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VACCINES

FOR ROADS
Third edition

irap.org
A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS
International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP)
Worting House, Basingstoke
Hampshire, UK, RG23 8PX
T.
E.

+44 (0) 1256 345 598


icanhelp@irap.org

A company limited by guarantee, registered in England, no. 05476000


Registered as a Charity, no. 1140357
(c) iRAP 2015

September 2015

CONTENTS

Introduction

Human Impact

A Safe System

Road Safety Inspections

Star Ratings

13

Safer Roads Investment Plans

21

Star Rating Designs

25

Crash Rate Risk Maps

29

A Business Case for Safer Roads

31

Setting Ambitious Targets

33

Innovative Financing

34

ViDA

35

Building Capacity

37

Research

38

Supporting the UN Sustainable


Development Goals

39

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS


Roads knit people, communities, and markets
together. They are the lifeblood of cities
and regions. More so than any other mode,
roads remain the predominant and universal
transport networkbut they are also the
deadliest. The current rates of road fatalities
and trauma are of epidemic proportions, and
have disastrous consequences for affected
families, communities and societies. Each day,
around 3,500 people are killed in road crashes
and thousands more suffer life-changing
injuries. Road crashes are the worlds leading
cause of death for young people and are one
of the most significant public health challenges
of our generation. At current rates, 265 million
people will be killed or seriously injured
between 2015 and 2030, surpassing Malaria,
AIDS and tuberculosis.1 The economic cost of
serious road crashes is estimated to be up to
ten percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in
some countries.
Road transport can and should be safe, not
just for those in vehicles, but for everyone
at every stage of lifefrom young children
through to the elderly. Providing a safe, low
risk transport system is a crucial step toward
achieving social and economic health and
prosperity. Both the need for action, and the
opportunity for large-scale change, have never
been greater. The United Nations Sustainable
Development Goals set the challenge of
halving the number of global deaths and
1 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

injuries from road traffic crashes by 2020. With


this unprecedented international leadership
and political will, we canand mustachieve
the goal. Like smallpox in the 1970s, we
simply require a triumph of management not
of engineering because all of the vaccines
for road safety already exist. We now need to
deploy them on a scale that matters.2
iRAP is an international, award-winning charity
dedicated to creating a world free of highrisk roads. We work on a global scale and
are moving urgently to save lives. We act on
sound research and compelling evidence.
Road Assessment Programmes (RAPs) are a
catalyst for change, providing political leaders,
policy makers and road builders with the social,
economic and engineering evidence and tools
needed to transform entire road networks.
Partners in more than 70 countries have used
crash rate Risk Map and Star Rating protocols
to assess almost 900,000 kilometres of roads,
and the results help to explain the cause of the
global road safety crisis. More than half the
roads with Star Ratings are rated just one or
two stars out of five stars, yet we know death
and injury rates are typically halved with each
incremental improvement in Star Rating. Our
management challenge is to ensure that roads
that have the greatest share of traffic are rated
at least three stars. This will take us a long
way towards the goal of halving deaths and
injuries by 2020.

In this third edition of Vaccines for Roads, we


continue to highlight the vital role that road
infrastructure can play in preventing crashes
and reducing the severity of injuries. The
report provides an international benchmark
on infrastructure road safety risk and shows
how proven, evidence-based interventions can
prevent millions of deaths and serious injuries.
We are also leading the development of social
impact investment for road safety, quantifying
the link between investment in safer roads, and
the social and economic savings for families,
communities, workplaces, hospitals, welfare
and the economy.
The use of minimum Star Ratings for new road
designs is also helping ensure that safety is
built-in to the designs prior to construction. At
the same time, thousands of local engineers
have taken part in training on the use of
iRAP tools and road infrastructure safety.
Importantly, investments to improve many
of the roads that have been assessed have
already been locked in. iRAP assessments
are being used in multilateral development
bank-financed projects worth more than $8
billion. By setting ambitious policy targets, such
as ensuring that a large percentage of travel
occurs on roads rated at least three stars,
countries are creating a legacy of safe roads
for future generations.

iRAP benefits from the generous financial


support of the FIA Foundation, the Road Safety
Fund which is jointly managed by the FIA
Foundation and the World Health Organization
(WHO), and the Global Road Safety Facility.
This support enables us to provide our Star
Rating tools to the world for free and create
the global benchmark for infrastructure safety
measurement. We are very fortunate to have
lasting partnerships with road authorities,
automobile associations, multilateral
development banks, research institutes, donors
and non-government organisations.
The central message of Vaccines for Roads is
simple: large-scale, immediate improvements
to high-risk roads will save lives today and long
into the future.
Together, we can maximise travel on roads
rated three stars or better. Together, we can
halve road deaths and injuries by 2020.

Rob McInerney
Chief Executive Officer

More than 70 countries have undertaken


iRAP assessments of their roads
Africa and the Middle East
Asia Pacific
Europe and Russia
North America
Latin America
A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 2

HUMAN IMPACT

Roads in many countries have


alarmingly high rates of trauma.
As just one example, crash scene
investigations conducted on a 53
kilometre stretch in Karnataka in
India recorded nine deaths and 17
serious injuries during a period of
just 45 days.3 That equates to an
annualised rate of 3.9 deaths and
serious injuries per kilometre and
is around ten times higher than
Britains highest risk road 4

While reducing poverty is a global priority,


road crashes make this task more difficult
as many households suffer catastrophic
expenditure and loss of earnings following a
road death or injury. Often households need
to borrow money, sell an asset, give up study
or take on extra work just to survive. Road
crashes also have a serious flow-on effect
for hospital systems, both in developing and
developed countries. At the Thai Binh General
Hospital in Vietnam more than half of patients
admitted with injuries are road traffic crash
victims5; almost three-quarters (70%) of spinal
cord injuries in Africa are transport related6;
almost half (44%) of major trauma cases in
hospitals in Victoria, Australia, are transport
related.7 As a rule of thumb, the economic
cost of a road death is the equivalent of 60-80
times a countrys GDP per capita and each
serious injury costs a quarter of that. Taking

those numbers as a basis and applying them


to the World Health Organization (WHO)
estimates, we calculate that the global
economic cost of road deaths and serious
injuries is $1.8 trillion per year, an average
of three percent of GDP in each country, and
an average of more than five percent among
the low-income countries, which can least
afford it.8 Taking action now to bring down the
number of people killed or seriously injured,
everywhere but most particularly in these
countries, will help us fight poverty worldwide.

around the world still lack access to allweather roads.10 In an increasingly urbanized
world, everybody on every trip will at some
stage use a road, either as a pedestrian,
bicyclist or with a vehicle. But the pressures
on road networks are increasingbe it
economic and population growth, urbanisation,
technology, or changes in how people
transport themselves on roadsand the lives
of people are at stake. More people riding
bikes or driving cars, an ageing population,
even expanding the road system can all
bring about an increase in road crashes. In
Australia, for example, while overall road
fatalities are progressively decreasing, the
number of cyclist fatalities and injuries has
increased significantly.11

Road safety is ever more challenging. The


worlds road systems will continue to rapidly
expand, with India, for example, aiming to
invest more than $30 billion a year building
66,000 kilometres of new roads at a rate 30 of
kilometres per day.9 The World Bank reports
that nearly one billion people in rural areas

Road traffic injury characteristics for patients at


Thai Binh General Hospital, Vietnam 5
Head injury (43%)

Households in Bangalore, India impacted


by a road death 12
Income decreased

81%

Face injury (10%)


Food production decreased
Spine injury (3%)
Upper extremity injury (12%)
Thorax/abdomen injury (7%)

Needed a loan

2.0%

Upper-middle
Lower-middle
Low

3 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

56%

Estimated cost of death and serious injuries in countries by


income group, as a percentage of GDP 13
High

Lower extremity injury (24%)

78%

5.1%
4.6%
5.3%

Ten years ago we were dealing


mainly with diarrhoea or children
with respiratory infections. Now its
multiple traumas from high-speed
collisions. Were not equipped to deal
with the kind of injuries we see and
the numbers keep going up. It is a
tremendous strain and we cant keep
up with the number of crashes.
Dr Mohamed Abu Zaed
Narsingda District Hospital, Bangladesh

14

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 4

A SAFE SYSTEM
Road deaths and injuries are a
function of the way people behave,
the different types of vehicles in
use and their speeds, and road
design and management. Despite
this complexity, the way in which
a genuinely safe road system can
be created is well understood and
solutions are often simple

Numerous publications that show how death


and serious injury can be prevented confirm
the principles broadly underpinning the safe
system approach and inform iRAPs work:
Mistakes, errors of judgment and poor
decisions are intrinsic to humans. The road
system needs to be designed and operated
to account for this.
Humans are fragile. Unprotected, we
cannot survive impacts that occur at greater
than around 30km/h.
People who behave with disregard for the
safety of themselves and others should
expect tough policing and tough sanctions.
Safety can and should be built into

the road system comprehensively and


systematically, involving more than just
patching up apparent problem areas.
The engineered elements of the system
vehicles and roadscan be designed to
be compatible with the human element,
recognising that while crashes might
occur, the total system can be designed
to minimise harm, particularly by making
roads self-explaining and forgiving of
human error.

the Road Administration defined a safe road


transport system as one where: the driver
uses a seat belt, does not exceed the speed
limits, and is sober; the vehicle has a five
star rating by Euro NCAP (European New
Car Assessment Programme); and the road
has a four star rating by EuroRAP. Research
showed this combination to be a stunning
success: just two to three percent of road
deaths occurred when these conditions were
met, despite them coinciding with 30% of
traffic flow.15

Countries leading in road safety have put


these principles into practice with outstanding
results. In Sweden, the home of Vision Zero,

After decades of building roads, causes of death and serious injury are well known

Bicyclists are killed or seriously injured when


cycling along the road, crossing the road and at
intersections

5 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Pedestrians are killed or seriously injured when


walking along or across the road

Vehicle occupants are killed or seriously injured in


run-off road, head-on or intersection crashes

Motorcyclists are killed or seriously injured in


run-off road, head-on or intersection crashes, or by
heavier vehicles in normal traffic flow

Sustainable Safety is widely credited as


underpinning the Netherlands excellent
performance in road safety. Among countries
with a population greater than one million
people, the Netherlands is often among the
top three performers. In 2014, the national
death rate was 3.4 deaths per 100,000
population.16 Sustainable Safety focuses on
three design principles for roads: functionality,
homogeneity and predictability, and requires
the definition of minimum safety levels for all
roads.17 The Netherlands was the first country
to set a national Star Rating target for its
roads, committing to achieve a minimum three
star rating for national roads by 2020.

