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BOLTED CONSTRUCTION

8 - 11

Table 8-2.
Dimensions of High-Strength Fasteners, in.
E
I.D.

Thread
Length

O.D.

A325
E

I.D.

Bolt Length

H
W
Nut may be chamfered
on both faces

Nominal Bolt Diameter, in.

A563
Nutsb

A325 and
A490 Boltsa

Measurement
Width Across
Flats F
Height H
Thread Length
Bolt Lengthf
=Grip +
Width Across
Flats W
Height H

F436 Square or
Rect. Washersc,e

F436 Circular
Washersc

Nom. Outside
Diameter OD

a
b
c

d
e
f

Nom. Inside
Diameter ID
Thckns.
T

1
2

5
8

3
4

7
8

1 1 8

1 1 4

1 3 8

1 1 2

11 16

11 4

17 16

15 8

113 16

2316

23 8

16

25

15

35

39

27

15

11

11

16

7
31

64
4

32

13

64

11

11 8

64

13

11

16

25

32

32

16

21

21 4

11 4

11 2

15 8

13 4

17 8

2316

23 8

11 16

11 4

17 16

15 8

113 16

64

39

47

55

64

63

17

13 4

21 4

21 2

23 4

11 8

11 4

13 8

11 2

15 8

64

11 16

15 16

17

11

32

16

64

115 32
13

16

15

16

64

64

17

32

111

32

115 32

Max.

0.097

0.122

0.122

0.136

0.136

0.136

0.136

0.136

0.136

Min.

0.177

0.177

0.177

0.177

0.177

0.177

0.177

0.177

0.177

1 332

1732

1516

Min. Edge
Distance E d

Min. Side
Dimension A

134

13 4

13 4

13 4

13 4

21 4

21 4

21 4

21 4

Mean Thckns. T
Taper in
Thickness
Min. Edge
Distance E d

16

16

2:12
7

16

16

16

2:12
9

16

21

32

16

25

32

16

2:12

2:12

21

25

32

32

16

2:12
7

16

16

16

16

2:12

2:12

2:12

2:12

1332

1732

1516

Tolerances as specified in ASTM A325 and A490.


Tolerances as specified in ASTM A563.
ASTM F436 Washer Tolerances, in.:
Nominal Outside Diameter
Nominal Diameter of Hole
Flatness: max. deviation from straight-edge placed on cut side shall not exceed
Concentricity: center of hole to outside diameter (full indicator runout)
Burr shall not project above immediately adjacent washer surface more than
For clipped washers only.
For use with American standard beams (S) and channels (C).
Tabular value does not include thickness of washer(s).

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

1/32; +1/32
0; +1/32
0.010
0.030
0.010

8 - 12

BOLTS, WELDS, AND CONNECTED ELEMENTS

Table 8-3.
Weights of High-Strength Fasteners, pounds per 100 count
Nominal Bolt Diameter, in.

100, Conventional A325 or A490 Bolts with A563 Nuts

Bolt Length, in.

1
2

5
8

3
4

7
8

1
11 4
11 2
13 4

16.5
17.8
19.2
20.5

29.4
31.1
33.1
35.3

47.0
49.6
52.2
55.3

2
21 4
21 2
23 4

21.9
23.3
24.7
26.1

37.4
39.8
41.7
43.9

3
31 4
31 2
33 4

27.4
28.8
30.2
31.6

4
41 4
41 2
43 4

1 1 8

1 1 4

1 3 8

1 1 2

74.4
78.0
81.9

104
109
114

148
154

197
205

261

333

58.4
61.6
64.7
67.8

86.1
90.3
94.6
98.8

119
124
130
135

160
167
174
181

212
220
229
237

270
279
290
300

344
355
366
379

46.1
48.2
50.4
52.5

70.9
74.0
77.1
80.2

103
107
111
116

141
146
151
157

188
195
202
209

246
255
263
272

310
321
332
342

391
403
416
428

33.0
34.3
35.7
37.1

54.7
56.9
59.0
61.2

83.3
86.4
89.5
92.7

120
124
128
133

162
168
173
179

216
223
230
237

280
289
298
306

353
363
374
384

441
453
465
478

5
51 4
51 2
53 4

38.5
39.9
41.2
42.6

63.3
65.5
67.7
69.8

95.8
98.9
102
105

137
141
146
150

184
190
196
201

244
251
258
265

315
324
332
341

395
405
416
426

490
503
515
527

6
61 4
61 2
63 4

44.0

71.9
74.1
76.3
78.5

108
111
114
118

154
158
163
167

207
212
218
223

272
279
286
293

349
358
367
375

437
447
458
468

540
552
565
577

7
71 4
71 2
73 4

80.6
82.8
84.9
87.1

121
124
127
130

171
175
179
183

229
234
240
246

300
307
314
321

384
392
401
410

479
489
500
510

589
602
614
626

8
81 4
81 2
83 4

89.2

133

187
192
196

251
257
262

328
335
342

418
427
435
444

521
531
542
552

639
651
664
676

453

563

689

Per inch
addtl. add

5.5

8.6

12.4

16.9

22.1

28.0

34.4

42.5

49.7

100, F436
Circular Washers

2.1

3.6

4.8

7.0

9.4

11.3

13.8

16.8

20.0

100, F436 Square


Washers

23.1

22.4

21.0

20.2

19.2

34.0

31.6

31.2

32.9

This table conforms to weight standards adopted by the Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI), updated for washer
weights.

