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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that
randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.
It is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of organization. It is concerned with improving the existing
skills and exploring the potential skills of the individual i.e. upgrading the employees
skills and extending their knowledge. Therefore, training is a key to optimizing
utilization human intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skills.
Training and Development referred to as:
Acquisition and sharpening of employees capabilities that is required to perform various
obligations, tasks and functions.
Developing the employees capabilities so that they may be able to discover their
potential and exploit them to full their own and organizational development purpose.
Developing an organizational culture where superior-subordinate relationship, team
work, and collaboration among different sub units are strong and contribute to
organizational wealth, dynamism and pride to the employees.


Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They
were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some
views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in
executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

The Modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized
the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a
cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and
yield the best results


Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the
participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into
the distant future.
Skills: Training is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate
machines, and use other equipments with least damage and scrap. This is a basic skill
without which the operator will not be able to function. Employees, particularly
supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills.
Education: The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a
sense of reasoning and judgment.
Development: It is less skill-oriented but stresses on knowledge. Knowledge about
business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific
industry analysis is useful for better management of a company.
Ethics: There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and
development programme . Ethical attitude help managements make better decisions
which are in the interests of the public, the employees and in the long term-the company
Attitudinal Changes: Attitude represents feelings and beliefs of individuals towards
others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitude
need to be converting into positive attitude. Attitude must be changed so that employees
feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive
satisfaction from their jobs and the work environment.
Decision making and problem solving skills: It focus on methods and techniques
for making organization decision-making and solving work related problems.


Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Training and Development helps in optimizing
the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational
goals as well as their individual goals.
Development of Human Resources Training and Development helps to provide an
opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and
behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
Development of skills of employees Training and Development helps in increasing the job
knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human








Productivity Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the

employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.
Team spirit Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team
spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the
Organization Culture Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the
Organization Climate Training and Development helps building the positive perception and
feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and
Quality Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and worklife.
Healthy work-environment Training and Development helps in creating the healthy
working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals
aligns with organizational goal.

Health and Safety Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the
organization thus preventing obsolescence.
Morale Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
Image Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
Profitability Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive
attitudes towards profit orientation.
Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more
effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out
organizational policies
Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better
attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.


The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a
skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other
objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.
Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn,
enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing
individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the
organizations needs.
Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the
needs and challenges of the society


Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people
think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that
resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It
provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives
focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that
what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great
significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives:
1. Trainer
2. Trainee
3. Designer
4. Evaluator
Trainer The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to
measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a
position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.

Trainee The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the
anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is
unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the
participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.
Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training
successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainees mind that actually
helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the
likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set.
Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be
successful in training.
Designer The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is
aware what is to be achieved in the end then hell buy the training package according to that
only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and
training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in
dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training
program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known,
the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal
skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is
a defect in a product or when a customer is angry.
Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.
Evaluator It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees
because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an
important to tool to judge the performance of participants.
Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this
changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR
role now is:
1. Active involvement in employee education

2. Rewards for improvement in performance

3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth
4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment
support for advanced education and training
5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training


A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a
particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.
The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can
be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical
relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA),
formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man,
material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must
have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible
depending upon the organizations requirement.

MODELS OF TRAINING Training is a sub-system of the organization because the

departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its
survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces
output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).The three model of training are:
1. System Model
2. Instructional System Development Model
3. Transitional model

System Model Training

The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make
further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform
their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:
1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees
requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The
next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would
be evaluated.
2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives
of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the
participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating
information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.
4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure
of whole training program.

5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work
performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or
improve failure practices.


Instructional System Development Model :

Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model
is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on
the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job
description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This
model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content,
and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.
The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:
1. ANALYSIS This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience
2. PLANNING This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional
objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material,
media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to












3. DEVELOPMENT This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists
of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids,
demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.
4. EXECUTION This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,
equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training
5. EVALUATION The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has
achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying
strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in
order to remedy or improve failure practices.

The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also
highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this
model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.

Transitional Model
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision,
mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is
Vision focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined
point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the
line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may
be promising to meet some other deadlines.
Mission explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the
community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the
employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the
organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.
Values is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply
held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example,
values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service.


The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the
organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then
the training model is further implemented.
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral
methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on






Cognitive methods






are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive
approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate
relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and
attitude by stimulating learning.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:









Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods
under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are
best used for skill development.
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:









Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through
different means.

Other training methods

On the Job Training

Off the Job Training


The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on-the-job training. This
method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as
mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees.
OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes place at the work
place in informal manner.
The four techniques for on-the job development are:





Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for
inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation
(ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are
experts most of the time outside consultants.

It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat

It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a
person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps
in finding out the executives specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through
60 degree performance reviews.

Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee.
Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its
vision and mission to the junior employee.

Mentoring focus on attitude development

Conducted for management-level employees

Mentoring is done by someone inside the company

It is one-to-one interaction

It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement

Job Rotation
For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not
simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example,
where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the
supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the
organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executives outlook on the process of the
organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective.


For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company
is regular carried out.
This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues
that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent
study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leaders achievement was the
variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.

Job Instruction Technique Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on
knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.
Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT) JIT consists of four steps:
Plan This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and
the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work.
A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss
few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points
are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and
what training should focus on.
Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees i.e. proper orientation
program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainees with the training program, etc.
Present In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the
participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates
how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the



Trial This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work
and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the
method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of
training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect
method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct
Follow-up In this step, the trainer checks the trainees job frequently after the training
program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing.


There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job.
The few popular methods are:





Sensitivity Training
Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably,
which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.
Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others
feel and think from their own point of view.
Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.

Procedure of Sensitivity Training

Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:
Unfreezing the old values It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the
old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able
to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure:


Procedure of Sensitivity Training

Development of new values With the trainers support, trainees begin to examine their
interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are
discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This
process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values.
Refreezing the new ones This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to
practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and

useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social
interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given
by another person. This motivation-reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction.
Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a system of
feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states:


It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic
or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form.
Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of
listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without
lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes,
or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is
difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method.
The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.

Straight Lecture:
Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb.
In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind
of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed
text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed
material is the trainers intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the
trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on
the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed.

A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and
preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered.


Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for
enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and
simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events,
A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each
other according to the defined set of rules.
Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or
making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation.
It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or
Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key
components are:


These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning.Some of the
examples of this technique are:

Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting

where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will
improve their performance.

There are three basic types of inputs;

The primary purpose of training is to establishing a sound relationship is at its best when
the workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is
adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills. Training activities in an industrial
organization are aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge
of employee so that they perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively\




TRAINING DESIGN- The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear
training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved
by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of
their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.
The trainer Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal,










The trainees A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.
Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that
affect training design.
Training climate A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive
perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes











Trainees learning style the learning style, age, experience, educational background of
trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.
Training strategies Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into
specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be
included, what could be included.
Training topics After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered.
Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then
classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Sequence the contents Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:


From simple to complex

Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
From known to unknown
From specific to general
Dependent relationship
Training tactics Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear,
trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The
method selection depends on the following factors:
Trainees background
Time allocated
Style preference of trainer
Level of competence of trainer
Availability of facilities and resources, etc


Support facilities It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements
in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.
Constraints The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
Accommodation, facilities and their availability
Furnishings and equipments


Design of the training, etc

To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training
implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong
step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail
due to one wrong action.
Training implementation can be segregated into:
Practical administrative arrangements
Carrying out of the training
Implementing Training
Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented.
Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase
requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor
to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while
implementing training program:
The trainer The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer
prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting
with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his
Physical set-up Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training
program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very
small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and
psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant.
Establishing rapport with participants There are various ways by which a trainer can
establish good rapport with trainees by:
Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense moments

Encouraging informal conversation

Remembering their first name
Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another
Listening carefully to trainees comments and opinions
Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed
Getting to class before the arrival of learners
Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time
Using familiar examples
Varying his instructional techniques
Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
Reviewing the agenda At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review
the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is
expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The
following information needs to be included:
Kinds of training activities
Setting group norms
Housekeeping arrangements
Flow of the program
Handling problematic situations

The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation
checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether
candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular
work routines.

Purposes of Training Evaluation

The five main purposes of training evaluation are:
Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it
to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired
knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training.

Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then
it can be dealt with accordingly.

Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative
data to manipulate it for their own benefits.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the
expected outcomes.

Process of Training Evaluation


Before Training: The learners skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program.
During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at
most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the
program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether
those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.

During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of
short tests at regular intervals
After Training: It is the phase when learners skills and knowledge are assessed again to
measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training
has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various
evaluation techniques for this phase.

Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are:


Self diaries
Self recording of specific incidents

Management Development Program (MDP)

Management Development has become very important in todays competitive environment.
According to a survey, those companies that align their management development with
tactical planning are more competitive than the companies who are not. It has also been
indicated that 80% of the companies report MDP, compared with 90% that provide
executive leadership training. For most of the companies 37% of the training budgets go to
management development andlearningprograms.
Some of the reasons behind the management development programs are:

It is managements responsibility of ensuring the success of the organization

It is the management who deal with people of different background, culture, language, etc

Mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, etc are all under managements control

It is managements responsibility to ensure that the employees obtain the required KSAs
to perform the tasks

It is managements responsibility to ensure that right people is hired for the right job, at
the right time for the right place

Managers job is complex i.e. for the managers understanding the training need is not
easy because his training need is determined by how well his department is meeting its
objective and goal.

It is the management who makes decisions on the basis of judgment and intuition

It is the manager who performs several routine duties as well as handling the exceptions
in their own as well as subordinates routine


Managers are engaged in varied, discontinues, and brief activities

It is the management that understand the organization, its vision, mission, ethics, values,
strategies, capabilities, and how his organization fits into the industry, and how his
behavior will influence people outside the organization

Therefore, managers must be able to get the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) to
meet the challenges as soon as they arise.

Approaches to MDPS










It is needed to fill the gap between employees present specifications and the job
requirements and organizational needs by developing and molding the employees skill ,
knowledge , attitude , behavior , etc. This problem can only be sorted out through proper
and specific training of employees . The organization requires to train the employees to
enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge in terms of
mechanization and computerization from time to time . The organization has to equip the
old employees with the advanced disciplines, techniques or technology, this purpose is
solved through training and development of personnels.


The gap between actual and expected performance, behavior and attitude leads to
emergence of training. But the main purpose of training is to attain that level of
performance, behavior and attitude in employees, which leads to fulfillment of the
objectives of any organization.
Any succession planning initiative becomes ineffective without management development,
which is a scientific training process for managers and executives to enrich their
knowledge and skills, so as to make them competent to manage their organizations
effectively. Unlike general purpose training, management development programmes aim at
developing conceptual and human skills of managers and executives through organized
and systematic procedures.
These programmes offer an opportunity to hone the skills of the practicing managers so
that they can face the emerging challenges of the industry with confidence and push
their organization for achieving higher growth. Thus, by pursuing the relevant

management development programmes, one can also climb the career ladder faster. In this
study, I am going to review the process of training and development in indigo airlines
and evaluate the effectiveness & relevance of training and development procedures by the
companys own feedback forms filled by the employees of indigo airlines.


1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce.
2. To examine the impact of training on the workers.
3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.
4. To measure the differential change in output due to training
5. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes.

6. To find out new methods of training and development in INDIGO AIRLINES.

7. To study the relevance of the post training evaluation/feedback for the employee as
well as for an organization.
8. To know the challenges in training and development faced by organization

Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. The advanced learners
dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation of
enquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.
The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also
research. The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of
scientific procedures.

Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and
collecting business data - for example as part of a process improvement or similar
Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is often
formalized through a data collection Plan which often contains the following activity.
1. Pre collection activity Agree goals, target data, definitions, methods
2. Collection data collection
3. Present Findings usually involves some form of sorting analysis and/or
There are two methods of data collection which are discussed below:
In primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews

and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and
your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it.
I have tried to collect the data using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The
key point here is that the data collected is unique and research and, no one else has
access to it. It is done to get the real scenario and to get the original data of present.
All methods of data collection can supply quantitative data (numbers, statistics or
financial) or qualitative data (usually words or text). Quantitative data may often be
presented in tabular or graphical form. Secondary data is data that has already been
collected by someone else for a different purpose to yours.
Need of using secondary data
1. Data is of use in the collection of primary data.
2. They are one of the cheapest and easiest means of access to information.
3. Secondary data may actually provided enough information to resolve the problem
being investigated.
4. Secondary data can be a valuable source of new ideas that can be explored later
through primary research.
Limitation of secondary data
1. May be outdated.
2. No control over data collection.
3. May not be reported in the required form.
4. May not be reported in the required form.
5. May not be very accurate.
6. Collection for some other purpose.



Questionnaire are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often
require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. The features
included in questionnaire are:
Theme and covering letter
Instruction for completion
Types of questions
This technique is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and
motivations for peoples attitudes, preferences or behavior. The interview was done by
asking a general question. I encourage the respondent to talk freely. I have used an
unstructured format, the subsequent direction of the interview being determined by the
respondents initial reply, and come to know what is its initial problem is.
Sampling technique:
Initially, a rough draft was prepared keeping in mind the objective of the research. A pilot
study was done in order to know the accuracy of the questionnaire. The final
questionnaire was arrived only after certain important changes were done. Thus my
sampling came out to be judgmental and continent.
Sampling Unit:
The respondents who were asked to fill out questionnaires are the sampling units. These
comprise of employees of corporate HR, indigo airlines , who had attended the
personality development workshop.
Sampling Size: 20







InterGlobe Enterprises is an integrated travel corporation spanning various domains:
aviation management, domestic low cost airline, travel technology, travel distribution services,








Established in 1989 and headquartered in Gurgaon, India, InterGlobe Enterprises has been
adjudged as one of the Best Companies to Work for in India, for 2008 and 2009 by the
Great Place to Work Institute,

in partnership with The Economic Times.

InterGlobe has a network of 56 offices across 27 cities in India and strategic overseas
locations in SriLanka, USA, UK, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Australia. The
enterprise employs close to 7000 professionals across its businesses, which include IndiGo
Indias fastest growing low-cost airline; Airline Management for 14 international airlines;
Distribution of GDS; Travel Technology; Development of Hotels in partnership with Accor of
France - owner of brands such as ibis, Sofitel, Novotel, Mercure and Pullman; and InterGlobe
General Aviation, which represents and services the entire line of HawkerBeechcraft and
Sikorsky products.
The enterprise is committed to delivering outstanding value to its stakeholders through its
passion for quality and innovation.