Although the specific approach to creating


a safe system might vary from country to
country, the principles are universal. The
moral imperative for taking this approach is
compelling. So too is the economic imperative;
the economic savings from targeted safety
upgrades typically exceed the cost of their
construction and maintenance.18 It was
found in Britain that by investing less than ten
percent of existing road budgets, one star and
two star roads could be eliminated in the next
decade, saving 6,000 lives and generating
crash-cost savings of 35 billion (~$53
billion).19

...as are engineering treatmentsvaccinesto prevent them.20

Bicycle lanes like this one in China


reduce the risk that bicyclists will be
struck by fast-moving cars, trucks or
buses by physically separating travel
lanes. Well-designed on-road bicycle
lanes can reduce bicyclist crashes by
25% to 40%

Pedestrian footpaths, like this one


in the Philippines, can reduce the
likelihood that people will be struck by
vehicles while walking by as much as
40% to 60%. Raised table pedestrian
crossings also help to reduce traffic
speeds and lower the risk of injury

Energy-absorbing safety barriers,


like this one in Uganda, significantly
reduce the risk of death or injury. This
type of safety barrier can reduce risk
in run-off road crashes by 40% to 60%

Well-designed roundabouts can


reduce casualty crash risk at
intersections by more than 60% and
have been shown to be highly costeffective

This exclusive motorcycle lane in


Malaysia, the first of its kind in the
world, ensures that motorcyclists do
not need to mix with heavier and often
faster-moving traffic. The construction
of this lane resulted in a 39%
reduction in motorcycle crashes

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 6

7 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

600

Inspections have ranged in length from just


a few kilometres, such as around the Sivile
School in Cape Town, South Africa, to largescale network inspections.21 In Mexico for
example, inspections cover around 65,000
kilometres of federal and secondary roads,
which is a little more than 15% of the nations
roads. In the United States, major assessments
are underway in Alabama and Utah, while in
China, some 100,000 kilometres of roads were
inspected in the first half of 2015 alone.

500

Americas
400

Europe and Eastern Mediterranean


South-East Asia

300

Western Pacific

200

Roads inspected (000km)

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

100

2006

Countries do not need to inspect every road in


order to make a large difference. In India, about
two-thirds of deaths occur on national highways
which account for just three percent of the
network.22 iRAP encourages countries to focus
inspections on their busiest roads, where the
largest safety gains can be made.

Africa

2005

By systematically inspecting roads,


we can develop an understanding
of the level of risk that is built in to
road networks. This provides a basis
for targeting high-risk sections of
road for improvement before people
are killed or seriously injured. Inspections are especially useful when
crash data is unavailable or unreliable

The uptake of iRAP road safety inspections


has increased rapidly in recent years. In total,
more than 500,000 kilometres of roads in
65 countries have been inspected, or are in
the process of being inspected, using freelyavailable iRAP specifications. More than 1,700
billion kilometres are travelled on these roads
each year.

2004

ROAD SAFETY
INSPECTIONS

Lighting

SNAPSHOT: MEASURING RISK


The risk of death and serious injury increases
significantly with speed. If a pedestrian is
struck by a car travelling at 60km/h, they face
a 90% chance of being killed.

Delineation

Poor road surfaces, such as those with holes,


standing water and debris, mean it is more likely
that vehicles will swerve out of their lane. Furthermore, in an emergency, vehicles can stop
faster on skid-resistant pavements.

Geometry
Footpaths

Bicyclists
Bicyclists (and people using non-motorised vehicles) are amongst the most vulnerable of all
road users. Bicyclists are safest when they have
paths or lanes and do not need to mix with fastmoving traffic.

Median

Centre and edge delineation treatments (not


present here) help drivers judge their position
on the road, and provide advice about conditions
ahead.

Medians physically separate opposing traffic


streams and help stop vehicles travelling into
opposing traffic lanes. They can also help pedestrians cross the road or restrict their access
at unsafe places.

The number of lanes, width of lanes, curves,


dips, crests and slopes all effect crash risk.

Obstructed footpaths (as is the case here) mean


it is more likely that pedestrians will walk on the
road, especially when it is raining or when visibility is poor.

Shoulders
When a driver accidentally travels onto the road
shoulder (not present here) the risk of crashing
will be less if the vehicle can either stop on the
shoulder or safely travel back into the traffic lane.
Shoulders can also provide space for slowermoving non-motorised vehicles.

Roadsides
Roadside hazards (like this pole) increase
the risk of death and serious injury when a
vehicle runs off the road.

Intersections
Intersection crashes are one of the most common
types of crash problem, particularly in urban areas.
In rural areas, or where vehicle speeds are high,
the consequence of collisions at intersections can
be particularly severe.

Pavement

Visibility is an important factor in creating a


safe environment, particularly at intersections
and where vulnerable road users are present.

Speed

iRAP inspections involve surveys to collect digital, panoramic images or videos of roads and GPS location information. These data are
then used to record (or code) 50 types of road attributes that are
known to influence the likelihood of a crash and its severity.23 The
road attributes, which are recorded for each 100 metre segment of
road, include those that are known to effect risk for vehicle occupants, motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists.24 The inspections
create a permanent image, location and road attribute database
that can easily be reviewed by local engineers and planners.

Crossings
Most pedestrian deaths occur while the pedestrian is attempting to cross the road. Pedestrian
crossings (present here, but poorly designed),
including signalised crossings, refuge islands,
bridges, and traffic calming treatments, have the
potential to reduce risk.

Traffic mix
Mixing fast moving cars, trucks and buses and
slow moving auto-rickshaws and tractors increases the risk of crashes, especially head-on
and rear-end crashes.
A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 8

The Orange Angel surveying roads in Mexico


9 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Relative to road budgets, iRAP inspections


and assessments are highly affordable. An
assessment of ten percent of a countrys
roads would cost less than 0.1% of one years
road budget. To help make inspections even
more cost-effective, there is a global network
of accredited suppliers who are capable of
competitively bidding to undertake high-quality
surveys and coding. New technologies and
innovations are also making inspections more
versatile and easier to conduct. In recent years,
inspections have been undertaken at single
sites using a tablet computer to record road
attributes, on city roads by bicycle, on mediumsized networks using off-the-shelf cameras,
and across large and often complex networks
using sophisticated network survey vehicles.
Automated coding using visual data recognition
software is also improving the speed and
accuracy of coding work, and experience is
growing in the adaptation of existing road asset
datasets to produce iRAP inspection data.25

Inspections of roads around Sivile Primary School in Cape


Town, South Africa, were conducted while walking with a
hand-held tablet computer 26

As part of the Tianjin Urban Transport Project in China,


inspections of sections of the city road network were
conducted by bicycle 27

During the South Asia Road Safety Program, inspections


of more than 1,000 kilometres of roads in Bangladesh were
conducted using off-the-shelf camera and GPS equipment 28

Large-scale network inspections by the Mexican Transport


Ministry were conducted using the sophisticated Angel
Limon network survey vehicle 29

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 10

SNAPSHOT:
ROAD ATTRIBUTES
AND RISK

iRAP inspections create a rich source of


data that provides an insight into why road
trauma remains one of the worlds leading
public health challenges. The results on
this page are based on a sample of almost
250,000 kilometres of roads in 60 countries,
including roads in rural and urban areas in
low-, middle- and high-income countries.
These risk factors play a significant role in
the Star Rating results and provide a basis
for planning life-saving treatments

11 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

83% of roads where pedestrians are


present and traffic flows at 40km/h or
more have no formal footpaths

89% of roads where bicyclists are


present and traffic flows at 40km/h or
more have no bicycle facilities

61% of roads where traffic flows at


80km/h or more are undivided single
carriageways

47% of curves where traffic


flows at 80km/h or more have
hazardous roadsides

95% of roads with high motorcycle flows


(>=20% of total) and where traffic flows
at 60km/h or more have no motorcycle
facilities

57% of intersections where traffic flows


at 60km/h or more have no roundabout,
protected turn lane or interchange

71%

82%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%
82%

99%

Urban roads

66%

SEA

WP

52%

79%

68%
57%

68%

34%

37%

34%

EUR

Roads with high motorcycle flows (>=20% of total) and where


traffic flows at 60km/h or more that have no motorcycle
facilities
82%

84%
71%
59%

64%

62%

EM

7%

30%

AM

96%

Roads where bicyclists are present and traffic flows at


40km/h or more that have no bicycle facilities

AF

90%

WP

51%

SEA

56%

EUR

71%

EM

70%

AM

79%
56%

62%

56%

46%

99%
79%

AF

87%

WP

95%

92%
75%
57%

SEA = South-East Asian Region

53%
SEA

80%

EUR

Roads where pedestrians are present and speed flows


at 40km/h or more that have no formal footpaths

29%

100%

100%

98%

97%

99%

100%
78%

99%

98%

92%

51%
EM

EUR = European Region

AM = Region of the Americas

Rural roads

43%

AM

AF = African Region

EM = Eastern Mediterranean Region WP = Western Pacific Region

33%

AF

Perhaps most striking is the fact that even


in urban areas, provision for vulnerable
road userspedestrians, bicyclists and
motorcyclistsis relatively poor.

