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Module Number PHY00030M

Advanced & Further Quantum Mechanics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator Professor R W Godby
Dr I Wilson-Rae
Credit Value
20
Credit Level
7 (M)
Workload
Lectures:
Closed exam:
Problem Classes:
Private Study:
TOTAL:
Assessment
Closed Examination
Closed Examination
Reassessment task
Closed Examinations (1.5hrsx2)
Pre-Requisites
Core of Physics

36 hours
3 hours
6 hours
155 hours
200 hours
50%
50%
100%

Aims
The overall aim of the module is to develop in students a knowledge of key advanced topics
in quantum mechanics that bridge the gap between earlier courses and physics research.
Specifically:
1. Advanced Quantum Mechanics: To study the consequences of the time-dependence of
the wavefunction in quantum mechanics, the emergence of the basic laws of classical
mechanics from quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanics of many-particle systems,
and second quantisation.
2. Further Quantum Mechanics: To study the quantum theories of angular momentum and
scattering, and the role of symmetries and the algebraic approach in quantum mechanics.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
Advanced Quantum Mechanics
Calculate the time-dependence of a wavefunction, and its consequences for
observables.
Derive and apply the results of time-dependent perturbation theory up to first order.
Derive and apply Fermi's golden rule, and explain the relevance to selection rules for
atomic transitions.
Explain the origin of the laws of classical mechanics using simple calculations of the
types given in lectures.
Explain and apply the laws of quantum mechanics for many-particle systems and the
main techniques used to study their implications.
Derive the main results of second quantisation.
Describe, and apply to unseen problems, all the topics in the syllabus.
Comprehensive lecture notes should be taken down from the blackboard during lectures,
and will be supplemented by a one-page hand-out distributed on paper. This hand-out,

2016/17

Module Number PHY00030M

Advanced & Further Quantum Mechanics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
together with audio recordings of lectures and a record of problems set, lecture
rescheduling and similar information, will be made available through the VLE.
Further Quantum Mechanics
Illustrate the relation between symmetries and conservation laws.
Deduce and apply the general theory of angular momentum.
Deduce and apply the Born approximation and the method of partial waves in
potential scattering theory.
Apply creation and annihilation operators of the harmonic oscillator.
Construct solutions to complex unseen problems in all of the aforementioned topics.
Comprehensive lecture notes should be taken down from the blackboard during lectures.
Supplementary notes will be provided and made available through the VLE.

Syllabus
Advanced Quantum Mechanics
Time-dependence: Brief review of time-dependent Schrdinger equation; stationary states;
time-evolution of general wavefunctions; time evolution operator; time-energy uncertainty
relation. Time-dependent perturbation theory. Fermi's golden rule; selection rules for
atomic transitions re-examined. Ehrenfests theorem. [5 lectures]
The classical limit: Classical mechanics of particles as a limit of quantum mechanics, mostly
studied through wavepacket motion. [2]
Many-particle systems: Identical particles and exchange symmetry, fermions and bosons,
the Pauli Principle; use of Slater determinants. Variational principle for many-electron
systems; the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. Density-functional theory and the
local-density approximation. [5]
Second quantisation: Creation, annihilation and number operators; their use for manyparticle systems; anti-commutation relations; field operators; Heisenberg picture.
Introduction to many-body perturbation theory. Introduction to quantisation of the
electromagnetic field. [6]
Further Quantum Mechanics
Symmetries and angular momentum: Symmetries and rotations Angular momentum
multiplets (Ladder operators) Addition of angular momenta and selection rules including
Parity (Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and the Wigner-Eckart theorem).
Potential scattering: Lippmann-Schwinger equation, scattering amplitudes and the Born
approximation Partial waves, phase shifts and resonances.
Quantum states of the harmonic oscillator: Creation and annihilation operators Coherent
states and squeezed states.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00030M

Advanced & Further Quantum Mechanics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Reading List
Advanced Quantum Mechanics
Rae A I M: Quantum mechanics (Taylor & Francis)***
Merzbacher E: Quantum mechanics (Wiley, 1998) **
Schiff L I: Quantum mechanics (McGraw-Hill) **
Ziman J M: Elements of advanced quantum theory (CUP)*
Further Quantum Mechanics
Weinberg S: Lectures on quantum mechanics (Cambridge, 2013)
Sakurai J J: Modern quantum mechanics (Addison Wesley, 1994)
Messiah A: Quantum Mechanics Volume II (Dover, 1999)
Landau L D and Lifshitz E M: Quantum Mechanics (Non-relativistic Theory) (ButterworthHeinemann, 1977)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00031M

Advanced Computational Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator
Credit Value
Credit Level
Workload

Assessment

Reassessment task
Pre-Requisites

Dr Matt Probert
20
7 (M)
Lectures:
Practicals/ Problem classes:
Assessment:
Private Study:
TOTAL:
Physics Practice Questions
HPC (Assignment 1)
HPC (Assignment 2)
HPC open book assignment
HPC apps open book assignment
None

