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2013

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
70

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70

Blender 2.6. .: -, 2013. 384 .: .


()
ISBN 978-5-9775-0823-0
Blender 2.6.
Mesh, , NURBS, , . (,
, , , , ), , .
, Blender (Node Editor, NLA Editor, Grease
Pencil, VSE, ).
, .
.

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2

:

.
.

31.07.12.
1
70 100 /16. . . . . 30,96.
1000 .
"-", 191036, -, ., 20.
""
199034, -, 9 , 12/28

ISBN 978-5-9775-0823-0

. ., 2013
, "-", 2013

............................................................................................................................ 7
1. .......................................................................... 11
1.1. .................................................................................................................... 11
1.2. " " ....................................................................................... 16
1.3. .................................................................................................... 16
1.4. Blender .................................................................................................................. 19
1.5. 3D- ............................................................................................ 21
1.6. ......................................................................................... 24
1.7. : , , .................................................................................. 33
1.8. ................................................................................................................... 39

2. Mesh .................................................................. 43
2.1. ................................................................................................... 43
2.2. ............................................................................. 46
2.3. ............................................................................................. 57
2.4. .................................................................................................................... 66
2.5. Lattice ......................................................................................... 69
2.6. ................................................................................ 73
2.7. . ........................................................................................................ 81
2.8. . ........................................................................................................ 85

3. , NURBS ..................................................................... 95
3.1. ................................................................................................................. 95
3.2. ................................................................................... 97
3.3. ........................................................................ 102
3.4. .............................................................................................. 105
3.5. NURBS ................................................................................ 110
3.6. ................................................................................................................... 115
3.7. . .......................................................................................... 122
3.8. . ..................................................................................................... 126

4. .............................................................................. 135
4.1. .............................................................................................................. 135
4.2. ........................................................................................ 136

4.3. .................................................................................................. 141


4.4. .............................................................................................................. 144
4.5. Halo ...................................................................................................................... 147
4.6. ................................................................................................................ 153
4.7. .................................................................................................. 155
4.8. ............................................................................................ 160
4.9. ........................................................................................................ 170
4.10. Normal Displacement ........................................................................................... 180
4.11. UV ............................................................................. 194
4.12. .................................................................................. 199
4.13. . ............................................................................................ 202
4.14. . .................................................................................................. 208

5. ...................................................................................................... 215
5.1. Blender ................................................................................................ 215
5.2. Timeline ........................................................................................... 216
5.3. Graph Editor ...................................................................... 220
5.4. .............................................................................................. 227
5.5. ..................................................................................................... 233
5.6. ............................................................................................. 237
5.7. ................................................................................... 239
5.8. "" ............................................................................................................. 247
5.9. "" ........................................................................................ 253
5.10. Action Editor ........................................................................................................ 261
5.11. NLA Editor ............................................................................ 264
5.12. . ................................................................................................ 268

6. ........................................................................................................... 279
6.1. Blender ..................................................................................................... 279
6.2. .............................................................................................. 281
6.3. .............................................................................................. 290
6.4. Soft Body................................................................................................................. 297
6.5. ..................................................................................................................... 302
6.6. ....................................................................................................................... 304
6.7. ............................................................................................................. 307
6.8. ................................................................................................................... 313
6.9. . ............................................................................................... 316
6.10. . ................................................................................................... 319

7. , ........................................................................ 323
7.1. ................................................................................................................... 323
7.2. ............................................................................................................. 328
7.3. .................................................................................................................. 331
7.4. : , , .................................................................... 334
7.5. . ....................................................................................................... 341

8. Blender ..................................................................... 345


8.1. ............................................................................................................... 345
8.2. ........................................................................................... 350

9. Blender ................................................................................ 353


9.1. Node Editor ............................................................................................................ 353
9.2. ............................................................................................... 357
9.3. .............................................................................................................. 359
9.4. ........................................................................................................ 362
9.5. . .................................................................................. 367

.......................................................................................................... 375
1. Blender ..................................................................... 377
1.1. Windows ................................................................................... 377
1.2. Linux ......................................................................................... 378

2. ............................................................................. 379
.............................................................................................. 381


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17

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Info:
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2. .
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4. .

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Animation () ;

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Compositing () Node

Editor ( );
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3D View.

18

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1. .
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User Settings ( | ) . .

Blender
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. 1.6.
Scene Selectors

, Screen
Layout. ,
New Scene :
New () - . -

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Copy Setting ( ) -

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Link Objects ( ) . -


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19

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20

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Mesh (, , , , , );
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21

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3D View.

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(. 1.10).

22

. 1.10. 3D View

3D View:
1. ( , , . .).
2. Tool Shelf ( ). ,
.
3. .
, Circle, : Verticles ( ), Radius (), Fill ().
4. .
5. Mode (). 3D View.
6. Viewport Shading ( ). , .
7. Pivot Point ( ). ,
.

23

8. (, ,
).
9. .
10. Snap (). , .
11. "" .
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.

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;
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<NumPad 2> <NumPad 8> ;
<NumPad +> <NumPad > ;
<NumPad .> .
, Blender
3D View. , .
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24

Viewport Shading ( ) (. 6 . 1.10) :


Textured ()

: , , ;
Solid () : , , ;
Wireframe () , , -

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Bounding Box ( ) -

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1.6.

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1. . , . .
2. (Grab).
3. (Rotate).

. 1.11.

25

4. (Scale).
5. .

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<Shift>.

:
<G> ;
<S> ;
<R> .


:
<X> X;
<Y> Y;
<Z> Z.

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<Esc>.

<Shift> , . <Ctrl>,
3D View.

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.
(. 5 . 1.11).
:
View () 3D View (Front, Top,

Right);
Normal () ;
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Global () .

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26

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(), .
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File | New ( | ). Reload Start-Up File
( ) <Enter>.
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, ,

27

. , .
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Front View ( ) .
<NumPad 1> <NumPad 5>.

28


:
1. <S>. <X> X ( ).
.
2. .

. 1.14.

(. 1.15).
.
Cylinder . ,
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, . Blender (Duplicate). , <Shift>+<D>,
.
. Z (. 1.16).

29

. 1.15.

. 1.16. Cylinder

30


Blender 3D View: , . (
) ( ).
"" , , ( ).
.
Object Tools. .

? Blender

. Snap ()
Object () 3D View (. 1.17).

. 1.17.

Snap ():
Selection to Grid ( ) ,
3D View;
Selection to Cursor ( ) 3D Cursor;
Cursor to Selected ( ) -

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Cursor to Center ( ) 3D Cursor

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Cursor to Grid ( )
;
Cursor to Active ( ) -

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:
1. 3D Cursor .
Object | Snap | Cursor to Active.

31

2. 3D Cursor.
Object | Snap | Selection to Cursor.
Z (. 1.18).

. 1.18.

.
. Join (). , <Shift>
. <Ctrl>+<J>
. .
, . . 1.19,
Y. , - ,
.

32

. 1.19.


3D View, .

, .
: , , . ,
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Object | Transform 3D View:
Geometry to Origin ( ) ,

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Origin to Geometry ( ) -

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Origin to 3D Cursor ( 3D Cursor) -

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(. 1.20).
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33

. 1.20.

1.7. : , ,
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.
. Blender . Scene Selectors. .
. ,
, . ,
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. UV Sphere. "Sphere"
"Sun" ().
3D View, <N> (. 1.21).

. 1.21. Item

34

(<Shift>+<D>),
. "Earth" ().
"Moon" (). , . 1.22.

. 1.22.

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. .
.
Moon, Earth, <Shift>. , , Moon Earth.
Object | Parent | Set | Object <Ctrl>+<P>.
Set Parent To . , , . Blender .
, . Earth .
, Moon -

35

, .
.
Earth, Sun .
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(. 1.23).
1

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1. Display Mode ( ). , Outliner,
.
2. . . .
3. , .
4. , 3D View Edit Mode ( ).
5. 3D View.
6. .
7. ,
().

36


Outliner . <Ctrl> .

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2. Object | Group | Create New Group ( | |
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Properties (). Blender
(. 1.24).
1

10

11

. 1.24. Properties

, . .
. :
1. Render () . ,
, ,
. ,
.

37

2. Scene (). , , .
3. World (). , , (, ).
4. Object (). ,
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5. Constraints ().
.
6. Modifiers (). , .
7. Object Data ( ). .
8. Material (). , , , .
9. Textures (). .
10. Particles (). , .
11. Physics (). Blender.
, Object Properties Groups ()
(. 1.25).

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, , .
Add to Group ( ). . ,
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. <A> .

38

. ,
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. , , . ,
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20 . Layers
. :
;
;
- .
- <M>. Move to Layer ( ).

39

. Layers 3D View . ( ).

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<Shift>+<G>. Select Grouped
Group.

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Layers.
<Shift>.

1.8.
, Blender .
File (): , , . , , , . File Browser ( ) (. 1.27).
1

10

. 1.27. File Browser

40

File Browser:
1. .
2. .
3. : , .
4. , , .
5. .
6. .
7. : , Blender (.blend), , , ,
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Windows ,
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File () :
New () ;
Open () .

;
Open Recent ( ) ,
;
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quit.blend. ;
Recover Auto Save ( )
;
Save As ( )
blend. ,

41

blend1 blend2. ;
Save Copy ( ) ,
Blender;
User Preferences ( ) ;
Save User Settings ( ) ,
,
;
Load Factory Settings ( )
Blender ;
Link () ;
Append () Blender;
Import () ;
Export () ;
External Data ( ) , :
Pack Into .blend file ( .blend ) .
;
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.
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Report Missing Files ( ) .
;

Find Missing Files ( ) File Browser;


Quit () .
, Append
Link .
Append () Blender.
"" .
.

42

Link () .

.
.
, . , Append Link ,
. File | Append ( File | Link)
.
: Brush (), Camera (), Image (), Lamp (), Material
(), Mesh ( ), Object (), Scene (), Texture (), World (). , .
Object. , . ,
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test.blend, test1.blend, ..., testN.blend.

Mesh
, Blender Mesh. ,
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Mesh Blender
. , , . Blender ! .
,
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2.1.
Blender, Mesh . , . .
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Blender (. 2.1). Add | Mesh ( | Mesh).
Plane () ,
. .
: , , .
Cube () ,
.
, .

44

. 2.1. Mesh

Circle () . -

(Verticles), (Radius),
(Fill).
UV Sphere ( UV) , (Segments)

(Rings) . , .
Icosphere () UV Sphere -

.
Cylinder () Cap Ends ( ),

.
Cone () , Tool Shelf

( ) . .
Grid () , Plane,

.
Monkey () 3D- , -

,
( , 3Ds Max ). Blender , .

Mesh

45

Torus () . -

Radius (),
.
"Mesh" "", "", "".
- . Mesh-
:
(Verticles);
(Edges);
(Faces).

, , , .

3D View, Mode.
3D View (. 2.2).

. 2.2.
3D View

Mode . Mesh :
Object Mode ( ) , -

.
;
Edit Mode ( ) -

.
, ;
Sculpt Mode ( ) , -

,
;
Vertex Paint ( ) 3D-, ;
Texture Paint ( )

, (, Gimp
Photoshop). Blender 3D View;

46

Weight Paint ( ) -

. , .


<Tab>. 3D View
Object Mode.

2.2.
. ,
, , , .
, .
Blender .
3D View (. 2.3).

. 2.3.

( ): , , . .
<Tab> .
, , .
, . <A>
.
, .
, , , 3D View
Wireframe. , Draw
Mode, <Z>.
.
. , (. 2.4). , , .
, <Shift>.
,
.

. <B>, ,
, .

Mesh

47

. 2.4.

,
3D View (. . 2.3).
, (. 2.5).

. 2.5.

48

.
, .
, ( ),
Tube, Join .
- ,
.
. (<Ctrl>+<N>)
. , <X>.
. <Enter>.
UV Sphere Add | Mesh | UV Sphere. (Front View).
<NumPad 1> <NumPad 5>,
.
.
. ( <Tab>) <A>.
,
.
.
, (. 2.6). <NumPad 1>
Front View.

. 2.6.

Mesh

49

.
<O> , <G> . , ,
.
.
.
<O>.

. .

,
(. 2.7).

. 2.7.

,
.
.
Extrude () ,
.

50

. 2.8. Extrude

<E> .
(. 2.8).
,
. .
Blender Loop Cut and Slide ( ). Tool Shelf ( 3D View)
Add <Ctrl>+<R>.
.
.
. . . .
. . <A>.
. .
Blender , .
<Alt> .
, .
<O> , <S> (. 2.9).

Mesh

51

. 2.9.

,
.
, , ,
. , .
Object Mode ( <Tab>) <Shift>+<D>. .
Delete ( <X>).
.
<X>. :
Verticles () ;
Edges () ;
Faces () ;
All () ;
Edges & Faces ( ) ;
Only Faces ( ) ;
Edge Loop ( ) .

Delete , Edge Loop -

52

. 2.10. Edge Loop

. <Alt> . <X> Edge Loop (. 2.10).


.
, . , .
Knife.
Knife () , .
.
<K>. . (. 2.11).

. 2.11. ,
Knife

Mesh

53

, , Tool Shelf ( )
Knife Cut ( ). Type ().
,
:
Exact () -

;
Midpoints () -

;
Multicut ( )

.
Number of Cuts ( ).
,
(. 2.12). .
Undo ()
( <Ctrl>+<Z>).

. 2.12.
Knife

Subdivide (). , . Subdivide


. , (. .
), ,
. , . . ,
. . , Blender .
Subdivide Tool Shelf ( )
, <W>.
, <A> . <W>
Subdivide.
.
(<A>) (<B>)
. Knife.

54

. 2.13.

, <X>
Faces (. 2.13).
,
. . Blender, , Separate ().
Wireframe <Z>.
. .
Mesh | Vertices |
Separate. Selection (). , (. 2.14).
, . , , .
,
Knife. .
, . <NumPad .> (Front
View). (<A>).
<Alt> , . . , , Z , . . .
,
. Select |
Inverse <H> (Object | Show/Hide | Hide Selected).

Mesh

55

. 2.14.

, . .
, . ( <O>) 3D View (. 2.15).

. 2.15. Proportional Editing Falloff

56

. Random (). .
<G> , <Z>
Z. (. 2.16).

<Alt>+<H> .
Separate (. 2.17).

. 2.16.

. 2.17.

Mesh

57


, . Tool Shelf Object Mode
Smooth ().
, Flat ().

2.3.
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
, . ,
?
,
, .
. , . , .
Blender 3D View . , 3D.
.
3D View , <N>.
Background Images ( )
(. 2.18). .
Add Image ( ). .

. 2.18.

Background Images:
1. .
2. .
.
3. .

58

4. 3D View, .
5. Blender.
6. .
7. .
Background Images 3D View. ,
() .
. Open
Scenes\glava2\sword.png
(. 2) (. 2.19).

. 2.19.

:
1. .
2. .
3. 3D View.
4. .
5. .

Mesh

59

Front View ( <NumPad 1>)


(<NumPad 5>). ,
. (
<S>) (. 2.20).