68%

94%

91%

61%

88%

99%

95%

Of the sample of almost 250,000 kilometres


of roads in 60 countries, 20% of the travel
occurs on roads in urban areas. The charts
on this page indicate that there are marked
differences in road designs both between
regions and between rural and urban areas.

AF

AM

EM

EUR

SEA

WP

Roads where traffic flows at 80km/h or more that are


undivided single carriageways

AF

AM

EM

EUR

SEA

WP

Curves where traffic flows at 80km/h or more that have


hazardous roadsides

AF

AM

EM

EUR

SEA

WP

Intersections where traffic flows at 60km/h or more


that have no roundabout, protected turn lane or interchange

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 12

STAR RATINGS

By measuring the risk associated with road


attributes, Star Ratings can provide a better
indicator of the influence of road attributes on
risk than crash numbers alone.31 The focus of
Star Ratings is on attributes that influence the
most common and severe types of crashes for
vehicle occupants, motorcyclists, pedestrians
and bicyclists.

Star Ratings are an objective


measure of the likelihood of a crash
occurring and its severity. They draw
on road safety inspection data and
extensive real-world relationships
between road attributes and crash
rates. Research shows that a
persons risk of death or serious
injury is highest on a one star road
and lowest on a five star road 30

Vehicle occupants
15%
27%

12%

37%

32%

31%

29%
32%

31%

35%

41%

69%

40%

AF

17%

20%

21%

AM

EM

EUR

18%
SEA

WP

Pedestrians
14%
45%

26%

15%

14%
22%

19%

31%
17%

28%

32%

AM

EM

46%

EUR

56%
36%

SEA

WP

13%

17%

AM

16%
22%

50%

SEA

48%

59%
32%

EUR

28%

76%

70%

39%

EM

11%

51%

57%
25%

22%
30%

38%
49%

12%
18%

25%
39%

AF

AF

33%

27%

11%

Bicyclists
10%

13 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

21%

36%
33%

15%

15%

21%

35%

57%

among road users and regions. Pedestrian star


ratings, for example, tend to be worse than
vehicle occupant star ratings, suggesting that
road designs have tended to focus on vehicles.
Ratings in Africa tend to be worse than other
regions, suggesting that there may be scope to
better share lessons learned in other regions
with road authorities in Africa.

Motorcyclists

10%

38%

The Star Ratings shown in the charts, based


on a sample of almost 250,000 kilometres
of roads in 60 countries, show that: 56%
of roads are one or two star for vehicle
occupants; 70% of roads are one or two star
for motorcyclists; 74% of roads are one or
two star for pedestrians; and 76% of roads
are one or two star for bicyclists*. It is notable
that there is considerable variation in ratings

WP

33%

23%
AF

AF = African Region

EM = Eastern Mediterranean Region

SEA = South-East Asian Region

AM = Region of the Americas

EUR = European Region

WP = Western Pacific Region

* Roads where vehicle occupants, motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists respectively are likely to be present.

AM

EM

5-star

4-star

EUR

3-star

64%

SEA

2-star

29%

WP

1-star

SNAPSHOT:
CROSS-BORDER
STAR RATINGS

for management of the trans-European road


The first regional assessments were
transport network: safety inspections, mapping
completed by EuroRAP and culminated in
of the most dangerous road stretches and
the European Road Safety Atlas, which was
safety impact assessments before the building
financed by the European Commission and
of new roads.
covers a total 240,000 kilometres of roads
in 20 countries, including 60,000 kilometres
NE
N
ETH
E
THE
ER
R LA
LAN
ND
DS
D
S
B E Safe
L A R UHellas,
S
Led by the NGO,Make Roads
of Star Ratings. Most recently, the South
SENSoR was co-financed by the South East
East
Neighbourhood
Safe Routes
(SENSoR)of motorways and
SENSoR
project
Star Rating
Europe (SEE) Transnational Cooperation
project
formed
the
largest
regional
other national roads inroad
South East
Europe
for our common
future
Programme and the EuropeanJointly
Union,
along
assessment
project undertaken to date.32
BE
B
EL
E
L G IU
IUM
G E R M A N Y
P O L A N D
with individual partner and iRAP contributions,
EuroRAP/iRAP
Star
Ratings
provide
a
SENSoR
builds on a European Union success
simple and objective measure of the level
of safety built in to the road for vehicle
and brought together road authorities,
occupants,
motorcyclists,
pedestrians
and
story,
the
adoption
of basic
safety principles
bicyclists. 5-star roads are the safest, and
AMSTERDAM

Bydgoszcz

Enschede

Utrecht

Osnabruck

Arnhem

Rotterdam

Munster

Homyel

Magdeburg

Poznan

Dortmund

WARSAW

Dusseldorf

Kassel

Cologne

Bydgoszcz

Torun

Saarbrucken

WARSAW

Brest

Zielona
Gora

Liberec

Brest
de a
level
Lodz
ehicle
sz
PRAGUE
s and
Plzen
Babruysk
t, and
L
ARU S
C Z E CLublin
H
REPUBLIC
Nuremberg
atings
Olomouc
P data
O L A N D
Homyel
Kielce
sis.

Pinsk

ast Europe

Voronezh
Kursk

Rivne

VIENNAL'viv

Banja Luka

Tiraspol
Split
Odessa

BELGRADE

S e a

Pitesti

Galati

L
ROME

PODGORICA

a
Foggia
PRISTINA
Constanta
Naples

Pleven

Dobrich

Durres

Bari
SOFIA
Pernik

SKOPJE

Taranto

FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC

TIRANEVarna

Durres

Lecce

Burgas

Istanbul
LarissaGebze

Catanzaro

Edirne

Zonguldak

OF MACEDONIA

A L B Burgas
ANIA

Thessaloniki

GR EECE
Eskisehir

Palermo
Larissa

BalikesirPatras

Ktahya

Istanbul
Gebze

Bitola

Sukhumi

e a

Sivas
Thessaloniki

GEORGIA

Lecce

ANKARA

Bursa

Larissa

c k

Batumi

Balikesir

Kirikkale

S e a

Catanzaro

Motorways

Bursa

60

60
90

80

Izmir
Erzurum

VALLETTA

Adana

Kirikkale

Erzurum

Malta
Sivas

100ml

Denizli

Sivas

ANKARA

Ktahya

120 150km
Kirikkale
Manisa
Sfax

Konya

Antalya

Scale
40

Urfa
Isparta

Trabzon

Eskisehir

Balikesir
International
boundary

Kahramanmaras

Aydin

Sicilly

Other
roads
Batumi

K
n

Elazig

Y
Malatya

Gaziantep
SENSoR Lead Partner and Project Partners 2014.
EuroRAP AISBL 2014. This map was produced to
EuroRAP/iRAP protocols. The map is produced as part of the
SENSoR South East Neighbourhood Safe Routes project
Iskenderunby the South East Europe Transnational Cooperasupported
tion Programme co-funded by the European Union. Surveys
completed 2013-14 other than Moldova, 2011 (for State Road
Aleppo
Administration iRAP V2 data updated to V3 2014) and
Ukraine, 2012 (for World Bank, updated speed data 2014). No
results are presented for roads in grey.
International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP) 2014.
2014 Europa Technologies Ltd. All rights reserved.
Latakia
OpenStreetMap contributors.
iRAP technology including protocols, processes and brands
Hamah
may not
be altered or used in any way without the express
written agreement of iRAP. Prepared under licence from
EuroRAP AISBL using protocols Copyright EuroRAP AISBL.
This map may not be reproduced without the written consent
Homspartner or EuroRAP AISBL. Such consent
of the SENSoR Lead
is not unreasonably withheld.

S Y R I A

Kayseri

NICOSIA

Diyarbakir
Crete

Usak

Heraklion

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 14

CYP R US

El Mna

Elazig

Kahramanmaras
Urfa

Konya

Elazig

Usak

Manisa

ATHENS

Siracusa

Single/mixed roads

Izmir

e
d

K
Kayseri

Patras

Catania

Gebze

Diyarbakir

Trabzon

Batumi

Messina

Samsun

GR E E CE

GEORGIA

Palermo Zonguldak

GEORGIA

Ktahya

Malatya

Erzurum

20
0
Trabzon
ANKARA
30
0

Bursa
Samsun

Zonguldak
Messina

S
Taranto

Erzurum

Sochi

Sukhumi

Ratings on dual carriageway roads


TUNIS
show the lowest rated
carriageway

Edirne

Trabzon
Samsun
Zonguldak

Sochi

Sukhumi

Thessaloniki

Stara Zagora

OF MACE DO
DO
ONIA
ON
N

TIRANE

Varna

Edirne

Bitola

Bitola

liven

Stavropol

Istanbul

ALBANIA
B l a c k
S e a

Plovdiv

Pyatigorsk

Edirne

ALBANIA

B l a c k

Sochi

OF M ACE DO
DO
ONIA
ON
N

Burgas

Samsun

SKOPJE
Varna
F OR
RM E R YUGOS
R
S L AV RE
R P UBL IC

Sliven

Stara Zagora

Salerno

Shkoder

Shumen
Sevastopol'

B U L G A R I A
TIRANE

Batumi

Sliven

F OR
RME R YUGOS
RM
R
S L AV RE
R P UBL IC

Plovdiv

A
T U N I S I

RICA

Shumen
Cagliari

l a
Stara B
Zagora

Pernik
Novorossiysk

Dobrich

Shkoder

Nis
NTENEGRO

umen

Ruse
Simferopol'

GEORGIA

Varna

Plovdiv

Pyatigorsk

B UKrasnodar
L G A R I A
Sliven
Star RatingsBurgas
SOFIA
Pyatigorsk

PRISTINA

Pescara

Focsani

S e a

Eskisehir

Sevastopol'
Pleven
Nis

Sukhumi

B l a c k

Dobrich

Shumen

SOFIA
Pernik

Durres

Bari

Sar dinia
Dobrich

Sochi

B U L G A R I A

Shkoder

Foggia

Salerno

Novorossiysk

Simferopol'

