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PERSONAL PRONOUNS,POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES,POSSESSIVE

PRONOUNS,REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS,OBJECT PRONOUNS


Personal pronouns

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns

Object pronouns

my

mine

myself

me

you

your

yours

yourself

you

he

his

his

himself

him

she

her

hers

herself

her

it

its

its

itself

it

we

our

ours

ourselves

us

you

your

yours

yourselves

you

they

their

theirs

themselves

them

Indicative

All

Present

Past

do

did

you

do

did

he/she/it

does

did

we

do

did

you

do

did

they

do

did

everyone
everybody

everywhere

everything

Part (positive)

someone
somebody

somewhere

something

Part (negative)

anyone
anybody

anywhere

anything

None

no one
nobody

nowhere

nothing

Person

Place

Some /Any/Every/No
some, somebody, someone, somewhere, something
any, anybody, anyone, anywhere, anything

Thing

no, none, nobody, nowhere, nothing


every, everybody, everyone, everything

Every

Every means all. It is usually used in positive sentences, but can also be used
in negative. Lets look as some examples:
Did you win every game?
I won every game!
I did very well in my tennis match, but I did not win every point.
You didnt win every point, did you? Thats almost impossible!

Some

Some is used to mean a part, or portion. It can be used with countable nouns (usually two or
more), but it is not specific!
Some is used in positive sentences, so if not is used, some is not used. Some is often used
in questions when an unknown quantity of an item is being offered or asked for. Here are some
examples:
Some of the people who were watching the match left early, but some people stayed until
the end.
I watched some of the French Open matches yesterday, but I did not see all of them.
Did you spend some time watching tennis yesterday?

Can we have some more tennis balls, please?


Would you like to play some tennis this week?

Any

Any, like some, is not specific amount, but can be used with countable and countable
nouns. The main difference between some and any is that any is used in negative sentences.
The exception to that is in questions that imply if.
I did not win any games. = I did not win even one game. = I lost every game.
More examples:
I do not have any ping pong paddles.

Did you bring any tennis balls?


She doesnt have any tennis shoes with her, so she cant play with us.
Do you see any people using the ping-pong tables?

No/None

No and none are


the
opposite
of every,
or zero, or not
any.
Because no or none means not any, they are the only negative word we need to include in
our sentence. This difference between no and none is that none is a pronoun, so it can
replace a noun and/or be the subject in a sentence. With no, you must have a separate noun or
subject in your sentence. None can be used with singular or plural verbs.
I won no games yesterday. = I did not win any games yesterday.

Question: How did your games go? Reply: None of them went well.
None of my friends play tennis.
I have no friends that play tennis.
Question: Are there any rackets on sale? Reply: No, there are none on sale.
Both - Either - Neither
BOTH
Both = the two; that one AND the other one; this one AND that one
Both can be used as a pronoun to refer to two things that we have already mentioned.

A: Do you want the blue shirt or the red one?


B: Ill buy both (= the blue shirt AND the red shirt = both shirts)

Both X and Y
= not only X but also Y
Both + Adjective + and + Adjective

Hes both tall and handsome.

Im both happy and confused at the same time!

I have had a long, hard day and Im both tired and hungry.

Both + Noun + and + Noun


Both can be used with a singular noun + and + singular noun

She speaks both English and Arabic.

They have both a cat and a dog.

He is both an actor and a director.

We can also use Both + plural noun (see more below)

She speaks both languages.

Both or Both of?


Both or Both of can be used without a difference in meaning though Both of is more common in the United States.
Both (of) + determiner + plural noun
You can use Both or Both of before a determiner (my, his, these, the etc.) and a plural noun.

Both (of) my friends arrived late to class.

Both of the wheels wobble too much.

A prize was given to both of the players.

When we use Both (without of), we drop the article the.

Both of the parents were nervous.

Both parents were nervous.

Both of + Object Pronoun


When using Both with an object pronoun (me, you, him, her, it, us them), we need the preposition OF before that pronoun.

He has invited both us. (incorrect)

He has invited both of us. (correct)

Ill take both of them. (correct)

I need to speak to both of you. (correct)

Verb + Object pronoun + both


We can use both after an object pronoun

I hope they invite us both (= I hope they invite both of us)

Do you need them both? (= Do you need both of them)

The teacher sent them both to the principals office.

To be + both
Both comes after To Be (or an auxiliary such as have or modal verbs).

He is both intelligent and agile.

My sister and I are both ready for the trip.

We were both happy with our exam results.

Modal verb + both + verb

My parents can both speak French.

They should both try harder.

My brothers would both be shocked if they knew the truth.

Both + other verbs


Both goes before the other verbs. If there is an accompanying auxiliary verb, then it goes in the middle of the two verbs (i.e. auxiliary + both +
verb)

We both wanted to stay in bed and not go to work.

They both liked the surprise.

My parents both work in the same building.