. 2.20.

, . <A>. . Subdivide (). <W> Subdivide.


Wireframe, <Z> .
. ,
. (. 2.21).

. 2.21.

60

Right View <NumPad 3>


. ,
, Blender X Y (. 2.22).

. 2.22.

Blender .
, . ,
, , . , . .
Properties Object
Modifiers ( ). ,
Add Modifier ( ). , . Mirror ().
Axis Y (. 2.23).
:
1. , .
2. 3D View.
3. .
4. .

Mesh

61

. 2.23. Mirror

5. . ,

.
6. .
: Apply () Copy ().
,
.
.
Mirror, ,
(Axis).
X Y. Options .
Merge (). ( ) -

,
. , ,
Merge Limit. .
Clipping ().

.
.
Vertex Groups ( ). -

, . .
.
,
.

62

, . .
.
Extrude 3D .
:
1. ( <B>).
2. Extrude (<E>) .
3. .
4. . , . 2.24.

. 2.24. Z

Mesh

63

, . 2.25, (. 2.26).
, .
.
.

. 2.25.

. 2.26.

64

:
1. Front View <B>.
, , , .
2. , <G>, . .
3. <A> .
4. , . 2.27.

. 2.27.

Mesh

65


, .
. ,
, Loop Cut And Slide ( ) (<Ctrl>+<R>).

. Object Mode ( <Tab>) Y, .


, ,
. , , .
Solid (<Z>).
- , .
Merge (). :
1. , <Shift> (. 2.28).
, . . .
2. <W>
Merge (). , At
Last ( ).

. 2.28. Merge

, Merge.
At First ( ). .

66

At Last ( ). -

.
At Center ( ). .
At Cursor ( ). 3D Cursor.

. 2.29.

Mirror Apply, , , , .
. 2.29.

2.4.
Knife, .
Knife , , . ,
,
.
, . ,
. , <Delete>.

Mesh

67

, . , Join. , .
?
Blender .
"Boolean"
, True () False (). 3D-
.
Blender .
Boolean (. 2.30).
, Mesh.

. 2.30.
Boolean

Boolean:
Operation ()
:
Intersect ();
Union ();
Difference ();
Object () .

, .
Boolean Cube Cone. , , . Boolean Intersect. . 2.31
, .
, Intersect , Cone ,
. ,
Cone .
Union. .
. 2.32.

68

. 2.31. Intersect

. 2.32. Union

Mesh

69

Difference
(. 2.33).
Boolean .
. ,
Difference .

. 2.33. Difference

!
.
. . Blender.
.
. , :
a) ; ) .

2.5. Lattice
,
. , . , , .

70

Lattice () ,
, .
Lattice :
1. Add | Lattice.
2. Lattice , .
3. Lattice.
Lattice
. Lattice , 12
(. 2.34).

. 2.34. Lattice

, .
Lattice. :
Object () ,

Lattice;
Vertex Group ( ) -

, . Lattice .

Lattice. , . , Lattice
.

Mesh

71

. 2.35.
Lattice

Lattice ,
Properties (. 2.35).
Lattice . U, V, W. , , Lattice (. 2.362.38).

. 2.36. BSpline

72

. 2.37. Cardinal

. 2.38. Linear

Mesh

73

2.6.
.
Blender .
: .
, 3D- . , ,
. , , ,
. , ,
(normal map, bump map . .). Blender .
.
, , .
:
.
, ,
. .
Subdivide, .
. ,
, .
, .
:
1. .
2. Subdivide () .
3. Multires ( ),
.
4. "" .
, , , ,
Mesh-.
Subdivide (), . Multires ( ).

74


Properties (. 2.39). Multires
.
Object Mode.

. 2.39. Multires


Subdivide. , ?
Cube .
(. 2.40).

. 2.40. Multires, Edit Mode

Mesh

75

Multires :
Catmull-Clark Simple. ,
Subdivide. Catmull-Clark. .

, ,
Subdivide, .
Subdivide
.
, <W> (. 2.41).

. 2.41.

. ,
, . , Edit
Mode Multires , ?
-, .
, Smooth
Tool Shelf, .

76

Smooth ,
. Multires
, . ,
.
-, Multires ,
.
. ,
, , .
Multires (. . 2.39):
Preview () 3D View;
Sculpt () ;
Render () .
, . ,
2. ,
3D View Preview ,
.
. ,
Preview Render.
. Delete Higher ( ),
(. . 2.39).
Delete Higher , Preview. . .
. Preview 1 Delete
Higher.
" ". . , .
Brush ().
Blender 3D View
Sculpt Mode (. 2.42).

. 2.42. Sculpt Mode

Mesh

77

Mesh-
. , Brush , . , , . Multires.
Multires? , Sculpt Mode.
Blender
, .
, , (. 2.43).

. 2.43.

Blender SculptDraw . 19! Tool Shelf


(. 2.44). .
, (. 2.45).
:
Radius () ;
Strenght () ;
Autosmooth ( )

78

. 2.44. Blender

. 2.45.
Brush

Mesh

79

Sculpt Plane ( )
:
Area Plane ( )

. ;
View Plane ( ) "" ;
X,Y,Z Plane ( ) .
: Add ()
Subtract (). , ,
Subtract.
, ,
, :
Texture () , , ;
Tool () ,
3D View. , ,
(Reset Brush);
Stroke () ,
:
Space () .
, ;
Drag Dot ( ) , . ;
Dots () ;
AirBrash ( ) . ,
, ;
Anchored () ,
, . .
"" ;
Curve ()

;
Options () ;
Symmetry () , -

;
Appearance ()
Add Subtract.

80

Blender, : Sculpt, Tool Shelf ( ) , ,


.
. Subtract () <Ctrl> .
.
, "" (Radius)
(Strength) . <F>. ,
( !) . ,
, , . , ,
. ,
(. 2.46).

. 2.46.

. <Shift>+<F>. , ,
Strength.
, <A>.
: Drag, Drag Dot, Space, Anchored, Airbrush.

Mesh

81


-
. Blender , 3D View. , Sculpt Multires. , . . Fast Navigate (
) Tool Shelf ( Options) Blender .

2.7. .
, 3D, ? , . , , , .
, , , .
...
Blender , . Array (), . . 2.47.
. ?

. 2.47. , Array

.
Plane ().
(<NumPad 7>) (Add | Mesh | Plane).

82

, . 2.48. :
1. <S>, <Y>, Y.
2. (<Tab>) <A>
.
3. (<B>),
<Shift>.
4. <S> .

. 2.48.

. 2.48.
, .
, .
:
1. (<Tab>) 3D Cursor
, .
2. Object | Transform | Origin to 3D Cursor ( |
| 3D Cursor).

Mesh

83

. 2.49.
Array

Array Properties (. 2.49).


.
Fit Type ( ) , :

Fixed Count ( ) Count;


Fit Lenght ( )
Lenght;
Fit Curve ( ) Curve ,
.
Constant Offset ( ) Relative Offset ( -

). XYZ
.
Merge (). , . . .
First Last ( ). , -

( Distance
()). , .
Object Offset ( ).

.
Start Cap ( ) End Cap ( ).

, .
Array ()
.

84

. ,
, Object Offset.
, Empty
(). , Empty , , .
Add | Empty.
Object Offset,
Empty.
, .
Object | Apply | Scale
Plane.
Empty
. Empty , , Z ( <R>,
<Z>). Count 10 (. 2.50).

. 2.50.

,
.

Mesh

85

Empty, . Empty
Front (<NumPad 1>).
Y (. 2.51).

. 2.51. Empty Y

Top , .
Empty X, .

2.8. .
. , , , , . , Mesh-
. ,
, .
.
Circle (),
Mesh.
32, . Tool Shelf Add Circle Verticles = 3.

86

, . Fill
.
.
.
<Tab>, Top (<NumPad 7>) , , .
, . , . -
(. 2.52). Merge ():
1. <A>.
2. , , <Shift>,
.
3. <W> Specials Merge.
4. , At Last ( ).

. 2.52.

Circle .
Extrude. .

Mesh

87

Front (<NumPad 1>) .


<E> . .
, .
. . <S>, <Z>
(. 2.53).

. 2.53.

, . .
, . , , .
Array . ,
. .
Object Mode - UV
Sphere. ,
.
Duplicate Objects Tool
Shelf <Shift>+<D>. . 2.54.
Join (<Ctrl>+<J>).

88

. 2.54.

. , , . , .
. . <A> Mesh- Subdivide ( , <W>). .

(. . 2.55).
Top View (<NumPad 7>). <O> (<G>) .
(. 2.55)
.
Boolean.
. 2.56, Boolean
.
. ?
, . Smooth.
,
. , Boolean .
. , . , .

Mesh

. 2.55.

. 2.56. Boolean

89

90

.
. , .
Decimate ().
.
Object Mode. Ratio (), .
, : "Nonmanifold mesh as input". , - Mesh- . Blender .
3D View Select | Non-manifold. . , Merge. Decimate
.
. . .
.
. (<A>) Subdivide.
. ,
(. 2.57).

. 2.57.

Boolean .
Difference, Object .

Mesh

91

"", .
Apply .
, (. 2.58).

. 2.58.

. 2.58 Smooth. , .
.
,
.
. Sculpt Mode
Mode.
. ,
Multires.
,
. .
.
.

.

92

Blender Pinch/Magnify (/). Tool Shelf.


, .
, Fast Navigate
( ) Options .
.
(Radius), .
.
(Strengh) .
.
(. 2.59).
.

. 2.59.

Brush . Add, Subtract.


. Blob
Subtract. . , (. 2.60).

Mesh

93

. 2.60.


<F12>. ,
.
, . ,
<F3>, .

94

, NURBS
, , . Blender
Mesh, .
, .
,
. . , :
, , , .
, .
, ,
, NURBS.

3.1.
, , , .
Mesh- , , ,
. ,
. , , Mesh. .
, , , . ,
. , Mesh. ,
"".
Blender , : Curve () Surface (). , ,

96

. , :
Bezier () NURBS ( -). , ,
.
Mesh, , , .
,
, .
, . . , .
(. 3.1).

. 3.1.

, . , .
,
.
Blender .
Automatic (). .

, .

, NURBS

97

Vector ().

. .
.
Aligned ().

.
Free (). -

.
, ,
. - . ,
, , Vector Free .
Curve | Control Points | Set Handle
Type ( | | ) , <V>.
Add.
Blender NURBS.
Curve:
Bezier ;
Circle ;
Nurbs Curve NURBS 4 ;
Nurbs Cicle ;
Path

.
Surface:
NURBS Curve ();
NURBS Circle ();
NURBS Surface ();
NURBS Cylinder ();
NURBS Sphere ();
NURBS Torus ().

3.2.
, . ,
Mesh.
(Depth). Object Data Properties (. 3.2).

98

. 3.2.

, 3D-, 2D 3D. . , , 2D.


Z, .
. . 2D 3D.
!
,
Z, 2D .

, (
Bezier), , , . Blender
: Extrude ()
(. 3.3) Depth () (. 3.4). Geometry
() Properties (. . 3.2).
Extrude Z, Depth
"" . "" ,
.
, , Depth .

, NURBS

99

. 3.3. Extrude

. 3.4. Depth

100

Depth
. Fill (. . 3.2):
Half ();
Front ();
Back ();
Full ();
Fill Deformed ( ).

.
Fill Full
(. 3.5).

. 3.5. Fill

,
. Resolution ()
Geometry. (. 3.6).
Mesh ,
.
Bezier. . .
Subdivide. Mesh, , .

, NURBS

101

: ,
, <W> Subdivide (
Tool Shelf). Delete (<X>).

. 3.6.

Extrude.
.
.
. Blender
Toggle Cclic ( ).
. ,

. ,
, . Toggle Cclic
.
2D 3D.
,
(. 3.7).

102

. 3.7. 3D, 2D

3.3.

. , Mesh.
.
.
, Bezier Circle. ,
Bezier, .
Bezier Circle Geometry : Taper Object
Bevel Object (. . 3.2).
.
, Bevel . Depth, , . 3.8.
Bezier Bevel Object,
(. 3.9).
!
Depth , , Bevel Object Depth.


. ,
.

, NURBS

103

. 3.8. Depth Bezier Circle

. 3.9. Bezier Circle

. , . 3.10 ,
. Bezier Circle (. 3.10).
"Taper" "". ,
Taper Object. . , , -

104

, , . Depth 1, Extrude 0. Vector Taper Object . (. 3.11).

. 3.10. , Circle

. 3.11. Taper Object

, NURBS

105

, Mesh.
Curve () (. 3.12).
Object ,
. : (. 3.13).

. 3.12.
Curve

. 3.13.


Snap () . .

3.4.
,
.
, Mesh. - ?

106

, . , ... Mesh. , .
3D-
, , , . . , Mesh.
Blender.
, .
Circle Mesh. , .
Z, , , Multeres ,
!
? .
Mesh Spin (). , . ,
. , ,
Mesh. Mesh .
, .
Scenes\glava3\bottle.jpg (.
2). .
3D View
(<N>). Front View (<NumPad 1>)
(<NumPad 5>).
Add | Curve | Bezier.
XY. "" . Rotation :
X = 90
Y = 90
Z=0

,
(. 3.14).
, , ,
, . , . (<Tab>) <A>
<W>. Specials Subdivide. ,
. -

, NURBS

107

: , , .
(. 3.15).

. 3.14.

Spin,
. .
.
. .
<A> Duplicate Curve
( ) Tool Shelf. . ,
.
,
, . . .
, Spin . .
, .
<F> ( Make
Segment ( ) Curve). . (. 3.16).

108

. 3.15.

. 3.16.

, NURBS

109

Spin Mesh-, Mesh. Object Mode


Object | Convert to | Mesh from Curve/Surf/Text.
, Spin Mesh 3D Cursor.
Object | Snap | Cursor to Selected.
, <A> Top View (<NumPad 7>).
Spin Tool Shelf .
:
Steps () = 30
Degrees () = 360

. 3.17.

. 3.17.

110

3.5. NURBS
NURBS , . NURBS . , ,
, NURBS Mesh.
, NURBS
, . ,
.
. NURBS Bezier, .
, ,
. , , , , , .
, , .
NURBS .
.
, Lattice (. 3.18).

. 3.18. Nurbs Surface

, NURBS

111

Lattice. , .
NURBS , : U V. U , V .
,
, 3D (
2D, ).
, . , , U V.
, Extrude, Delete, Subdivide.
.
. , -

.
: , , .
. , , -

Extrude (<E>) .
.
<E>.

Blender . <Shift>+<R>.
, , U
V .

. . <Shift>+<R>

Delete (<X>).
Extrude , .
NURBS , Properties (. 3.19).
Resolution 3D View . . Preview
3D View, Render . 0
Preview .
Active Spline .
:
Cyclic () ;
Bezier () , , ,

;
Endpoint ( ) -

112

. 3.19.
NURBS

Resolution () U V;
Smooth () .

Tool Shelf.
Order. .
, . 3.20.

. 3.20. Order = 2, Order = 4

NURBS. . 3.10 . , -

, NURBS

113

. NURBS
.
, , ,
.
NURBS Circle ().
Add | Surface | NURBS Circle.
Front View (<NumPad 1>) . :
1. Object Mode Circle .
2. <Shift>+<D> Z.
3. <S> .
, . 3.21.

. 3.21. : Front, Top User

" ". ,
.
,
. (. 3.22).
.
<Ctrl>+<J>. <F> (. 3.23).
, ...
,
. . <S> -

114

. Endpoint
U Active Spline. . , .
. . Order U .
Resolution 6 U V. (. 3.24).

. 3.22.

. 3.23.

, NURBS
. ,
Mesh. .

, NURBS

115

. 3.24.

3.6.
, . ,
, ,
? , . , Blender ,
. , Text.
Blender Text , . , , , , Mesh. Text ,
, 3D View.
.
,
, .
Text , .
Text Add | Text. 3D Cursor "Text". ,
, Mesh.
Edit Mode ( <Tab>) , (. 3.25).

116

.
,
. ? , <Delete>. , , <Enter>.
Text Properties (. 3.26).

. 3.25. Text

. 3.26. Text

, NURBS

117

Shape Geometry . .
(, ), (, ). , Text
Taper Object Bevel Object.
, , Text.
Blender ,
. Font.
, TrueType.
: Regular, Bold, Italic, Bold & Italic. , Blender .
Bfont.
"Text".
. ,
.
. , Blender " " .
Size, Shear.

.
Windows Windows\Fonts. UNIX- : /usr/lib/X11/fonts.
,
.

,
.
Character. ,
, . , , Blender
. Underline (), Position ,
Thickness .
.
<Shift>. .
<Shift>+<Left>, <Shift>+<Right>.

.
<Shift>+<Up>, <Shift>+<Down>. .
<Shift>+<Pg Up>, <Shift>+<Pg Down>. .
<Shift>+<Ctrl>+<Left> <Right>. .

, .

118

, Blender . ,
, .
<Ctrl>+<X>. Cut ().
<Ctrl>+<C>. Copy ().
<Ctrl>+<V>. Paste ().

, .
, .
.
3D View. ,
.
.
Blender, , Text Editor.

Python, . , Text Editor Editor Type (. 3.27).

. 3.27. Text Editor


Editor Type

New. "Create new block?", .


.
Edit | Text to 3D Object.
:
One Object ( );
One Object Per Line ( ).

, .
Text .

, NURBS

119

Paragraph (. . 3.26). Left Flush


:
Left ;
Right ;
Center ;
Justify , -

. ;
Flush . Justify,

.
Paragraph , . Spacing:
Character ;
Word ;
Line .

Offset X Y.
, Justify Flush
( ).
Text, . , , . Blender .
Frames () . , ,
.
.
Text - .
.
Text . Text Boxes (. . 3.26).
:
Dimensions () Width Height -

;
Offset () .


, . , , .
.
, Dimensions.
.

120

, Add Textbox (
). . Offset, (. 3.28).

. 3.28.

Text Curve . , .
. : Text Curve
Circle. "Hello World!"
Curve. Object
(. 3.29).

. 3.29. Curve

, NURBS

121

. 3.29 , .
- X . :
1. Deformation Axes X.
2. X 180 .
3D View. <N>
180 Rotation X.
3. Curve Circle , .
4. , ,
. 3.30.

. 3.30.

Properties Object
Data Text (. . 3.26). Geometry
:
Extrude = 0.05
Depth = 0.02

(. 3.31).

. 3.31.

122


Mesh . <Alt>+<C>
Convert To. Curve from Mesh/Text , Mesh from Curve/Surf/Text Mesh-.

3.7. .
, ,
. ,
CorelDRAW, Inkscape. ,
Blender. ,
Blender?
,
. .
. -
.
smile.jpg Scenes\glava3,
, .
Top View (<NumPad 7>,
<NumPad 5>). <N> 3D View.
Background Images ( ) (. 3.32).
. 3.32. .
, , . Bezier Circle .

. 3.32.

, NURBS

123

. 3.33. Bezier Circle 2D

(Add | Curve | Circle).


, . Properties
Shape 2D.
(. 3.33).
. , <Z> Wireframe.
Bezier Circle.
, <G> . (<S>). "", ( <B>). <A> , .
(<Shift>+<D>). <Z> Wireframe (. 3.34).
, . , .
. (Add | Curve | Bezier).

124

"". :
1. .
2. .
3. , <E> . .

. 3.34.

. 3.35.

, NURBS

125

!
. , .
(. 3.35).

(. 3.36).
"".
<Alt>+<C>. ,
. , <Z>
(. 3.37).

. 3.36.

. 3.37. !

126

3.8. .
, .
NURBS. , Mesh.
,
NURBS . ,
. NURBS Circle.
. : Add | Surface | Nurbs Circle.
Circle "" Z. . <N> .
Rotation 90 Y.
Right View (<NumPad 3>).

(. 3.38).

. 3.38.

,
. 3.39.
Front View (<NumPad 1>). . <Shift>+<D> -

, NURBS

127

. . .
(<S>) Z
.
, (. 3.40).

. 3.39.

. 3.40.

128

. , ,
(. 3.41).

. 3.41.

. <Ctrl>+<J>
.
<F> (. 3.42).

. 3.42.

, NURBS

129

. ,
.
Endpoint, .
( Properties,
Object Data) Active Spline:
Cyclic V ;
Endpoint U .

. Front
<E> (. 3.43). ,
. (. 3.44).

. 3.43.

, , - . ,
Mesh.
.
<Alt>+<C>
Mesh from Curve/Surf/Text.

130

, Mesh- (
).
Merge,
. , <W> Merge (. 3.45).

. 3.44.

. 3.45.

, NURBS

131

(At Center). .
.
.
. , , , Mirror .
, . 3.46,
. , Right View
(<NumPad 3>) . ,
Wireframe <Z>.

. 3.46.

Mirror.
, Axis.
.
. Extrude. ,
, . .
, . <Ctrl>+<R> Loop Cut (

132

). . .

.
(. 3.47).

. 3.47.

:
1. .
2. Top View.
3. <E> .
4. Y ( <G> <Y>).
(. 3.48).
, .
(, ).
, (<R>) (<G>). , " " .
Mirror : Merge () Clipping ().

, NURBS

133

. 3.48.

. 3.49.

134

Merge Limit ( ).
. .
, "".
, Merge Limit.

, ,
Apply (. 3.49).


, , . ,
, .
, . ,
.
, .
, .
, , , .
, , "". . , . , Blender ,
. , . ,
, ! Blender .
?
.

4.1.
"".
-, - , .
.
.
, .
, : , , -

136

, , . , ,
, ,
. ,
. , , ,
.
, . . . , , ,
. ,
, Blender , .
, ,
,
. . ,
. .
. :
. , . .
: , , .
, .
. , Normal Map. , .
, , .

4.2.
, Properties (. 4.1).
, , . : ,
. New.
New.
. , . , ,
.

137

. 4.1. Material Properties

. Mesh-
. , (. . 4.1). New .
. . (. 4.2).

. 4.2.


. "" .
.
, .

.
, , .
. . . .
2 . Blender , . , , . , , .

138

,
. .
. ,
(. 4.3).

. 4.3.

, . . ,
. ,
F.
. (+)
, () .
(. . 4.2):
Surface () , -

. , ;
Wire () , . .

. Wireframe
3D View;
Volume () , -

, ;
Halo () -

. 4.4. : Surface, Wire, Volume, Halo

139

Preview ,
. . (. 4.5): , , , Monkey, (),
.

. 4.5. Preview

. 4.6.

Diffuse Specular
(. 4.6).
Shading () , (. 4.7).
Emit (). . -

, , .
Ambient () Translucency (). -

, . . , .
Shadeless (). . , .

. 4.7. Shading

Tangent Shading ( ). -

, , . ,
.
.

140

Cubic Interpolation ( ). -

. .
Transparency (), Mirror () Subsurface Scattering ( )
. .
Strand () . , ,
.
Options () .
, , (. 4.8).
Traceable (). -

. , ,
. Traceable,
.
.

. 4.8. Options

Full Oversampling ( ).

(Anti-Aliasing). ,
. ,
.
Sky (). (Sky).
Use Mist ( ). Blender -

( Volume ). , , .
Face Textures ( ) Face Textures Alpha (-

).
- ( ).

141

Vertex Color Paint ( ). Blender

.
.
Vertex Color Light ( ). -

.
Light Group ( ).

.
Shadow (. 4.9). ,
. , ,
Receive (). Receive
Transparent ( ). . .
, , . Cast
Only ( ) .
Shadows Only ( ).
, , .
, Shadow Only Type:
Shadows and Shading ( ), Shadow Only ( ), Shadow and
Distance ( ). ,
, , .

. 4.9.

4.3.
: () () .
Diffuse ( ) Specular ().
, , "". 3D-. , -,

142

, . Blender , . , . .
Diffuse ()
(. . 4.6). . , . (. 4.10). Preview .

. 4.10.

Intensity (. . 4.11).
Diffuse Shader Model ( ).
,
.
Lambert.

.
Oren-Nayar. Roughness (-

). , Lambert.
Toon. , -

. . : Size ( ) Smooth ( ). Smooth .

143

Minnaert. , .

Darkness ().
.
Fresnel. , Lambert. -

, , , , , , . : Fresnel (
) Factor ( ).

. 4.11. : Lambert, Oren-Nayar, Toon, Minnaert, Fresnel

Specular , ,
(. 4.12). .
CookTorr. , .

. . Hardness,
.
Phong. , CookTorr. Hardness.

Blender .
Blinn. , IOR

(Index of Refraction), .
Toon. "" , .

, . Toon
.
Wardiso. , -

. , , .
Slope .
!

144

. 4.12. : CookTorr, Phong, Blinn, Toon, Wardiso

4.4.
. . ,
.
. , , , .
Blender
Ramp ( ).
, .
Ramp , .
.
Ramp (. 4.13)

. 4.13. Ramp

. 4.14. Ramp


(. 4.14).

. , .
.

145

, . Pos (. 4.15).
, . Ramp , . . 4.16.
( Blender ).
, .

. 4.15.

. 4.16.

,
Pos. (. 4.17).

. 4.17. -

, Blender (
-) . , ,
. , . .
. , ,
. -, ,
.

146

. Blender , . Add.
Pos . Delete.
.
Input (). .

:
Shader () .
;
Energy () , ;
Normal ()
. ,
;
Result () , . - Result .

. 4.18. Blend

Blend (). ,

. (. 4.18).
Mix, . , , Blender, .
, .
Factor (). .

,
Preview , . Blender
3D View, ,

147

. (<N>) 3D View
Display. Shading. MultiTexture. GLSL.
3D View Viewport Shading Texture (. . 1.10).
, ,
.

4.5. Halo
Blender Halo, . ,
. Halo
.
,
. Halo
(Lens Flares). , .
Halo ,
.
(. 4.19).
, Halo , Mesh. . .
, Blender , .
Halo, Flare, (. 4.20):
Halo () , . , ;
Rings () . ;
Lines () Halo.
Lines;
Star tips ( ) Lines, ,
.
Star Tips.
Halo , . , Rings Lines, , . , .
:
Alpha ();
Size ();

148

. 4.19. Halo Flare

. 4.20. Halo

149

Hardness () ,

Halo. ;
Seed () , Rings Lines;
Add () Halo
:
Texture () , Halo
;
Vertex Normal ( )
"" .
Halo . ,
;
Extreme Alpha () - ;
Shaded () , Halo . ;
Soft () Halo , .
Flare .

. , , , . , , , .
Lens Flares Blender ,
. ,
, . , : ,
, .
.
3D View ( <N>).
. Add | Mesh | UV Sphere. .
Location :
X = 1.3
Y = 1.3
Z = 3
Scale , 3.8.
. , Smooth
Tool Shelf.

150

<A>
(Add | Mesh | Plane). ,
.
. ,
. , Blender
,
.
(<Tab>) (
, <B> Top
View). <X> .
, . . <Tab>. 3D View Object
Transform | Origin to Geometry.
. Location
:
X = 6
Y = 15
Z = 5.5

Outliner Lamp . . , .
Location :
X = 0.5
Y=7
Z=3

<NumPad 0> <F12> . ,


. 4.21, .
Lens Flares. Outliner Plane.
Material New.
Halo.
. Halo - (. 4.22).
RGB 1 (
).
Halo :
Seed = 5
Size = 1
Hardness = 50

151

Add = 0
Rings = 4
Lines = 12

. 4.21. Flare

. 4.22. Halo

Rings Lines, .
-
RGB:
R=1
G = 0.75
B = 0.63

152

. 4.23. Flare

Flare .
(. 4.23).
Flare:
Size () ;
Boost () .
;
Seed () Flare;
Subflares ( ) ;
Subsize ( ) .
, Flare ,
.
<F12> (. 4.24):
Size = 5
Boost = 0.2
Seed = 6
Subflares = 7
Subsize = 3

. 4.24. Lens Flares

153

4.6.
. 4.4 ,
,
. ,
. Blender
.
, Material
Properties (. 4.25).

. 4.25.

.

: Assign, Select, Deselect.
. 4.25. "White".
, . , "White" . ,
.
(. 4.26).

. , .

154

. New,
(. . 4.26).
. -
: Assign, Select, Deselect.

. 4.26.

. 4.27.

155

Assign ()
. Select Deselect . Select
, ,
Deselect (. 4.27).
"", .

4.7.
, , .
, Blender .
(Ray tracing),
. , , , , . Ray tracing , Blender .
.
Transparency Material
(. 4.28).

. 4.28.

Blender :
Mask () . ,
;
Z Transparency ( Z) ,
, ;
Raytrace ( ) . , ,
.
.
.
Mask (. 4.29) :
Alpha () ;

156

Fresnel ,

.
, ;
Blend () -

. .

. 4.29. Mask

Z Transparency
Specular (). ,
. (. 4.30).
Raytrace (. 4.31).

. 4.30. Z Transparency

157

. 4.31. Raytrace

:
IOR (Index of Refraction, ) , -

.
. Blender
. IOR 1.517;
Filter ()

. , ;
Falloff () . -

;
Limit () Filter.

, ;
Depth () .

, , . .
. 4.32
. Wardiso,
, .
Raytrace (. 4.33). Gloss:
Amount ()

. , ;
Threshold () . -

;
Samples () . , -

. .

158

. 4.32.

. 4.33.


.
Mirror () , (. 4.34).
, .
Mirror Transparency.
Mirror (. 4.35).
Mirror:
Reflectivity ( ) . ;

159

. 4.34.

. 4.35.
Mirror

Depth () -

;
Max Dist ( )
, . 0. ,
, :
Sky ( ) Material ( );
Fresnel , Transparency ().
, ;
Blend () .
,
. Reflectivity.
Mirror
(. 4.36). Gloss.

160

. 4.36. Blend, Tangent Shading

Transparency,
Anisotropic.
Tangent Shading Shading.