F E D E R A T I ORuse
N

Constanta

Pleven
Stavropol

SKOPJE

Naples

Constanta

BUCHAREST

Craiova

A z o v

BUCHAREST
MONTENEGRO

Craiova

Sevastopol'
Krasnodar

o f

Ruse

Krasnodar
PRISTINA

a
Stavropol

Sassari

RU SSIAN

PODGORICA
Novorossiysk

Simferopol' e

ROME

o f

A z o v

Rostov-na-donu
Pitesti

Taganrog

A
S E R B I A

NA
NA

Odessa

Galati

Kherson
SARAJEVO

Novi Sad
Ancona

Perugia

au

Timisoara

CHISINAU

Iasi

S e a

Novocherkassk

MONTENEGRO

FY
EDE RAT I O N

Focsani

Brasov
Kherson
Volgodonsk

Galati

S E Focsani
R B I A

Craiova

Nis

Pescara

Mariupol'

BOSNIA
Brasov
Sibiu
AND
Mykolaiv
HER
RZ
ZEGOVINA

Osijek

Shakhty

Sibiu
Novoshakhtinsk

Tiraspol

BELGRADE

R O M A N I A

MMARINO
OLDOVA
SAN

Donets'k

Timisoara

Novi Sad
Bacau Zaporizhzhia

Kryvyi Rih

C
Szeged
Balti
Subotica

CHISINAU

Iasi
Dnipropetrovs'k

Osijek

Sevastopol'

Constanta

BUCHAREST

o f

A z o v

RU SSI AN

C orsica

Pyatigorsk
Novorossiysk

Simferopol'

Pitesti

Cluj

Luhans'k

R O M A Mykolaiv
N I A

MOLDOVA

S e a

Split

Focsani
Galati

FEDE RAT I O N

SARAJEVO

Kherson
Novocherkassk

Rostov-na-donu

Taganrog
Perugia
Odessa

Stavropol

Krasnodar

Volgodonsk

S E R
B S IS A
RU
I AN

A
T I Kirovohrad

Mariupol'

o f

A z o v

Novocherkassk

Rostov-na-donu
BELGRADE
Taganrog

B OS
OSN
SN
NIA
AN
ND
HER
H
RZ
Z
ZEGO
OV
O
V INA
IN
I A

Tiraspol

Bacau

Szeged

Subotica

Ancona

S e a
Odessa

Brasov

Sibiu

Timisoara
Shakhty

Novi Sad

Volgodonsk

Zaporizhzhia

Novoshakhtinsk
Mykolaiv

Shakhty

Tiraspol

R O M A N I A

Novoshakhtinsk

Zaporizhzhia

FEDE R AT IO N

Kherson

Oradea

Subotica

Donets'k
Osijek

Pecs
Dniprodzerzhyns'k

CHISINAU

Cluj
Balti

Suceava

ZAGREB
B

Oradea

Rijeka

Kecskemt

Satu
Mare

Kryvyi Rih

Oradea

Kecskemt

FlorenceDonets'k

G A R Y

Chernivtsi

Cherkasy
Baia
Mare

Banja Luka

SAN MARINO

RU SSIA N
Mykolaiv

CHISINAU

Iasi

Volgograd

Dnipropetrovs'k
T I

E
V
ODebrecen
S L

LJUBLJANA

Udine

Vinnytsia
Trieste
Szolnok
Venice

Volgograd
Iasi

H U N GPoltava
A R Y

Maribor

Dnipropetrovs'k
M O L Volzhskiy
D O VPisa
A

Kirovohrad

B
ZAGREB

Mariupol'

Balti
La Spezia

MONTE
CARLO
Suceava
Dniprodzerzhyns'k
Cannes

Rijeka

Volzhskiy
Volgograd

Szeged

Rostov-na-donu

Mariupol'

Cluj

Luhans'k
Pecs

Volzhskiy

Zaporizhzhia

MOLDOVA

Bacau

el'nyts'kyi

PEST

RKlagenfurt

Miskolc

Debrecen

Kharkiv
Szolnok

Graz

Satu
Mare

Debrecen
Szolnok

Volgodonsk

Novocherkassk

Balti

Suceava

Shakhty

Novoshakhtinsk

Taganrog

Baia
Mare

Satu
Mare

Kecskemt

Luhans'k

Bologna

BUDAPEST

H U N G A R Y

Donets'k

Miskolc

Kharkiv

Kryvyi Rih

Genoa

Dnipropetrovs'k
Kirovohrad

Kosice

Dniprodzerzhyns'k

Kirovohrad

Nice

Baia
Mare

Gyr

Maribor

O
S L

Trieste

Verona

Poltava

Klagenfurt

olzano

BUDAPEST

Luhans'k

Chernivtsi

BRATISLAVA
Belgorod

Cherkasy
LJUBLJANA
Udine

Kosice

Zhytomyr

Kryvyi Rih

L O VAK IA

Milan
Vinnytsia
Kharkiv

Cherkasy
Chernivtsi

Vinnytsia

A U SKIEVT R I A

Belgorod
Khmel'nyts'kyi Miskolc

BRATISLAVA

Salzburg

Innsbruck

Bolzano

Piacenza

Poltava

Volgograd

Dniprodzerzhyns'k

S LO VAK IA

Salzburg

Venice

Kosice

Volzhskiy

Kharkiv

Poltava

Cherkasy

Staryy Oskol

A U S T R I A

Trento

Bergamo

Turin

Gyr

Belgorod

Khmel'nyts'kyi

VIENNA

Voronezh

Belgorod

Khmel'nyts'kyi

Staryy Oskol

Zhytomyr

Linz

Munich

KIEV

S L O VAK I A

intly for our common future

Staryy Oskol

Vinnytsia

Ceske
Budejovice

Graz

L'viv

Voronezh

Kursk

Linz

Zhytomyr

Rzeszow
Jointly for
our common future
Krakow

L'viv

Brno

Kursk

Innsbruck

Staryy Oskol
KIEV

S
W
I TZE R LAND
Rivne
Lausanne

Rzeszow

Ostrava

Voronezh

Kursk
VADUZ

Geneva

Katowice

Chernihiv
Rzeszow

Krakow

Kielce

Ostrava

Ceske
Budejovice

Katowice

Zurich

Chernihiv

Brno

rap-

Basel for our common future


Jointly

Zhytomyr

Krakow

REPUBLIC
Olomouc

Chernihiv

BERN

Opole

CZECH

Munich

Homyel

Lublin

Wroclaw

WARSAW

Freiburg

Mulhouse

Dresden

Babruysk

Nuremberg

KIEV

Rivne

Katowice

PRAGUE

Leipzig

Lodz

Baranavichy Kalisz

Bialystok

Torun

Mannheim
Babruysk

Metz

Nancy

A N
F R

Poznan

Plzen

B E roads
L A are
RU
1-star
theS
least safe. Star Ratings
are based on Karlsruhe
road inspection data
Homyel
collected
Strasbourgthrough surveys and analysis.
Stuttgart
Further details at:
h t t p : / / w w w. i r a p . o r g / e n / a b o u t - i r a p Pinsk
3/methodology
Augsburg

Baranavichy

Kielce

Opole

Wurzburg

Bialystok

Lublin

Wroclaw

Liberec

Frankfurt
am Main

Mainz

LUXEMBOURG

BERLIN

Magdeburg

Dresden

LUXEMB
LU
BO
OURG

Gorzow
Wielkopolski

Chernihiv

Lodz

Kalisz

Leipzig

Koblenz

iRAP assessments are an


internationally consistent method
for measuring risk that can cross
ject
Star Rating
and
borders
and formofamotorways
basis for
B E LEurope
ARU S
al roads
in
South
East
benchmarking between national,
A N Y
P O L A N D
provincial and
and local jurisdictions
motorways

Pinsk

Brest

Zielona
Gora

Aachen

Liege

Babruysk

Baranavichy

Bialystok

BERLIN

Eindhoven

Essen

Torun

Gorzow
Wielkopolski

Hannover

automobile associations, research institutes


and consultants from 14 countries. The results
show that of the almost 20,000 kilometres
of roads that were Star Rated, typically
50% to 70% of roads in individual countries
are one or two stars for vehicle occupants.
Commonly, pedestrian activity is expected on
more than 40% of networks though footpaths
are generally only available on less than ten
percent of the networks. More than 4,800
pedestrian crossings were surveyed, 44% of
which are of poor quality.

LEBANON

Roadside safety barriers


Median safety barriers

SNAPSHOT: WHAT
WE SEE WHEN WE
LOOK AT A ROAD

Because people are so familiar with


what a road looks like, the way in
which various road attributes might
affect risk of death and serious injury
is not always obvious. This has been
compounded by the difficulty road
experts have had in talking about
road design in a way that everyone
can understand. Star Ratings form
a simple language that enables
discussion about risk and ways in
which road safety can be improved

The following images illustrate sections of


roads and samples of road attributes that
influence their Star Ratings. In the images:
Green coloured attributes are associated
with a reduced level of risk.
Yellow coloured attributes are associated
with an intermediate level of risk.
Red coloured attributes are associated with
an increased level of risk.
The images help to show that the level of risk
associated with a roads infrastructure, and
hence its Star Rating, is a function of numerous
attributes. Speed is an especially important
attribute, both in the iRAP models and in road
safety. Providing traffic speeds are below the
human tolerance to impactsabout 30km/h
then a road may have a good pedestrian Star
Rating even though its pedestrian infrastructure
is relatively poor, since the likelihood of death
or serious injury in the event of a crash is very
low. Similarly, roads with very high speeds may
have a good vehicle occupant Star Rating if
the infrastructure is well-designed for those
speeds.

Good delineation
Wide paved shoulders
No intersection
Straight
Brazil

Two lanes each direction

Vehicle occupants:

80km/h

Australia

40km/h

Pedestrians:

Footpaths
Raised pedestrian crossing
Street lighting
1 lane in each direction
Good sight distance
Managed parking
Median island

Vietnam
Motorcyclists:

Motorcycle lane
Street lighting
Good delineation
No intersection
Good sight distance
Narrow paved shoulders
60km/h
Roadside hazards

15 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

China
Bicyclists / e-bicyclists:

Bicycle lane

Adequate delineation

Street lighting

Good pavement

Good pavement

Moderate curve

No intersection

Narrow paved shoulders

No vehicle parking

80km/h

Two lanes each direction

Roadside hazards

Good sight distance


50km/h

Cayman Islands

Costa Rica
Vehicle occupants:

Intersection
Undivided

56km/h (35 mph)

Good surface condition

Footpath and crossing

Moderate curve

Straight

80km/h

Paved shoulder

Undivided

Street lighting

Roadside hazards

No bicycle lane

No paved shoulder

Intersection

India

Poor delineation

All road users:

Poor delineation

Motorcyclists:

No street lighting

Philippines

One lane each direction

Brazil

No intersection

Pedestrians:

Good sight distance

Bicyclists:

Good sight distance

80km/h

80km/h

Narrow paved shoulder

No bicycle facilities

No formal footpath

No street lighting

No pedestrian crossing

Poor pavement

No school zone

No shoulder

No street lighting

Poor delineation
A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 16

SNAPSHOT:
STARS RATINGS
AND TRAUMA RATES

Star Ratings are widely used in


countries that have good crash
data as well as those where crash
data is not available. In countries
where good crash data is available,
research has consistently produced
evidence that better Star Ratings are
associated with lower crash rates

There are numerous practical examples of


road upgrades improving Star Ratings and
crash rates. The Road Safety Foundation
reported that re-surfacing, improvement of
road markings, lowering the speed limit, and
improvement of pedestrian crossings on a
stretch where pedestrians were especially
vulnerable allowed a section of the A404 in

Road rated three stars or better for pedestrians

Buckinghamshire, Britain, to rise from two stars


to three stars overall (see below). This helped
to dramatically reduce crash rates. As a result
of these upgrades, this stretch of road was
identified as Britains most improved road.33

Road rated three stars or better for vehicle occupants

83%
100%
Number of pedestrian crashes

17 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

After improvements (2010 - 2012)

61%
Number of vehicle occupant crashes

4
0

Before improvements (2007 - 2009)

44%

8
1

Studies in Australia, Britain, Germany, Iceland,


Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain,
Sweden and the United States have each
demonstrated a relationship between Star
Ratings and crash rates, such that as Star
Ratings improve crash rates generally also
improve.34 A study on the Bruce Highway in
Queensland, for example, found that: crash
costs on two star roads are 40% lower than on
one star roads; crash costs on three star roads
are 61% lower than on two star roads; and
crash costs on four star roads are 43% lower
than on three star roads.35

$0.148

$0.090

$0.035

1-star

2-star

3-star

$0.020

Insufficient
crash data

4-star

5-star

Fatal and serious injury crash costs per vehicle kilometre travelled by Star Rating on the Bruce Highway

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 18

SNAPSHOT:
STAR RATINGS AT
SCHOOLS

Road crashes are the leading cause


of death for school-aged children.
Worldwide, pedestrians already
account for 22% of road deaths and
as cities rapidly expand there is a
very real risk that this number will
grow

Roads that pass schools have commonly been


included in iRAP network assessments. For
example, as part of the Philippines Secondary
National Roads Development Project, the
Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
and Department of Works and Highways
(DPWH) lifted the pedestrian Star Ratings at
schools with the installation of safety fences,
pedestrian crossings, footpaths and traffic
calming treatments.
With the support of the FIA Foundation,
Road Safety Fund and FedEx, the method
for using iRAP assessments at schools
was enhanced to take account of schoolspecific safety treatments such as raised
pedestrian crossings, flashing lights and
crossing supervisors.36 The enhanced method
was pilot-tested in Mexico City, Mexico in
partnership with Safe Kids Worldwide, and
in Cape Town, South Africa in partnership
with Childsafe, City of Cape Town, Janssen,
IVECCO, WorleyParsons, RTMC and
SANRAL.
In Mexico City, the assessments identified
priority locations for treatment, expected
benefits of making improvements and helped
in developing safe routes for children to
walk to and from school. In Cape Town,
the assessments led to the installation of
a signalised pedestrian crossing that now
helps students at Sivile Primary School cross
a major road.37 It is estimated that the new
crossing reduces risk of death and serious
injury by 85%.38

19 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Before
Pedestrians:

After
Pedestrians:

SNAPSHOT:
SUSTAINABLE
CITIES

Green mobility has quickly become


a key priority in improving not just
the sustainability of cities, but also
their liveability and productivity. Goal
11.2 of the Sustainable Development
Goals is By 2030, provide access
to safe, affordable, accessible and
sustainable transport systems for
all, improving road safety, notably
by expanding public transport, with
special attention to the needs

International commitments, such as those of


the Transport, Health and Environment PanEuropean Programme, have become the focal
point for sustainability goals and transport
policies and funding throughout Europe, the
Americas and beyond. As a consequence,
how we think of roads is changing, as is
the way people are using them. Roads are
becoming less about cars travelling at high
speeds and more about how people travel
and do so safelyregardless of whether they
are a pedestrian, a cyclists or motorcyclist, a
passenger on public transit or in a vehicle.
Safe cycling infrastructure is a compelling
example for how improved infrastructure alone
significantly reduces road trauma. Where there
have been efforts to provide comprehensive
and safe cycling facilities as part of road
networks, crash rates have decreased steadily,
even though the numbers of cyclists often
significantly increase. In contrast, where safe
cycling infrastructure has not kept pace with
demand, cycling deaths and injuries have
increased. Research shows that the principle
barrier to cycling in cities is safety. Safety is
so important that the City of Copenhagen
has found even a perception or feeling of
being unsafe has the same outcome as being
actually unsafe, that is, it prevents people from
cycling.39 Addressing road safetyfor all road
usersis therefore integral to promoting and
increasing green mobility in cities.

Star Ratings offer a mechanism for road


builders and transport planners to come
together in planning for connected and
integrated cycling networks and pedestrian
access, particularly around major transport
hubs, where it is critically important that the
benefits of public transport are not offset by
road death and injury. For example, planners
and designers could aim to ensure that: bicycle
routes within three kilometres of a mass

5-star

transit station are at least four stars for


bicyclists; and pedestrian routes within one
kilometre of a mass transit station are at least
four stars for pedestrians.

4-star

3-star

2-star

1-star

Pedestrian routes within 1km of a mass


transit station target 4-stars minimum

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 20

SAFER ROADS
INVESTMENT
PLANS

To date, Safer Roads Investment


Plans have been used around the
world to identify improvements
that could prevent millions of
deaths and serious injuries
and save trillions of dollars
in crash costs avoided. The
countermeasures identified are
often relatively low cost yet they
can provide life-saving benefits
for decades

21 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Where Star Ratings provide a measure of


risk on a road, Safer Roads Investment
Plans identify ways in which the Star Ratings
can be improvedand deaths and serious
injuries preventedin a cost-effective
way. The evidence that well-targeted road
safety improvements save lives, at both
individual locations and across networks,
is unassailable. In Victoria, Australiaa
jurisdiction that has already made substantial
reductions in crash ratesan initial AUD $130
million investment in simple but strategic road
improvements across 113 projects resulted in
a 22% reduction in run-off road, head-on and
intersection casualty crashes.40 As a result,
the program was expanded by AUD $650
million over ten years.41

Safer Roads Investment Plans draw on this


type of international experience. The plans
include extensive planning and engineering
information such as road attribute records,
countermeasure proposals and economic
assessments for 100 metre sections of road.
They are supported by the iRAP online
software, ViDA, which makes this information
highly accessible.

years. Similarly, by investing in street lighting


along 130 kilometres of road in Brazil where
there are intersections and/or pedestrian
crossings could prevent 14,700 deaths and
serious injuries over 20 years.

The table below shows a snapshot of


recommendations that have been made. For
example, by investing in 1,300 kilometres
of footpaths on important national roads in
Bangladesh that have poor pedestrian Star
Ratings, an estimated 35,500 deaths and
serious injuries could be prevented over 20

Selected countermeasure recommendations (20 year analysis)


Countermeasure type

Country

Sites/length (km)

Deaths and serious


injuries prevented

Benefit cost ratio

Footpaths

Bangladesh

1 300

35 500

16

Street lighting at intersections and pedestrian crossings

Brazil

130

14 700

10

Delineation improvements

Mexico

4 200

10 540

17

Motorcycle lanes

Vietnam

680

5 700

Bicycle lanes

Indonesia

360

4 290

12

Shoulder rumble strips

Australia

4 745

4 090

Median treatments

Slovenia

170

320

SNAPSHOT: SAFETY
COUNTERMEASURES
IN UKRAINE
Safety countermeasures suggested
for the HoloskivDyakivtsi section of
the M21 in Ukraine have the potential
to prevent more than 500 deaths and
serious injuries over 20 years. These
countermeasures were identified as
part of the $562 million World Bankfinanced Second Road and Safety
Improvement Project

Bicycle facilities

Footpaths and crossings

Median treatment

Traffic calming

Paved shoulders

Safety barriers

Delineation treatment

Intersection treatment
A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 22

SNAPSHOT:
CUTTING RISK
ON THE PRINCES
HIGHWAY
Under the Transport Accident
Commission (TAC) Safer Road
Infrastructure Program, a range of
life-saving road safety improvement
projects along the Princes Highway
East in Australia have been
completed

According to the local road authority,


VicRoads, the Longwarry to Traralgon stretch
had a high concentration of run-off-road type
crashes. The improvements included:
removal of roadside hazards, such as trees
and shrubs, providing a driveable run-off
area where vehicles can safely come to rest
if they stray off the road
installation of safety barriers, mostly wire
rope barriers, where roadside hazards
could not be removed

wire rope barrier installation in the narrow


median where there is a high risk that a
vehicle will cross into opposing traffic.42
Preliminary analysis of improvements, which
cost just under AUD $20 million, indicates that:
there was a reduction in serious injuries
of 44% (with the AusRAP/iRAP model
predicting a 42% reduction)
trauma was reduced at a rate of 56
serious casualties saved per year for each

Before improvements (westbound shown)

After improvements (westbound shown)


23 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

AUD $100 million invested


one star and two star sections of road
were eliminated and there has been a 36%
increase in the length rated four star or
better.

5-star

4-star

3-star

2-star

1-star

Before

0%

7%

84%

9%

1%

After

1%

42%

57%

0%

0%

SNAPSHOT:
BLOOMBERG
GLOBAL ROAD
SAFETY INITIATIVE
With the Bloomberg Global Road
Safety Initiative, iRAP and the
World Bank Global Road Safety
Facility helped Brazil, China, India
and Egypt assess almost 20,000
kilometres of roads

It was estimated that nearly 100 million people


live within three kilometres of the roads
assessed, and some 85 billion kilometres
are travelled on the roads each year. 3,750
kilometres (19%) of the roads are located
in urban environments. The assessments
found that a large percentage of the roads
were rated just one or two stars for all road

users and that the Star Ratings for vehicle


occupants tended to be better than for
pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists.
The assessments also identified road safety
countermeasures that could prevent more than
50,000 fatalities and serious injuries per year
over 20 years, representing a 46% reduction
compared to baseline estimates. For each $1

Roads rated one or two stars

invested in the safety countermeasures, there


would be an economic saving of almost $4
in terms of crash costs avoided. Many of the
safety countermeasures identified are now
being implemented as part of World Bankfinanced and locally-financed projects.

Annual fatalities and serious injuries


1,732

23%

6,988

80%

4,649

15%

19,557

87%

16,084

37%

28,498

81%
20,776

9%

39,485

68%

With treatment

Without treatment

Examples of safety countermeasures for the roads in four countries

Median barriers
could prevent 7,170
fatalities and serious
injuries per year

Roadside safety barriers could prevent


7,039 fatalities and
serious injuries per
year

Footpaths could prevent 3,265 fatalities


and serious injuries
per year

Signs and lines


could prevent 1,158
fatalities and serious
injuries per year

Pedestrian crossings
could prevent 486
fatalities and serious
injuries per year

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 24

STAR RATING
DESIGNS

Apart from assessing existing roads,


Star Ratings are being used to
help ensure that safety is built-in to
designs for major upgrades and new
roads, prior to construction

Problems with safety are not limited to


old roadsnewly built roads often have
fundamentally unsafe designs that achieve just
one or two stars. Roads where pedestrians are
present continue to be built without footpaths
and safe crossings. Run-off-road risk is often
unacceptably high because roadside hazards
have been overlooked or because outdated,
unsafe safety barriers are used.43 These types
of problems can be compounded by the fact
that new, smoother pavements invariably
lead to higher speeds that significantly
increase risk unless ameliorated with safety
countermeasures. It is critically important

that peoples safety and well-being is not


overlooked during the design process in favour
of more traditional objectives such as reducing
congestion and travel times.
Following the Commission for Global Road
Safety recommendation that desired design
speeds for new roads be subject to achieving
minimum safety ratings, the Star Rating design
process is increasingly being used to objectively
measure the impact on risk of various design
iterations and help harness the potential
of designers to find creative solutions to
challenging safety problems.44 For governments

and development banks, the process opens the


opportunity to set performance-based targets for
vehicle occupants, motorcyclists, pedestrians
and bicyclists that not only improve safety
but create a high level of transparency and
accountability. The Star Rating design process
has been successfully used in conjunction with
existing mechanisms such as Road Safety
Audits and compliance with road design
standards.

Star Ratings

Estimates of fatalities
and serious injuries

Risk assessment

Star Rating
target
Road survey

Economic analysis
and suggested safety
countermeasures

Road attribute
coding

Road designs

25 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

SNAPSHOT:
STAR RATING
DESIGNS IN
SHAANXI
ChinaRAP, a partnership between
the Research Institute of Highway
(RIOH) in the Ministry of Transport
and iRAP, is working with local
designers to enhance safety on rural
highways and on roads in villages,
towns and cities

In Shaanxi, China, the ChinaRAP team


helped local road designers to almost double
the percentage of roads that would be rated
three stars or better in the $400 million
Asian Development Bank (ADB)-financed
Shaanxi Mountain Road Safety Demonstration
project.45 The estimated benefit-cost ratio for
the safety enhancements is more than 6:1.
The project will also include a coordinated
safety education program at schools and
on-going capacity building for local road
engineers.

Location Map
Existing road

To Ankang
To Xunyang

Upgraded road

-25%

The existing road experiences a higher-thanaverage number of vehicle occupant deaths


and serious injuries. It is in mountainous terrain and has many sharp curves and hazardous roadsides

The new design includes updated safety barriers, realignments, paved shoulders, improved
delineation and curve markers, enhanced skid
resistance and traffic calming

It estimated that the road improvements will


result in 25% fewer deaths and serious injuries, even though traffic speeds are expected
to increase

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 26

SNAPSHOT:
URBAN SAFETY
AND GREEN
TUNNELS IN
GUJARAT
Engineers and planners in India
are creating road designs that are
sensitive to the environment, minimise
the need for land acquisition and are
much safer than before

Designers in Gujarat managed to significantly


improve the length of road rated three stars or
better in the $323 million World Bank-financed
Second Gujarat State Highway Project (GSHP
II). During the design phase, thoughtful
consideration was particularly given to the
way in which the highways integrate with
facilities for vulnerable road users in urban
areas, and to the creation of green tunnels

279 km
177km
131 km
95 km

Road length rated three stars or better

27 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

that retain beautiful trees while minimising the


risk of death and serious injury in the event of
a run-off-road crash. The designs made use
of a range of safety countermeasures, such
as traffic calming, pedestrian footpaths and
crossings, intersection improvements, median
treatments, safety barriers, highly visible signs
and street lighting.

79 km

Existing roads

59 km

Designs

131 km
70 km

SNAPSHOT:
LIFE-SAVING
IMPROVEMENTS
TO THE MIDLAND
HIGHWAY

Prior to publishing a ten-year AUD $500


million action plan to prevent catastrophic
casualty crashes on the Midland Highway, the
Australian and Tasmanian Governments were
able to use the iRAP online software, ViDA, to
test the likely safety benefits of various design
options. The final plan includes a target to lift
the road to a minimum three star rating, and
will include installation of safety barriers, wider
medians, removing roadside hazards, junction
upgrades, lane widening and adding additional
overtaking opportunities.46

SNAPSHOT:
ROADS OF NATIONAL
SIGNIFICANCE
DESIGN STANDARDS

New Zealands Safer Journeys Road Safety


Strategy has led to safe system speed and
motorcycling demonstration projects and a
review of design standards that ensure the
Roads of National Significance (RoNS) will
be implemented with a minimum four star
KiwiRAP rating. By doing this, New Zealand
will achieve its goal of improving the safety
of roads and roadsides to significantly reduce
the likelihood of crashes occurring and to
minimise the consequences of crashes when
they do occur.47

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 28

CRASH RATE
RISK MAPS

While Star Ratings relate


specifically to risk associated with a
roads design attributes, crash rate
Risk Maps represent the number
of deaths and injuries on a road,
capturing the combined risk arising
from the interaction of road users,
vehicles and the road environment

29 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

To date Risk Maps using reported crash data


have been produced for almost 350,000
kilometres of roads across 25 countries.
Numerous countries have produced risk maps
on an annual basis to track performance
over time. As one example, the extensive
risk mapping in Poland covers more than
17,000 kilometres of national road and 3,593
kilometres of regional road. Of the national

network, five percent is motorway, 6 percent


dual carriageway and the remainder is single
carriageway. The EuroRAP network accounts
for 6 percent of the nations road network and
36 percent of road fatalities. Only one percent
of the national network falls into the low risk
band. Polands challenge is to improve safety
performance on high risk single carriageway
roadsaround half of mapped regional roads

fall in the high risk category.


Recent modern engineering has achieved
results on new and modernised national
and regional roads where Polands safety
performance is now better than several
western European countries.

In places where detailed crash data is


unavailable, Star Ratings are used as a
basis for estimating where deaths and
serious injuries are likely to occur. This is
achieved by combining Star Rating Scores
with exposure datatraffic, pedestrian
and bicyclist flowsand calibrating the
results for local conditions. This process
is described in the iRAP Methodology
Fact Sheets. In the example shown
here, estimated death and serious injury
rates are illustrated for national roads in
Colombia. The sections of road coloured in
pink are where trauma rates are estimated
to be highest, based on knowledge of the
Star Ratings and traffic flows on those
sections, and therefore show where road
safety improvements are likely to be most
cost-effective. These estimations form a
standard part of the process for developing
Safer Roads Investment Plans.

Estimated deaths and serious injuries per kilometre per year:

0 - 0.15

0.15 - 0.3

0.3 - 0.5

0.5 - 0.8

> 0.8

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 30

A BUSINESS CASE
FOR SAFER ROADS

The United Nations Sustainable


Development Goals to halve road
traffic deaths (goal 3.6); invest in
infrastructure to create growth and
jobs (goal 9.1) and ensure that
transport is safe and sustainable
(goal 11.2) are supported by a
strong business case for largescale investment in safer road
infrastructure 48

31 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

10% of each countrys roads. The analysis


shows that affordable road improvements, such
as footpaths, safety barriers, bicycle lanes and
paved shoulders, applied at large-scale, will
prevent tens of millions of deaths and serious
injuries.

iRAP Safer Roads Investment Plans illustrate


the life-saving potential of engineering safety
countermeasures. Improving a roads Star
Rating by just one star can halve the cost of
deaths and serious injuries. Treatments are
often simple to implement, can permeate
entire countriesfrom large cities through to
remote regionsand will generate jobs and
economic activity, and ultimately leave a safe
and sustainable transport system for future
generations.
By extrapolating iRAP assessment results we
created a global business case for safer roads.
The results of our simple analysis helps to
illustrate the benefits that could be achieved
over 20 years by improving the highest risk

Investments approaching this scale are


already beginning. As discussed earlier,
Victoria, Australia, is investing AUD $1 billion
over ten years in safer roads. In China, the
ChinaRAP team is now rolling out large-scale
assessments across 12 provinces as part
of the national Highway Safety to Cherish
Life project. In its first ten years, the program
invested some $5 billion in safety facilities on
366,000 kilometres of roads.

