Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 67

Plant Nutrition Basics: Understanding the

Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.

Principles to Optimize the Practices.

Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Principles to Optimize the Practices.
Patrick Brown University of California, Davis
Patrick Brown
University of California, Davis

How, Why, When, Where and What

How, Why, When, Where and What of Tree Nutrition Principles:  How are nutrients acquired by
How, Why, When, Where and What of Tree Nutrition Principles:  How are nutrients acquired by
How, Why, When, Where and What of Tree Nutrition Principles:  How are nutrients acquired by
How, Why, When, Where and What of Tree Nutrition Principles:  How are nutrients acquired by
How, Why, When, Where and What of Tree Nutrition Principles:  How are nutrients acquired by

of Tree Nutrition

Principles:

How are nutrients acquired by plants

Why are they needed, what is their

function and how do they move in the

plant.

How much, when and where are they required.

Soil Supply Processes  Nutrients move to the root in soil moisture  Nutrient supply
Soil Supply Processes  Nutrients move to the root in soil moisture  Nutrient supply

Soil Supply Processes

Nutrients move to the root in soil moisture

Nutrient supply from a soil depends on:

The size of the nutrient pool(bank balance),

The solubilityof nutrients in the pool(ATM limit)

Solubility is determined by soil minerals, pH, CEC, lime, organic matter content.

Soils must allow root penetration, provide adequate water and oxygen for root growth.

Soil pH and Minerology determines Nutrient

Solubility

(knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important.)

pH and Minerology determines Nutrient Solubility (knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important. )
pH and Minerology determines Nutrient Solubility (knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important. )
Mass Flow (soluble nutrients) versus Dissolution/Diffusion (insoluble elements) Mass Flow Diffusion Mn Zn Mn Fe
Mass Flow (soluble nutrients) versus Dissolution/Diffusion (insoluble elements) Mass Flow Diffusion Mn Zn Mn Fe

Mass Flow (soluble nutrients) versus

Dissolution/Diffusion (insoluble elements)

Mass Flow

Diffusion

Mn Zn Mn Fe Fe N, Ca K K B Zn P
Mn
Zn
Mn
Fe
Fe
N, Ca
K
K
B
Zn
P

Micronutrients (excluding B and Cl) are immobile in the soil

and can only be obtained from soil in close proximity to the root surface. Root growth and root patterns (fineness, depth etc) influence uptake.

Nitrate

Ammonium

pH
pH
pH
pH
Plant roots interact dynamically with soil chemistry and
Plant roots interact
dynamically with
soil chemistry and
Corn
Corn
Corn
Corn

Chick Pea

microbiology.

The uptake of micro-nutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn)

depends greatly on root health.

(Zn, Fe, Mn) depends greatly on root ‘ health ’ . Up to 50% of all

Up to 50% of all

photosynthesis is

exudedinto root zone to access Zn, Fe,

P.

In soils that fixthese elements root health, soil amendments or

fertilizer sources may

ore important than amount of fertilizer.

Summary 1: Soil Science and Plant Nutrient Uptake  Nutrients are taken up in water
Summary 1: Soil Science and Plant Nutrient Uptake  Nutrients are taken up in water

Summary 1:

Soil Science and Plant Nutrient Uptake

Nutrients are taken up in water only by active roots.

Active root growth is required.

Water and oxygen are required for uptake

Leaves are required for nutrient uptake by roots

Knowledge of the solubility of critical nutrients in your soil is essential

N, S, Mg, Ca, B are mobile and soluble in most soils

Water movement delivers these nutrients to roots

Nutrients can be leached or displaced.

Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, P have restricted solubility and movement in soils, hence:

Root exploration and soil healthis critical

Nutrients and roots must be in the same place

Soils that limit root growth can cause Zn, Fe, Cu deficiencies

K is mobile/available in some soils but not others

Soil tests to determine K-fixation are essential to K management.

Nutrient Mobility in Plants Mobility = Once in the plant, can the nutrient move from
Nutrient Mobility in Plants Mobility = Once in the plant, can the nutrient move from
Nutrient Mobility in Plants Mobility = Once in the plant, can the nutrient move from
Nutrient Mobility in
Plants
Mobility = Once in the plant, can the nutrient
move from place to place in the shoot and can it
be ‘stored’ for later use. This has a critical
effect on fertilization strategy.
Water Pipes DHL Delivery Driven by leaf water Movement toward Photosynthesis evaporation growing organs
Water Pipes
DHL Delivery
Driven by leaf water
Movement toward
Photosynthesis
evaporation
growing organs
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis evaporation growing organs Photosynthesis Photosynthesis The movement of sugar from ‘ source ’

Photosynthesis

The movement of sugar from sourceleaves to

sinkleaves, determines

the direction of movement

of nutrients.

