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The Story of Village Palampur

Q1) How did the spread of electricity help the farmers of

The main reason why farmers are able to grow crops in a year in

Palampur is due to the well developed system of irrigation

Electricity came early to Palampur. Its major impact was to

transform the system of irrigation.

People saw that the electric tube wells could irrigate much larger

areas of land more efficiently.

As a result, by the mid-1970s, the entire cultivable area of 200
hectares was cultivated.

Q2) Is it important to increase the area under cultivation? Why?

A. No, to increase the agricultural production, it is essential to
produce more from the same land since arable land is fixed.

The variability of rainfall is the biggest problem fixed by the

farmers in India.
It is therefore necessary to develop a modern irrigation system
in all areas of cultivable land.

Q3) Why is the wages for farm laborers less the minimum wage?

A.The wages for farm laborers is less than the minimum wages
because the minimum wages set by the government is Rs 60 per day,
but farm laborers in Palampur get only Rs 35-40.
As such it implies that there is heavy competition among the farm
laborers in Palampur and as such people agree to work for lower wages.
Q4) What are the different ways to increase production on the
same piece of land?
A. Farming is the production activity of Palampur. 75 percent of the
people who are working are dependent on farming for their livelihood.

There is a basic constraint in raising farm production. Land area

under cultivation is practically fixed.

Different crops can be grown during different parts of the year.
E.g. During rainy season (Kharif) farmers grow Jowar and Bajra.
These plants are used as cattle feed. It is followed by
cultivation/growing of potato between October and December,

i.e., in the winter season.

To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is
known as multiple cropping.

Q5) What are the sources of irrigation?

A. The different sources of irrigation are

Tube wells.
Ground water.

Q6) How has modern farming methods led to loss of soil fertility?

In many areas, green revolution is associated with loss of soil

fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers.

Chemical fertilizers provide minerals which dissolve in water and
are immediately available to plants. But these may not be retained
in the soil for long. They may escape from the soil and pollute

ground, rivers and lakes.

The continuous use of chemical fertilizers has led to the

degradation of soil health.

The continuous use of ground water for the tube well irrigation
has reduced the water table below the ground.

Q7) Name any three methods to increase crop production.

A. The three methods to increase crop production are

Use of HYV seeds.

Use of pesticides and fertilizers.
Use of machinery (Tractors, threshers, etc) and irrigation
methods (wells, dams, tanks, etc)

Q8) What is Green revolution?

The use of scientific techniques and methods to increase food

grain production, especially cereals like wheat maize etc.

It has contributed to increased food grain production.

Q9) What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern

farming methods?
A. Multiple cropping
To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is called
multiple cropping.
Modern farming methods
Modern farming methods refer to the use of HYV seeds, which
require plenty of water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, produces
best results.
Q10) What are the factors of production?
Land - It includes land and other natural resources such as water,
forests, and minerals.
Labor - It refers to the people who do the work. It includes skilled
and unskilled labor. Some production activities require highly educated
workers to perform the necessary tasks. Other activities require
workers who can do manual work. Each worker is providing the labor
necessary for production.

Capital It refers to the physical capital, i.e., The variety of inputs

required at every stage during production. It may be of two types
a) Fixed capital - Tools, machines, buildings used in production.
b) Working capital Raw materials and money in hand collectively.
c) Human capital We need knowledge and enterprise to be able to
put together land, labor, and physical capital and to produce an output
either to use you or to sell in the market. This these days is called
human capital.
Q11) Modern farming methods require farmers to start with cash
(money) more than before. Why?

The traditional farming methods implied use of farming methods

where farmers did not need to buy.

They used cow dung and other natural manure as fertilizers which

were readily available on their farm.

They used seeds which needed less water and did not need

extensive irrigation.
Farming was largely dependent on rainfall. However modern
farming methods imply use of better implements, tools, machinery

HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Thus farmers now need more cash than before to start farming.
(Modern farming)

Q12) Name some non-farming activities taking place in villages of

India. What can be done so that more non farming activities can
be started in the villages?

Dairy farming, small-scale farming, small scale manufacturing,

exchange of goods on a large scale and transportation of goods

and people.
Non farming activities require capital. Loans should be made
available at low rate of interest so that even people without
savings can start

Non-farming activity

Availability of markets should be created where goods and

services produced, can be sold.

Villages should be connected to towns and cities through good
roads, transport and telephone facilities.
Mr. Gerard Gomes