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BASIC SYNAPSES

Synapse- junction point of neurons,


determines the directions of signals.
Perform selective actions:
-

Amplify weak signals,


channeling it in many directions
Enhance strong signals by
blocking weak signals

2 types of synapse
1. Chemical synapse- no need for
physical contact; require
neurotransmitters (e.g.
epinephrine, acetylcholine),
unidirectional movement
2. Electrical synapse- e.g. gap
junctions> direct
communication
- In smooth muscles, cardiac
muscles

ONE WAY CONDUCTION


-char of chemical synapse
-from presynaptic neuron to
postsynaptic neuron

PHYSIOLOGY OF SYNAPSES
Presynaptic terminals, 10,000 to
200000 minute synaptic knobs>
-ends of nerve fibrils, may be
inhibitory or excitatory
- varied anatomical forms
- no direct contact with other neurons
but with synaptic cleft (200 to 300
angstroms wide)
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF
PRESYNAPTIC TERMINAL

1. Transmitter vesicles- contain


neurotransmitter
2. Mitochondria- supply ATP for
transport of vesicle towards end
part and synthesis of
neurotransmitter

Ca IONS- presynaptic membrane with


voltage gated calcium channels
-

Depolarization of presynaptic
membrane- influx of Ca through
channels
Ca binds release sites (where
vesicles go and
neurotransmitters are released)

Release site- open through the


membrane

RECEPTOR PROTEINS- in postsynaptic


area
1. Binding component- protrudes
outward into ynaptic cleft and
binds neurotransmitter
2. Ionophore component (the
door)- passes through
postsynaptic membrane to
allow infux of substances
2 TYPES OF IONOPHORE
a. Ion channel- allow passage
of specific ions

TYPES OF ION CHANNELS


a.1 Cation channels- Na, K, Ca
- lined with negative charges (attract
positive charges), repel Cl, anions
- allows Na ions= excitatory
transmitter, excites neuron
a.2 Anion channels- Cl
- lined with positive charges

- allow negative charge to enter=


inhibitory transmitter

Class III: amino acids


Class IV: nitric oxide

* these channels open within millisec

b. Second messenger activatormessage outside will not


penetrate membrane but is
only converted into a
secondary messenger to
activate signaling/effector
proteins
Not ion channel
G protein complex

Alpha subunit (4 functions)


-

opens ion channels


Activates cAMP, cGMP
Activates intracellular enzymes
Activates G-transcription in
nucleus

EXCITATROY OR INHIBITORY
RECEPTORS
EXCITATION (INCREASE NEG)
-opening of Na channels
- depress conduction of Cl or K
channels

INHIBITION
-

Open of Cl channels
Increase onduction of K
OUTSIDE

SYNPTIC
TRANSMITTERS/NEUROTRANSMITTERS
- the larger the more prolonged the
action
Class I- Ach (excitatory, inhibitory in
parasymp)
Class II: amines

RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL


Neurons- negative 65 mV (INSIDE)
* other cells- negative 45 mV

NERNST POTENTIAL- opposes the


movement of positive charges into cell
(because they are attracted inside)
EMF= +/- 61 X log [conc inside]/ [conc
outside]

e.g. Sodium- 142 mEq/L outside, 14


mEq/L inside
EMF= +61 X log [14]/[142]
-

Negative 65 mV

Thus, sodium ions that leak to the


interior are immediately pumped back
to the exterior by the sodium pump (to
maintain negative 65 mV inside the
neuron)

e.g. Potassium 120 meq/L inside, 4.5


mEq/L outside
calculated= -86 mV inside
actual= -65 mV
* net tendency for potassium to
diffuse out because of concentration
gradient

e.g. Chloride- 107 mEq/L outside, 8


mEq/L

chloride tends to leak very slightly to


the interior of the neuron

RESTING NEURON- -65mV equally


distributed in soma

EXCITED STATE- rapid influx of positive


charges
-Excitatory postsynaptic potential
(EPSP)- if potential rises high enough
in positive direction
= coordination of many synapses in
the neuron
* EPSP is +20 mV= 20 mV more
positive than resting value (-45 mV)

ACTION POTENTIAL- initiated in initial


part of axon (axon hillock)
-

Because there are 7x more


sodium channels in the axon
hillock than in soma

PRESYNAPTIC INHBITION= gammaaminobutyric acid (opens anion


channels, to increase negativity in
presynapse, prevent release of
neurotransmitter)

TIME COURSE OF POSTSYNAPTIC


POTENTIALS
= 1 to 2 milliseconds (opening and
closing of Na channels)

After effet inside neuron


(declines over the net 15
minutes)= time required for
excess positive charges to leak
out slow closing of K channels

Temporal Summation- successive


discharges from a single synapse, can
lead to excitation if they occur rapidly
enough
SPATIAL SUMMATION ( electrical
potential)
-depends on number of synapses
(single presynaptic terminal excitation
never excites the neuron- EPSP is no
greater than 0.5 to 1mV)

FACILITATED TRANSMISSION- membrane potential is nearer the


threshold for firing than normal, but
not yet at the firing level

Dendrites- extend 500 to 1000


micrometers in all directions from
neuronal soma
-

Transmit electrotonic current


don the dendrites to the soma

DECREMENTAL CONDUCTION
more dendrites, decreasing conduction

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