With a clear vision, conviction and complete faith in its people, Interglobe Enterprises
continues to constantly change the landscape of travel, technology, aviation and hospitality,
with a dynamism that seems to grow only with passing time.

In 1989 Interglobe Enterprises ( IGE) set up Interglobe Air transport (IGAT). Later it becomes
the National Distribution Company for Galileo International & Global Distribution System
distribution. Later it expand its business activities in the field of aviation, technology and
hospitality sector. Established in 1989, InterGlobe Enterprises is a travel corporation with a
vision to deliver value to its stakeholders, clients and customers through dedicated business units
that perform specialist roles. The organisation has been serving the travel industry for the past
four decades and has become a diversified international corporation in the areas of Aviation
Management (InterGlobe Air Transport), Domestic Airline (IndiGo), Travel Technology
(InterGlobe Technologies), Travel Distribution Services (InterGlobe Technology Quotient), Hotel
Development & Management Services (InterGlobe Hotels) and InterGlobe General Aviation.
Headquartered in Gurgaon, India, InterGlobe Enterprises comprises of around 7500
professionals. IGT has six state-of-the-art facilities:

1 in the most preferred outsourcing location in South East Asia, at Manila, Philippines

2 are located in the fast growing technology hub of India within the National Capital
Region Gurgaon

1 in the financial capital of India, Mumbai - 1 dedicated service delivery center is located
in the south of India, at Chennai

1 service delivery center is located in Cairo, Egypt

InterGlobe Enterprises



Birth of Delhi Express Travels, which gradually developed into

Birth of InterGlobe Enterprises (IGE) as a National Distribution Partner

for Galileo

IGE sets up National Distribution Company 'Galileo India' for Galileo

International's GDS distribution in the Indian market.


InterGlobe Technologies (IGT), established as a joint venture between

Travelport (formerly known as Cendant), with its headquarters in



Equity participation received from Galileo International.

IGT's global development facility offers Travel TPF and Rules Coding
services to Galileo

IGT expands its client base by acquiring clients like Virgin Atlantic,
United Airlines, Saudi Arabian Airlines and many more.


IGT becomes a member of Nasscom

Implemented Airline Distribution for Indias foremost low cost carrier

IGT introduces the one-offshore development model clients- WorldSpan,



Galileo Southern Cross, Al Tayyar and multiple Travel Agency clients in



Airline Distribution and Revenue Management System implemented the

LCC of Indias national carrier

IGTs IT practices achieve CMMI Level 3 Certification

IGT enters into a strategic agreement with Galileo International to

provide off- shore development and support for the Apollo and Galileo


Global Distribution Systems.


Building framework for US GAAP, SOX compliance.

IGTs IT practices achieve CMMI Level 5 Certification

IGT sets up a second 1200 seat capacity center in Gurgaon.

IGTs BPO Practices receive ISO 9001:2000 certification.

IGT sets up another delivery center in Chennai

IGT set up subsidiaries in China (IGT Solutions Beijing Co Ltd.)&

Singapore (IGT Solutions PTE Ltd)

Declared as the winner in Fastest 50 Growing Companies in India &

Fastest 50 Growing Companies in Asia, in a survey conducted by Deloitte


IGT achieves ISMS 27001:2005 certification.

A branch office set up in Netherlands to serve the European market.

Declared as the winner in Fastest 50 Growing Companies in Asia, in a


survey conducted by Deloitte Consulting.

Process for PCMM Level 3 accreditation for IT and BPO practices


Six Sigma Green Belt training commenced.

(IGT) became the Worlds first Organization to achieve People CMM

Level 3 certification for both IT and BPO services


IGT becomes the affiliate of Indian Testing Board

InterGlobe Enterprises named by the Great Place to Work Institute as one

of the "25 Best Companies to Work For in India."

Declared as the winner in Fastest 50 Growing Companies in India, in a

survey conducted by Deloitte Consulting.

IGT became the first Travel BPO Organization to become PCI DSS 1.2

IGT Ranked One Of The India's Top 15 Emerging Companies To Work



IGT figures in IAOP's 2009 Global Outsourcing 100 list

IGT ranked in prestigious The Global Services 100 Companies list

InterGlobe Enterprises was named by the Great Place to Work Institute as

one of the "Top 50 Indias Best Companies to Work For

IGT sets up delivery centers in Mumbai and Manila, Philippines


InterGlobe Technologies features in Deloitte Technology Fast 500 for 4th

year in a row


IGT ranked in prestigious The Global Services 100 Companies list

IGT's achieves prestigious ISO 9001:2008 Certification

IGT selected by LodgeX to build a New Reservation Management

Technology Platform

IGT Ranked among World's Best for Second Consecutive Year by IAOP
in The Global Outsourcing 100

IGT Successfully Re-achieves PCI DSS 1.2 Certification

IGT becomes 1st Travel BPO Globally to be COPC certified on

standard version 4.3

InterGlobe Enterprises named by the Great Place to Work Institute as one

of the "25 Best Companies to Work For in India."


InterGlobe operates IndiGo, Indias leading domestic low cost airline. IndiGo is the
youngest fleet of aircraft in the country. It offers a uniquely smooth, seamless, precise and
gimmick-free customer experience at fares that are extremely affordable.
Indigo is built for the people with things to do, place to be people to see-who dont want to
waste time, money or energy in the process. By minimizing time/cost/tension of air travel,
Indigo opens up a country full of opportunities.
One of the prominent offerings of our aviation portfolio is IndiGo airlines. A low-cost
domestic carrier, IndiGo has a fleet of brand new Airbus-A320 aircrafts and currently operates


daily flights connecting all major destinations in India. IndiGo stands for three things:
Affordable Fares, On-Time performance and a Hassle-Free flying experience.


India is one of the fastest growing aviation industries in the world. Because of the introduction of
liberalization policy in the Indian aviation sector, the industry has witnessed a vast difference
with the entry of the privately owned full service airlines and low cost carriers. In 2006, the
private carriers accounted for around 75% share of the domestic aviation market. Besides, there
was significant increase in the number of domestic air travel passengers. Some of the factors that
have resulted in higher demand for air transport in India include the growing purchasing power
of middle class, low airfares offered by low cost carriers and the growth of the tourism industry
in India. In addition to the liberalization policy, the deregulation policy has also played a major
role to encourage private players in the aviation industry. Below graph shows the gradual growth
in the domestic air traffic:
The growth in the aviation industry looked promising and hence attracted many low cost carriers
like SpiceJet, GoAir and IndiGo after the success of Air Deccan in 2003 [Exhibit 1]. On one
hand, the booming opportunities incited players to expand capacity but on the other hand, rising
fuel costs and taxation rates, increased the operational costs. Thus the low-cost players found it
difficult to maintain their commitment. In their urge to survive, they were compelled to increase
prices, add free refreshments and beverages on-board, etc. Some players sought refuge in
mergers, whereas some survived by modifying their business model. However, amidst this
aviation turmoil, IndiGo continued to fly high. In its endeavour to consistently maintain low
costs, IndiGo resorted to measures like outsourcing and having a homogeneous fleet. These
efforts helped IndiGo to offer its passengers low air fares.
IndiGo is the latest entrant as a low cost carrier in the aviation industry of India. It started its
operations on August 4, 2006. InterGlobe Enterprises, a renowned travel corporation, is the
owner of IndiGo. The IndiGo team uses all of these resources to design processes and rules that
are safe and simple, that make sense, and that cut waste and hassles, which in turn ensures a
uniquely smooth, seamless, precise, gimmick-free customer experience at fares that are always

affordable. It was awarded the title of Best Domestic Low Cost Carrier in India for 2008. The
airline currently operates 120 daily flights with a fleet of nineteen brand new Airbus A320
aircraft and flies to 17 destinations. IndiGo plans to serve approximately 30 Indian cities by
2010, with a fleet of approximately 40 A320s.1
Below are the key factors of the business model of IndiGo airlines:
A single passenger class.
Single type of airplane to reduce training and service cost.
No frills such as free food/drinks, lounges
Emphasis on direct sale of ticket through Internet to avoid fee and commissions paid
to travel agents.
Employees working in multiple roles.
Unbundling of ancillary charges to make the headline fare lower.

Total in Service
Cruising Speed
Wheel Base
Maximum Takeoff Weight
Maximum Landing Weight
Maximum Fuel Capacity

Airbus A320-200
IAE V2500
0.82 Mach
37.57 m.
11.76 m.
12.65 m.
73.5 tonnes
64.5 tonnes
23,860 Litres


Highly profitable and fastest growing airline in India

Strong Cash flows
Comprehensive power by hour (PBH) and maintenance agreements
Strong Management
Superb Product quality recognized by the market place

Largest low cost airline in India

Industry leading on-time performance

99.91% technical reliability

A brand new fleet of 24 Airbus-A320s with single class seating with 161 daily flights,
IndiGo flies to as many as 20 destinations all over India

The highest technical dispatch reliability in India: 99.91% since launch

Industry leading on- time performance in the domestic market

First domestic low cost airline to have CAT III compliant pilots

Several industry first initiatives like web check-in, mobile bookings, queue busters, step
less boarding ramps, air-conditioned tarmac coaches.

High asset utilization, fast turn-around and optimum resource utilization

2.6 INDIGO STANDS FOR THREE THINGS:a) Affordable rates

b) Timeliness
c) Hassle free


Indigo Airlines have outperformed the industry with sound operations , they have
transported ~16 m passengers since inception.
"To attain organizational excellence by developing and inspiring the true potential of companys
human capital and providing opportunities for growth, well being and enrichment".
To create a value and knowledge based organization by inculcating a culture of learning,
innovation & team working and aligning business priorities with aspiration of employees leading
to development of an empowered, responsive and competent human capital
To develop and sustain core values
To develop business leaders for tomorrow.
To provide job contentment through empowerment, accountability and responsibility.
To build and upgrade competencies through virtual learning, opportunities for growth
and providing challenges in the job.


To foster a climate of creativity, innovation and enthusiasm

To enhance the quality of life of employees and their family

To inculcate high understanding of 'Service' to a greater cause.


InterGlobe Enterprises has been adjudged as one of the Best Companies to Work
for in India, for 2008 and 2009 by Great Place to Work Institute, in partnership
with The Economic Times

InterGlobe Technologies was ranked No.2 and No.3 in Travel BPO and IT Services
by the prestigious 2008 Black Book of Outsourcing

IT Organization has been assessed at CMM I Level 5

IT & BPO organization has been certified at P-CMM Level 3 & ISO

InterGlobe Technologies was recognized as "Exciting Emerging Companies to

work for" by NASSCOM.

InterGlobe General Aviation Private Limited (IGGA) is the exclusive Sales and Service
representative for Hawker Beechcraft aircraft within SAARC. In addition, we also hold
Exclusive Agreements with Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Dornier Seaplane Company and most
recently Pacific Aerospace.
Our impressive product portfolio is complimented with a world class facility, which is the first
and only one of its kind in the region. Based at Indira Gandhi International airport, New Delhi,
our Authorised Service Centre caters to all your maintenance, spares and service related
We firmly believe in our value proposition - Aviation Personalized, and will constantly aim to


tailor our services to meet our customers specific needs.

InterGlobe General Aviation truly is a One-Stop Shop for all your sales and servicing

Hawker Beechcraft Corporation
At the Paris Airshow, June 2007, InterGlobe Enterprises signed a long term sales
and servicing agreement with Hawker Beechcraft to sell and maintain its products
within SAARC.
Sikorsky Helicopters
Most recently we have signed a long term exclusive sales agreement with
renowned Helicopter manufacturer, Sikorsky. We will now be responsible for
commercial sales in India.
Dornier Seaplane Company
IGGA are proud to announce that we have added yet another company to our
growing portfolio by signing an exclusive agreement with Dornier Seaplane
Company. The expansive territory covered by IGGA will include India, Sri Lanka,
Maldives and Mauritius.
Pacific Aerospace
Located at Hamilton International Airport in New Zealand's North Island, Pacific
Aerospace has over 50 years of experience designing and manufacturing rugged
and reliable aircraft that perform where others can't. InterGlobe General Aviation
is now responsible for the sales of their P750 XSTOL aircraft in India, Sri Lanka,
Maldives and Bangladesh.


Atlanta Jet
We also have an exclusive distributorship agreement with US based Atlanta Jet,
which allows us to offer our customers any pre-owned aircraft type of their choice.

Aircraft Services Group

Our exclusive agreement with Aircraft Services Group (ASR) further
complements our growing portfolio. With this arrangement, we have become the
exclusive distributor for ASG offering pre-owned Sikorsky Helicopters.

We continuously aim to achieve the highest standards of service. Our impressive 1,700 square
meter facility offers world class amenities such as a plush VIP lounge, pilot offices, a crew
lounge, maintenance support offices and a large hangar, capable of maintenance of up to 4
aircraft at a time.
We specialise in minimising the aircrafts downtime by maximising opportunities for our
customers while they are grounded. Not only can we complete scheduled and line maintenance
of both airframes and engines, we also get the aircrafts interiors cleaned or refurbished while in
our facility.

Maintenance Team
Our Maintenance and Engineering Department consists of a team with vast experience in aircraft
maintenance and repair, specific to general aviation. Maintenance Planning
The planning function is the main interface with our customers and any third parties involved in
operating aircraft. Planning acts as a central point of communication, liaising with all parties
before, during and after maintenance in order to ensure the project runs smoothly from beginning
to end. Warranty and Service + Plus Administration
Our Warranty Administration function provides our customers with a personal service without


the worry of processing paperwork and paying multiple invoices. We take the headache out of
seeking warranty claims from various OEMs by dealing with them directly.

Analysis of Capacity (ASKM) and Demand (RPKM) data on Year-to-Year basis indicates that
trend of increase in both the capacity and demand continued in the month of Feb 2011 also.



The month of Feb 2011 witnessed marginal decrease in seat factor as compared to
previous month primarily due to end of peak season.

Management Bios
Mr.Aditya Ghosh, President
Mr. Ghosh sits on the Board of IndiGo and was key to its launch. As the President of IndiGo, Mr.
Ghosh has the overall managerial and operational responsibility of IndiGo.
Mr. Ghosh is also a key member of the Leadership Team of the InterGlobe Enterprises which is
the body that is responsible for the management of the Enterprises various businesses which
spans a wide range of activities while staying true to the core competency of the travel domain.
Mr. Ghosh plays an instrumental role in the management of the Groups affairs and advising on
and formulating growth strategies of the InterGlobe Group. Prior to assuming his role as the

President of IndiGo, Mr. Ghosh served as the General Counsel for the entire InterGlobe
Mr. Ghosh is a member of the Executive Council of the Federation of Indian Airlines.