4.8.
"" Blender , . ;
; , . ,
.
, . ,
, . . , .
, .
. .
, .
, ,
.
.
, . 18 ! .
,
. ,

161

, , ,
, Blender .
Textures Properties
(. 4.37).

. 4.37.
Textures

162

.
, .
, Blender
(, ) . . 4.38,
.

. 4.38.

: Material (), World () Brush (). Blender ,


, Material.

. , 18 .
. , New . -
"+" .
, , , . ,

(. . 4.38).
!
" " "".
, ,
.

Type ().
(. 4.39).
.
.

. : Blend, Clouds, Distorted Noise,

163

Magic, Marble, Musgrave, Noise, Stucci, Voronoi, Wood.


. .
. , -

. Blender , .

Blender. Texture Painting
.
. Environment Map. -


, .

. 4.39.

. 4.40. Mapping

Mapping () . , , (. 4.40).
.
Coordinates ().
Generated (). .
Projection ().
: Flat (), Cube (), Tube (), Sphere
().

164

. 4.41.

. . 4.41
Generated : Flat, Cube, Sphere, Tube.
Generated Coordinates 10 :
UV ( )

. UV, . UV Editor;
Sticky () ""

. UV;
Object () -

, Empty, .
Empty ;
Global () 3D- .

.
;
Stress () , -

;
Reflection () .
Environment Map;
Normal ()

. ;
Tangent () Tangent Shading

(. . 4.2), Tangent, UV;


Window () ;
Strand/Particle ()

.
Offset ()
Size ().
Influence () . -

165

. 4.42.
Influence

, , , (. 4.42).
Influence.
Diffuse -

:
Intensity () ;
Color () .
;
Alpha () -;
Translucency ().
Specular :

Intensity ;
Color ;
Hardness () .
Geometry (). :

Normal ;
Warp . ,
Warp;
Displace .

166

Blend .

Mix. ,
.
RGB to Intensity. .

Intensity Diffuse.
Negative. .
Stencil.

.
Bump Mapping -

.
, .
.
Image/Movie.
, , , Blender.
. (. . , ). Textures.
, Type
Image or Movie ( ).
: Preview (), Colors (), Image (), Image Sampling
(), Image Mapping ( ).
Image.
New Open. .
Open blender.png
(Scenes\glava4 , . 2).
(. 4.43).

. 4.43. Image

Source. , , .

167

Single Image ( ). :

Fields () ,
(Lower) (Upper). Fields ;
Premultiply ( ) , - "".
Image Sequence ( ). Blender
(: file1.jpg,
file2.jpg,..., fileN.jpg). ,
. . Image
Sequence :
Frames ()
( ), ;
Start () , ;
Offset () .
;
Auto Refresh () ,
,
, Frames;
Cyclic () , , .
Movie File ( ). , Image Sequence.
Generated (). , , . X Y . Blender :
Blank , ;
UV Grid - UV;
Color Grid .

PAL/SECAM,
25 . , . (Lower) (Upper) , .
Blender ,
. , . ,
PAL DV . .

, ,
. Flat
Cube. Mapping.

168


Image Mapping, . Extension ().
Repeat ().
. Repeat X Y 1 2 (. 4.44).

. 4.44. Repeat

Image Mapping.
Extension.
Extend ().
.
Clip (). ,
Crop Minimum Crop Maximum.
.
Clip Cube ( ). Clip,
.
Repeat (). X Y.

(Mirror).
Checker (). .
Even/Odd . Distance "".
Size Mapping, Crop (. 4.45).
, , Even, ,
Odd.

169

. 4.45. Checker

Preview, , , ,
.
Preview.
, (. 4.46).
, .
Show Alpha, , , , .

. 4.46. Preview

Image Sampling . - (Alpha):


Use () -

, , , PNG
Targa. -,
;

170

Calculate () -

- : , ;
Invert () .
, Flip X/Y Axis.
, , Normal Map .
Colors , ,
(. 4.47).

. 4.47. Colors

(Ramp).
. , .
, Adjust:
Brightness ();
Contrast ();
Saturation ().
. , Blender ""
RGB.

4.9.
, .
.
. ,
. ,
Blender .

171

.
,
. .
10 .
Wood (). ,

. , . (. 4.48):
Sine (), Saw (), Tri () ;

. 4.48. Wood

Bands (), Rings (), Band Noise ( ), Ring Noise ( ).


Bands Band Noise ,
.
Band Noise Ring Noise.
, .
Soft Hard, -

172

, , . , ,
. : Size (
) Turbulence ( ). Basis.
Blend (). -

. , ,
(. 4.49). :
Progression ()
;
Progression Horizontal Vertical, .

. 4.49. Blend

Clouds (). ,

(. 4.50).
, Wood. Clouds Greyscale Color. ,
,
. , .
Distorted Noise ( ). -

(. 4.51). , . , ,
Basis, Noise Distortion.

173

. 4.50. Clouds

. 4.51. Distorted Noise

174

:
Distortion ();
Size ().
Magic ().

(. 4.52), . , ,
. :
Depth ( ) ,
;
Turbulence () ,
.

. 4.52. ""

Marble (). -

(. 4.53). , . , Wood,
: Sin, Saw, Tri. Basis, .
Marble
.
:
Soft ();
Sharp ();
Sharper ( ).

175

. 4.53. Marble

Noise (). - .

" " (. 4.54). Clouds .

. 4.54. " " Noise

Stucci (). , -

.
, . .

176

(. 4.55). , ,
Stucci :
Plastic () ;
Wall in ( )
;
Wall out () .

. 4.55. Stucci

Voronoi.

(. 4.56). . , . , , ,
. "", , . Distance Metric ( ):
. Feature Weights ( ) . , . Coloring
:
Position ()
;

177

Intensity () -
. ;
Position and Outline ( )
. ;
Position, Outline and Intensity (, )
.

. 4.56. Voronoi

Musgrave. Blender -

(. 4.57). : ( Type), (Basis), . :


.
, Blender, .
,
. , .
, (. 4.58).

178

. 4.57. Musgrave

. 4.58.

.
- RGB:
R = 0.800
G = 0.370
B = 0.117

179

. Textures. ,
.

Wood. Type (. 4.59).
Both
Preview. .
Preview
. .

. 4.59. Wood

:
1. Brand Noise.
2. Saw. .
3. Size 2.0. .
4. Turbulance = 41. .
5. Mapping Flat Cube ( Projection)
.
6. <F12> . 4.60.

. 4.60.

180

, -
. . . Influence, . RGB:
R = 1.000
G = 0.600
B = 0.218

(. 4.61).

. 4.61.

4.10. Normal Displacement


: , , . Blender ,
?

. .
,
, Blender
.

.
"".
, , .
, ,

181

, .
. . ,
, , .
, . ,
- , .
, .
, (. . 4.61). , , . . .
Bump Mapping , . .
, , .

Scenes\glava4\glava4_wood.blend (. 2).
.
,
.
Material
( , ). , . , New (. 4.62).

. 4.62.


(. 4.63).

182

2 .
, , . , "Noise".
, . <Tab>
<Shift> . Assign Material.
. Textures
. New .
"Noise" (. 4.64).

. 4.63.

. 4.64. Noise

Type Stucci. :
1. Noise Hard.
2. Size 0.0001.
3. Turbulence 5.
.
Influence:
1. Color Diffuse.
.
2. Normal Geometry , 0.600. Normal Map, . .
.
.
3. Bump Mapping Method ().
Best Quality ( ).
(. 4.65).

183

. 4.65. ,

Bump Map ( )
, . , Gimp Photoshop. ,
- .
,
, .
, : , . Bump Mapping .
Blender Normal Mapping, . , , -, . .
, .
. ,
Blender ( ). ,
.
Blender . (<N>)
Mesh () Display () (. 4.66). Normals ()
:
Face () ;
Vertex () ;
Normal Size ( ) .


Tool Shelf Normals:

184

Recalculate ()

(Inside) (Outside) ;
Flip Direction ( ) .

. 4.66.

RGB.
,
. Normal Map
, .
, Normal Map
, GIMP
Normal. . Normal Map
. Blender Normal Map.
:
1. .
2. , Multires, .
.
3. Normal Map .
4. .
, .
(Plane). X (. 4.67).
, Smooth Tool Shelf.

185

. 4.67.

, .
<Shift>+<D> <M> .
.
, <Tab>
. 4 (
Subdivide) Sculpt Mode.
,
. Properties Multires. Simple. , , Multires 6. Subdivide ( Sculpt Render
6). , .
. ,
, .
Textures New.
, World ()
Brush () (. 4.68).

. 4.68. Brush

186

Voronoi. :
1. Distance Metric Actual Distance.
2. Coloring Position and Outline.
3. (Intensity) 1.
4. Size 0.10.
5. Nabula 0.025.
. 3D View
Top View (<NumPad 7>)
.
, Brush ( Tool Shelf). Texture .
, Preview
(. 4.69).

:
Strength = 1
Radius = 200

,
(. 4.70).
.

. 4.69. Brush

, (. 4.71).
. ,
, , .
, .
<Ctrl>+<Z> .
Brush Curve.
, -

187

. ,
. (. 4.72).
(. 4.73).

. 4.70.

. 4.71.

188

. 4.72.

. 4.73. ,

Normal Map.
UV- UV Editor. ,
.
Screen Layout UV Editing
(. 4.74).

. 4.74.

. UV/Image
Editor, 3D View.
Sculpt Mode Edit mode.
<A>, . <U> UV Mapping

189

UV- . Unwrap. .
!
. , Multires, , .

- . UV Editor.
New . New Image. , OK.
Blender ,
UV-, UV Editor .
Screen Layout Default .
Normal Map. Blender
"" c .
Render Properties (. 4.75).

. 4.75. Render

Bake (). , Bake Mode


Normals.
Normal Space,
:
Tangent () ;
Object () .
, ;
World () . , ;
Camera () . , .
Object (. 4.76).
Bake. .
(. 4.77).

190

. 4.77. Blender

. 4.76. Normal Map

. 4.78.

, . -,
Multires 3D View (. 4.78). , "" 3D View.
3D View Viewport Shading Texture
(. 4.79).

. 4.79. Normal Map

, Normal Map .
.
Image and Movie. Image
.
Image Sampling Normal Map.
,
. Object.

191

Normal Map UV-, Coordinates Mapping.


Normal Map. Influence:
1. Color Diffuse.
.
2. Normal Geometry.
Normal, 0.5.

, , , ,
3D View , UV
Editor. GLSL Display
(<N>) UV Editor (
).

. 4.80. Normal Mapping

. ,
4 .
!
Normal Map. , . UV
Editor <F3>. : File | External
Data | Pack into blend file.

192

, , , Bump Mapping
Normal Mappping .
Plane , ,
.
Blender , , . , (Realtime).
Displacement Map ( )
. , , . , 3D ( ).
Displacement Map ,
, , -.
:
Influence;
Displace.
:
1. .
2. Influence Diffuse Color.
3. Displace Mesh-.
, - 3D View. , Mesh , -
.
Displace (. 4.81).
.
Texture , , Textures.

. 4.81. Displace

193

Direction ()

Mesh-. :
Normal ;
X, Y, Z ;
RGB to XYZ , .
Vertex Group. ,

.
Texture Coordinates. : UV, Local, Global,

Object.
Midlevel ( ).

.
Strength ( ). .

. ,
. , Diffuse Color .

(. 4.82).

. 4.82. Displacement Map

. , . ,
Mesh-. Displacement
.

194

4.11. UV
Blender XYZ
, , .
UV , , , UV .
Blender UV: .
,
, .

UV/Image Editor. , ,
(. 4.83).
Screen Layout ( UV Editing).
, : UV Editor 3D View.
,
.

. 4.83. UV Editing

195

UV- .
, .
UV Mapping , <U> 3D View. 10 .
Unwrap (). .

.
Cube Projection ( ). -

. : , , .
Cylinder Projection ( ). -

: , .
Sphere Projection ( ).

(. 4.84).
Project from View ( ). , : " ".
, .

. 4.84. Sphere Projection

Project form View (Bounds) ( ). ,

,
.
Reset (). .
Smart UV Project ( ).

196

Lightmap Pack ( ). -

Lightmap ().
Follow Active Quads ( ). ,
. .
UV Editor. ,
. UV
Mapping Reset .
.
UV Editor
(. 4.85).

. 4.85.

UV Editor . UV
Editing. .
<U> Cube Projection.
. New
UV Editor. (. 4.86):
Name ();
Width () ;
Height ();
Color () ;
Alpha (-) , ;
UV Test Grid ( ) ;
32 bit Float ( 32 ) .

. 4.86.

197

UV Test Grid OK.


. 3D View
Texture Viewport Shading (. 4.87).

. 4.87.

UV Editor , . 3D View
, .
. <A> ( , )
<S> . (. 4.88).
, .

Mesh- .
3D View. UV Editor ,
.

. Unwrap UV Mapping.
. , .
"". ,
.
UV Editor , , , 3D View (. 4.89).
, , , . -

198

. 4.88.

. 4.89.

. .
.
, , . , , .
. , ""
, .
Seam () , "" , . , , , Blender .
3D View. :
1. . , . . . .
Edge Loop,
( <Ctrl>).
2. . : Mesh | Edges | Mark Seem. (. 4.90).
. UV
Mapping (<U>) Unwrap. -

199

, . Clear Seam Mesh | Edges.


, -
. , "". <P> UF
Editor ( Pin UVs).
<Alt>+<P>.

. 4.90. Seam

, . , , , , . Blender
.
.
, UVs | Export UV Layout.

4.12.
Blender , . ,
,
.

200

UV/Image Editor,
: ,
.

(. 4.91).

. 4.91.

.
, Sculpt Mode.
Paint (. 4.92)
, .
:
Brush ;
Clone ,

, Image. , ,
;
Smear , -

;
Soften Smear, -

, .
, UV
Editor .
Textures.
, .

. 4.92. Paint

( ) . ,
. Fixed Texture ( ).

Sculpt Mode. : Tool (), Paint Stroke ( ),
Paint Curve ( ).

201

3D View, . Texture Viewport Shading,


.
Texture
Paint Mode 3D View (. 4.93). Tool Shelf
UV/Image Editor.

. 4.93.
Mode

Blender . 3D View.
Vertex Paint
. , Diffuse .
Vertex Paint Mode
(. . 4.93).
Blender
. , Sculpt Mode, Texture Mode, Vertex Mode
. :
Add ()

;
Blur () . -

;
Brush () ;
Darken ();
Lighten ();
Mix ()

;
Multiply () .

202

Pinch/Magnify (/) -

;
Subtract () RGB -

. , .
,
3D View . Vertex
Color Paint ( ),
Options. , , .

4.13. .
, ! , - . , , ,
.
, , . ,
. , Lattice, . ,
. , , .
UV Sphere. , . .
X (
<S>, <X>).
, , . , ,
Lattice. .
Lattice (Add | Lattice). <S> ,
. Lattice 8 ,
. Object Data
Properties UVW (. 4.94).
Lattice . Lattice (
Object).
. Lattice
, .
(<B>). (. 4.95).