Growth Growth
Growth
Growth
source ’ leaves to ‘ sink ’ leaves, determines the direction of movement of nutrients. Growth

Growth

Freely Mobile Low Mobility Immobile (nutrient moves from mature leaves to all plant parts) (a

Freely Mobile

Low Mobility

Immobile

(nutrient moves from mature leaves to all plant parts)

(a very small amount of nutrient moves from mature leaves to other plant parts)

(No movement.)

Nitrogen

Zinc

Manganese

Potassium

Molybdenum

Iron

Sulphur

Copper

Calcium

Magnesium

 

Boron (Pistachio, Walnut)

Boron (all Prunus and Pyrus)

   

The mobility of an element determines how fertilizers should be managed, where and when symptoms of deficiency and toxicity will appear.

Boron is the only element that varies in mobility between species. B is highly mobile in Almond,

Apricot, Olive, Apple, Pear (and related species) and immobile in all others (Pistachio, Walnut, Citrus etc)

Immobile or Poorly mobile Elements (Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, B ) move exclusively or mostly

Immobile or Poorly mobile Elements

(Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, B) move exclusively

or mostly in the Xylem.

Delivered by one-way flow of water in xylem.

Driving force is the transport of water limitation in water flow can cause deficiencies tissues that dont lose water are most sensitive.

Management Implications:

Supply required throughout all stages of growth and reproduction. Fertilizers have limited long term effectiveness.

Foliar fertilizers benefit only the tissues sprayed

and cannot benefit tissues developed after application.

Nutrients cannot be storedfor later use.

Mobile Elements (N, P, K, Mg, S, B ) move in both the Xylem (one

Mobile Elements (N, P, K, Mg,

S, B) move in both the Xylem (one way) and Phloem (two

way).

Movement is driven by demand for growth.

Fertilization can have longer term benefits

and nutrients can be stored.

Foliar fertilizers can effectively supply current and developing tissues.

Older plant parts develop deficiencies first.

Photosynthesis and growth drives movement.

Phloem mobility determines longevity and efficacy of foliar fertilizers.

Mobile

longevity and efficacy of foliar fertilizers. Mobile Application of mobile element (N, K, P, S, Mg,

Application of mobile element (N,

K, P, S, Mg, B) will supply roots,

fruits and shoot tips.

Immobile

S, Mg, B) will supply roots, fruits and shoot tips. Immobile Application of immobile element (Zn,

Application of immobile element

(Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ca) will supply

only the sprayed leaf.

No Foliar Zn-Sulphate

Foliar Zn-Sulphate

40 lbs acre x 5 yrs

Zinc foliar applications have only a local effect on sprayed leaves

Immobile nutrients can be deficient even when most of the plant has sufficient

nutrient.

Tobacco grown in zero B hydroponics with foliar B applied to oldest leaves

Tobacco grown in zero B hydroponics with foliar B applied to oldest leaves Boron deficient flowers
Tobacco grown in zero B hydroponics with foliar B applied to oldest leaves Boron deficient flowers

Boron deficient flowers

Boron sufficient leaves

Summary 2:

Nutrient Mobility Influences Nutrient Management and The Efficacy of Foliar Fertilizers

Immobile elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Ca, Zn) require a consistent supply throughout plant growth. Uptake, movement and distribution in the plant is directly related to water movement in the plant.

symptoms appear rapidly in young tissues

consistent supply during growth is required (soil or foliar)

foliar fertilizers will only have a short term benefit

Mobile elements (N, K, Mg, S, P, B, Cl) can be stored and remobilized within the plant. Movement is driven by photosynthesis and plant growth (demand).

symptoms appear in old tissues

foliar and soil fertilizers can have a long term benefit

Nutrient Function
Nutrient Function
Nutrient Function
Nutrient Function
The Law of Minimum Justus Von Leibig, 1863 If any nutrient is inadequate - Yield
The Law of Minimum Justus Von Leibig, 1863 If any nutrient is inadequate - Yield

The Law of Minimum

The Law of Minimum Justus Von Leibig, 1863 If any nutrient is inadequate - Yield is

Justus Von Leibig, 1863

If any nutrient is inadequate -

Yield is lost AND response

to other elements cannot occur.