Mr. Riyaz Peermohammed, Chief Financial Officer

Mr. Peermohammed joined IndiGo in March 2006 and is responsible for finance.
Prior to joining IndiGo Mr. Peermohammed was Senior Vice President Corporate Treasury for
Emirates Airlines and was responsible for treasury, corporate finance, management accounts,
budgeting, cost control and business finance. Previously Mr. Peermohammed held the position of
Corporate Treasurer of the Emirates Group and was the Aircraft Financing Manager responsible
for aircraft acquisition and lease arranging.
Mr. Peermohammed holds a Bachelor of Science from Bombay University, is a Chartered
Accountant and a Chartered Financial Analyst.

Mr. Sanjay Kumar, Chief Commercial Officer

Mr. Sanjay Kumar joined IndiGo in January 2007 and is responsible for commercial.
In an airline career spanning over 16 years with leading domestic airlines in India, Mr. Sanjay
Kumar has worked on various assignments in the area of Business Planning, Marketing & Sales,
Distribution, Product & Service Development and Media Relations. Prior to joining IndiGo he
was Vice President Strategy & Planning for SpiceJet. Previously Mr. Sanjay Kumar worked
with Air Sahara.
He holds a Masters degree in Economics, a Post Graduate diploma in Business Administration
and Bachelor of Law from Meerut University.

Captain K P S Nair, Chief of Flight Safety

Capt. Nair joined IndiGo in October 2005 and is responsible for safety and compliance.
Prior to joining IndiGo Capt. Nair was Deputy Director of Flight Crew Standards and Operations
in the Directorate General of Civil Aviation and was responsible for the development of
operational policies and flight crew training programs. Previously Capt. Nair was the
coordinator of the safety oversight program and was responsible for flight safety measures in
civil aviation. Capt. Nair has served with the United Nations and the African Development Bank
as Air Transport consultant in Africa. Previously Capt. Nair worked for the Airports Authority of
India as an Aerodrome Officer, Air Traffic Controller and Air Safety Officer.
Capt. Nair holds a Bachelor of Arts from Osminia University, is a qualified Flight Navigator
Examiner and commercial pilot, and is a member of the Aeronautical Society of India.

Mr. Sanjeev Ramdas, Vice President: Customer Services & Airport Operations
Mr. Ramdas joined IndiGo in October 2005 and is responsible for customer services and airport
Prior to joining IndiGo Mr. Ramdas was Director of Airport Services at InterGlobe and managed
the airport operations of InterGlobes airline partners. Mr. Ramdas has been responsible for
airport operations, aircraft handling, customer services, emergency response procedures, safety,
contract negotiations, GSE purchasing, service level agreements and cargo. Previously Mr.
Ramdas worked for Cambata Aviation Pvt. Ltd., Scandinavian Airlines, Tarom, Turkish and
Delta Airlines.
Mr. Ramdas holds a Bachelor of Commerce degree (with Honours) from Delhi University and a
Post Graduate diploma in Personnel Management and Industrial Relations.


Mr.S.C.Gupta, Vice President:Engineering

Mr. Gupta joined IndiGo in September 2005 and is responsible for maintenance and engineering.
Prior to joining IndiGo Mr. Gupta was the Director of Engineering for Indian Airlines and was a
member of the aircraft purchasing team. Previously Mr. Gupta was Director of the Jet Engine
Overhaul Division and was responsible for gaining FAA approval for engine overhaul and repair.
Prior to this appointment Mr. Gupta was General Manager Engineering for the Northern
Region where he managed the induction and maintenance of Indian Airlines A320 fleet. Mr.
Gupta joined Indian Airlines as a Graduate Engineer.
Mr. Gupta holds a Bachelor of Technology degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian
Institute Of Technology, a Master of Business Administration from the Faculty of Management
Studies, University Of Delhi and is a licensed aircraft engineer.

Mr. K.S. Bakshi, Vice President: Human Resources

Mr. Bakshi joined IndiGo in December 2006 and is responsible for human resources.
Prior to joining IndiGo, Mr. Bakshi was the General Manager HR for Bharti Airtel Ltd., Broad
Band & Telephone Services NCR in Delhi. He has over 14 years experience in human
resources management, with a special emphasis on building and improving HR processes and
systems and on the acquisition, management, development and retention of talented employees.
He worked on various projects in the areas of leadership competency, employee engagement and
managing performance.
Mr Bakshi holds a Post Graduate Diploma in PM & IR from XLRI, Jamshedpur.

Mr. Vineet Mittal, Vice President: Financial Planning & Analysis


Mr. Mittal joined IndiGo in October 2005 and is responsible for financial planning, taxation,
accounting and purchasing.
Prior to joining IndiGo Mr. Mittal was a project manager at InterGlobe responsible for the
IndiGo project. Previously Mr. Mittal worked for Royal Airways as Revenue and MIS manager
and was responsible for revenue auditing and analysis. Prior to joining Royal Airways Mr. Mittal
worked with DLF Universal as Deputy Manager Accounts and was responsible for accounting
procedures, taxation compliance and capital management. Mr. Mittal began his career as a
statutory and general auditor with Ernst and Young.
Mr. Mittal holds a Bachelor of Commerce from Hansraj College, Delhi University and is a
Chartered Accountant from the Institute of chartered accountants of India. Mr. Mittal is also a
graduate of cost accountancy from the Institute of cost and work accountants of India.

Captain Saleem Zaheer, Vice President: Flight Operations

Capt. Zaheer joined IndiGo in December 2009 and is responsible for flight operations.
A graduate of the National Defense Academy and the Air Force Academy, Capt. Zaheer was a
fighter and transport pilot, and a Qualified Flight Instructor in the Indian Air Force. After leaving
in 1984, Capt. Zaheer flew the Learjet and Hawker 700 business jets in the USA, before joining
United Airlines in 1990. He spent 13 years with United flying the Boeing 727, 737, 757, 767,
777 and the Airbus 320 in both domestic US and international operations. He joined Air Arabia
in Sharjah, UAE in March 2004, where he served as Chief Pilot and Postholder Flight
Operations, and then as Director, Operations & Engineering of flyyeti.com, their joint venture
airline in Nepal.
Capt. Zaheer has flown over 14,400 hours in his 36 year aviation career. He is an Airbus
qualified Type Rating Instructor (TRI ) with over 4000 hours in command of the Airbus 320.
Mrs. Suman Chopra, Vice President: Inflight Services


Mrs. Chopra joined IndiGo in April 2006 and is responsible for inflight services and cabin-crew
Prior to joining IndiGo Mrs. Chopra was General Manager of inflight services, training and
administration with Air Sahara. Her responsibilities included setting up inflight operations at four
locations and a training centre at Delhi. She also formulated a Quality Team for measuring the
performance of cabin crew and service consistency. Previously, Mrs. Chopra was the Quality
Control Purser for Emirates where she was involved in developing service standards. Mrs.
Chopra began her aviation career as an inflight crew member for Indian Airlines.
Mrs. Chopra holds an Honours Degree in Food and Nutrition from Delhi University and has over
23 years experience in domestic and international inflight services.