They have both studied a lot

NEITHER
Neither = not one and not the other
Neither is a negative word and is accompanied by an affirmative singular verb.
Neither X nor Y
Neither nor is used as a conjunction. It is the opposite of Both and If a verb comes after this phrase, that verb is in the singular
form (Sometimes you will hear it used in the plural form though it is not grammatically correct)

Neither John nor Fred likes doing the dishes. (= Both John and Fred dont like doing the dishes)

I want neither the red shirt nor the blue shirt.

I neither smoke nor drink.

Neither + singular noun


Neither is used as a determiner before a single noun.

Neither team wanted to lose.

That tennis game was very close. Neither player had a clear advantage.

Neither parent knew about the accident.

Neither of + determiner + plural noun


You can use Neither of before a determiner (my, his, these, the etc.) and a plural noun.

Neither of my friends came to class today.

Neither of the parents understood what the baby was trying to say.

Neither of our cars has enough petrol so we have to take the bus.

Neither of + Pronoun
When using Neither + of + pronoun (you, us, them), we need the preposition OF before that pronoun. (If a verb comes after this phrase then it
is in singular form)

The present is for neither of us.

Neither of them is married.

Neither of us expected to be fired.

Neither in short responses


Neither is frequently used as part of a short response when someone says something negative and you agree with them.

A: I have never been to Switzerland

B: Neither have I.

A: I dont want to go.

B: Neither do I.

Neither can also be used alone.

A: Would you like a blue tie or a green tie?

B: Neither. (= Neither tie)

Neither vs. Either


You can use Either with a negative verb to replace Neither with a positive verb

I have neither time nor money

I dont have either time or money.

See more about Either below.

EITHER
Either = any one of the two = this one or the other one
Either is accompanied by an affirmative singular verb and is mostly used in questions or negative sentences
Either X or Y
Either or is used as a conjunction. It is used to express alternatives and or a choice between two (and sometimes more) things. It is used
a verb in singular form (Sometimes you will hear it used in the plural form though it is not grammatically correct).

Either you or John has to finish the report before 5pm.

You can have either the red shirt or the blue shirt. (= but not both)

Either you leave the building now or I call the security guards.

Either + singular noun


Either is used as a determiner before a single noun.

There are only two options and Im not interested in either film.

A: Do you want it ready for Thursday or Friday? B: Either day is fine for me.

Either of + determiner + plural noun


You can use Either of before a determiner (my, his, these, the etc.) and a plural noun.

Weve been dating for 6 months and I havent met either of her parents.

I havent read either of these books.

I dont want either of those apples. Do you have one that is not rotten?

Either + of + Pronoun
When using Either + of + object pronoun (you, us, them), we need the preposition OF before that pronoun.

I dont think he is going to invite either of us.

A: Which photo do you prefer? B: I dont like either of them

I think I left my keys and wallet at the office. I dont want to lose either of them.

Either can also be used alone. It means it doesnt matter which alternative. Sometimes it is accompanied by the pronoun one.

A: Would you like a coffee or a tea?

B: Either (one). (= I dont mind if its coffee or tea, both alternatives are fine)

Either in short responses


Either can be used at the end of a negative sentence when you agree with something negative someone else has said. It is similar to meaning
TOO and ALSO (which are used in affirmative sentences).

A: I wasnt thirsty. B: I wasnt either. (You cannot say I wasnt too)

A: Ive never been to Portugal. B: I havent either.

A: I didnt go to class yesterday. B: I didnt either

Too / Enough
Too and enough indicate degree. They are used with adjectives.
Too means more than what is needed.

Enough means sufficient.

Examples
He is too old to play football with the kids.
Dave is intelligent enough to do the write thing.
You're not working fast enough
I don't have enough time.
He has too many friends.
She has got too much patience

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Frequency

Adverb of Frequency

Example Sentence

100%

always

I always go to bed before 11pm.

90%

usually

I usually have cereal for breakfast.

80%

normally / generally

I normally go to the gym.

70%

often* / frequently

I often surf the internet.

50%

sometimes

I sometimes forget my wife's birthday.

30%

occasionally

I occasionally eat junk food.

10%

seldom

I seldom read the newspaper.

5%

hardly ever / rarely

I hardly ever drink alcohol.

0%

never

I never swim in the sea.

The Position of the Adverb in a Sentence


An adverb of frequency goes before a main verb (except with To Be).
Subject + adverb + main verb
I always remember to do my homework.
He normally gets good marks in exams.
An adverb of frequency goes after the verb To Be.
Subject + to be + adverb
They are never pleased to see me.
She isn't usually bad tempered.
When we use an auxiliary verb (have, will, must, might, could, would, can, etc.), the adverb is placed between the
auxiliary and the main verb. This is also true for to be.
Subject + auxiliary + adverb + main verb
She can sometimes beat me in a race.

I would hardly ever be unkind to someone.


They might never see each other again.
They could occasionally be heard laughing.