If any nutrient is oversupplied - Money is wasted

Effect of K on Yield in Almond The Law of Minimum illustrated 180 170 Control
Effect of K on Yield in Almond
The Law of Minimum illustrated
180
170
Control
240
lbs K 2 O/acre
600
lbs K 2 O/acre
160
960
lbs K 2 O/acre
150
140
130
120
Response to K is now limited by secondary deficiencies
110
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
1999 Leaf K (%)
2000 yield (lbs plot
) -1
2000 Yield (lbs/plot)

Update on Critical Values: Nitrogen

Update on Critical Values: Nitrogen 2.45 % (January in Australia) 99 t h Percentile
2.45 %
2.45 %

(January in Australia)

99 th Percentile

Update on Critical Values: Nitrogen 2.45 % (January in Australia) 99 t h Percentile

Nitrogen, Potassium, Sulfur, Phosphorus, Magnesium

Uptake, Function, Mobility, Management

Uptake and Soil Reactions

N, S, Mg are generally soluble and mobile in the soil (N can be leached)

K and P mobility is highly soil specific

Uptake driven by growth and yield. Root exploration is essential for P uptake,

More on Nitrogen and Potassium in the

less critical for N, K, S, Mg.

second talk.

Function

N, K, S, P, Mg are structural and metabolic elements required at all stages

growth.

of

Mobility

N, K, S, P, Mg are mobile in plants and hence can be stored.

Management

Fertilizer source is not especially critical (cost, solubility, ease of use, secondary elements)

Replacement of exported nutrient (amount and timing) is goal

Foliar fertilizers can be effective and may have some longevity.

Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients

Micronutrients

Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients
Micronutrients

Copper, Zinc, Boron, Iron,

Manganese, Chlorine, Nickel,

Molybdenum

Zinc Deficiency is an Important Production Constraint
Zinc Deficiency is an Important
Production Constraint
Zinc Deficiency is an Important Production Constraint •‘Little leaf’ and rosetting occurring during rapid growth
•‘Little leaf’ and rosetting occurring during rapid growth •Consequence of specific function of Zn
•‘Little leaf’ and rosetting occurring
during rapid growth
•Consequence of specific function of Zn

in growth stage and limited mobilization of Zn in plants.

of specific function of Zn in growth stage and limited mobilization of Zn in plants. Zn
of specific function of Zn in growth stage and limited mobilization of Zn in plants. Zn

Zn is essential for protein formation

of specific function of Zn in growth stage and limited mobilization of Zn in plants. Zn
Zinc Deficiency
Zinc
Deficiency
Zn Deficient February 22, 2005 Zn Sufficient

Zn Deficient

February 22, 2005

Zn Deficient February 22, 2005 Zn Sufficient

Zn Sufficient

Zinc

(Managing Fertilization)

Uptake and Soil Reactions

Immobile in soil and prone to binding.

Uptake is highly dependent on root exploration and soil health.

Knowledge of soil characteristics (pH, fixation, solubility ) is essential

Function

The key role of Zn is during reproductive growth.

Mobility

Generally immobile or slightly mobile in plants in the spring but otherwise very immobile and not easily absorbed by leaves.

Fertilization Strategy

Maintaining solubility of fertilizers is key (formulation/application/amendment)

Ensuring roots and fertilizers are closely collocated (fertigation)

Ensuring spring and reproductive adequacy

SOIL OR FOLIAR FERTILIZATION?

The Role of Foliar Fertilizers

Foliar Fertilizers are indicated:

To overcome soil limitations that restrict element solubility (pH,

Alkalinity, Structural Problems etc.)

To overcome root growth limitations and environmental limitations that prevent adequate root uptake.

May be needed to correct Transient Nutrient Deficiencies

During times of High Nutrient Demand (eg. fruit growth) - Demand exceeds Supply

Due to Phenology and Environmental Interactions (eg.

cold weather at flowering) - Phenology Enhanced Deficiency

Due to limitations in within plant nutrient transport (eg.