Benefits that could be achieved over 20 years by improving just ten percent of each countrys roads, by income group
Low

Lower middle

Upper middle

High

All

Improve 10% of roads

108,000 km

610,000 km

992,000 km

1,546,000 km

3,255,000 km

Build viable countermeasures

$8 billion

$61 billion

$149 billion

$464 billion

$681 billion

Reduction in fatalities

384,000

1,483,000

1,528,000

283,000

3,678,000

Reduction in fatalities and serious injuries

4,224,000

16,313,000

16,808,000

3,113,000

40,458,000

Economic benefit

$83 billion

$663 billion

$2,766 billion

$2,202 billion

$5,715 billion

Benefit cost ratio

11

11

19

Accident-prone area starts. Pass cautiously.

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 32

SETTING AMBITIOUS
TARGETS

iRAP road safety inspections and


Star Ratings provide countries and
international finance institutions with
a set of highly objective indicators
that can be used in setting ambitious
road safety targets. Ambitious
targets have been shown to play
an important role in altering the
communitys view of the inevitability
of road trauma and driving action to
save lives 49

33 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Consistent with the safe system approach,


countries leading in road safety are increasingly
examining ways to ensure that people do not
come to serious harm on their networks. The
use of star rating targets is becoming more
prevalent as a mechanism for managing safety
on major roads and guiding investment.
Highways England, a government
corporation for national roads, has a goal
that 90% of travel on its network will be at
three star or above by 2020.50
The Netherlands is now within 25 kilometres
of achieving its three star target for national
roads.51
Swedens administration aims for better than
three stars of 75% of roads by 2020 and
near 100% by 2025.52
Queensland, Australia has a target of
achieving 85% of travel on three star or
better on national network roads by 2020.53
New Zealand has completed a review of
design standards to ensure that Roads
of National Significance (RoNS) will be

implemented with a minimum four star


KiwiRAP rating.54
Numerous projects in developing countries
have successfully made use of star rating
targets.

The Africa Transport Policy Program, which


is hosted by the World Bank, has similarly
explored the potential benefits of setting a
target of at least three stars for all road users in
developing countries.56

To help accelerate investment in safety in


developing countries, the Asian Development
Bank (ADB) has floated wide use of iRAP
star rating targets in development projects,
suggesting:
All new or rehabilitation road designs should
always have a higher safety rating than the
existing road and have at least a three star
rating standard for all road users.
Roads with more than 50,000 vehicles per
day should have a minimum of four stars for
all users.
Roads or sections of roads passing through
linear settlements should have a minimum
four star standard for pedestrians and
cyclists.55

The Fund for Global Health leads a coalition


that includes the AAA, American Society of
Civil Engineers (ASCE), Concern for Road and
Pedestrian Safety (CoRPS), India, Institute
of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Insurance
Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), Mexico
Previene AC, Road Transport and Safety
Agency, Zambia, and Uganda Red Cross, and
advocates for roads to be built to a minimum
three star standard for all road users.57 In
support of the coalition, 49 members of the
United States Congress signed letters calling
on the World Bank to require that Bankfinanced roads achieve at least three stars.58

INNOVATIVE
FINANCING

For each $100 that road trauma


costs the community about $1
is invested to prevent crashes.
Bridging this gap is critically
important to secure the win-win
outcomes of road safety investment

The FIA Foundation argues that the missing


linkand major barrierin achieving safer
roads is in building the case for investment;
that while we know the issues, know what
actions are required, can calculate the benefit
said actions would have, the ability to turn
this into tangible return for investors remains
elusive. Their research report, Breaking the
Deadlock, concludes that by making the
links between road safety measures and
public health outcomes clear, social-impact
investing could herald a new era of safer road
investment.59
A social-impact bond investment for safer road
infrastructure design, which pays investors for
a successful reduction in injuries, would be
a win-win for transport and health ministries.
iRAP Star Ratings and fatality estimation
modules make this possible by measuring
and specifying the safety performance of road
infrastructurean important prerequisite for
social impact bonds.
Furthermore, reductions in targeted crash
types and the subsequent reductions
in insurance claim costs are now being
examined. For example, in Victoria, Australia,
the linkages between the Transport Accident
Commissions AUD $1 billion investment in
safer road infrastructure (which aims to reduce
deaths and serious injuries on Victorian
roads by 30%), accident compensation
law (a no-fault compensation scheme) and
improvements in Star Ratings are making it
possible to readily identify the beneficiaries of
the investment into safe infrastructure.

This work will inform the development of a


social impact calculator that connects the
improvement in Star Rating with the true
financial savings to those who bear the cost
of road trauma. It will be possible to directly
link avoided crashes, particularly by crash
type or category (such as crashes involving
pedestrians, cyclists or vehicles in a run-offroad crash, a head-on or intersection crashes)

and the expected savings to the emergency


teams, trauma unit, hospital bed days,
rehabilitation services, social welfare, carers,
insurance and business. With public-private
partnerships already common in the road
sector, the mechanism for industry to deliver
the safety improvements is already proven
and established.

We understand the issues


we need to address

ISSUES

The missing
piece in the case
for investment.
But, we struggle
to translate
that benefit into
specific returns to
investors

BENIFICIARY

ROAD SAFETY
INVESTMENT

INTERVENTION

We know what
we need to do to
address the issue

BENEFIT

We can assess the benet our


interventions are likely to have
in reducing deaths and serious
injuries and can value that in

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 34

ViDA
ViDA, meaning life in Spanish, is
iRAPs online road safety software.
Capable of performing risk and
economic calculations for millions
of kilometres of road, ViDA is
the global platform for producing
iRAP assessment reports. ViDA is
available at: http://vida.irap.org

ViDA is a global platform that helps ensure


that everyone, from a transport minister, to
engineers, through to road safety advocates,
who has the potential to improve road
engineering safety and save lives, is able to
access the results they need. At the same
time, project and programme managers have
the ability to control the level of access that
people have to project data. When using ViDA,
managers can choose options ranging from
completely secure, private access for sensitive
data, to completely open, publicly-available
access to results that complement a written
report.

ViDA offers three levels of access.


1. Readers can view published reports and
request access to unpublished reports.
Readers can filter road data, Star Rating
and Investment Plan reports to the road
network level.
2. Analysts are able to look at reports in
greater detail than Readers by filtering
road data, Star Rating and Investment Plan
reports down to the road and road section
levels. Analysts can also access risk
worms, countermeasure strip plans and
download files.

3. Creators can access reports in the same


way that Analysts can, and they can also
create and edit projects, upload and
process data, and create and edit reports.
Thanks to the support of our donors, access to
ViDA is free.

ViDA / Road safety reports

Interactive Star Rating reports include


maps, tables, charts and risk worms.
With these you can find out where
risk is highest and lowest across a
network of roads, or along a single
road

35 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Road data reports contain information


about a roads design. You can find
out, for example, the length of road
that has safety barriers, the length of
road that has footpaths or the length
of road that has bicycle lanes

A Safer Roads Investment Plan


makes the business case for investing
in safety. The plans list a range of lifesaving measures that could be used
to both improve a roads Star Rating
and reduce fatalities and serious
injuries. The reports are also available
in map and strip plan formats.

Predicted casualty reduction maps


illustrate where the largest reductions
in fatalities and serious injuries would
occur if a Safer Roads Investment
Plan were implemented

Each of the reports have filters and


options, enabling you to tailor the
report to your needs. With the filters,
you can select which road network,
road, or section of road that you want
to look at, and compare results before
and after proposed countermeasures
are applied

Using the Star Rating Demonstrator, which is


a freely available feature of ViDA, users can
produce Star Ratings for a 100 metre length
of road. By changing the road attributes,
users can test the impact that changes to a
roads attributes have on Star Ratings and
the underlying Star Rating Scores (SRS). The
results can be examined in summary form,
or in charts that illustrate risk scores for each
type of crash. As part of their commitment to
global road safety, the ChinaRAP team at the
Research Institute of Highway (RIOH) donated
their time and expertise to develop the Star
Rating Demonstrator.

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 36

BUILDING CAPACITY

iRAP seeks to enable others,


such that large-scale road safety
assessments can be undertaken by
automobile associations and other
non-government organisations,
governments, development banks
and industry. Part of our strategy
is to achieve this through the
creation of sustainable learning
opportunities, often combined with
delivery of projects, to strengthen
road safety capacity

37 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

There is a range of online resources that make


iRAP training information widely available.
Methodology fact sheets, specifications,
technical and policy guidance notes,
research papers and assessment reports
are freely-available at http://www.irap.org.
RAP Capacity (http://capacity.irap.
org) online training courses help people
develop an appreciation of the principles
underpinning iRAP and learn how to
undertake iRAP-specification road
assessments.
The Road Safety Toolkit (http://toolkit.
irap.org) provides free information on the
causes and prevention of serious road
crashes.
iRAP staff also participate in a range of
webinars, such as those hosted by the
Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE).
Through participation in road assessment
training courses, the number of road engineers
who are aware of the need for safe roads and
have skills to act is rapidly increasing.
For example, more than 100 Secretaria
de Communicaciones y Transportes
(SCT) engineers from across Mexico have
taken part in training in the use of iRAP
assessment results.
We encourage people to take part in
training courses such as: the University
of Birmingham (UK) iRAP course in Road
Safety, the Masters Course at the University
of Saint Joseph in Lebanon; and Safer
Roads by Design by the International
Road Federation (IRF).