Entering and Tightening Clearances

The assembly of high-strength bolted connections requires clearance for entering and
tightening the bolts with an impact wrench. The clearance requirements for conventional
high-strength bolts are as given in Table 8-4. When high-strength tension-control bolts
are specified, the entering and tightening clearances are as specified in Table 8-5.
Snug-Tightened and Fully Tensioned Installation

When subjected to shear only, high-strength bolts may be used in snug-tightened


bearing-type, fully tensioned bearing-type, and slip-critical connections. When subjected
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

BOLTED CONSTRUCTION

8 - 13

Table 8-4.
Entering and Tightening Clearances, in.
Conventional ASTM A325 and A490 Bolts
Aligned Bolts

C2

socket
H1
C1

Nominal
Bolt Dia., Socket
in.
Dia., in.

H2
C1
C1

5
8
3
4
7
8

H2

1
C3

1 1 8
1 1 4
1 3 8
1 1 2

fillet

13 4
21 4
21 2
25 8
27 8
31 8
31 4
31 2

C3
H1
25

64

15

32

35

64

39

64

11

16

25

32

27

32

15

16

H2

C1

11 4
13 8
11 2
15 8
17 8
2
21 8
21 4

1
11 4
13 8
17 16
19 16
11116
13 4
15 16

C2
11

16
3
4
7
8
15
16
11 16
11 8
11 4
15 16

Circular Clipped
11

16
3
4
7
8

9
16
11
16
13
16
7
8

1
11 8
11 4
13 8
11 2

1
11 8
11 4
15 16

Staggered Bolts
Stagger P, in.
Nominal Bolt Diameter, in.

C1
P

5
8

118

114

1 3 8

1 1 2

11 2
11 2
17 16

115 16
17 8

23 16

1 1 2
1 5 8
1 3 4
1 7 8

11 4
11 4
13 16
11 8

113 16
13 4
11116
19 16

21 8
21 16
2
115 16

25 16
25 16
21 4
23 16

29 16
29 16
21 2

213 16
23 4

3
3

33 4

11 2
13 8
11 4
11 8

113 16
11116
19 16
11 2

21 8
2
17 8
13 4

27 16
23 8
21 4
21 8

23 4
21116
25 8
21 2

215 16
215 16
27 8
213 16

31 4
33 16
33 16
31 8

13 8
13 16

15 8
11 2
13 8
13 16

27 16
25 16
21 8
21 16

23 4
27 8
21 2
23 8

31 16
3
27 8
213 16

2
17 8
13 4
15 8

21 4
21 8
2
115 16

21116
21 2
23 8
21 4

13 8
11 16

13 4
19 16
15 16

21 8
2
17 8
11116

2 1 2
2 5 8
2 3 4
2 7 8

13

16

15

16

3
3 1 8
3 1 4
3 3 8

C1 = tightening
clearance

7
8

1 1 8
1 1 4
1 3 8

2 1 8
2 1 4
2 3 8

3
4

15

115

16

17 8
13 4
15 8
11 2
11 4
15

16

31

standard
socket

3 5 8
3 3 4
3 7 8

4
Notes:
H1 = height of head, in.
H2 = maximum shank extension,* in.
C1 = clearance for tightening, in.
C2 = clearance for entering, in.
C3 = clearance for fillet,* in.
P = bolt stagger, in.
F = clearance for tightening staggered bolts, in.
*Based on one standard hardened washer.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

13 8

8 - 14

BOLTS, WELDS, AND CONNECTED ELEMENTS

Table 8-5.
Entering and Tightening Clearances, in.
Tension-Control ASTM A325 and A490 Bolts
Aligned Bolts
Nominal
Bolt
Dia, in.

Tools

C3
H1

Large Tools

8-in.

3
4
7
8

C1

H2

2 /2

fillet

13 8
11 2
13 4

16
5
8

C1

C2

Circular Clipped

Diameter Critical
17 8
17 8
17 8

1
11 8

2 1 2-in. Diameter Critical

2
3
4
7
8

1
C3

13 8
11 2
13 4

16
5
8

Small Tools

13 8
13 8
13 8

1
11 8

3-in. Diameter Critical


5
8
3
4
7
8

21/2 2

C2

H2
C1

1
1
1 /2 3 /8

33/8

H1
C1

H2
33

11 4
13 8
11 2

16
1
2
9
16

16 -in.