203

. 4.94.

. 4.95.

204

.
. , ,
.
Lattice. , . Lattice <H> (
Object | Show/Hide | Hide Selected). . , .
,
<Alt>+<H>.
. Multires, . ( Subdivide).
(Mode | Sculpt Mode) Textures
Properties. ,
. Musgrave
.
. ,
,
. Tool Shelf Curve (. . 4.72).
, Texture Musgruve. Preview ,
.
, - . , (. 4.73).

. 4.96. Sculpt Mode

205


. Flatten/
Contrast.

, . .
Material New
.
Diffuse -. RGB:
R = 0.152
G = 0.126
B = 0.103
,
. "Base".
Clouds.
:
Noise Soft;
Size 1.30;
Depth 2.
, .
Influence Diffuse Color. :
R = 0.232
G = 0.120
B = 0.198
Blend Mix
Subtract. (<F12>) , . 4.97.
.
. , .
Textures .
"Noise". , .
Clouds . , Distorted Noise.
:
Distortion = 7.440
Size = 0.70

206

. 4.97. + Base

Blender
Original.
Influence :
:

R = 1.000
G = 0.940
B = 0.967
Color Diffuse 0.135.

. , . 4.98.
, .
.
.
Clouds. . Clouds
:
Noise Hard;
Blender Original;
Size 0.20;
(Depht) 6.

207

. 4.98.

. 4.99.

208

Influence Color, . .
. Normal Geometry 1.
. .
. Specular , . Wardiso.
Specular <F12> (. 4.99).
!

4.14. .
, , . ,
, .
? , .
- .
, , . ,
Mesh.
. , .
UV Sphere. .
. (<Tab>), <W>
Subdivide.
. , , . , , ,
.
. Z, ,
. .
<O> . .
Grab (<G>), <Z> Z
. .
, , . 4.100.
, .
. Top View (<NumPad 7>).
. , Blender
( <C>). 3D View
, . 4.101.

209

. 4.100.

. 4.101.

, . , . <E> Extrude
. (<S>),
.

210

. Extrude .
, .
Front View (<NumPad 1>),
. <R> <Y>, Y.
(. 4.102).

. 4.102.

, .
, .
, . 4.103. .
, Assign "Slip".
"+" . "Base".
, . Inverse Select
<Ctrl>+<I>. .
.
, .

211

. 4.103.

Diffuse :
R = 0.133
G = 1.000
B=0

,
.
Ramp Diffuse. , , , Blender . .
( Blender )
:
R = 0.145
G = 1.497
B=0
A=1

RGB:

212

R=1
G = 0.984
B=0
A=1

(Input) Shader,
Mix (. 4.104)

. 4.104.

.
Phong. Specular.
. Slip . Diffuse:
R = 0.119
G = 0.07
B = 0.03

.
Specular Intensity 0.
.
( Lamp Outliner), <N>
Location:
X = 7.900
Y = 2.500
Z = 7.000

, <Shift>+<D> Lamp. :
X = 0.400
Y = 13.600
Z = 1.000

, <F12> (. 4.105).

213

. 4.105.

214

,
.
,
. , , ...
. 3D
. , , , .

. Blender
, .
, , , , .

5.1. Blender
, Blender , . , .
.
. ,

, : , , .
. -

216

. ("")

.
. (. 6).
.
" ". (key) . ,
, .
, . .
Blender ,
.
Timeline ( ).
. , . .
Graph Editor ( ).
.
.
.
Dope Sheet ( ). ,
, :
Dope Sheet , . .
Graph Editor
;
Action Editor ( ) , . (Action);
Shape Key Editor ( ) .
NLA Editor ( NLA).
.
(), ( ), , .

5.2. Timeline
Timeline (. 5.1) ( ). , . .

217

. , .
3D View
Timeline. , .

. , , .
. Blender
(key channels).

. 5.1. Timeline

.
, ,
3D View,
.
. 5.1. Timeline ,
, . ,
. Start
End, .
.
Current Frame ( ) . , . ,
Current Frame .
Timeline
. ,
3D View.
.
(. 5.2).
,
.

. 5.2.

, .
- , ,
, . .

218

. , <I> 3D View Insert


Keyframe ( ) Location (). .
.
, :
1. .
2. <I> 3D View . : Location (), Rotation (),
Scalling (). .
3. .
4. Current Frame Timeline.
5. .
6. .
7. ,
, ,
.
!
Timeline , . : ; , ; .

. , . .
, .
, , . , Blender
.
, Timeline
. ,
,
.
Keying Set (
). . 5.3 .
. 5.3. Keying Set .

219

Keying Set, , ,
. , Timeline
.
Timeline
(. 5.4):
1. Start.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ( End).
7. Sync Mode.

. 5.3.

. 5.4.

Sync Mode,
:
No Sync ( ) ,

;
AV-Sync ( ) -

, ;
Frame Dropping ( )

, No Sync
. Blender , . .

220

5.3. Graph Editor


Graph Editor
, . , .
, ?
. , , .
Blender Animation . 3D View Front View
.
, <I> Location . 50
. X Location.
,
Timeline <Alt>+<A>. ,
. , .
, , ,
.
Graph Editor. ,
(. 5.5).
Graph Editor , , . , -

. 5.5. Graph Editor

221

, , .
,
, X
, .
,
, . , ,
, Graph Editor.
. .
.
. .
, X .
Graph Editor 3D View.
, <Tab> ,
, . .
, .

Graph Editor , , .

, , ,
, , ?
Graph Editor <N>. Properties,
(. 5.6).
X .
Active Keyframe ( ) .
Interpolation (). Linear ().
. , . ,
<Alt>+<A>.
Graph Editor.
(. 5.7).
, Location. , .
:

Graph Editor;

222

. -

, , ;
.

. 5.6. Properties Graph Editor

. 5.7.

Graph Editor. ,
, . .
, 360 ,
.
, . Blender , .
UV Sphere, .
1
( <I>, Rotation).

223

50- Timeline.
Z (<R>, <Z>) .
, , , ,
.
. Graph Editor ,
Z ( ). ,
Z Euler Rotation .
<A> .
Channel Graph Editor
(. 5.8). : Channel | Extrapolation Mode |
Linear Extrapolation ( | | ).
, .
,
.

. 5.8. Extrapolation

, .
, , .
. . : Tube ; UV Sphere .

3D View <Ctrl>+<Up> .
.

,
(. 5.9).

224

. 5.9.

. 5.10.
3D Cursor

Join (<Ctrl>+<J>).
. 5.9 , .
.
3D Cursor (. 5.10).
3D View Object | Transform | Origin to 3D Cursor
( | | 3D Cursor).
, .
.
:
1. Front View .
2. <N> 3D View.
3. 10 Y Rotation. .
4. Timeline .
5. <I> 3D View Rotation. Timeline .

225

6. Timeline 25 .
7. Rotation Y 10.
.
8. Rotation .
9. 50. .
10. 10 Y Rotation. .
11. .
, <Alt>+<A>.
, (. 5.11).

. 5.11. Y -

. Graph Editor Y Euler


Rotation, Channel | Extrapolation Mode | Make Cyclic
( | | ).
.
(. 5.12).
, ,
. .
, Make Cyclic
Cycles (). -

226

,
Graph Editor. <N> .
Y Euler Rotation ,
Modifiers Cycles (. 5.13).

. 5.12. Y Make Cyclic

. 5.13.
Cycles

Before () After () . .
:
No Cycles ( );
Repeat Motion ( );

227

Repeat with Offset ( );


Repeat Mirrored ( ). .

, 200.
Before No Cycles. .
200 .
, After Cycles ,
. :
. 3 (. 5.14). , 0
, .

. 5.14.

5.4.
.
.
.
, .
, <NumPad 7>, <NumPad 5>
Top .
. , .

228

<Z> Wireframe.
(<B>) .
Properties.
Mirror.
Z. Front View (<NumPad 1>), <A>, . (<S>), Z (<Z>). , . 5.15.

. 5.15.

. Top. .
, <W>,
Merge (At Center). ,
.
.
(. 5.16).
.
<A>.
(. 5.17).
. Extrude.
<E> . ,
. 5.18. ( Apply ).

229

. 5.16.

. 5.17.

. 5.18.

,
Path. Add | Curve |
Path. Path NURBS, . , 3.
.
(. 5.19).
Blender Constraint
(). , Constraint
. ,
.
. Constraint
Properties (. 5.20).

230

. 5.19.

. 5.20. Constraint

Follow Path ( ). Object


Constraints (. . 5.20)
(. 5.21).
Target Path.
3D View .
, . . .
. , , .
Path, Object Data Properties (. 5.22).
Path Animation ( ).
:
Frames () ;
Evaluation Time ( ) , , Frames.

. 5.21. Follow Path

231

. 5.22. Path

, . ,
, . 100 :
1. Path Animation Object Data
(. . 5.22).
2. Timeline.
3. Evaluation Time . , Insert Keyframe
( ).
4. 100.
5. , . Evaluation Time. , . .
6. Evaluation Time
.
7. 100 Frames.
.
(. 5.23).

Graph Editor.
. , Evaluation
Time Delete Keyframe ( ) Replace Keyframe ( ).

232

. 5.23. " "

Follow Path, , Follow Curve ( ).


. Forward
() , .
(. 5.24).

. 5.24.

233

5.5.
,
. -. , . , , . ,
. ,
, .
Icosphere.
Add | Mesh. , . . Tool Shelf,

Icosphere, Subdivisions .
5 (. 5.25).

. 5.25. Icosphere

, ,
. Shape Keys ( ).
Shape Keys Object Data.
. , Shape
: . ,
. , Shape Keys
, . .
Object Data .
Shape Keys (. 5.26).
, .
, .
, (, , )
Object Mode, .

234

"+". "Basis".
, .
. "Key 1".
, ,
(. 5.27).

. 5.26. Shape Keys

. 5.27.

. .
, , .
, .
(<Tab>) (<A>),
, , . ,
3D View.
Blender , , . Select Every N Number of Verts (
N ). Tool Shelf , . N Selection 2, . . 5.28.
. Extrude , . Blender Extrude Individual.
Mesh <Alt>+<E> Individual Faces. .
,
"" .

235

. 5.28.

, .
Shape. <S> .
. ,
(<Alt>+<S>), . <W>, Merge,
Collapse ().
. <Tab> .
. Edit Mode , Basis (. 5.29).
Value (. . 5.27).
Basis Key 1, .
0 .
, <Alt>+<A>,
.
, ShapeKey Editor DopeSheet.
Animation. DopeSheet .

236

. 5.29.

, Graph Editor.
(), Shape.
Mode ShapeKey Editor
(. 5.30).

. 5.30. Mode DopeSheet

. 5.31.

DopeSheet Shape . Key 1 (. 5.31).


. (. . 5.31). Value .

237

, Shape :
1. Timeline.
2. Shape DopeSheet.
3. .
4. Value.
5. , DopeSheet,
Graph Editor Timeline (. 5.32).

. 5.32. DopeSheet

ShapeKey Editor Shape, DopeSheet .


, Shape,
. Shape
.
Shape.
(<G>).
Shape Delete (<X>).

5.6.
,
. , , .
, , ,
. ,
, , , , .

. - , , ,
.
.
.
Blender Armature () Add | Armature ( | ) .
Single Bone (
).
Bone () .
.
(. 5.33).

238

. 5.33.

Bone : (Root), (Body)


(Tip). , (. 5.34).
(Constraint),
. ,
360 .
Constraint.
Tip

Body

. 5.34.

Root

. Blender Skinning ().


.

239


. , , .
Blender , .
Skinning .
, .
, . , Pose Mode
( ).
. Action () .
, :
Object Mode ( ) ;
Edit Mode ( ) ;
Pose Mode ( ) .

Mode 3D View Armature.


, .
.

5.7.
, ,
. , .
, Bone, .
Blender Add | Armature. , . Armature Edit Mode.
,
Front View, . ,
Single Bone <NumPad 1>.
(. . 5.34). , :
Root Tip -

Grab (<G>);

240

Body ,

: , , .
, Extrude. (Tip)
<E>. (. 5.35).

. 5.35. Extrude Tip

, Root .
, , ,
. ,
, . ( Body) ,
. , Root, , "
", . , Bone, Root
, , . .
, Mesh: Extrude, Duplicate, Subdivide, Delete, Merge. , , Tool Shelf Armature.
Mesh. .

241

. ,
, Armature.
, . Bone X 180 , . . , Root . Tip
Extrude. Tip
.
. 5.36, , . , ,
, , .
,
. Bone Properties (. 5.37).
, .
Blender Bone (Bone001,
Bone002 . .). :
, Root;
Shoulder_R;
Shoulder_L.

"Root" , "", "Shoulder" "".


. , ,
:
"R" "Right" ;
"L" "Left" .

, .
X-Axis Mirror Tool Shelf (. 5.38).
Tip Shoulder. Bone
(. 5.36, ).
(, , )
. , .
? . , ,
. Blender
(Forward Kinematics, FK). .

242

. 5.36. "" (),


X-Axis Mirror ()

243

, - . , .
(Inverse Kinematics, IK).

. 5.38. X-Axis Mirror


. 5.37.

. 5.39. Pose Mode Mode


Pose Mode ( ) (. 5.39).
, <Tab> Edit Mode. , , . Pose Mode
, Edit Mode
Pose Mode.
FK IK , . Shoulder Forearm (),
Arm (), Hand () .
Pose Mode Forearm.
Bone "" (. 5.40).

Blender , . ,
Grid Floor Display
(<N>).

244

. 5.40. (FK)

"" , . IK-
,
Constraint. (Hand) Pose Mode
Constraint Properties (. 5.41).

. 5.41. IK

245

IK (Inverse Kinematics).
Bone , Root.
Blender , IK.
, .
. IK
(Shoulder).
IK (. . 5.41).
Chain Length , IK. 0. ,
. 4
Shoulder (. 5.42).

. 5.42.

, , . . , Edit Mode
Axis Mirror, Pose Mode
. , IK
.
, ,
. , (Shoulder)
, . , ,
. .

246

Blender , IK. Inverse Kinematics Properties


(. 5.43).
( Constraint) .
, , Limit .
(Shoulder).
: X Z. ,
Y, ,
(. . 5.43).
Limit () X Z.
.
, 3D View
(. 5.44). Blender
.
180 . 20 . . !
.

. 5.43. IK

. 5.44.

247

5.8. ""
.
, .
Blender (Skinning). , . ,
.
. 5.7 ,
. , Scenes\glava5\glava5_simple_armature.blend
(. 2).
. . ,
Skinning.
Cube. Front View.
.
<Tab> , Subdivide (<W>),
. Wireframe (<Z>)
.
Mirror (. 5.45).

. 5.45.

Y Scale (<S>). . . , . 5.46. , .

248

. 5.46.

. 5.47.