30 hours
18 hours
40 hours
112 hours
200 hours
20%
40%
40%
40%
40%

Aims
The aim of this module is to show how the historical developments in high performance
computing (HPC) have come about, how these impact on current technologies, how best to
utilize these technologies for numerically intensive calculations, and what future
developments are likely. The second half of the module focuses on applications of HPC to
scientific problems, and aims to show how to take a problem in physics and devise,
implement and test a HPC solution. Specific aims are: to introduce a range of common HPC
methods and their fields of application; analyse HPC techniques to understand how their
performance varies according to both the size of the problem they are applied to and the
HPC resources available; understand how to devise appropriate validation and verification
for a given implementation of a HPC method.
The lectures will be supplemented by practical workshops where some of the key principles
will be put into practice.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
Subject content
Term 1
Hardware
Introduction to hardware for a typical computer
Introduction to networks
Software
Benchmarking
Computer languages
Floating point numbers
Introduction to programming

2016/17

Module Number PHY00031M

Advanced Computational Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Use of tools in programming
Use of software profiling
Coding
Optimizing a serial program
Introduction to parallel programming - how to think parallel
Writing a parallel program using OpenMP
Introduction to GPU programming
Writing a parallel program using MPI
Example applications
Summary
Current state-of-the-art supercomputers
Future possibilities
Term 2
HPC Methods
A range of common HPC methods will be covered, which will include:
Parallel Fast Fourier Transforms
Iterative diagonalisation of matrices
Particle-tracking, PIC and continuum methods
Monte Carlo
Multiscale and multigrid
Finite Element Modelling
Parallel data input and output
Each method will be illustrated by at least one application in a specific field of physics
selected from
classical molecular dynamics
High energy physics
Neutron and radiative transport
density functional theory and quantum mechanics
nuclear superfluidity
fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics and kinetic plasma simulations
spin dynamics
Bose-Einstein condensation, superconductivity and superfluidity
informatics, data mining and Big Data
climate modelling
HPC software validation and verification which will include
unit tests
regression tests
coverage testing
formal methods
convergence and the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00031M

Advanced Computational Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2

professional software quality standards


Team working and advanced version control

Academic and graduate skills


At the end of this module successful students will be able to:
Describe the different types of HPC hardware and make informed decisions as to
what will be best in any particular situation;
Use simple profiling tools to identify hotspots in a code and develop strategies for
overcoming the hotspots;
Design efficient coding solutions to a variety of numerical problems;
Create a parallel program for an MP machine using message-passing techniques
Apply HPC techniques to solve scientific problems;
Analyse a scientific problem to determine an appropriate parallel strategy;
Analyse a HPC algorithm to determine how the computational resources it requires
will scale with the size of the problem, and the number of parallel processes
employed;
Design an appropriate verification set for a given implementation of a HPC method.

Assessment
The module will be assessed by practical challenges, and by two assignments, set at the end
of Term 1 and Term 2. The practical challenges enable you to practise the different skills
required to successfully complete the Term 1 assignment. The major component of the
Term 1 assignment will require writing and testing a parallel program to solve a particular
set problem.
Suggested preparation
It is recommended that all students prepare for this course by making sure they have a basic
working knowledge of numerical programming in either Fortran or C. As a simple exercise,
you should make sure that you can write a program that can calculate an approximate value
of by evaluating the following function with different values of N:

The marked assignments will be returned to the students, indicating where marks have
been lost, made mistakes and/or where improvements could be made.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00031M

Advanced Computational Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Reading List
For each lecture, students will be provided with a complete set of handouts and students
will be expected to annotate these with additional comments arising from the lecture. Full
colour copies of the notes will also be available on-line after each lecture.
Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers by Georg Hager &
Gerhard Wellein (Chapman & Hall / CRC 2010) **
Writing Scientific Software: A Guide to Good Style by S. Oliveira & D.E. Stewart
(Cambridge University Press, 2006)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00032M

Advanced Nuclear Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator Dr David Jenkins
Dr Alison Laird
Credit Value
20
Credit Level
7 (M)
Workload
Lectures:
Practicals:
Closed exam:
Private Study (incl. Physics Practice
Questions):
TOTAL:
Assessment
Closed Examination
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Reassessment task
Closed Examination
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Pre-Requisites
Core of Physics

18 hours (NPII), 18 hours (NA)


3 hours (NPII), 3 hours (NA)
1.5 hours (NPII), 1.5 hours
(NA)
77.5 hours (NPII), 77.5 (NA)
200 hours
50%
20%
30%
50%
20%
30%