Mr. Amit Khandelwal, Vice President: Planning and Revenue Management

Mr. Amit Khandelwal joined IndiGo in February 2007.
In an airline career spanning almost 15 years, Mr. Amit Khandelwal has worked on various
assignments in the areas of Business Development, revenue strategy, and program management
in the aviation industry, consulting & IT-enabled services. Prior to joining IndiGo, he worked
with Go Air, United Airlines, PROS Revenue Management, Inc. and NIIT.
He holds a B.E. from BITS, Pilani and an M.S. (Operations Research & Management) from the
University of Texas.

Namrata Singh, Associate General CounselNamrata

is the Associate General Counsel of IndiGo and heads its legal and corporate affairs.
She started her legal career with a reputed law firm in New Delhi, where she was involved with
the whole gamut of corporate and business laws. She joined InterGlobe Enterprises Limited as
Legal Counsel in 2005. During her association with InterGlobe, she played an integral role in the


management of the Groups legal affairs and advised several of the Group companies and was
assigned to advice on the new venture of the InterGlobe Group - IndiGo.
She holds a Bachelors degree in Law from Symbiosis Societys Law College, Pune.

Problems Faced No proper monitoring cell for analyzing information.

lack of support from the employees

due to confidentiality of the systerm, less disclosure of information

Chapter -3
Research study of main topic


The programmes are divided into three broad categories:
- Functional
- Behavioral
- General/ Omnibus programmes


1. Functional: The outcome of the training is measured by comparing the data pre-training and
post-training. A scale is developed for measuring the effectiveness of training based on the %
achievement of the objectives.
2. Behavioral: The effectiveness of the training of this nature is measured annually. This is seen
through the training need identification for the coming year for the employee. If the training need
is repeated there, then the training provided is taken as ineffective. If the training need is
repeated but with focus on a part of the need, then the training is partially effective. If not
repeated, then the training is effective.
3. General: These are the training needs flowing directly from the organizational needs.
Examples of these can be ISO 9000 training, ISO 14000 training and any awareness training.
These are omnibus training programmes, which are run for a large number of employees.
The effectiveness of the training is measured by:
- Achievement of those organizational objectives within the time lines.
- Number of audit issues raised on the areas covered in the training.
- Any other such thing as defined in the training brochure.
The effectiveness of the outside training programme is measured on the same line as above.
However, no detailed brochure is prepared for the same. The measurement criterion for the
programme is defined in the beginning of the programme and effectiveness measured against the
same. A consolidated effectiveness report of the training programme is prepared at the end of the
year. The programmes that are found to be ineffective are reworked.
Training programme for testing out the training
Also there are training programmes, which are not flowing directly from the training needs
measurement of effectiveness of the training is not needed to be measured.


steps in systematic training approach

Assessment what is needed where when and by whom?
Training activity- help attain the objective of that would satisfy the airlines goals
Evaluation process measuring the outcome of various training activity.


ON JOB EXPERIENCEThe most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on-the-job training. This
method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as
mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees.
OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes place at the work
place in informal manner.


There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job.
The few popular methods are:






IT TRAINING- Games and Simulations

Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for
enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and
simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events,
A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each
other according to the defined set of rules.
Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or
making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation.
It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or

The Performance Appraisal form of the organization has a section in which the training and
development needs are filled up. The Individual Officer first identifies the training needs of
himself and then it is recommended by the reporting Officer and then by the Departmental Head.
The Training needs as identified in the PAR are recorded by the HRD Department and necessary
action is taken for imparting the identified training. Training needs are identified based on:
- Companys strategy and policy.
- Organizational Thrust Areas.
- New Emerging Areas.


Actual training is imparted with the help of in-house and outside agencies. The selection of these
agencies is done on the basis of reputation; programmes offered by them, past experience and
feedback received from the earlier participants. Training is also imparted by nominating the


concerned employee for an external training programme. All records of the training are
maintained at branch as per Record of Training in the Personnel folder and the same is intimated
to the Executive Office Personnel through the Monthly Personnel Report.
A feedback is taken from the participants through a questionnaire on the programme and their
impressions in order to further improve upon the same. There are three such questionnaires
available and one of these is used depending upon the nature of the training programme and the
level of participants. Also, a person from the personnel department sits through the final session
of the programme and takes the verbal feedback about the programme.

This is carried out as the very first step for any new entrant into Company. The department
prepares a schedule for the employee as per which he is required to spend specific time in each
department. During such period, he is reporting to the respective department head. The objective
of the induction programme is to familiarize the participant to the function of different
department. The copies of the same are sent to the General Manager and all concerned. At the
end of the induction, the trainee has to submit a report to the Personnel Department.


Management trainees are given a fortnight of induction programme. Corporate HR advises it as
per Management Trainee Training programme designed by them. Thereafter, a detailed training
programme is carried out whereby the incumbent is to understand in depth of working of each
department at various locations as per the programme given by the Corporate HR. Corporate HR
maintains all relevant records pertaining to Management Trainees training at Bangalore.
A person gets nominated for the training programme in the following two ways:
a) Training programme flowing from the training needs.

b) Training programme for testing out the training/ increased awareness/ general information/
omnibus training types etc.


Captains training Qualified and Experienced Senior Co-pilots are taken through a
rigorous selection

Process for command upgrade. Thereafter they undergo 8 SIM sessions + 2 Skill test for
evaluation +

AWO training followed by 50 sectors of IOE, 10 line checks and after DGCA
endorsement one final

Release check.

Co-pilots training - Endorsement + 02 route checks + 10 sectors of IOE with TRE + .40
sectors of IOE

Followed by 2 sectors release check with TRE. IndiGo simulator and line training is done
by the Airbus

Instructors for standardization along with a SLF of 50 sectors

Expat pilots - At IndiGo expats undergo 4 familiarization flights + a minimum of 05

sectors of IOE

Covering critical and short fields + one line checks with TRI/TRE.ENGINEERING

AACT training - employed by IndiGo. First time carried outside of Europe

IndiGo training department imparts recurring training (required under CAR145)


Ab Initio Training: 45 Days

Greater training duration than regulatory mandate

Pass Score % mandated by DGCA is 80% vs. IndiGo standard of 90%

3 strike policy (3 failures resulting in termination)



Learning & Development
Joining InterGlobe translates into continuous learning opportunities to expand on what you can do. We
are deeply committed to investing in the development of employees who wish to work at levels
consistent with their highest potential.
Learning & Development Philosophy:
To build a culture of continuous learning by empowering employees with enhanced skills, helping them
improve their performance and productivity and enhance their leadership potential.
Integrated Leadership Development (ILD):
The ILD refers to an enterprise-wide leadership development & career planning initiative with focus on
key transition points in the employees career ranging from:
New hires

Young leaders

First Time Managers


Leadership team
InterGlobe has a defined Leadership Competency Framework that forms the base of all development

initiatives. Performance diagnostics are also used as inputs for functional as well as behavioural learning
This approach serves the larger organization, imperative of growing our own talent within the
organization, thus providing long term career opportunities to high performers.

InterGlobe Learning Academy (ILA):

The ILA is an in-house competency building initiative with emphasis on mastering functional expertise
and aimed at creating a Learning Organization for its employees. The Academy has a credit system

wherein credit points are awarded to the participant on the completion of every milestone achieved
during the Academy.
Participants, who successfully complete the learning cycle under ILA, are awarded a Champion
certificate and become eligible for the next level in the learning pyramid, titled the Expert level.

Knowledge Sharing Forums:

Provide opportunities to employees with similar learning inclinations to share their experiences and add
value to them as professionals.
The IPAD Journey
Management Trainees selected as part of IPAD undergo a one-year rigorous training
period that includes cross functional & functional projects and on the job training.
These trainings p rovide Management Trainees an opportunity to not only learn
functional skills but also mesh with the culture and people of the organization. The
IPAD journey is interspersed with periodic reviews, leadership interaction sessions and
training programs.
The program aims to nurture these fresh aspirants to become thoroughbred
professionals and take up responsible positions in the organization at a relatively faster


IPAD Program Overview

Stages in the 12 month journey:

Training in indigo airlines:

1. pilots training program
2. one month technical training
3. exam on aircraft performance

training on specific instrument that one flies.

5. Exam on aviation security after training

6. Course on flight safety and safety instrument
7. Course on crew resource management
8. Added course include
Extended twin operation(flight over the sea without using
the shore line)

Course on low visibility flying procedure

9. observational flying for 50 hours, learn the sops of flying (take off to landing)
10. virtual flying in 6 axis flying simulator.
11. learning to fly in various situations and handling emergency scenarios
12 live flight training on familiarization flight under a flight instructor and a safety first officer

Cross-Cultural Training Programs and Services

Effective Teambuilding for Diverse Teams

Specialized Teambuilding Programs for Law Firms and Other Service Companies

Working Across Cultures - Global Business Skills

Culture-Specific Cross-Cultural Training: Working and Communicating Effectively with

Germany, Belgium, etc.

Effective Long Distance Communication Across Cultures

Global Presentations Skills

Pre-Departure and Post-Arrival Cross-Cultural Training

Repatriation Training

Executive Coaching

Effective Teambuilding for Diverse Teams

This program provides essential information on the building blocks of highly effective diverse
teams. It helps team members to clarify roles and responsibilities and to agree on processes and
principles in order to reach mutually established goals and objectives. Format: 1 to 2 days kickoff meeting, plus on-going regular team meetings, as needed.

Specialized Teambuilding Program for Law Firms and other Service Companies
This program discusses building blocks for effective teambuilding for non-legal and legal staffs
at law firms and other service companies. It helps existing teams, such as law firm practice
groups, optimize their performance and reach their business goals Format: 1/2 to 2 days.

Working Across Cultures: Global Business Skills

The program analyzes the impact of culture and cultural differences when communicating with
counterparts from other cultures. It discusses topics such as managing across cultures, creating
globally inclusive work environments, business values differences and global business etiquette.
It also provides strategies for communicating across cultures more effectively. Format: 1 to 2

Culture-Specific Cross-Cultural Training: Working and Communicating Effectively with

Germany, Belgium, etc.
This program provides an overview of cross-cultural business practices and issues such as work
ethics, management styles, negotiations, presentations, meeting styles, gender roles and business
etiquette for a specific geographic region or country including but not limited to Germany,
Belgium, the Netherlands, France, the U.K., Italy, Japan, China, Taiwan, India and Mexico. It
suggests strategies for working and communicating effectively with colleagues, clients and
business partners from these and other cultures. Format: 1 to 2 days

Effective Long Distance Communication Across Cultures

This program provides strategies for dealing effectively with the challenges of long-distance
communication via telephone, e-mail, video conferencing, or web-based technology. It improves


long-distance communication between colleagues and/or clients from other cultures. Format: 1/2
to 1 day

Global Presentation Skills

The program provides information on the steps necessary for creating and delivering effective
presentations for global audiences. It offers an opportunity for participants to give practice
presentations and receive detailed feedback on their presentation style and content. Format: 1 to
2 days.

Pre-Departure and Post-Arrival Cross-Cultural Training

The program helps individuals and their families handle the impact of culture shock related to
moving to another culture. It provides information on housing, education, shopping, local
services, and resources in the new culture as well as an overview of cultural values and attitudes
in the new country. Format: 1 to 2 days.

Repatriation Training
This program helps individuals and families handle the impact of "reverse culture shock" when
returning to their home countries after an international assignment. It focuses on the challenges
of re-entry into the work and home environments as well as on successful re-entry strategies.
Format: 1 to 2 days.

Executive Coaching
This program helps executives clarify their short- and medium-term personal and business goals
and create a long-term vision for their lives. It helps them design strategies to reach these goals
and align their lives with their vision. Format: on-going coaching sessions (30-60 mins).


Carreer development

First officer= he / she is a co-pilot

After 1000hrs of flying, eligible for change of equipment to wide body


After 3000hrs of flight time and above 25 yrs of age, eligible for airline
transport pilot license and for post of captain

Then promotion to check pilot, examiner and instructor.

Management pilot and chief pilots, the operational manager at locations

Topmost post chief of training and standards.

Job rotation

Job engagement

Chapter -5
1. What do you understand by training?

Enhancement of knowledge, skill and
Sharing of information
All of the above


The above result shows that most of the employees of corporate HR are well aware of
the definition, inputs and purpose of the training program. They are self motivated to
attend such training program as it will result in their skill enhancement & improving their
interpersonal skill.
2. Training is must for enhancing productivity and performance.
Completely agree
Partially agree
Dis agree



THE above result shows that mostly all the employees of corporate HR are well aware of the role
and importance of the training. It means somewhere their productivity and performance has been
improved after the training program attended by them and it helped them to achieve their goal.

3 (i). Have you attended any training program in the last 01 year?



100% respondents had attended training program in the last 01 year. It means in
corporate HR, indigo airlines time to time training is provided to all the employees and it is
continuous process.

(ii). If yes, which module of soft skill development training?

Personality and positive attitude
Business communication
Team building and leadership



Stress management and worklife balance

Business atiquete and corporate grooming
All of the above
If any other


65% respondents had attended all the five modules of soft skill development training. But
besides soft skill development training, Corporate HR indigo airlines should also
provide product/process or skill based training to enhance the employability.

4.(i). After the training, have you given feedback of it?




100% respondent had given feedback after attending the training. It means each and
every respondent are well aware of the importance of giving feedback. They know that
their feedback is very important to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training

(ii). If yes, through which method?

Supplement test


Any other

The above result shows that the questionnaire is the most popular method of evaluating the
training program and other methods are not very much in practice in corporate HR, indigo
But since there are various other methods of evaluation of training program
like interviews, supplement test, self diaries& observation so it should also implement
the other methods also to identify the ROI (return on investment) & effectiveness and
valuation of the training program.
5. Which method of post training feedback according to you is more


Self diaries
Supplement test


I. Corporate HR, indigo airlines mostly use the questionnaire to get the feedback
of trainees but only 15% respondents are in favor of questionnaire because in it there is
a possibility of getting inaccurate data and in this responding conditions are also not
II. On the other side 40% respondents feel that interview is the most appropriate method
of evaluating the training program because it is more flexible method, and in this they
can get the opportunity for clarification and the most important thing is that in the
interview, personal interaction is also possible.
III. 25% are in favor of observation because this is non-threatening and is excellent
way to measure the behavioral changes.
IV. Beside this, 15% are in favor of self diaries and 5% are in the favor of supplement
test. It means that Corporate HR, indigo airlines should also try to use other
method of evaluation of training program.

