not used in the
simulation with a cable.

DC Line
Qus:-18 Define angle of overlap.
Ans:- Angle of overlap is defined as the angle expressed in electrical angular measure during with the
two consecutive converter arms carry current simultaneously. It is denoted by u.

Qus:-19 Define valve blocking.

Ans:- Valve blocking is the process of preventing further firing of a controllable valve by inhibiting the
gate pulse.

Qus:-20 What do you mean by multiple valve unit.

Ans:- A single structure having two or more valves