We create and foster an environment


of mutual support between road safety
professionals by hosting a number of
workshops and conferences, such as:
The annual iRAP Asia Pacific Workshop
which is held in cooperation with the Global
Road Safety Partnership (GRSP) and has
been hosted by the Asian Development
Bank (ADB).
The annual Innovation Workshop where
the best of the best share their ideas and
innovation.
On-the-job training and mentoring during
projects give stakeholders hands-on
experience in conducting inspections, road
attribute coding and analysis. Ongoing
mentoring helps to build a full understanding
of the iRAP methodology and develop the
confidence needed to apply results at a local
level.
This capacity-building is helping to develop
a network of professionals and organisations
that are capable of taking a lead in assessing
roads and advocating for safety in their own
countries. By sharing their experience globally
AusRAP, ChinaRAP, EuroRAP, KiwiRAP and
usRAP are also helping to drive reductions
in road trauma around the world. These
programmes harness the substantial expertise
of many road safety professionals and are
continuously innovating, searching for ways
to improve systems, which results in better
approaches to assessing roads and new ideas
about how to improve infrastructure safety.

RESEARCH

The iRAP Star Rating and Safer


Roads Investment Plan models
used today are the result of more
than a decade of development work
which began with EuroRAP in 1999

Since then, the models have developed


through a series of iterations that take
account of the latest road engineering safety
knowledge and experience in assessing
hundreds of thousands of kilometres of roads.
The developments include: refinements such
as the ability to separately record roadside
hazards and their offsets for each side of
the road; the addition of new attributes such
as street lighting and skid resistance; and
enhancements to better account for the ways
that various types of traffic flows affect risk.
Fact sheets explaining the iRAP methodology
are freely available for download at: http://irap.
org/en/about-irap-3/methodology.
The iRAP methodology, technical integrity of its
application and its development is overseen by
the Global Technical Committee (GTC), which
meets regularly and includes experts from:
ARRB Group, the Malaysian Institute of Road

Safety Research (MIROS), TRL, the Instituto


Mexicano del Transporte (IMT), MRIGlobal, the
Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), the Research
Institute of Highway in the Ministry of Transport
(RIOH), RACC and the SWOV Institute for
Road Safety Research. Research that is
currently being undertaken by partners around
the world includes:
In New Zealand, enhanced KiwiRAP models
for use in cities are being developed.
In India, the National Transportation and
Planning Centre (NATPAC) is examining
pedestrian risk in local cities.
In Australia, ARRB Group, Austroads
and automobile associations are building
on AusRAP to develop innovative crash
prediction tools.
In the Netherlands, the SWOV Institute for
Road Safety Research is finding ways to
improve bicyclist risk models.
In China, RIOH is expanding the capability

of online reporting software.


EuroRAP and Euro NCAP are collaborating
on the Roads That Cars Can Read to
support moves towards self-driving cars.
While there is benefit in ensuring that the
model reflects the latest research and
experience, we are also conscious that
countries value iRAP assessments as an
internationally consistent benchmark. Frequent
changes to the model would cause significant
uncertainty for programs assessing roads
and tracking performance over time. As such,
the GTCs rigorous innovation framework
provides certainty for all partners using iRAP
assessments worldwide.

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 38

SUPPORTING THE
UNITED NATIONS
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
GOALS
To halve road deaths and injuries by
2020 as envisaged by the Sustainable
Development Goals, a significant
scaling-up of road safety awareness,
action, expertise and knowledge
sharing is needed. The Global Plan
for the Decade of Action for Road
Safety 2011-2020, established
by the WHO and the UN Road
Safety Collaboration, is designed
to achieve this. The following are
examples of how RAPs are taking
practical steps to enable each of the
Plans five pillars to contribute to
the achievement of the Sustainable
Development Goals

39 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

HOW RAPs ARE


SUPPORTING
ROAD SAFETY
MANAGEMENT
Governments such as in Australia, Britain,
Netherlands, New Zealand and Sweden have
established high level policy targets that aim to
ensure a majority of travel occurs on roads that
are at least three stars.

Innovative financing of road improvements


through Social Impact Bonds and Pay for
Success investment models is being explored
with partners worldwide.

Multilateral Development Bank partners are


applying the iRAP protocols around the world
as part of the MDB Road Safety Guidelines that
provide the objective performance measures
for loan projects.

The Federal Highway Administration in the


USA has identified usRAP as an innovative
tool as part of its Data-Driven Safety Analysis
activities.

Star Ratings and Risk Maps are helping to


inform and prioritise action within national
road safety strategies and action plans, from
the targeting of enforcement and provision
of medical services to the introduction of
new vehicle technologies and targeting of
maintenance in a road agency.

RAPs are contributing to good governance


by increasing understanding and support of
safety programs and reinforcing public agency
accountability for safety.

The New Zealand Transport Minister receives


a report on each fatal crash which includes the
KiwiRAP Star Rating of the road.

The President of the Philippines takes a


personal interest in improving the Star Ratings
of the nations roads, providing crucial road
safety leadership.

Mexico has assessed more than 60,000


kilometres of roads, trained hundreds of staff
and implemented low-cost improvements
across the country. The reassessment of the
road network is now underway to measure
reductions in risk and numbers of lives saved.

There is an ever-growing body of evidence


making the business case for investment in
safety. Saving Lives, Saving Money identified
potential savings of 36 billion (~$53 billion) by
2020 in Britain.

Organisations such as the Slovak Motoring


Club are using EuroRAP Risk Maps to measure
actual performance against national road safety
targets during the Decade of Action.

In Australia, ARRB Group, Austroads and


automobile associations are building on
AusRAP to develop innovative crash prediction
tools.

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 40

HOW RAPs ARE


SUPPORTING
SAFER ROADS AND
MOBILITY

41 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

Thanks to the support of our donors and


partners, iRAP is able to provide its tools
and software free-of-charge. Along with
programmatic support for their use, this is
enabling hundreds of thousands of kilometres
of high-risk roads to be assessed and
improved.

The European Road Safety Atlas reports


on 240,000 kilometres of roads across 20
countries. It reveals that 42% of the roads had
unacceptably high risk, and over a quarter
of roads Star Rated scored less than the
recommended minimum three star rating.

Road authorities in countries such as Belize,


China, El-Salvador, India, the Philippines
and the Republic of Moldova have used Star
Ratings to find ways to improve designs for
new roads.

Star Ratings provide baseline safety indicators


for roads being rehabilitated in the Philippines
with finance from the Millennium Challenge
Corporation.

Performance tracking shows how risk changes


over time. AusRAP, for example, found that on
the top 15 most improved sections of Australian
national roads, casualty crashes declined from
963 to 424a 56% reductionover five years.

Working with Illinois Department of Transport


and usRAP, Kane County Department of
Transport has developed a plan that would
provide nearly $24 in benefits for each $1 spent
period on safety engineering improvements.

KiwiRAP found that although just five percent


of New Zealands 10,000 kilometres of State
Highway network rated four stars or better,
28% of travel occurs on these roads, indicating
that investment has been well targeted.

iRAP training courses, like this one in Mexico,


are being delivered around the world. Content
for courses is also provided to organisations
such as the Institute of Transportation
Engineers (ITE) and the International Road
Federation (IRF).

iRAP Centres of ExcellenceARRB Group, the


Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research
(MIROS), TRL, the Instituto Mexicano del
Transporte (IMT), MRIGlobal, the Korea
Transport Institute (KOTI), the Research
Institute of Highway, Ministry of Transport
(RIOH), RACC and the SWOV Institute for
Road Safety Researchare enabling largescale use of assessments.

Barriers to Change: Designing Safe Roads for


Motorcycles found that while safe road design
has cut deaths and injuries significantly, there
is room for improvement for bikers.

In Malaysia, Star Ratings have been used by


the Public Works Department (JKR) to make
immediate assessments of reductions in risk at
dangerous roads fixed under the national black
spot program.

Projects such as in Belize bring together a range


of organisations, including road authorities,
NGOs, police, finance departments, consultants
and donors to ensure they benefit from diverse
expertise.

With almost 900,000 kilometres assessed,


the iRAP database is a valuable resource for
researchers worldwide.

Free information on the causes and


prevention of serious road crashes
Building on decades of road safety research,
the Road Safety Toolkit (toolkit.irap.org)
helps engineers, planners and policy makers
develop safety plans for vehicle occupants,
motorcyclists, pedestrians, bicyclists, heavy
vehicle occupants and public transport users.

A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS | 42

HOW RAPs ARE


SUPPORTING
SAFER VEHICLES

Roads That Cars Can Reada joint initiative


of EuroRAP and Euro NCAPfound that the
condition of road signs and markings could be
the greatest hurdle in reaping benefits of vehicle
technology such as Lane Support and Speed
Alert.

In coming years, motorists in the US will be


able use their in-car navigation system to
request not only the quickest way from point A
to point B, but the safest way using usRAP Risk
Maps.

usRAP is exploring the use of Risk Maps to


help state and local law enforcement officials
target enforcement activities at roads with high
risk rates and specific issues, such as drink
driving.

RAPs are engaging the public in road safety.


Risk-aware road users are more likely to adapt
their behaviour to reduce their risk, and will
better understand the need for traffic laws and
speed limits.

Companies such as BHP Billiton use Star


Ratings and Risk Maps to understand and
minimise risk for their employees and local
communities.

Risk Maps, Star Ratings and fatality estimations


help identify where the need for post-crash care
is greatest.

HOW RAPs ARE


SUPPORTING
SAFER ROAD USERS
AND POST-CRASH
RESPONSE

43 | A WORLD FREE OF HIGH RISK ROADS

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