B, Ca, Zn, Fe)- Transport Induced Deficiency

Soil pH and Minerology determines Nutrient

Solubility

(knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important.)

pH and Minerology determines Nutrient Solubility (knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important. )
pH and Minerology determines Nutrient Solubility (knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important. )
Micronutrient Deficiencies are Highly Variable in Occurrence
Micronutrient Deficiencies are
Highly Variable in Occurrence
Micronutrient Deficiencies are Highly Variable in Occurrence Zinc deficiency
Micronutrient Deficiencies are Highly Variable in Occurrence Zinc deficiency
Micronutrient Deficiencies are Highly Variable in Occurrence Zinc deficiency

Zinc deficiency

Demand exceeds Supply

Even under situations of abundant soil supply, deficiencies can still occur.

K deficiency in prune

N, K deficiency in Pistachio

K deficiency in Almond

A contributing factor in alternate bearing?

in prune • N, K deficiency in Pistachio • K deficiency in Almond A contributing factor
Localized Nutrient Demand Can Exceed Uptake and Transport Capacity, even in a Well fertilized Soil.

Localized Nutrient Demand

Can Exceed Uptake and Transport Capacity, even in a Well fertilized Soil.
Can Exceed Uptake and Transport
Capacity, even in a Well fertilized
Soil.

February 22, 2005

Courtesy of Scott Johnson

February 22, 2005 Courtesy of Scott Johnson Soil Zn Application: Zn Deficient Foliar Zn Application: Zn
February 22, 2005 Courtesy of Scott Johnson Soil Zn Application: Zn Deficient Foliar Zn Application: Zn

Soil Zn Application:

Zn Deficient

Foliar Zn Application:

Zn Sufficient

Phenological Deficiency

Response of Pistachio to Foliar B

Molybdenum Foliar Sprays and Other Nutrient Strategies to Improve Fruit Set and Reduce Berry Asynchrony

Molybdenum Foliar Sprays and Other Nutrient

Strategies to Improve Fruit Set and Reduce Berry Asynchrony (hen and chickensor millerandage)

Summary of Australian Grape and Wine Research Development

Corporation Project :

Dr Christopher Williams SARDI 2003-7

’ ) Summary of Australian Grape and Wine Research Development Corporation Project : Dr Christopher Williams
Peach Seedlings - 68 ZnSO 4 Rate 68 Zn Taken Up by Plant as %
Peach Seedlings - 68 ZnSO 4 Rate
68 Zn Taken Up by Plant as % of Applied
2-4% in Walnut, 1-3% in Pistachio (Zhang and Brown, 1999)
% Uptake
%
Uptake
3 a 2 b b b 1 c d 0 UTC 100 200 400 1000
3
a
2
b
b
b
1
c
d
0
UTC
100
200
400
1000
5000
Treatment - ppm Zinc
Treatment - ppm Zinc

The Leaf is Well Designed to Prevent the

Movement of Ions or Water

Trying to get a hydrophilic ion through a hydrophobic surface.

is Well Designed to Prevent the Movement of Ions or Water Trying to get a hydrophilic

Adaxial

Cherry leaf

Rose leaf

Quercus leaf

Leaf Surface Composition and

Structure are Highly

Varied.

-Species -Leaf Surface -Age -Environment -Nutrient Status

Epicuticular wax in Apple leaves varies with environment (Hellman and

Stosser, 1992)

Growth Chamber = 10 µg cm -2

Field Grown

= 280 µg cm -2

Epicuticular wax in Walnut varies with leaf age (Zhang

and Brown, 1994)

40 Days Old =38 µg cm -2

120 Days Old

= 430 µg cm -1

Abaxial

Cherry leaf

Rose leaf

Quercus leaf

No Foliar Zn-Sulphate Foliar Zn-Sulphate 40 lb acre -1
No Foliar Zn-Sulphate
Foliar Zn-Sulphate
40 lb acre -1
Almond & Pistachio Industry Survey: >90% of 1.0 million acres use foliar Zn and B
Almond & Pistachio Industry Survey: >90% of 1.0 million acres use foliar Zn and B

Almond & Pistachio Industry Survey:

>90% of 1.0 million acres use foliar Zn and B

% Respondents

Z in c

B o ro n

S u lfu r

C o p p e r

N itro g e n

C a lc iu m

P o ta s s iu m

M a n g a n e s e

P h o s p h o ru s

M u lti-e le m e n t m ix e s

How often do you use foliar fertilizers to apply each of the following

100%

75%

50%

25%

0%

nutrients?

to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year
to apply each of the following 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% nutrients? Never Once/year Multiple times/year

Never

Once/year

Multiple times/year

Micronutrient Formulations Available in the US Marketplace. Inorganic Organic Water Soluble Complexing Agents
Micronutrient Formulations Available in the US Marketplace. Inorganic Organic Water Soluble Complexing Agents

Micronutrient Formulations Available

in the US Marketplace.