. 5.46
X.
. ( Tool Shelf
Smooth, Object Mode)
Subdivision Surface ( ).
Multires
. 2 View
Render.
,
. Z
. Grab, (. 5.47).
.
. :
1. <E> . . . .
2. Extrude ,
. .
3. .
4. <E> . .
5. .
, , . 5.48.

249

. 5.48.

.
,
. , ,
Loop Cut and Slide
( ) (<Ctrl>+<R>).
. Object
Mode . , .
,
. Shoulder ,
Forearm , Hand . .
- , . , Wireframe,
.
Blender Armature,
. Properties
Display (. 5.49).
Octahedral (), Stick (), B-Bone (B-), Envelope
(), Wire () . Octahedral - , Stick .
:
Names () Blender

250

. 5.49.

Axes () . -

Edit Mode Pose Mode;


Shapes ()

. Shapes ;
Colors () ;
X-Ray ()

;
Delay Refresh ( ) Pose
Mode. .
X-Ray , . 5.50.

. 5.50.

251

!
, . Pose
Mode, Pose | Clear Transform.
<Alt>+<R>.

Object Mode.
, , <Shift>,
. <Ctrl>+<P> Set Parent
With Automatic Weights ( ).
Blender .

, . Object Data (. 5.51).

. 5.51.

Vertex Groups ,
. , 4.
(Select), (Assign) (Remove).
. Pose Mode
. ,
(. 5.52).
Blender
, . ,
- , -

252

, Mesh- (
. 5.52).
. :
.

. 5.52.

Blender " ",


. Skinning . Blender Weight Paint ( ) 3D View,
. Mode, Mesh- (. 5.53).
, , Blender
Bone .
, . , ,
, .
. ,
Vertex Paint
( ). , (Strenght),
(Radius).

253

, , . Tool Shelf Weight ().


, , , .

. 5.53. Weight Paint

. , . Blender

.
. 5.52. ,
. , , . Bone
. Object Data
Vertex Groups. , .
.
Parent, Bone. Weight Paint.

5.9. ""
, Constraint ,
. , , Constraint
.

254

Constraint Properties (. 5.54).


.
Motion Tracking ( ). 2.61, Blender

Motion Tracking. .
Transform (). ,

: , , .
Tracking (). ,
. ,
Track To
.
Relationship ().

, , , Follow Path.

. 5.54. Constraint

Constraint - .
,
, Constraint (. 5.55).
Constraint : , ( ), .

. 5.55. Constraint

255

.
.
Transform. .
Constraint.
Copy (Location, Rotation, Scale, Transforms) ( (, -

, , )). , Target, (. 5.56). ( ).

. 5.56.
Copy Location

. , . 5.57
,
, . , Constraint
. Copy Rotation.
Limit (Distance, Location, Rotation, Scale) ( (, , , ). ,
Constraint .
, , .
.
. 5.57 , .
Limit
Rotation. Constraint ,

(. 5.58).
Limit Limit Distance. ,
.
.
.

256

. 5.57.

. 5.58.
Limit Rotation


Constraint Influence,
. .

Maintain Volume ( ). , -

. ! :
(. 5.59).
Tracking Constraint.
Clamp To ().

Follow Path.

257

. 5.59. Maintain Volume. ,

(. . 5.4). Clamp
To ,
.
.
Cube Curve Path. ,
. Clamp To (. 5.60).

. 5.60. Clamp To

Constraint . Target
Path, Axis , , Cyclic.
.
,
.
Location.
. ,
<I> Location . -

258

,
Location. <Alt>+<A> .
, Clamp To , Follow Path.
. .
Damped Track ( ). , ,

"" .
Target .
Inverse Kinematics ( ). . 5.7.
Locked Track ( ).

"" . Locked
Track . , , ,
.
Spline IK ( IK). , -

. , , (. 5.61).

. 5.61. Spline IK

Stretch To (). , ,

"" Target
.
Track To (). Constraint,

. ,
.

259


Constraint , . : Damped Track, Track To Lock Track.
, , <Shift> Target <Ctrl>+<T>. Constraint. , Blender , .

Relationship () 8 .
Action (). , -

Target . ,
.
Cube Sphere. 25 .
Location. CubeAction ( , ,
DopeSheet).
Action (. 5.62).

. 5.62.
Action

Target Cube, Action CubeAction.


Transform Channel ,
. Location X ( X).
Action Lenght (Start) (End)
. 1 25 , . Action Length
.
Target Range
. 0.
,
, . Max

260

3 .
.
Child Of ( ).

Parent. .
Floor (). Constraint
, . , Target
.
Plane UV Sphere.
Floor. Target
Plane. Z ( ),
Z Floor (. 5.63).

. 5.63. Floor

, , "" ( ). X Y,
Z, Plane.
Floor Sticky. , , "" Target.
Z .
Follow Path ( ).
. 5.4.
Pivot (). .
, Target.
Rigid Body Joint ( Rigid Body). , .
Script (). . Blender Constraint.

261

Shrinkwrap (). -

,
.

5.10. Action Editor


, Pose Mode.
. Blender,
, Scenes/glava5/
glava5_skin_simple.blend (. 2).
Pose Mode. Animation. .
, - . , , (. . 5.2). Timeline.
.
, IK-.
0. Bone, <I>
Insert Keyframe (. 5.64).

. 5.64.

Whole Character ( ). Blender . .

262

Dope Sheet Curve Editor,


Bone, .
. . , (5.65).

. 5.65. Dope Sheet

, .
Dope Sheet Curve Editor .
,
. , , , ! , ,
. , , . . , .
"" (Action) ,
, .
,
. , , , Action.
, , , .
Action . ,
, .
Action .
Action ( ) .
,
Blender .

263

. . 5.65, Dope Sheet.



ArmatureAction. .
, Blender
Action NLA Editor.
. .
Dope Sheet Action Editor
( ), Mode (. 5.66).

. 5.66. Dope Sheet Action

, Action Editor Dope Sheet. , Dope Sheet,



. ,
(. 5.67).

. 5.67.

Blender. , , . :
, ; ;
"+" " ".

264

,
ArmatureAction. Action. Action Editor . , Blender . <A> <X> .
.

5.11. NLA Editor


Non-Linear Animation Editor ( ) , .
NLA Editor
.
, .
, ,
. - , .
. : Cube UV Sphere. , , .
Blender . Front. .
. Animation Timeline (. 5.68).

. 5.68.

, <I> Insert Keyframe. Location. Timeline


20. .

265

. .
Location. 20
.
<Alt>+<A> . ,
. , , , , NLA Editor.
NLA Editor, Dope Sheet.
: , (. 5.69).

. 5.69. NLA Editor

, .
Cube Sphere. NLA Editor , Action Editor.
Blender : SphereAction CubeAction.
, , . , NLA Editor
,
. ,
.
Action (. . 5.69). . , , NLA. (. 5.70).
, . -, NlaTrack. -,
.
Blender Strip (, ).
, .
, .
Strip SphereAction. ,
CubeAction . , Blender Strip .

266

. 5.70. NLA Editor

SphereAction , , . Strip TempMeta .


,
. CubeAction
(. 5.71).
.

. 5.71.

NlaTrack . Strip Action.


,
Strip. Strip SphereAction
<Shift>+<A>. ,
. CubeAction (. 5.72).

. 5.72.

267

, SphereAction CubeAction.
, . .
, CubeAction,
Sphere. , . , ,
. - , NLA Editor
Action .
(, ). Strip,
. 5.73, .

. 5.73. Strip

NLA Editor Strip . .


. . Add | Add Track NLA Editor.
Strip, ,
<X>.
NLA Editor,
.
, Strip
.
Strip <N>.
Properties (. 5.74).
Strip.
Strip ( Action Action Clip). Strip ( Muted) .
:
Reversed ( Active Strip) Strip ;
Scale ( Action Clip) Strip , .

268
. 5.74.
NLA Editor

Scale 0.5
Reversed. ,
Strip .

5.12. .

? , , .
.
:
1. : , ,
.
2. .
3. .
4. .

, . ,
Blender, . . ,
,
. ,
. ,

.
,
, , .
,
.
. UV Sphere.
, . Front View.

Z . -

269

. <O>, <G> <Z>.


, (. 5.75).

. 5.75.

Smooth Object Mode, .


<H>, .
.
Circle Mesh. Top View
(<Num Pad 7>) .
Tool Shelf Add Circle, . Fill ().
:
1. Front View (<NumPad 1>) (<Tab>).
2. Extrude Tool Shelf ( <E>) .
. (<S>)
. , (. 5.76).

270

. 5.76.

3. , Top View. <E>


.
Scale (<S>). (. 5.77).

. 5.77.

4. . . , .
5.
Subdivision Surface. 2 View (. 5.78).
. UV
Sphere, <H>, .
Add | Mesh | UV Sphere.
Smooth Tool Shelf. -

271

, .
Properties New.
, . Diffuse . White.

. 5.78.

, ,
Yellow (. 5.79).
,
. 5.80.

Circle (<C>) Top View.

Material
Yellow Assign.
, . -
, . 4.6.
.
<Alt>+<H>
.

. 5.79.

272

. 5.80.

. . <N> . 90 Rotation Y (. 5.81).

. 5.81.

273

, .
.
, <NumPad .>, <NumPad 1>
Front View. .
<Alt> (. 5.82).

. 5.82.

.
Select | Inverse. <H>,
.
.

Random. Proportional Editiing
3D View (. 5.83).
<G>, <X> . , Random
(. 5.84).
<Alt>+<H> , . Mesh | Verticles | Separate.
(. 5.85).
. (<R>). ,
(. 5.86).

274

. 5.83. Random

. 5.84.

. 5.85.

275

. 5.86.

, .
.
3D Cursor Origin To
3D Cursor.
3D Cursor . Snap.
(Front View)
. Mesh | Snap | Cursor to Selected. 3D Cursor
. .
Mesh | Transform | Origin to 3D Cursor. (. 5.87).
, . Outliner. ,
, Outliner,
, <Ctrl>, .
:
egg_left;
egg_right;
Target;
egg_in.
.
.

276

. 5.87.

egg_left, <I>
Rotation. 25 . <R> Rotation. egg_right. 25 , . <Alt>+<A> (. . 5.87).
. . egg_in , . . .
Lattice.
Lattice. Lattice
:
U=3
V=3
W=4
.
, Lattice
. egg_in Lattice.
Object .
, . Lattice , , . ,

277

.
egg_in Z Lattice
(. 5.88).

. 5.88. Lattice

egg_in.
Timeline 1. . <I>
, Location. 25,
Location. (. 5.89).
,
. NLA Editor.
Animation. NLA Editor
. NLA.
(. 5.90).
, Lattice
. ,
Lattice , . Blender,
.

278

. 5.89. 25

. 5.90. NLA Editor

, : , ; , ; , .
, .
, Blender ,
. , ,
Lattice
.
Blender.
. , .
,
, , , .
. , .
. ,
.

6.1. Blender
, . . ,
9.8 /. Blender .
Z, . . . Blender , .
Scene Properties

280

(. 6.1). Gravity
, .
Blender . , , , .
Properties. Physics () (. 6.2).

. 6.1. Gravity

. 6.2. Physics Properties

Force Field ( ). ,

. , .
Collision ().
. , ,
Mesh-.
Soft Body ( ).
, , . , -,
.
Cloth (). , .
. ,
Soft Body, Cloth .
Fluid (). . : , ; ; .
Smoke (). , .
Dynamic Paint ( ). ,
, ,
, , .
Properties, Particles
() (. 6.3).
Blender.

281

. 6.3. Particles Properties

6.2.
(Particles) , .
Blender.
, . : , , , , ,
, . .
, ,
(Emitter). Mesh.
. Mesh ,
Particles Properties (. . 6.3) .
. . , , , , .
, Blender.

(. 6.4).
. Type (. 6.5).
( Hair) , , . "" , . ,
, .
( Emitter), , . , :
, , , , . .

Particle. .
, , Emission ().
(. 6.6).

282

. 6.4.

. 6.5.

. 6.6. Emission

,
Start () End (). .
<Alt>+<A>. , .
, .
, Start
. "50".
, , . ,

283

. (Lifetime). . 6.6 Lifetime 50. , 50 .


, .
Random (). 0. ,
.
Random 1 . .
!
, .
Start, . ,
, , Blender
. , ,
.

Number () ,
Start End. ,
.
Emission Emit From ( ), . ,
. , . Verts () Faces () (. 6.7).
. , Random. ,
. Random,
.
, Faces
(. . 6.6). .
Random (). , Verts.
Even Distribution (). , ,
.
Jittered, Random, Grid
.
Jittered (). . ,
. :
Particles/Face ,
;
Jittering Amount ( ) .

284

. 6.7.

Random (). . .
Grid (). . . ,
Hexagonal .
Cache () . .
Cache .
, , , . Z. , Blender , .
Velocity () ,
(. 6.8).
Emitter Geometry ( )
. : Normal ()
Tangent (). . Normal (. 6.9).

285

. 6.8.

. 6.9. Normal

, Rot.
Emitter Object ()
, . XYZ (. 6.10). Random,
.
Rotation () (. 6.11).
Rotation Axis ( )
X. Phase () . Random .

286

. 6.10. Z

. 6.11.

Angular Velocity ( ) . :
None ( ) ;
Spin ()

;
Random () .

Dynamic (). ,
, .
,
.

287

!
! Rotation Axes ,
, Angular Velocity
.

Physics , (. 6.12).

. 6.12.

.
. . .
:
None ( )

;
Newtonian () .

;
Keyed () -

, . , , ;
Boids () ,

. , , ;
Fluid () -

.
Physics :
Size () ;
Random Size ( )

Size;
Mass () . , None;

288

Multiply mass ( )

.
Mass.
. , - Blender,
. Display () Render (, )
(. 6.13).

. 6.13.

Display () 3D View.
, . None ( ), Rendered (),
Point (), Circle (), Cross (), Axis ()
( )
( Rendered , ).
, Size (), Velocity (), Number
(), , , , (. 6.14).
Render ()
. - , Emitter.

289

. 6.14. Size, Velocity, Number

,
.
Halo, . , .
. Emitter,
. Object Render (. 6.15).

. 6.15. Object

Dupli Object . . Size () 0.5, Random Size


( ) 0.584. <F12>
(. 6.16).

290

. 6.16.

6.3.

, . , Blender
Hair (), .
Hair . .
. , "+"
Particles.
Type Hair (. . 6.5).
. , , .
, Start, End Lifetime
(. 6.17).
Hair Length ( ). ,
. , 0.2 (. 6.18).

. 6.17. Hair

291

. 6.18.

, ,
. , Number, (Children).
Children-.
, .
Children , . .

.
-

, .
Particles , Children
(. 6.19). ( None).
Simple, (. 6.20).
, , . , .
Children : Display () Render (). .
3D View, . 20.
, ,
, .
.

292

. 6.19.

. 6.20. Children

Blender ( , ) ,
.
Strand, .
Render Particles Strand render
(. 6.21).

293

. 6.21. Render Hair

Strand
(. 6.22).