6. (i). Do you think that the feedback can evaluate the training



100% respondents think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness. It
means that kartavyayogis in the Corporate HR indigo airlines are well aware of
the importance of taking feedback after the training.

(ii).If yes, how can the post training feedbacks can help the
improve job performance


an aid to future planning

Motivate to do better
All of the above


70% respondent feel that the post training feedback can help the participants to improve
their job performance, is an aid to future planning and can motivate to do better. It means
that they are benefited by giving feedback of the training, attended by them.

7.Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort

expended in conducting training.


Completely agree
Partially agree


70% respondents are completely agree and 30% respondents are partially agree with the
statement that post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in
conducting training program. It means that all the respondent are well aware of the purpose
and objective of the post training evaluation.

8.What should be the approach of post training evaluation?


Trainer centered
Trainee centered
Subject centered
All of the above


I. 40% respondents feel that the approach of post training evaluation should be subject
centered and 40% respondent also feel that it should be trainer, trainee and subject
II. 10% respondents are in favor of trainee centered approach and 10% respondents are
in favor of trainer centered approach.
It means that the evaluation procedure should be implemented concerning trainer, trainee
and subject.


9. What should be the ideal time to evaluate the training?

Immediate after training
After 15 days
After 1 month
cant say


35% respondent feel that training should be evaluate after 15 days.30% feel that it should
be immediate after training. 20% feel that ideal time to evaluate the training is after 1
month and 15% are unsure.
Since each respondent had attended different training program. So the ideal time of
evaluation of training depends on types of training. It could be vary for different training


10. Should the post training evaluation procedure reviewed and revised
cant say


80% respondents feel that the post training evaluation procedure should be reviewed and
revised periodically. It means that it has to be a continuous process and be taken regularly
by the line manager/Reporting manager of the participants. It could also be taken by peer
Still 10% feel that the post training evaluation procedure should not be reviewed and
revised periodically. It means they are satisfied with the post training evaluation procedure,
followed by Corporate HR, indigo airlines.


11. Is the whole feedback exercise after the training worth the time,
money and effort?
Cant say

90% respondents feel that the whole feedback exercise worth the time, money and effort
and 10% respondent are not agree with this. It means that feedback exercise is valuable
and worthful for the participant to achieve their personal goal as well as for the
Still 10% are unsure about it. So there is a need to create awareness among them that
how much the feedback exercise is important to identify the effectiveness and valuation
of the training program, to identify the ROI(return on investment),to identify the need of
retraining and identify the points to improve the training.
12.The post training feedback can be used:


To identify the effectiveness and valuation of

training program
To identify the roi
To identify the need of retraining
To provide the points to improve the
All of the above


75% respondents feels that post training feedback can be used to identify the
effectiveness and valuation of training program, to identify the ROI, to identify the need
of retraining and to provide the points to improve the training. And others are also aware
of the importance of post training feedback.










all the employees of corporate HR are well aware of the role and
importance of the training They are self motivated to attend such training
program as it will result in their skill enhancement & improving their
interpersonal skill.

HR, indigo airlines time to time training is provided to all the

Employees and it is continuous process.

is the most popular mean of evaluating the training program in

Indigo airlines

of the employees feel that interview is the most appropriate method of

evaluating the training program.

training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in

conducting the training and it worth the time, money and effort.

of the participants are benefitted by giving feedback after attended the

training. It motivated them to do better, helped them to increase their job
performance and is an aid to future planning.
indigo airlines post training evaluation is used to identify the
effectiveness and valuation of training program, to identify the ROI(return o
investment), to identify the need of retraining and to provide the points to
improve the training.


The organization may utilize both subjective and objective approach for the training
The organization may consider deputing each employee to attend at least one training
programmes each year.
The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organization as well as
employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing the

The organization can also arrange part time training programmes in the office premises
for short durations, spanning over a few days, in order to avoid any interruption in the
routine work.
The organization can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to give
focused attention towards the departmental
The management must commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate
time to training.
Ensure that training contribute to competitive strategies of the firm. Different
strategies need different HR skill for implementation. Let training help employees
at all levels acquire the needed skill.
Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and
training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.
Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and
individual training needs.
Skill based training (product/process training) should also be provided.
Besides questionnaire other methods of post training evaluation should also be
used like interviews, self diaries, observation and supplement test.
The evaluation procedure must be implemented concerning trainer, trainee and subject.
Post training feedback has to be continuous and should also be taken from line
manager/superior & from peers to find out the effectiveness and valuation of training.


1.100% Response Rate was not found from the respondents
2. The level of knowledge of each respondent was different
3. The time period of the study was only two six weeks which may provide a deceptive
picture in comparison of the study based on long run.
4.The study is based only on secondary & primary data so lack of keen observations
and interactions were also the limiting factors in the proper conclusion of the study.


So, the responses given by the respondents could vary a lot depending on the
perception of each respondent for a given question.

The major findings of the project are enumerated as follows:
Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base by the
The objectives of the training programmes were broadly known to the respondents prior to
attending them.
The training programmes were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs of the
Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programmes were less
and thus need to be increased.
Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will enhance the
effectiveness of the training programmes.
Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if the
sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.
The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the training

The training programmes were able to improve on-the-job efficiency.

Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programmes be increased.

Bibliography :


Kothari, C. R. (2006), Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, New Age
International Publishers.


Human Resource Management by L. M. Prasad

Human Resource Management by Dipak. k. Bhattacharya
Human Resource Management by K. Ashwathapa


1) What do you understand by training?
a) Learning
b) Enhancement of knowledge, skill and aptitude
c) Sharing information
d) All of above
2) Training is must for enhancing productivity and performance.
a) Completely agree
b) Partially agree
c) Disagree
d) Unsure
3) (i) Have you attended any training programme in the last 01 year?
a) Yes
b) No
(ii) If yes ,which module of soft skill development training?
a) Personality and positive attitude
Page 75
b) Business communication
c) Team building and leadership
d) Stress management and work-life balance
e) Business etiquettes and corporate grooming

f) All of above
g) If any other please specify ___________________________
4) (i) After the training ,have you given feedback of it?
a) Yes
b) No
(ii) If yes, through which method?(can select more than one)
a) Questionnaire
b) Interview
c) Supplement test
d) If any other please specify _______________
5) Which method of post training feedback according to you is more appropriate?
a) Observation
b) Questionnaire
c) Interviews
d) Self diaries
e) Supplement test
6) (i) Do you think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness?
a) Yes
b) No
(ii) If yes, how can the post training feedbacks can help the participants?(can
select more than one)
a) Improve job performance
b) An aid to future planning
c) Motivate to do better
d) All of the above
e) None
7) Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in
conducting training.
a) Completely agree
b) Partially agree
Page 76


c) Disagree
d) Unsure
8) What should be the approach of the post training evaluation?(can select more
than one)
a) Trainer centered
b) Trainee centered
c) Subject Centered
d) All of the above
9) What should be the ideal time to evaluate the training?
a) Immediate after training
b) After 15 days
c) After 1 month
d) Cant say
10) Should the post training evaluation procedure reviewed and revised
a) Yes
b) No
c) Cant say
11) Is the whole feedback exercise after the training worth the time, money and
a) Yes
b) No
c) Cant say
12) The post training feedbacks can be used :
a) To identify the effectiveness and valuation of the training programme
b) To identify the ROI( return on investment)
c) To identify the need of retraining
d) To provide the points to improve the training
e) All of above