Aims
In this module we will consider some of the key advanced topics in nuclear physics, and
begin to examine how these topics are addressed in contemporary nuclear physics research.
We will examine the key models that underpin nuclear structure associated with both
single-particle and collective modes of excitation. The module then aims to develop
understanding of the quantum mechanical mechanisms underlying nuclear decays and,
hence, to examine what nuclear structure information can be extracted from such
measurements. In all of the above, published data will be used regularly to illustrate and
test the ideas presented.
We will also consider the synthesis of nuclei in astrophysical environments with the aim of
developing an understanding of how the elements which we and our surroundings are made
of were created. We will discuss nucleosynthesis in various astrophysical environments,
ranging from steady state solar interiors to the more energetic conditions found in novae,
supernovae and X-ray bursts.
Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
Subject content
Describe the significance of nuclear charge and current distributions in regard to
nuclear structure and decays.
Discuss the variety of mechanisms that result in the generation of excited states in
nuclei.
Predict angular momentum and parity quantum numbers of excited states in nuclei,
based on nucleonic single-particle configurations.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00032M

Advanced Nuclear Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2

Interpret aspects of published level schemes in terms of both single-particle and


collective models, demonstrating how information on the different types of
excitation are extracted from the data.
Discuss the quantum-mechanical basis for the three modes of nuclear decay.
Describe the key models and methods used to predict nuclear decay rates.
Perform sample calculations of alpha, beta and gamma-decay rates, based on the
models presented.
Interpret nuclear decay data, through an understanding of these models, in terms of
nuclear structure phenomena.
Describe how the abundance pattern of the elements we see around us reflects
nucleosynthesis in different astrophysical environments.
Describe these astrophysical sites and the specific reaction processes which occur in
each site.
Demonstrate an understanding of the underlying nuclear physics, via calculation or
discussion, as appropriate.
Describe and compare the experimental techniques used to measure reactions rates.
Discuss the limits of our understanding and areas of current research activity.

Reading List
Krane K S: Introductory nuclear physics (Wiley) ****
C. C. Iliadis: Nuclear Physics of Stars (Wiley VCH) ***
C.E. Rolfs and W.S. Rodney: Cauldrons in the Cosmos (University of Chicago)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00035M

Advanced Plasma Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator Prof Nigel Woolsey
Dr David Dickinson
Credit Value
20
Credit Level
7 (M)
Workload
Lectures:
Practicals:
Closed exam:
Private Study (incl. Physics Practice
Questions):
TOTAL:
Assessment
Closed Examination (PPfF)
Closed Examination (APP)
Continuous Assessment (PPfF)
Reassessment task
Closed Examination (PPfF)
Closed Examination (APP)
Continuous Assessment (PPfF)
Pre-Requisites
Core Undergraduate Physics

36 hours
6 hours
1.5 hours x2
155 hours
200 hours
42.5%
50%
7.5%
42.5%
50%
7.5%

Aims
This module has two components. The first provides a basis for understanding the physics of
plasmas in general and includes a discussion of laboratory plasmas and in particular the
application of plasma physics to fusion. The second applies this knowledge to describe space
and astrophysical plasmas. This module will convey how our understanding of plasma
physics extends to a description of a huge diversity of systems over hugely varying scales of
space, time, density, and temperature.
Plasma Physics for Fusion (PPfP): Fusion, whether by inertial confinement or magnetic
confinement, requires deuterium and tritium to be heated to such high temperatures that
the electrons are stripped from the ions. The resulting conducting gas is called a plasma.
Plasmas are common place around the universe so the topic of plasma physics is important
in many branches of science including astrophysics and solar physics, as well as having
industrial applications. This course aims to introduce the basic plasma physics principles
through a combination of physical pictures and mathematical analyses, often using
examples from fusion to provide specific applications. This course draws on the considerable
research expertise in York
Astrophysical Plasmas (APP): Plasma fills much of space from the interior of the Sun to the
upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere, the Solar System, Galaxy and beyond. We start from
an energy budget of the interstellar medium and a description of astrophysical plasmas and
then quickly move from basic plasma physics parameters of astrophysical plasmas to hydroand magnetohydro- dynamics. The focus is on the dynamics of the interstellar medium, the
processes that heat and cool interstellar medium, and the effects of stellar winds, shocks
associated with supernova remnants, and jets. This includes a discussion of the role of
2016/17