Inorganic Organic Water Soluble Complexing Agents Chelating Agents • Nitrates • Chlorides Sugar Alcohols •
Inorganic
Organic
Water Soluble
Complexing Agents
Chelating Agents
• Nitrates
• Chlorides
Sugar Alcohols
• EDTA
• Sulfates
• DTPA
• Sodium Salts
• HEEDTA
• Potassium Salts
Low Molecular
Weight Acids
• HEDTA
• Ammonium Salts
• Citric
• Citric Acid
• Oxalic
• NTA
Not Water Soluble
• Tartaric
• Carbonates
• Phosphates
• Na Glucoheptonate
• Silicates
• Lignin Compounds
• Hydroxides
• Fulvic Acids
High
Molecular Weight
• Oxides
• Humic Acid
• Amino Acids
Low Molecular Weight
Cost of Zinc Materials - October 2007 $ per unit Zn
Cost of Zinc Materials - October 2007
$ per unit Zn
Zn Metalosate Zn Fulvic N Zn Zn Leonardite 6.8% $33.51 10% $17.01 5% $16.51 6.5%
Zn Metalosate
Zn Fulvic
N Zn
Zn Leonardite
6.8%
$33.51
10%
$17.01
5%
$16.51
6.5%
$15.19
Zn EDTA
Zn Ligno-Sulfonate
9%
$12.88
7%
$9.15
ZnO Suspension
40%
$7.55
Neutral Zn
52%
$4.12
Zn Sulfate
36%
$2.22
Zn Oxide
80%
$1.15
0
10
20
30
40

Courtesy Scott Johnson

Testing the efficacy of Zinc Foliars

Testing the efficacy of Zinc Foliars Model Systems (15 individual experiments) Arabidopsis Peach Field Trials (3

Model Systems (15 individual experiments)

Arabidopsis

Peach Field Trials (3 years, 5 indivdual experiments) Tomato

Almond

Cellular Elemental Distribution

Almond

Pistachio

Wheat

Sunflower

Approach: Always analyze tissues that have not been directly sprayed

to avoid contamination. Contrast multiple commercial and

experimental formulations.

Model System to Test Efficacy of Commercial Zn formulations: Arabidopsis

Model System to Test Efficacy of

Commercial Zn formulations: Arabidopsis

Model System to Test Efficacy of Commercial Zn formulations: Arabidopsis

Courtesy Scott Johnson

Model System to Test Efficacy of Commercial Zn formulations: Peach
Model System to Test Efficacy of
Commercial Zn formulations: Peach
Courtesy Scott Johnson Model System to Test Efficacy of Commercial Zn formulations: Peach
Meta analysis of 8 Arabidopsis Foliar Trials.
Meta analysis of 8 Arabidopsis Foliar Trials.
Meta analysis of 8 Arabidopsis Foliar Trials.
Peach Model System: Zn 4 Foliar Trails Courtesy Scott Johnson
Peach Model System: Zn 4 Foliar Trails Courtesy Scott Johnson
Peach Model System: Zn 4 Foliar Trails Courtesy Scott Johnson
Peach Model System: Zn 4 Foliar Trails Courtesy Scott Johnson
Peach Model System: Zn 4 Foliar Trails Courtesy Scott Johnson

Peach Model System: Zn

4 Foliar Trails

Courtesy Scott Johnson

Tomato Field Experiment.

RBCD, 4 replicates each 30 feet row. Applied 06/16, new tissue sampled 07/15

*

*

*

Tomato Field Experiment. RBCD, 4 replicates each 30 feet row. Applied 06/16, new tissue sampled 07/15

Field Trial: Almonds

CBD 15 tree plots, 4 replicate plots Application three times in 2009, twice in 2010 Leaf analysis May and June 2011.