. 6.22. Strand

, , . , , ,
Velocity, Rotation, Physics, . - ,
, Hair .
3D View. -
.
Monkey,
Mesh Add. , .
. <N> 90 Rotation X.
(Smooth) Subdivision Surface (. 6.23).

294

. 6.23.

Particle, , . Monkey
. , . 6.24.

. 6.24.

295

.
Object Data Properties. Vertex Groups,
, Assign (. 6.25).

. 6.25.

. 6.26.

.
Hair Type.
. , Vertex Groups Density (. 6.26).
. 6.26 , .
Children. , -
, .
Emission Hair Length, 0.5.
Children. Simple, Display Render 10.
Render Strand Render (. 6.27).
. Mode 3D View,
Particle Mode ( ) (
).
.
Tool Shelf, (. 6.28).

296

. 6.27. Monkey

. 6.28.
Tool Shelf
Particle Mode

. Brush . 7 :
Comb () .
;
Smooth () ;
Add () ;
Length () ;
Puff () , ,

;
Cut () ;
Weight () . 1 -

, 0 .
, .
, , , - .
, Children.
Children Tool Shelf
(. . 6.28).

297

. Comb . Top View (<NumPad 7>).


Radius
Strength.
Monkey . ,
. , Limit Selection, 3D View (. 6.29).

. -.
.
Monkey. .
.
.
Material Render. .
(. 6.30).

. 6.29.

Limit Selection

. 6.30. Monkey

6.4. Soft Body


, Soft Body,
Blender. . Soft Body -

298

, , .
, ,
Soft Body. ,
.
, Soft Body , ,
. .
, Plane. . . , Subdivide, Plane
.
Physics Properties Soft Body
(. . 6.2). .
3D View. , .
, , Soft
Body. .
, ,
. , , .
, . Object Data.
Vertex Groups ( ), ,
Assign. Soft Body Soft Body Goal ( Soft Body) (. 6.31).

. 6.31. Soft Body Goal

"goal" "". ,
, .
Vertex Group. <Alt>+<A> (. 6.32).
, , . , .
Soft Body , .
(. 6.33).
:
Friction () .
, ;

299

. 6.32. , ,

. 6.33. Soft Body

Mass () , ;
Speed () .

Mass, . ,
. , , , . ,
Weight Paint 3D View.
. 10
Mass (. 6.34).
, Plane .
Friction. 15
. .
!
, Soft Body
.

. .
, , . .
.

300

. 6.34.

UV Sphere . Soft Body. ,


. :
Friction = 0.1
Mass = 0.5

,
Soft Body Goal,
, Soft Body Edges ( Soft Body) (. 6.35).

. 6.35. Soft Body Edges

:
Pull () . ,

301

Push () . -

;
Damp () . ,

;
Plastic () , ,

;
Bending () Damp,

;
Length () .

, . 0
, 100 .
:
Pull = 0.9

Plastic = 0

Push = 0.9

Bending = 10

Damp = 0.5

Length = 0

, ,
Plane. , . Collision Physics
(. . 6.2). (. 6.36).

. 6.36. Soft Body

302


, , . Cache . Soft Body Cache ( Soft Body) ,
. Bake All Dynamics (
) . .
. . Free All Bakes ( ). , .

6.5.
Soft Body,
Cloth (),
Physics (. . 6.2).
, Plane
. , . , Plane.
Subdivide.
Cloth (. 6.37).

. 6.37. Cloth

Cloth ,
, .
Cloth .
, , .

303

Presets ():
Cotton ();
Rubber ();
Denim ();
Silk ().
Leather ();
. ,
Play Timeline .
, .
Collision Cube (. 6.38).

. 6.38.

, , ,
- . .
Quality (). . , ,
.
Damping ():
Spring () ;
Air () .
Material ():
Mass () ;
Structural () ;
Bending () .

304

Pinning (). ,

. Soft Body
Goal.

6.6.
Blender
, . , ,
, . , ? ,
, , , ,
. .
Force Fields ( ) Blender,
. , , Soft Body, Particles, Cloth.
Physics (. . 6.2). , ,
(. 6.39).

. 6.39.

Force Fields Type,


. :
Force () , . Force ;

305

Wind () , .

- ,
;
Vortex () ;
Magnetic () -

. ;
Harmonic ()

;
Charge () ,

Charge;
Lennard-Jones

, ,
;
Texture () , .
RGB ;
Curve Guide ( ) , -

. . . ;
Boid () , Force;
Turbulence ()

Noise 3D-;
Drag () .

, .
,
Z. Shape.
: Point ( ) Plane ( Z).
Force Fields :
Strength () ;
Flow () ;
Noise () , ;
Seed ( ) Noise,

;
Effect point ( ) ,

: Location () Rotation ().


-.
Empty. .

306

, Plane Empty. . .
Empty Force Field Type Wind.
Z.
. Wind, 4 (
Strenght). Empty (. 6.40).

. 6.40.

, .
, .
Falloff (. . 6.39).
: Sphere (), Tube (), Cone (). .
3D View ,
(. 6.41).

307

. 6.41. Wind Tube

6.7.
Blender ,
Wave, Ocean, Displacement.
, Lattice. .
Blender . Fluid () (. . 6.2).
Fluid Domain (). , . , , .
Mesh.
. Fluid Physics. , Type
Domain (. 6.42).
, ,
. Domain World (
) Viscosity Presets ( ).

308

4 :
Water ();
Oil ();
Honey ();
Manual ( ).

. 6.42.

,
. (Water).
Fluid. . ,
(. 6.43).
(. . 6.2), Type
Fluid.
, <Alt>+<A>
. ,
. Blender
, Fluid.

309

. 6.43. Domain Fluid

( Cube) Fluid
(. . 6.42). , .
.
Bake () .
Resolution () -

3D View ( Preview) (Final).


, Final .
.
Render Display ( ) ,

: (Final), (Preview)
(Geometry).
Viewport Display ( ) , -

, 3D View.
Time () (Start)

(End) .

310

,
,
.
Bake
. ,
Blender . .

. 6.44. Fluid

, <Esc>.
,
. .
. 6.44 , -. ?
( ), Domain.

Fluid , . .
. <H>,
.

311

. .
<S>, <Z> Z.
.
(<Tab>) c Subdivide.
Top View (<NumPad 7>) ,
. 6.45.

. 6.45.

, Grab, Z. (Smooth) Subdivision Surface. (. 6.46).


.
, Blender , .
Fluid.
Physics, Fluid, Type
Obstacle ().
Bake (. 6.47).

Fluid. , Blender - .
.

312

. 6.46. ,

. 6.47.

313

6.8.
. , . 6.2. ,
, .
Physics Smoke () (. . 6.2). Smoke (. 6.48).

. 6.48. Smoke

Smoke
. , , Fluid.
,
Smoke.
, .
. , Smoke
Flow.
. Particles
Properties.
Fluid
, <Alt>+<A> (. 6.49).
, - , - .
, ,
-, . , . . Domain Z <Alt>+<A>.
(. 6.50).

314

. 6.49.

. 6.50.

315

<F12> , . , Smoke , , ,
.
.
, Material, , .
Volume, Density () 0
(. 6.51).

. 6.51.

. 6.52.

Texture Type Voxel Data (


). (. 6.52):
1. Domain Object .
2. Influence Density Emission Color.
- . . Render Emitter.
, - . Density Scale
(. 6.53).

316

. 6.53. Density Scale = 5

6.9. .
,
. Blender .
, ,
(. 6.54).
, , .
, , . 6.54.
, .
Particle, Z .
, .
.
Object 3D View Quick Effects,
:
Quick Fur ();
Quick Explode ();
Quick Smoke ();
Quick Fluid ().

317

. 6.54. . theepochtimes.com


. Quick Smoke. .
Domain Flow, . , - .
-, ,
3D View. X Y.
- (. 6.55).
Quick Smoke ,
. .
, ,
Z, . Vortex.
Empty Add. , -. Physics
Properties Force Field. Type Vortex.
Vortex .
(Strenght) 10, Flow = 5. .

318

. 6.55.

. 6.56.

319

Smoke .
Dissolve (). . Time. 25.
, 25 .
, <Alt>+<A>
(. 6.56).

6.10. .
, ,
. .
, , Dynamic Paint ( ).
: Plane UV Sphere.
, , , . .
Dynamic Paint ( ) .
, .
Blender.
.
Dynamic Paint, .
Plane, Physics Dynamic Paint
(. 6.57).

. 6.57. Dynamic Paint

Plane , Canvas, Add


Canvas, (. 6.58).
, Canvas .
, ,
Dynamic Paint , .
Surface Type ( ) Dynamic
Paint Advanced:
Paint () ;

320

Displace ()

;
Waves () ,

;
Weight () .

Waves.

. 6.58. Canvas

. ,
Dynamic Paint. Brush, Add Brush.
.
. ,
Dynamic Paint Mesh.
, .
Plane Subdivide .

321

Dynamic Paint . , Canvas .


(<Alt>+<A>) Plane
(. 6.59).

. 6.59.

322

,
,
. ,
, .
.
Blender
: , , , .

7.1.
Blender ,
(. 7.1).
(Lamp) Blender,
. , , , .

. 7.1.

324

, , ,
. , , .
, ,
.
.
Blender ,
Add | Lamp. , .
:
Point () , . ;
Sun () , , . , ;
Spot () ,
. .
;
Hemi () , ;
Area ()
. , .
, ,
( ). , , . ,
!
Lamp Properties
(. 7.2).
, , . -, Lamp . , , .
-, .
Energy () . Energy .
. ,
.
!
:
Negative ()
;

325

. 7.2.

This Layer Only ( ) , ,

;
Specular () ;
Diffuse () .
Point Spot. .
Spot.
,
, (. 7.3).
Spot. ,
.
Spot . .
. Blender (. 7.4).
Spot, ,
Lamp (. 7.5).

326

. 7.3. Spot

. 7.4. Spot

. 7.5. Spot

Spot Shape ( ) ,
. Size () .

. .
Blend. ,
(. 7.6).

. 7.6.
Blend

327

. 7.7. Halo

Spot Shape Halo (),


. ,
. .
Halo Intensity (),
(. 7.7).
( ) "". Spot Point ,
. Distance (). Falloff
(. . 7.2).

Spot .
Square () Spot Shape, .

, .
Blender .
Textures. ,
, ,
(. 7.8).
, Blender .
, Hemi, Shadow ().
Lamp (. 7.9).
,
No Shadow ( ) , , Ray Shadow
( ).

328

. 7.8.

. 7.9. Shadow

Sampling () ,
. , Samples, .
.
Soft Size ( )
.

7.2.
Blender ,
. Sun (). , ,
.

329


. .
,
(. 7.10).

. 7.10. , Sun

Sun , . .
Skybox ( ,
), Sun
.
.
Sky & Atmosphere ( ) (. 7.11).
Blender ,
Sky Presets,
.
Sky , ( ). .
Turbidity (). . , -

, , .
Blending ().

Sky .
Factor.

330

Horizon () : Brightness ()

Spread (). ,
.
Sun, . Size

, Brightness . Back Light


.

. 7.11. Sun

Atmosphere
, . , .
Intensity
. , Sun,
. Scattering
.
(. 7.12).

331

. 7.12.

7.3.
Blender.
(). (. 7.13).

. 7.13.

332

,
. ,
Constraint. ,
Track To.
<NumPad 0>, Blender
3D View (. 7.14).

. 7.14. Camera View

, , ,
.
Passepartout Display.
, ( 16:9). ( ), . Properties
(. 7.15).

Camera View,
Tittle Safe ( ).
, ,
. ,
, . Tittle Safe
Display Camera.

333

. 7.15.

""
.
Clipping (). Start () End ().
Camera 3D View .
Limits () Display (. 7.16).
. 35- .
Focal Length ( ). , .
, , . . .
.

334

. 7.16.

Depth of Filed ( ).

Distance (), . Focus (), .

Camera,
. - .

. .

. ,
, Add.
. , <Ctrl>+<NumPad 0>.

7.4. :
, ,
, ,
. ! Blender ,

335

.
.
- . . . ,
- . . Green
Screen . , ( ). , , , .
World () Properties
(. 7.17).
Preview, .

. 7.17. World

336

Horizon
Color ( ). .
, . .
:
Blend Sky ( ) ,

Horizon Color ( ) Zenith Color ( ). , ;


Paper Sky ( ) ,
;
Real Sky ( ) ,

Horizon Color. .

(. 7.18).

. 7.18.

, . . . Blender , (. 7.19).
Ambient Occlusion ( ).
. Ambient Occlusion
,
. ,

337

. Ray Tracing.
Ambient Occlusion .

Factor (. 7.20).

. 7.19.

. 7.20. Ambient Occlusion (Factor = 0.5)

Ambient Occlusion , Indirect Lighting ( )


. -

338

. 7.21. Indirect Lighting

, .
Indirect Lighting (. 7.21).
Emit () Shading,
. Indirect Lighting
.
Emit . Indirect Lighting Gather (),
Approximate () (. 7.22).

. 7.22. Indirect Lighting

Indirect Lighting :
Factor () , ;
Bounces () .
Blender , (. 7.23). ,
(. 7.24).
Mist ():
Minimum () ;
Start () , ;

339

. 7.23. () ()

. 7.24.

340

Depth () . Start.

, ;
Height () . -

. ,
. .
, Mist .
3D View .
, Display Mist.
Blender
. Stars (. 7.25).

. 7.25.

Stars:
Size ( );
Colors () .

,
;

. 7.26.

341

Min. Dist. ( ) .

, ,
.
;
Separation () .

.
, , Halo. Blender Sun. Stars
.
Stars , (. 7.26).

7.5. .
,
Sun. .
,
Plane.
3D View (<N>).
. .
,
Displacement Map
(. . 4.10).
. 8.300
Scale (. 7.27).

. 7.27. Plane


3D View. .
Textures Properties. ,
New.
Cloud,
Type. Clouds Size 1.50. , . .
.

342

Properties
Displace. , Texture .
3D View .
, Plane Subdivide. Mesh-.
, , .
!
Smooth Object Mode.
(. 7.28).

. 7.28.

, . Camera
:
Location X = 0

Rotation X = 90

Location Y = 12

Rotation Y = 0

Location Z = 2

Rotation Z = 0

, (<NumPad 0>) ,
. 7.29.
. Sun . ,
( Light Properties) Sun,
. Sky Atmosphere.

343

. 7.29.

, .
:
Rotation X = 54
Rotation Y = 83
Rotation Z = 161

<F12> (. 7.30).

. 7.30. ,

344

, , . , -
. Sun.
, . Sky Sun, (. . 7.11). :
Brightness = 3
Size = 10

, , .
, .
Color Space,
. CIE Exposure
0.2. .
. , Sky ?
World Properties.
. Horison Color .
(. 7.31).

. 7.31.

Blender
. , . ,
. .
.
, , ,
.

8.1.
""
<F12>.
(Render)
. .
3D . .
Blender ,
Engine (), (. 8.1).