Module Number PHY00035M

Advanced Plasma Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2
magnetic fields and the acceleration of cosmic rays. Finally, we identify and use
dimensionless scaling of plasma models to link laboratory plasmas to the study of
fundamental plasma processes that occur in astrophysical plasmas.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
PPfF Subject content
Describe, both through physical pictures and mathematics, the orbits of individual
particles in magnetic and electric fields: the cyclotron frequency, the guiding centre,
the ExB drift, the gradB and curvature drifts and the polarisation drift.
Write down expressions for the quantities that are conserved when a charged
particle moves in a magnetic field: energy and magnetic moment. Use this principle
to show how charged particles can be trapped in a magnetic mirror. Understand the
limitations of a magnetic mirror for confining plasma for fusion.
Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of magnetic confinement in a
toroidal magnetic field configuration, including the roles of both the poloidal and
toroidal magnetic fields. Describe the basic principles of tokamak operation.
Describe the process of inertial confinement fusion.
Describe the physics of Debye shielding and be able to derive the Debye length
mathematically. Write down the definitions of a plasma.
Demonstrate an understanding of the distribution function and how to derive
plasma density and flow by integrating over velocity space.
Without rigorous mathematical derivation, describe how plasma fluid equations can
be obtained from the kinetic equations for plasma evolution. Given the fluid
equations, describe the physics of the individual terms. Derive the ideal MHD
equations from the 2-fluid equations. Describe, without proof, the concept of
frozen in magnetic field.
Given the fluid equations, derive the diamagnetic drift. Provide a physical
explanation for the origin of the diamagnetic drift, including why it is not
experienced by a single particle.
Demonstrate an understanding of equilibria for cylindrical and toroidal plasma
systems. Derive the equilibrium relations for cylindrical systems. Describe
qualitatively the features of toroidal equilibria including the origin of the GradShafranov equation (without rigorous proof); the concept of toroidal flux surfaces,
and definitions of equilibrium quantities such as aspect ratio, safety factor, major
and minor radius, etc.
Perturb and linearise the equilibrium equations. As examples, be able to derive
expressions for the frequency of basic plasma waves: Langmuir wave, ion sound
wave. Describe the physics responsible for the wave.
APP Subject content
State typical characteristics of various astronomical plasmas.
2016/17

Module Number PHY00035M

Advanced Plasma Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2

Outline the sources and losses of radiation in astronomical systems and effects this
has on the systems.
Understand the effect of stellar radiation emitted on the surrounding interstellar
medium.
Explain the role of collisions in gases and plasmas and the Coulomb logarithm.
Explain the phenomenon of collisionless plasmas and effective collisions.
Determine when a fluid approximation can be applied to plasma.
Explain the meaning of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics or MHD, and know when such
models are applicable.
Explain the need for an equation of state (in polytropic form) and Ohms law and be
able to use them.
Describe viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field diffusion and identify
situations when these are not important. Outline the approximations used to derive
hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models
Explain the concept of flux freezing and the impact this has on astrophysics.
Derive Rankine-Hugoniot relations and be able to apply them to astrophysical
phenomena in the shock and stellar frame. Explain the effects radiation and
magnetic fields can have on shocks.
Describe the evolution of supernova remnants and the impact these systems have
on the interstellar medium.
Explain evidence that suggests supernova remnants are the source of Galactic
cosmic rays, diffusive shock acceleration and the importance of cosmic rays in the
interstellar medium.
State the origin of stellar winds, and explain why the solar wind is supersonic and
describe the interaction with a magnetosphere.
Through scaling of the ideal hydrodynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic equations
show how laboratory experiments can simulate dynamical aspects of astronomical
plasmas.

Syllabus
PPfF Syllabus
Charged particle orbits and drifts
Magnetic mirror and toroidal magnetic confinement
Debye shielding and formal definition of a plasma
Inertial confinement
Distribution functions and velocity space integration
Kinetic equation and fluid equations, diamagnetic drift
Ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), plasma equilibrium
Plasma waves: Langmuir wave, sound wave
APP Syllabus
The diversity of space and astrophysical plasmas and the interstellar medium

2016/17

Module Number PHY00035M

Advanced Plasma Physics


Stage 4
Term 1-2

Introduction to hydrodynamics and MHD dynamics, shocks and the concept of


dimensionless scaling
Kinetically driven systems: stellar winds, Supernova explosions, remnants, and blast
waves
Radiation driven systems: nebulae and Strmgren spheres
Relativistic particles: cosmic rays
Laboratory facilities and type of experiments undertaken

Lecture Notes
Students are expected to take their own notes during lectures. A set of skeleton notes will
be made available online at the end of the course.

Reading List
PPfP
Chen F F: Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion (Plenum) ***
Wesson: Tokamaks, Oxford Science Publications ***
Atzeni and Meyer-ter-Vehn: The physics of inertial fusion (Oxford Science) **
Boyd T J M & Sanderson J J: The physics of plasma (CUP) **
Cairns R A: Plasma physics (Blackie) **
Dendy R O: Plasma dynamics (OUP) **
Goldston & Rutherford: Introduction to plasma physics (IoP) **
APP
Choudhuri A R: Physics of Fluids and Plasmas (CUP 1998)
Drake R P: High-Energy-Density Physics: Fundamentals, Inertial Fusion, and Experimental
Astrophysics (Springer 2006)
Dyson J E, Williams D A: The Physics of the Interstellar Medium (PUP 1997) ***
Frank J, King A, Raine D: Accretion Power in Astrophysics (CUP 2002)
Kulsrud R M, Spergel D: Plasma Physics for Astrophysics (PUP 2005)
Longair M S: High Energy Astrophysics (CUP 2011) ***
Parks G: An Introduction Physics of Space Plasmas (Perseus 2003)
Shu F H: The Physics of Astrophysics: Gas Dynamics (University Science Books 1992)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00033M