Product

Spray

Leaf Zn

Leaf Zn

Concentration

May

June

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

Control

0

20c

15c

Zn Amino

400

22b,c

16b,c

Zn CHO

400

22b,c

17a,b,c

Zn (UCD B Nitrate/Sulfate/C

1000

27c

18b,c

hloride)

Zn (UCD A Nitrate/Sulfate)

1000

25b,c

18b,c

Zn Sulfate

1860

27c

19c

Peach, Almond, Lab and Field Tests: Analysis of 5 independent model and field trials.

Peach, Almond, Lab

and Field

Tests:

Analysis of 5

independent model and

field trials.

Use and Efficacy of Foliar Zn Fertilizers:

Model Systems, Field Trials, Cellular Imaging

Fertilizers: Model Systems, Field Trials, Cellular Imaging • Zn Chloride > Zn Nitrate > Zn Sulfate

Zn Chloride > Zn Nitrate > Zn Sulfate are generally

superior to other commercial Zn forms

Following entry into the leaf a small percentage of Zn

can be remobilized and reutilized in subsequent

years.

HOWEVER…

THERE IS A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

EFFICACY AND TOXICITY POTENTIAL

DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICACY AND TOXICITY POTENTIAL Zinc Nitrate - Efficacy is proportional to toxicity. -There
DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICACY AND TOXICITY POTENTIAL Zinc Nitrate - Efficacy is proportional to toxicity. -There

Zinc Nitrate

- Efficacy is proportional to toxicity. -There are Zn products on the market that are entirely safe AND largely ineffective.

-High efficacy products can be used at lower rates with more frequent applications.

-Greater attention to prevailing

environmental conditions.

Zinc Sulfate
Zinc Sulfate
at lower rates with more frequent applications. -Greater attention to prevailing environmental conditions. Zinc Sulfate
Boron 5
Boron
5

The Biology of Boron

Agricultural effects of B, proposed roles, uptake and movement in the plant. Management practices and challenges.

Boron

Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation

Uncharged element, not fixed in soils. Also stored in organic residue

Water is frequently the most important source. Deficiency can occur in all soils supplied with low B irrigation water

Function

Cell Wall Construction

Pollen formation and fertilization

Mobility

Mobile in Almond, Apple, Pear, Olive and related species.

Lack of mobility and high demand for reproduction can result in critical deficiencies that are hard to detect.

5 Boron Deficiency in Pistachio

5 Boron Deficiency in Pistachio

Cell walls are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates.

walls are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates. Boron Function Extensins Xyloglucans Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII

Boron Function

are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates. Boron Function Extensins Xyloglucans Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII Cellulose

Extensins

are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates. Boron Function Extensins Xyloglucans Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII Cellulose

Xyloglucans

are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates. Boron Function Extensins Xyloglucans Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII Cellulose

Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII

are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates. Boron Function Extensins Xyloglucans Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII Cellulose
are made of fibers, held together with carbohydrates. Boron Function Extensins Xyloglucans Ca-Pectins RG1, RGII Cellulose

Cellulose

Boron

deficiency induced flower abortion

Boron deficiency induced flower abortion or deformation in Pistachio and Olive

or deformation in Pistachio and Olive

Boron deficiency induced flower abortion or deformation in Pistachio and Olive
deficiency induced flower abortion in Walnut Control B-Deficient

deficiency induced flower abortion in Walnut

Control

B-Deficient

Boron strongly influences pollen tube germination, growth and reproduction.
Boron strongly influences pollen tube germination, growth and reproduction.

Boron strongly influences pollen tube

germination, growth and reproduction.

Boron strongly influences pollen tube germination, growth and reproduction.
Role of Foliar Boron in Yield of Almond Monterrey 0, 200, 400, 800 ppm B
Role of Foliar Boron in Yield of
Almond
Monterrey
0, 200, 400, 800 ppm
B in solution)

Nonpareil

Boron is Essential for Flowering and

Boron is Essential for Flowering and Fruit Set Foliar B applied immediately prior to flowering is
Boron is Essential for Flowering and Fruit Set Foliar B applied immediately prior to flowering is
Fruit Set
Fruit Set
Foliar B applied immediately prior to flowering is uniquely effective at correcting this problem. Soil
Foliar B applied immediately prior to
flowering is uniquely effective at
correcting this problem. Soil
applications are inconsistent.

Boron deficiency induced flower abortion

Effect of Application Time on

Response to Foliar Boron

Species

Optimal Application Time

Pistachio

Pre-flowering

Walnut

Fig

Avocado

Almond

Peach

Olive

Grape

Pre-flowering or early Post Harvest “ “

(Brown, Perica, Nyomora, Hu)

Boron

Managing Fertilization

Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation

Uncharged and mobile in soil, therefore fertilization and fertigation are generally effective and formulation does not make a big difference (providing it is soluble)

Function

Role in growth (vegetative and reproductive) means that spring fertilization is essential as is fertilization during rapid growth (fruits, flowers, meristems)

Mobility

Highly immobile in most species, mobile in Almond, Apple, Pear, Olive and related species.

Fertilization Strategy

Critical requirement in flowering

Foliars can have short term (immobile species) or long term (mobile species) effectiveness

Plant Nutrient Uptake and

Crop Response to Fertilizer

Plant Nutrient Uptake and Crop Response to Fertilizer Diffusion versus Mass Flow Soil pH and Minerology
Plant Nutrient Uptake and Crop Response to Fertilizer Diffusion versus Mass Flow Soil pH and Minerology
Plant Nutrient Uptake and Crop Response to Fertilizer Diffusion versus Mass Flow Soil pH and Minerology
Plant Nutrient Uptake and Crop Response to Fertilizer Diffusion versus Mass Flow Soil pH and Minerology
Plant Nutrient Uptake and Crop Response to Fertilizer Diffusion versus Mass Flow Soil pH and Minerology

Diffusion versus Mass Flow

and Crop Response to Fertilizer Diffusion versus Mass Flow Soil pH and Minerology determines Nutrient Solubility

Soil pH and Minerology determines Nutrient Solubility

(knowledge of solubility characteristics of your soils is important.)

of solubility characteristics of your soils is important. )  Roots, water and growth are required

Roots, water and growth are required for nutrient uptake.

Nutrient Mobility/Solubility in Soil

N, Mg, Ca, S, B are soluble and mobile in most soils

Generally predictable response to fertilization,

formulations are less relevant

Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, P are not soluble and mobile in many soils.

Less predictable response, greater dependence on source.

Nutrient Mobility Defines Symptoms And Response

on source. Nutrient Mobility Defines Symptoms And Response  Nutrient Mobility in Plant  Mobility influences
on source. Nutrient Mobility Defines Symptoms And Response  Nutrient Mobility in Plant  Mobility influences

Nutrient Mobility in Plant

Mobility influences symptoms.

N, P, K, S, Mg, Cl, (B) are mobile and have more predictable and long lasting response to soil and foliar fertilization

Zn, Mn, Fe, Fe, (B) are immobile,

nutrients cannot be stored and fertilizer

response is shorter and less predictable.

Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth Micronutrient
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth Micronutrient
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth Micronutrient
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth Micronutrient
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth Micronutrient

Plant Nutrient Function and

Fertilizer Management

Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth

Macronutrient Demand and Timing is Driven by Growth Micronutrient Demand is Development Specific  Demand for

Micronutrient Demand is Development Specific

by Growth Micronutrient Demand is Development Specific  Demand for N, P, K, S, Mg is

Demand for N, P, K, S, Mg is directly determined by growth and yield.

Replace what will be removed

Balance applications

Time applications to match demand.

Nutrient Demand and Seasonal

Dynamics

in Almond

demand. Nutrient Demand and Seasonal Dynamics in Almond Micronutrient Deficiencies are Highly Variable in
Micronutrient Deficiencies are Highly Variable in Occurrence
Micronutrient Deficiencies
are Highly Variable in
Occurrence
Deficiencies are Highly Variable in Occurrence  Demand for B, Zn, Cu (Fe, Mn) varies with

Demand for B, Zn, Cu (Fe, Mn) varies with development and environment.

Difficult to predict, more variable and difficult to correct.

Prevention is better than cure

Timing and choice of product matters.

Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Next  How to sample the orchard effectively and
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Next  How to sample the orchard effectively and
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Next  How to sample the orchard effectively and
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Next  How to sample the orchard effectively and
Plant Nutrient Function and Fertilizer Management Next  How to sample the orchard effectively and

Plant Nutrient Function and

Fertilizer Management

Next

How to sample the orchard effectively and

interpret the results

How to estimate orchard N, and K demand

How to deliver nutrients efficiently