. 8.1. Blender

346

Blender:
Blender Render ,
;
Blender Game .
Blender 3D, . , ;
Cycles Render , 2.61. . , .
.
: YafRay, LuxRender, Pov-Ray, Rendermfarm.
.
-, .
, , Cycles
GPU (). YafRay
, . ,
. Blender Render.
.
Blender . , <F12>
, . Image | Save As Image ,
<F3>.
PNG. (. 8.2).
Render , Image () Animation (). , . Blender
Image Editor, .
Display.
. ,
.
.
Dimensions () (. 8.3).
Full HD,
. . 1920 1080 . , , ,
. Resolution.
, (Aspect Ratio)

Blender

347

(Frame Rate). ( ). , PAL, 720576 25


. NTSC
, HD. ,
Blender Dimensions.
.

. 8.2.

. 8.3.

, ,
. Output ()
(. 8.4).
Blender Tmp. , . , .
File Format ( ) (. 8.5).

. 8.4.

348

. 8.5. ,

: Image () Movie ().


,
. , .
: AVI Codec, AVI JPEG, AVI Raw,
H.264, MPEG, Ogg, Xvid. , , .
?
,
Blender . , Dimensions. .
AVI , . , AVI Codec
- , ,
.
, . , (. 8.6).
, . , ,
Encoding.
,
AVI Codec. "" . .
. Blender, , . , .
( PNG),
, Blender . . ,

Blender

349

.
. , Adobe Premier , .

. 8.6.

. 8.7. Fields

, -
. , (Fields).

, 25
. . .
: (Upper Field) (Lower Field). .
, . . PAL 25 50. ,
, ,
. - , .
Post Processing ()
Fields. (. 8.7).
Blender Start
End Timeline. . Dimensions Start Frame End Frame, , (. . 8.3).
Frame Step ( ), .
,
.
, Animation!

350

8.2.
,
. . ,
.
. . ,
, . .
, ,
.
. , , , ( Blender ). .
Blender Motion Blur ( ). ,
. Motion Blur
, .
Motion Blur Render
(. 8.8).

. 8.8. Motion Blur

Motion Samples ,
Shutter . ,
Motion Blur , . . . Samples = 6 Shutter = 1. -
.
Motion Blur . ,
.
. ,
, .
(. 8.9).
Post Processing (). Edge (), Threshold
(. 8.10). Toon, .
, Anti-Aliasing
(). , (. 8.11).

Blender

351

. 8.9.

. 8.10. Edge

. 8.11.

Anti-Aliasing ,
. 5,
8, 11, 16 . ,
. , .
, Anti-Aliasing (. 8.12).

. 8.12. Anti-Aliasing

,
: Normal Map, Displacement, Shadow .
5. Bake.

352

Blender
,
. ,
. Blender ,
, .
, . ,
, .

9.1. Node Editor


Node Editor ( ) .
, . , , , .
,
(. 9.1).
, Node Editor Blender,
Editor Type (. . 1.3). Blender, , Compositing () Screen Layout (. . 1.5). :
Node Editor, UV/Image Editor, Properties, 3D View, Timeline.
, . , - Blender. , , . . ,
, , .
, (. 9.2).

354

. 9.1. Node Editor

. 9.2.

. 9.3.
Node Editor

, ,
, .
Properties, Node Editor
. Node Editor Use Nodes,
Blender
(. 9.3).

Blender

355

, , , . Node Editor
(. 9.4).
( )
(Shader Nodes). . (Texture Nodes) , , . (Compositing Nodes). , , .
Node Editor , , .
.
Compositing. Node Editor
(. . 9.4). Use Nodes.
, (. 9.5).

. 9.4.

. 9.5.

Material , . , Properties "No material node selected" ( ).


. , , .
, Node Editor .
Properties.
, Material : , Diffuse Specular.

356

New Material.
. , Properties
, .
Material Node Editor Output.
.
, , ,
. 9.5. Material Output.
, .
.
, .
Color Output .
, Output . (. 9.6).

. 9.6.

Color Material.
Color Output. .
, , Node
Editor ! , .
Color Material.
, . .

Blender

357

Add, ,
, Node Editor. Convertor | RGB to BW. . Color Material RGB to BW,
Color Output (. 9.7). <F12> .
, . <X>.

. 9.7.

9.2.
5 NLA Editor
. , Blender
?
,
, .
, . , ,
Blender ( . composing) . Video Sequence Editor ( ).

. Blender, , ,

358

,
.
Video Sequence Editor (VSE) (. 9.8):
Sequence () ;
Preview () ;
Sequence/Preview (/)

, , .

. 9.8. VSE

VSE
, Video Editing ( ) Screen Layout .
Blender . (Strip), (. 9.9).

. 9.9.

VSE : , , .
Add :
Effect Strip ();
Sound ();
Image ();
Movie ();
Scene ().

VSE Strip. Play Timeline, .

Blender

359


, Strip VSE.
Image Add, .

Strip , .
, ,
. . ,
VSE <G>, Strip.
Blender Strip. , Cross, . ,
(Alpha Over), (Color), (Speed Control) . , <Shift> ( ) Add.

Strip , , <N> VSE.
(Channel), (Opacity), (Blend)
.

, Strip.
Scene Add. ,
. ,
Strip . , Strip, . .
, . , , . . 3D.
Blender VSE. , Sequencer Post Processing
Render (. 9.10).

. 9.10. VSE

9.3.
Blender Grease
Penicil ( ).
3D View. (Gimp, Photoshop). , ?

360

3D View. Tool Shelf (. 9.11, ), Properties (. 9.11, ).

. 9.11. Grease Pencil (a) ()

Grease Pencil, Tool Shelf:


Draw () , -

;
Line () ;
Poly () , -

;
Erase () .

. ,
, . . Use
Sketching Session ( ) Tool Shelf (. . 9.11, )
. ,
<Esc>.
, Grease Pencil
, ,
. Blender . Grease Pencil Properties
(. 9.12).
, Blender
. , . New
Layer Grease Pencil
(. . 9.12). , .
. -, , , -,
. ,

Blender

361

. Erase () , .
, .
Grease Pencil Drawing Settings,
3D-.
View (). 3D View.

.
Surface (). . -

, .
, .
Cursor (). ,

3D Cursor. , . 3D Cursor,
. 3D Cursor,
.
Stroke (). ,
.
, 3D View
(. 9.13).
Grease Pencil, ,
?

. 9.12.

. 9.13.

362

.
Grease Pencil , .
. Grease Pencil
.
Convert (. . 9.11, ). , (Bezier
Curve Path).
.
, .
, ,
. . Grease Pencil.
Frames (. . 9.12). . :
1. .
2. Timeline.
3. Frames.
,
. <Alt>+<A> .
. , Grease Pencil. , , .
3D View OpenGL- (. 9.14). , .
OpenGL- Render
( , , ). Grease Pencil !

. 9.14. OpenGL-

9.4.
, Blender, .
User Preferences (
). , , Blender,
.

Blender

363

User Preferences
File <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<U> (. 9.15).
:
Interface () , -

;
Editing () , -

;
Input ()

;
Addons () ;
Themes () ;
File () , ;
System () .

. 9.15. User Preferences

Addons (). Blender


, ,
. , , . , Blender Open Source,
Blender Foundation. ,
,
Blender. -

364

Blender, , .
, , -
,
.
Addons
(. 9.16).

. 9.16. Addons

Supported Level ( ).
:
Official ();
Community ();
Testing ().

- . . , ,
Link to the Wiki, , . , .
. Add Mesh BoltFactory. , -

Blender

365

. , , , (. 9.17).
. 9.17 . , BoltFactory
, .
Add | Mesh Bolt.
Tool Shelf (. 9.18).

. 9.17. ,
BoltFactory

. 9.18.
BoltFactory

ANT Landscape Add Mesh . , .


Plane , Tool Shelf
(. 9.19).
,
Rigify Rigging. Add | Armature Human,
. , (. 9.20).
? Render. , Blender: Network Renderer, Pov-Ray, Renderfarm.

User Properties . , .

366

. 9.19. Landscape

. 9.20. , Rigify

Blender

367

9.5. .
Node Editor,
. , Blender. .
.
, ,
Marble (). .
, Compositing
Textures Nodes (. . 9.4).
Use Nodes.

Checker Output. , . .
<X> . Output
.
Add | Textures Marble. Color
(. 9.21).
- (Output
), , .

. 9.21.

368

. Color Add:
Mix Compose RGBA.
Mix .
, Factor.
Compose RGBA , RGBA.
. , Mix Marble Compose RGBA, Output. RGBA (. 9.22):
R = 0.68
G = 0.40
B = 0.40
A = 1.00

. 9.22.

, . .
Cloud. Cloud Add | Textures Mix.
Cloud .
Size 0.05.

Blender

369

. Mix Mix
Cloud (. 9.23).
(. 9.24).
Green
Screen .

. 9.23.

. 9.24. ,

370

Green Screen ( )
. , ,
, . , .
.
, Green Screen, ,
.
, . . , Plane
(. 9.25).

. 9.25.

Green Screen .
World .
Plane, Image (. 9.26).
.
, - .
. ,
.
(. 9.27).
Compositing, Compositing Nodes Use Nodes.

Blender

371

. 9.26.

. 9.27.

:
Render Layers ( ) ,

Render Properties, .
Blender .
;
Composite () .

<F12>, .
.
, Difference Key
( ). Add | Matte.
Image Render Layers Image 1 ,
. Difference Key . Image Composite ,
<F12>, . , .
Auto Render Node Editor,
.
Viewer ( Add | Output),
Node

372

Editor. Image Difference Key,


Backdrop .
Viewer (. 9.28).

. 9.28.

Difference Key :
1. Image 2. .
2. Tolerance () Falloff () . Matte () Viewer .
, Difference Key , Image
, Matte .
-: AlphaOver ()
Color Color Spill ( ) Matte.
Mix . ,
. 9.29.
, . Difference Key . Image Image
AlphaOver, Image Render Layers
Image AlphaOver. .
- Color Spill,
( G Despill Channel). Mix.

Blender

373

. 9.29. -

. ,
, .
. Matte Fac (Factor, ) Mix. .
, . .
Mix . .
Render Properties. Layers
RenderLayer, .
GreenScreen (. 9.30).
,
Layer (. . 9.30).
ZTransp Include.
. "Scene"
Layers.
Node Editor. Add | Input Render Layers.
Scene. Image Mix. , .

<F12> (. 9.31).

Difference Key , .

374

. 9.30.

. 9.31.

Blender
(www.blender.org) Blender : Windows,
Linux, Mac Os X FreeBSD. 32-,
64-. 64- , , .

1.1. Windows
, . , . Blender Windows.

. , I agree!
.
. :
Add Start Menu Shortcuts ( );
Add Desktop Shortcuts ( );
Open .blend files with Blender ( .blend Blender).

,
. Blender , ,
, development build, . . . ? , , ,
, . , . ,
Windows:
C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender

378

, - :
C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender2.62

Next .

1.2. Linux
Linux
, , .
, blender-2.62-linux-i686.tar.bz2
. :
$ bunzip2 blender-2.62-linux-i686.tar.bz2 bzip;
$ tar xvf blender-2.62-linux-i686.tar tar.

. , . /opt. ,
:
# mv blender-2.62-linux-i686/opt

, , Python 3.2 (
Blender). . , Debian:
# aptitude search python ;
# aptitude install python3.2 .

. Blender :
$ /opt/ blender-2.62-linux-i686/blender


FTP- :
ftp://85.249.45.166/9785977508230.zip.
www.bhv.ru.
Blender .
. , .
, , , : Scenes/glava2.

380

A
Action 239, 262
Action Editor 263
Air 303
AlphaOver 372
Ambient 139
Ambient Occlusion 336
Angular Velocity 286
ANT LandScape 365
Anti-Aliasing 350
Append 41
Area 324
Armature 237
Array 81
Aspect Ratio 346
Atmosphere 329

B
Background Images 57
Bevel Object 102
Blend Sky 336
Blinn 143
Boolean 67
Bump Mapping 181

C
Cache 284
Clipping 333
Cloth 280, 302
Collision 280
Color Space 344
Color Spill 372
Composite 371
Constraint 253

Convert To 122
CookTorr 143
Current Frame 217
Curve 95

D
Damp 301
Delete 51
Depth of Filed 334
Difference Key 372
Diffuse 142
Dimensions 346
Displacement Map 192
Domain 307
Duplicate 28
Dynamic Paint 280, 319

E
Emission 283
Emit 139
Encoding 348
Extrude 49

F
Fluid 280, 307
Focal Lenght 333
Force Field 280, 304
Frame Rate 347
Fresnel 143
Friction 298

G
Grease Pencil 359
Green Screen 370

382

H
Hair 281, 290
Halo 147
Hemi 324
Hide 54
Horizon Color 336

I
Image Mapping 168
Image Sampling 169
Indirect Lighting 338
Insert Keyframe 218
Interpolation 221
Inverse 54
IOR 157

J
Join 48

K
Key 216
Knife 52

L
Lambert 142
Lamp 323
Lattice 70, 276
Layers 38
Lens Flares 150
Link 42
Loop Cut and Slide 50
Lower Field 349

M
Mass 299
Mesh 43
Minnaert 143
Mist 338
Motion Blur 350

N
NLA Editor 264
Normal Mapping 183
NURBS 96, 110

O
Oren-Nayar 142
Outliner 35

P
Paper Sky 336
Particle Mode 295
Particles 281, 290
Path 229
Phong 143
Pinning 304
Pose Mode 243
Post Processing 349
Properties 22, 36
Pull 300
Push 301

R
Ramp 144, 211
Ray Tracing 155
Real Sky 336
Render 345
Render Layers 371
Resolution 346
Rigify 365

S
Scene Selector 18
Screen Layout 17
Sculpt Mode 77
Seam 198
Separate 54
Shadeless 139
Shading 139
Shadow 141, 327
Shape Keys 233
Show 54
Skinning 247
Sky 329, 342
Smoke 280, 313
Snap 23, 30
Soft Body 280, 298, 300
Spin 109
Spot 324
Spring 303
Stars 340
Strand 140
Strip 265

Subdivide 53
Subdivision Surface 248
Sun 324
Surface 95
Sync Mode 219

T
Taper Object 102
Text 115
Timeline 216
Toggle Cclic 101
Tool Shelf 22
Toon 142
Translucency 139
Transparency 155

U
Upper Field 349
UV 194
UV Mapping 195

V
Velocity 284
Vertex Groups 251, 298
Vertex Paint 201
Video Sequence Editor 358
Viewport Shading 22, 23
VSE 358

W
Wardiso 143
World 335

Z
Zenith Color 336

383

96

49

36
251

28

243

216
96
25
95

17
135
60
boolean 67
Lattice 276
mirror 60
multires 73
subdivision surface 248
153

183

DopeSheet 235
Graph Editor 220
NLA Editor 265
Node Editor 353

384

(.)
properties 36
timeline 217
User Preferences 362

23

curve 97
mesh 43
path 229
surface 97
text 115
48

23
23
23
170
241

53
UV 194
54
144
345
96

33
57
237
38
95

141

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