Biophysics
Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator Dr Mark Leake
Dr Robert Greenall
Dr Laurence Wilson
Credit Value
20
Credit Level
7 (M)
Workload
Lectures:
Practicals:
Closed exam:
Private Study (incl. Physics Practice
Questions):
TOTAL:
Assessment
Closed Examination
Reassessment task
Closed Examination
Pre-Requisites
Core of Physics

36 hours
6 hours
3 hours
155 hours
200 hours
100%
100%

Aims
Interdisciplinary physical/life sciences research is emerging as a prime area in academia
and industry. Key to recent advances has been development of pioneering experimental
physical science techniques and methods of theoretical analysis/modelling applied to
addressing challenging questions from the biosciences. This modern armoury of the
physicist constitutes a toolbox which can be used to tackle a multitude of bioscience
questions.
In this module we will review in detail several important modern physical science
concepts, models, laws, tools and techniques that can be applied to addressing real
biological questions, with a thorough discussion of the underlying physics. Physical science
methods historically have been key to providing enormous breakthroughs in our
understanding of fundamental biology - stemming from the early development of optical
microscopy in understanding of the cellular nature of life, through to complex structural
biology techniques to elucidate the shape of vital biomolecules including essential
proteins and DNA, the coding molecule of genes.
In the first half of this module we will introduce the key biological macromolecules, the
forces that are involved in maintaining their structure and how structure is determined.
More advanced topics, based upon students knowledge of thermodynamics and
statistical mechanics will be addressed, including the helix-coil transition, protein folding,
ligand binding, allostery, self-assembly and biomechanics.
More recently, physical science developments have involved methods to study single cells
in their native context at the single- molecule level with key improvements in temporal
and spatial resolution permitting dynamic and mechanistic biological information to be
investigated with unprecedented precision, as well as providing ground-breaking

2016/17

Module Number PHY00033M

Biophysics
Stage 4
Term 1-2
developments in areas of artificial tissue bioengineering and synthetic biology, and
biosensing and disease diagnosis.
In the second half of this module we will in particular discuss tools and techniques that,
broadly, permit the detection and characterization of biological material using (i) visible
light, (ii) non-visible electromagnetic radiation, and (iii) methods used to manipulate and
quantify biological forces, with particular emphasis throughout placed on real applications
of the physical science tools and techniques. Examples of such tools which will be
discussed include super-resolution optical microscopy, advanced fluorescence imaging
methods, optical and magnetic tweezers for single biological molecule manipulation, ion
channel measurements in living cells, Raman spectroscopy of biological matter, surface
probe microscopy techniques, nanophotonics for biosensing, digital holography of
swimming cells, modern electron microscopy tools, as well as non-linear spectroscopy
approaches. We will also discuss the core physics concepts of several fundamental
biological processes which are studied using these modern biophysics tools and
techniques.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
The module will focus on a number of concepts, models, laws, tools and techniques of
physical science that underpin biophysical methods. It will address a broad range of
challenging biological questions. The aims of this module are to assist students in gaining an
understanding of:
The use of physical concepts and laws to produce models of biological systems.
Quantitative analyses of these models.
Critical analysis of the validity of the assumptions made in these models and their
impact on the validity of the results.
The physical basis of experimental techniques used to study the systems introduced
and the key results.
The key features and biological significance of the systems introduced.
The breadth of modern physical science tools and techniques used to investigate
biology.
The key physical principles behind several important biological processes of living
matter.
Real industrial and biomedical applications of modern biophysical tools and
techniques.

Reading List
Leake MC: Single-Molecule Cellular Biophysics (CUP, 2013)
Nelson P: Biological Physics: Energy, Information, Life (W H Freeman, 2004)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00033M

Biophysics
Stage 4
Term 1-2
Phillips R, J. Kondev and J. Theriot: Physical Biology of the Cell (Garland Science, 2009)
Sneppen K and Zocchi G: Physics in Molecular Biology (CUP, 2005)

2016/17

Module Number PHY00034M

Nanophysics, Nanomaterials & Nanocharacterization


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator Professor Jun Yuan
Dr Gonzalo Vallejo Fernandez
Dr Vlado Lazarov
Credit Value
20
Credit Level
7 (M)
Workload
Lectures:
Closed exam:
Problems classes:
Private Study (incl. Physics Practice
Questions):
TOTAL:
Assessment
Closed Examination
Continuous Assessment
Reassessment task
Closed Examination
Resit Assessment
Pre-Requisites
Core of Physics