23

3
2 /16

5
8
3
4
7
8

16
1
2
9
16

11 4
13 8
11 2

15 8
15 8
15 8

13
7

16
8

11

11

16
3
4
7
8

Diameter Critical
11 8
11 8
11 8

13
7

16
8

16
3
4
7
8

Staggered Bolts
Stagger P, in.
Nominal Bolt Diameter, in.
C1

5
8

11

113

1 3 8
11

19

installation
tool

21 16

21 4

27 16

23

16

21

16

2
17 8

23 8
21 4
23 16
21 8

1 3 4
1 7 8

11 2
17 16

15 16
11 4
13 16
11 8

15 8
19 16
11 2
13 8

13 4
11116
19 16
11 2

2
115 16
17 8
13 4

15 16
13 16
11 8

13 8
15 16
13 16
11 8

11116
19 16
11 2
13 8

2 1 8
2 1 4
2 3 8

2
17 8
113 16
13 4

15

C1 = tightening
clearance

7
8

16

13 4
111

3
4

2 1 2
2 5 8
2 3 4
2 7 8

3
3 3 8

16

16

15 16
15 16

Notes:
H1 = height of head, in.
H2 = maximum shank extension,* in.
C1 = clearance for tightening, in.
C2 = clearance of entering, in.
C3 = clearance for fillet,* in.
P
= bolt stagger, in.
F
= clearance for tightening staggered
bolts, in.
*Based on one standard hardened washer.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

BOLTED CONSTRUCTION

8 - 15

to tension or combined shear and tension, high-strength bolts must be used in fully
tensioned bearing-type or slip-critical connections.
Bearing-type connections are typically used for shear, moment, and diagonal bracing
connections in buildings. Bolts in bearing-type connections are installed in the snug-tightened condition unless required in LRFD Specification Section J1.11 to be fully tensioned.
Note that bolts in bearing-type connections required to be fully tensioned must not be
confused with fully tensioned bolts in slip-critical connections. Fully tensioned bolts in
bearing-type connections have no requirements regarding the slip resistance of the
contact surfaces. Thus, painted surfaces in fully tensioned bearing-type connections need
not meet the slip resistance requirements of slip-critical connections.
Slip-critical connections are used when slip would be detrimental to the serviceability
of the structure; this is essentially fatigue related and is primarily of concern in bridge
design. From LRFD Specification Section K3, The occurrence of full design wind or
earthquake loads is too infrequent to warrant consideration in fatigue design. Consequently, slip-critical connections are not normally required or used for wind or seismic
loading in buildings.
Slip-critical shear connections are required, however, in applications such as those
involving oversized holes, fatigue loading, or in craneway and bridge connections.
High-strength bolts in slip-critical connections are always fully tensioned to resist slip
on the faying surface(s) of the connection. While faying surfaces in slip-critical connections are not normally painted, painted surfaces in accordance with RCSC Specification
Section 3(b) are permitted.
When subjected to tension only or combined shear and tension, high-strength bolts
must be used in fully tensioned bearing-type or slip-critical connections. Examples of
these applications are hanger connections, extended end-plate FR moment connections,
and diagonal bracing connections.
Fully tensioned bolts in bearing-type or slip-critical connections must meet the
minimum tensioning requirements for ASTM A325 and A490 bolts as specified in Table 4
of the RCSC Specification. Fully tensioned bolts in either case may be tightened by the
same methods. The methods approved by the RCSC are: (1) turn-of-nut method; (2)
calibrated wrench method; (3) alternative design bolt method; and, (4) direct tension
indicator method. It is important to note that the RCSC prohibits the use of any published
relationship between torque and tension.
Inspection of Fully Tensioned High-Strength Bolts

When a joint with fully tensioned high-strength bolts is assembled, the RCSC Specification requires that all joint surfaces, including surfaces adjacent to the bolt head and nut
be free of scale, except tight mill scale, and of dirt or other foreign material. Burrs need
not be removed unless they prevent solid seating of the connected parts in the snug-tightened condition.
ASTM A6 lists tolerances for straightness and flatness. These tolerances can prevent
the faying surfaces from sufficiently contacting in medium- to large-size connections.
Section C8 of the Commentary on the RCSC Specification states: Even after being
fully tightened, some thick parts with uneven surfaces may not be in contact over the
entire faying surface. In itself, this is not detrimental to the performance of the joint. As
long as the specified bolt tension is present in all bolts of the completed connection, the
clamping force equal to the total of the tensions in all bolts will be transferred at the
locations that are in contact and be fully effective in resisting slip through friction.
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION