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EXPERIMENT REPORT

CARBOHYDRATE

By:
Okta Prisma Dyanti

14030204073

STATE UNIVERSITY OF SURABAYA


MATHEMATIC AND SCIENCE FACULTY
BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
2015

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Of Experiment
Carbohydrates also known as sugar or saccharide, are one of the most important
classes of compounds dealt with in organic chemistry. These compounds function as
sources of energy in living organisms and as a structural material for cells. Carbohydrate
are complex molecules containing both alcohol and carbonyl functional groups. One of
the main sources of carbohydrate in our diet is start from grains and cereals. Carbohydrate
such as starch can also be viewed as polymers of various monosaccharide.
Carbohydrate are poly hydroxy organic compounds possessing aldehyde or ketone
group in their geometry. They can be classify into three types :
1. Monosaccharides : such as pentoses ( xylose) , hexoses (glucose , fructose and
galactose )
2. Disaccharides :such as sucrose , lactose and maltose.
3. Polysaccharides : such as starch , glycogen and dextrin
The Molisch, the Benedict, the Seliwanoff, and the Iodine reagent belong to
carbohydrate system. The Molisch reagent employes the phenol, and naphtol. The
Seliwanoff reagent resorcin. The Molisch reagent is universal in its abilityto detect
carbohydrates of any number of carbon atoms, aldehydic or ketonic in nature with or
without an open carbonyl group, free or in combination with other compounds.
Benedicts solution reacts with reducing sugars on heating and reduces the Cu(II) ion
to Cu(I) producing a precipitate of red copper oxide. The resulting colour change
depends on the type and concentration of sugar, so this test can be used semiquantitatively to indicate approximate concentrations.
The Seliwanoffs test hexoses (sugars containing six carbon atoms) dehydrated and
form hydroxymethylfurfural when heated with HCl. Ketohexoses (such as fructose) and
disaccharides (such as sucrose) that contain a ketohexoses yield larger amounts of this
product and react faster than aldohexoses these differences are the basis of the Seliwanoff
test for ketoses in which resorcinol is used to form a red product with the generated
hydroxymethylfurfural. Other sugars produce gray, yellow, or faintly pink colors.
The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch. Iodine solution iodine
dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide reacts with the starch, producing
a purple-black colour.
Carbohydrates are not only found in staple foods alone, but there are also the various
kinds of good fruits raw, ripe, and ripe form of sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose,
lactose, maltose, and the presence of starch(amylum). There are various ways to

determine the presence of carbohydrates in a food tested, in this report will be discussed
on carbohydrate test using test methods molisch, benedicts, Seliwanoff, iodine, and also
the carbohydrate test in mango.
1.2 Stating Problems
1. How to determine/identify the presence of carbohydrates (monosaccharide,
disaccharide, and polysaccharide) in Molisch test?
2. How to determine the reducing substances in the atmosphere of alkalis and to
differentiate saccharydes that can reduce and can not reduce?
3. How to determine the presence of fructose?
4. How to determine the presence of polysaccharides (exactly amylum) and distinguish
between amylum and glicogen?
5. How to determine the presence of carbohydrates that has unknown composition?
1.3 Aims Of Experiment
1. Determining/identifying

the

presence

of

carbohydrates

(monosaccharide,

disaccharide, and polysaccharide) in Molisch test.


2. Determining the reducing substances in the atmosphere of alkalis and to differentiate
saccharides that can reduce and can not reduce in Benedict test.
3. Determining the presence of fructose in Seliwanoff test.
4. Determining the presence of polysaccharides (exactly amylum) and distinguish
between amylum and glicogen in Iodine test.
5. Determine the presence of carbohydrates that has unknown composition in mango
fruit.
1.4 Benefit Of Experiment
Based on the experiment, we can determine glucoses content in the fruit and can
classify sugar in monosaccharide, dissacharide, and polysaccharide group so, it can
determine the levels of sugar is consumed as a consideration in preventing diabetes.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Molisch Test
Molisch's Test is a sensitive chemical test for the presence of carbohydrates, based on
the dehydration of the carbohydrate by sulfuric acid to produce an aldehyde, which
condenses with two molecules of phenol (usually -naphthol, resulting in a red- or
purple- colored compound.

CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
3.1 Tools and Materials
a. Molisch Test

Tools :
Test Tube
Drop pipette
Rack test tube
Clamp test tube
Measuring cup

Materials :

Concentrated H2SO4
Reagent Molisch (-naphtol
solution

of

10%

ethanol/methanol)
Carbohydrate

solution

(glucose, fructose, lactose,


sucrose, maltose, selulose)

b. Benedict Test
Tools :
Test Tube
Drop pipette
Rack test tube
Clamp test tube
Measuring cup
Waterbath

Materials :

Benedict reagent
Carbohydrate solutionglucose
1%, fructose 1%, lactose 1%,
sucrose 1%, maltose1%.

c. Seliwanoff Test

Tools :
Test Tube
Drop pipette
Rack test tube
Clamp test tube
Measuring cup
Waterbath
Stopwatch

d. Iodine Test
Tools :
Test Tube
Drop pipette
Rack test tube

Materials :

Seliwanoff

reagent

newly

created (0.05% resorcinol in

HCl 3 N)
1% solution of carbohydrate
(glucose, fructose, succrose,
lactose, cellulose, amylum)

Clamp test tube


Measuring cup
Materials :

1% starch solution
1% cellulose solution
Glycogen solution 1%
HCl 6 N
NaOH 6 N
1 M iodine solution 10 grams
of KI in 1 liter of water + 2.5
g iodine)

e. Carbohydrate Test in

Mango
Tools :
Test Tube
Drop pipette

Rack test tube


Clamp test tube
Measuring cup
Waterbath
Petridishes
Materials :

Seliwanoff reagent
Benedict reagent
Molisch reagent
Iodine reagent
Concentrated H2SO4
Unripe mango
Ripe mango
Overly ripe mango

3.2 Procedure
a. Molisch Experiment
1. Preparing all kind of carbohydrates, and make it became their concentration is 1%
2. Adding 2 ml of carbohydrate solution 1% into the different react tube
3. Adding 2-3 drops of Molisch reagent then shake the react tube as long as five
seconds slowly.
4. Careen or heels the react tube and put 1 ml (20 drops) of H 2SO4 drop by drop
through the react tube wall.
5. Upright the react tube and observe the presence of a red-purple ring in the border
of two solutions.
b. Benedict Experiment
1. Preparing all kind of carbohydrate, and make it became their concentration is 1%
2. Adding 2 ml of Benedict reagent into the react tube.
3. Adding 5 drops of 1% glucose solution then heated into waterbath as long as five
minutes, wait the solution until the temperature is cool and comparing with color
changing that happened.
4. Doing the experiment with same way to other solution 1% carbohydrate
c. Seliwanoff Experiment
1. Preparing all kind of carbohydrates, and make it became their concentration is 1%
2. Adding 1 ml Seliwanoff reagent to the react tube
3. Adding 2 drops of 1% amylum solution. In the same moment, put the react tube
into waterbath until happen the color changing. (writing the speed of color
formation from each react tube)

4. Doing the experiment with same way to other 1% carbohydrate solution


d. Iodine Experiment
1. Preparing three react tubes, put 3 ml of 1% amylum solution into each react tube
2. Adding 2 drops of water (H2O) into the first tube, add 2 drops of HCl into the
second tube, and add 2 drops of NaOH into the third tube. Shake the all tubes
then observe the color changing that happened.
3. Adding 2-3 drops of Iodine into tube, then shake all tubes and observe the color
changing.
4. Heating the tube that happening the color changing, after that cools it.
5. Doing the experiment to 1% cellulose and 1% glycogen that are similar with
experiment to amylum solution.
e. Fruit Carbohydrates Experiment
1. For Molisch test, Benedict test, and Seliwanoff test, doing the same way with the
previous practicum.
2. For Iodine test putting one drop of extract unripe mango, half-ripe mango, and
ripe mango on petri dish. Putting one drop of Iodine on each extract before, and
observe the color changes.