36 hours
3 hours
8 hours
153 hours
200 hours
85%
15%
85%
15%

Aims
On Introduction to Nanophysics:
To introduce the fundamental physics important at the nanoscale such as tunnelling, surface
proximity effect, quantum size effect, and Coulomb blockade; as well as important
nanomaterials and nanosystems of current interests such as atomic clusters, quantum dots,
nanowires, quantum wells as well as single electron devices.
To give an overview of the nanotechnology of fabrication and characterisation, with
specialized module on electron microscopy (See below for more details).
To give a flavour of the state-of-art developments as well as the challenges in fundamental
science and applications of nanophysics, a rapidly developing area of science in the new
century, with special section on magnetic nanomaterials (See below for more details).
On Electron Microscopy:
The properties of nanomaterials and microfabrications depend critically on the structureproperty relationships. Electron microscopy techniques, including diffraction, atomic
resolution imaging, and spectroscopy offer the most powerful tool for investigating matter
down to the scale of a single atom. The module introduces the general concepts and physics
background of electron microscopy, develops system components and surveys selected
applications in the physical sciences. It is intended as a stand-alone course and as an
introduction to the use of state of the art tools for characterising the nanoworld. A number
of applications from real world (including graphene based devices) will be demonstrated in
the York-Nanocentre that host premium suite of electron microscope. Finally through
tutorials the taught material will be reinforced.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00034M

Nanophysics, Nanomaterials & Nanocharacterization


Stage 4
Term 1-2
On Magnetic Nanomaterials:
To develop an understanding of the key properties of magnetic materials , especially the
behaviour of magnetic materials on a reduced length scale (1nm or below). To understand
the different magnetic interactions present in magnetic materials. To understand the
requirements for applications of such materials in information storage and biomedical
applications.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
Introduction to Nanophysics
Discuss the importance of length and energy scales governing the transitions from bulk to
nanoscale physics
Calculate the De Broglie wavelength important for size quantization effect and the
corresponding device operation temperature.
Explain the concept of coherence length in quantum conductance and interference
Discuss the concept of surface-to-volume ratio
Describe the statistical fluctuation in finite particle systems and their physical consequence.
Describe the general approaches in nanofabrication and specific examples of construction
for quantum corral, quantum dots and nanowires
Explain the basic physics behind the characterization techniques of electron microscopy,
scanning probe microscopy
Discuss the features of carbon nanostructures and their physical origin and Eulers
geometric description
Discuss the knowledge of the common non-crystallographic structures in atomic clusters
and the magic atomic number effect and its geometrical origin
Describe what is meant by low dimensional systems; give examples of quantum wires, dots
and wells.
Derive expressions for the energy levels and density-of-states of quantum dots and
quantum wires and quantum wells and the operation of solid-state lasers based on
quantum structures.
Use the shell model to understand the electronic magic number effect in metallic atomic
clusters.
Outline what is meant by exciton and be able to calculate the condition for the localization
of excitons in quantum-size confined structure
Qualitatively describe the difference in electron conduction in bulk materials and
mesoscopic structure.
Use quantum tunnelling theory to explain the physical principle of scanning tunnelling
microscope
Outline the physical origin of quantum conductance in 1D
Outline what is meant by Coulomb blockade and be able to estimate the temperature and
size range within which this is important.
Describe the operations of single electron devices.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00034M

Nanophysics, Nanomaterials & Nanocharacterization


Stage 4
Term 1-2

Magnetism
Describe in detail the various types of exchange interaction both direct and indirect.
Demonstrate in depth knowledge of the role of exchange and dipolar interactions on the
hysteretic properties of magnetic materials.
Explain the underlying physics of magnetics technology and information storage, in
particular STT-MRAM.
Understand the physics behind MRI and MRI contrast enhancement.
Be aware of other biomedical applications of magnetic materials such us magnetic
hyperthermia.

Syllabus
Introduction to Nanophysics
I.
Overview and review (2)
Scale and scaling laws in nanoscale
o Characteristic lengths: de Broglie wavelength, Coherence
o Characteristic energy: thermal, electrostatic, quantum
o Finite particle systems, surface-to-volume ratio
o Scaling in Physics
Fabrication and Structural Characterization
o Top-down: lithography, Microelectronics
o Bottom-up: Directed and Self-organized structures
o Diffraction and Microscopy (to be expanded in terms of EM module)
II.
Structure and Stability of Nanosystems (3)
Review of bonding and stability of bulk materials
o Metallic, inert gas, covalent, ionic
Structure of fullerene and carbon nanotubes
Structure of atomic clusters
o Non-crystalline structure, magic number effect
III.
Electrons in quantum confinement (4)
Review of electrons in solids
o Free Fermi gas,
o Nearly-free electrons and excitons in periodic potential
Electronic shell model for metallic clusters
o Electronic magic number effect
Quantum dots and quantum wells
o Density of states of low dimensional systems
o Excitons in confinement
IV.
Nanoelectronics (4)
Review of semiclassical conduction

2016/17

Module Number PHY00034M

Nanophysics, Nanomaterials & Nanocharacterization


Stage 4
Term 1-2

Mesoscopic (quantum) effects


o Tunnelling and mapping of wavefunctions of artificially created quantum
states
o Quantum conductance
o Coulomb blockade and single electron devices

Electron Microscopy
Introduction
Basic introduction to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
Vacuum environment
Beam specimen interaction basics for signals, preservation and nanofabrication
Electron optics
Main types of electron sources
Electron gun principles thermionic and field emission, brightness, coherence
Magnetic lenses, properties, attributes, apertures and major aberrations (spherical,
chromatic, astigmatism)
Microscopy Modes
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Electron scattering
Diffraction and basic image formation in transmission
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
High resolution TEM imaging (HRTEM/HREM) basics
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
Major signals in TEM, STEM and SEM
Z-contrast STEM, atom column by atom column analysis
Signal types, characteristics, information content and application examples
Performance (resolution, intensity, sensitivity)
Performance measure definitions resolution, probe intensity, analysis sensitivity
Phase contrast and the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF)
Practical requirements

2016/17

Module Number PHY00034M

Nanophysics, Nanomaterials & Nanocharacterization


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Selected Application Topics
Atomic resolution imaging TEM
Dislocation and other defect analysis
Atomic resolution imaging and analysis STEM
Electron Diffraction as major analytical tool and in support of imaging
Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX/EDS) elemental microanalysis
Basic corrections for data quantification
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM)

Magnetism
1.
Basics
Heisenberg exchange (1)
Ferromagnetism (1)
Indirect RKKY interaction (1)
2.
Phenomena
Hysteresis (Zhu + Bertran) (1)
Dipolar interactions (1)
Exchange bias (1)
3.
Applications
Magnetoresistance (AMR + Mott) (1)
GMR (1)
Tunnelling TMR (1)
Heads + STT-MRAM (1)
4.
Novel applications
MRI imaging (1)
MRI contrast enhancement (1)
Magnetic hyperthermia (1)

Reading List
Nanophysics
C. Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th edition, Wiley and Sons)
N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin: Solid State Physics (Saunders College Publishing)
Electron Microscopy
Williams and Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Springer, 2009
Egerton, Electron energy Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, Plenum, 1996
Goodhew, P.J. and Humphreys, F.J., Electron Microscopy and Analysis, 2nd Edition, Taylor &
Francis, 1988

2016/17

Module Number PHY00034M

Nanophysics, Nanomaterials & Nanocharacterization


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Goldstein et al, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, Springer, 2003
The following web-links can be used as complementary/interactive resources:
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/
http://www.matter.org.uk/diffraction/Default.htm
Magnetism
Jiles D: Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2nd Ed (Chapman & Hall)
Cullity B D and C Graham. An Introduction to Magnetic Materials. IEEE Press.
Feedback
Marks for the individual exams from the supervisor. Detailed model answers will be
provided on the intranet. Feedback within assignment.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00036M

Radiation and Matter


Stage 4
Term 1-2
Module Co-Ordinator Dr Roland Krger
Dr Erik Wagenaars
Credit Value
20
Credit Level
7 (M)
Workload
Lectures:
Practicals/ Problem classes:
Closed exam:
Private Study:

Assessment
Reassessment task
Pre-Requisites

36 hours
6 hours (3 L&M, 3 PASD)
3 hours
77.5 hours L&M
77.5 hours PASD
TOTAL:
200 hours
Closed Examination (PASD)
50%
Closed Examination (L&M)
50%
Closed Examination (PASD)
50%
Closed Examination (L&M)
50%
Year 1 and 2 core of Physics or the equivalent; Solid State Physics I
and II

Aims
This module covers the fundamental concepts relevant for the understanding of the physical
properties of semiconducting materials, their applications in microelectronics, energy
harvesting and opto-electronics as well as the principles of interaction between light and
matter. The skills obtained throughout this course are of great importance in society and
economy, which are both increasingly driven by the application of electronics in all walks of
life.
Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Devices (100 hrs)
Based on the models developed in Quantum Mechanics, Statistical Mechanics as well as in
Solid State Physics (Solid State Physics I and II), this course discusses the links between our
fundamental understanding of electronic states in materials and the application of this
understanding in micro- and optoelectronics as well as detector-physics. It will cover and
revisit vital concepts such as crystal symmetries and defects, band structures, phonon
dispersion, the interaction of charge carriers with external fields and the effect on the
electronic and optical properties. Experimental techniques to synthesize semiconductors
and to study their physical properties will be discussed for some of the most prominent
semiconductor materials such as Si, GaAs, GaN and Ge.
A large part of this course will focus on the application of these concepts and techniques
for well established and novel devices such as transistors, metal oxide semiconductor field
effect transistors (MOSFETs), light emitting diodes/laser diodes and particle detectors.
Light and Matter (100 hrs)
An introduction of the basic features of lasers is first given leading to a more general
discussion on the interaction of light with atoms. The properties of laser cavities are
2016/17

Module Number PHY00036M

Radiation and Matter


Stage 4
Term 1-2
investigated, leading to a description of the stable operating range for cavities and the
associated mode structures. The quantum mechanics of the atom-radiation interaction
are considered in the semi-classical limit (treating the radiation field classically) to
determine transition probabilities. Some of the spectroscopic background for the
description of plasma emission processes important in astrophysical and laboratory
plasmas is presented.

Learning outcomes: at the end of this module successful students will be able to:
Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Devices
describe the relevance of the crystal structure and atomic bonds for the fundamental
electronic properties
apply the band structure model and effective mass concept to determine band gap
width and mobility of charge carriers
identify the important transport and scattering processes at work in semiconductors
(drift, diffusion, generation, recombination, thermionic emission, tunnelling and
ionisation)
calculate the temperature dependence of the ionisation of dopant states and charge
carrier concentrations
distinguish the relevant electron-hole recombination processes and the role of
majority and minority charge carrier for these processes
quantitatively describe the experimental determination of the charge carrier
concentrations and transport properties of semiconductors (e.g. Hall resistance and
Haynes-Shockley experiment)
describe the impact of defects on these properties
understand the physics of p-n junctions (charge densities, potential distribution,
charge carrier transport processes) and their relevance for their application in
electronic devices
correlate the theoretical description of p-n junctions with experimental techniques to
determine their physical properties
distinguish the main building blocks for the semiconductor based devices discussed in
this course
describe the underlying principles of microelectronic, optoelectronic and detector
devices.
Light and Matter
The skills obtained in this part of the module are greatly important for students who
plan to work either theoretically or experimentally on microelectronics based
techniques in the future. These skill are to
describe and apply matrix methods to establish stability requirements for laser
cavities.
describe beam propagation in a laser cavity in terms of solutions of Maxwells
equations.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00036M

Radiation and Matter


Stage 4
Term 1-2
derive Plancks radiation law from a consideration of radiation modes in a cavity.
determine the relationship between Einsteins A and B coefficients.
determine a general formula for laser gain in a generalised four-level laser.
by applying perturbation theory to the problem of light interacting with an atom in
the semi-classical limit, determine in a general way the selection rules for radiative
transitions.
determine line shape formula for radiative and Doppler line broadening.
describe how collisional-radiative processes control light emission from plasmas.

Syllabus
Physics and Applications of Semiconductor Devices
Physics of Semiconductors
o Lattice properties (elastic properties, phonon dispersion)
o Electronic band structure and densities of states in semiconductors
o Fundamental electronic transport properties of semiconductors
o Interaction of semiconductors with radiation
o Structural defects (point, line, planar and volume defects) and their impact on
the transport properties
Characterization of semiconductors
o Electronic properties: Four probe measurements, I-V characterisation
o Structural and chemical characterisation: X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy,
electron microscopy
Applications
o Microelectronic devices (bipolar transistors and MOSFETs)
o Detectors (CCDs, X-ray detectors)
o Solar cells
o Optoelectronic devices (diodes, lasers)
Light and Matter
Lasers and light in laser cavities
Simple laser cavity parameters gain, threshold gain, longitudinal modes.
Matrix methods for paraxial optics. Stability criterion for laser cavities.
Directionality and spreading of an electromagnetic beam. Beam propagation. The
cylindrically symmetric solution. Transverse modes.
Gaussian beams in a cavity. The ABCD rule. Cavity mode frequencies.
Density of modes in a three-dimensional cavity. Quantisation of the field energy.
Plancks law.
The Einstein A and B coefficients. Lines shapes and laser gain. Rate equations for a
four level laser.
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules
The effect of electromagnetic radiation on an atom or molecule.

2016/17

Module Number PHY00036M

Radiation and Matter


Stage 4
Term 1-2

The interaction Hamiltonian in the semi-classical limit.


Transition probabilities and selection rules.
The macroscopic theory of absorption. Radiative broadening. Doppler broadening.
Collisional radiative processes in plasmas. The Saha equation. Coronal equilibrium.

Lecture Notes
Full notes should be taken based on material presented in the lectures of this module.

Reading List
Sze SM: Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, Wiley
Loudon R: The quantum theory of light (Oxford Science)
Verdeyen JT: Laser electronics (Prentice Hall)

2016/17