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MakingSenseofMatterStudyGuide

Matterisallarounduseverythingismadeofmatter.

Matter
is
anythingthattakesupspaceandhasmass.

Wecanclassifyobjectsbytheirphysicalproperties.
Physicalpropertiesareways
wedescribeanobject.Someofthewayswecandescribeandclassifymatterareby:

Classify

MATTERBASEDONPHYSICALPROPERTIES
Including,butnotlimitedto:
1.
mass
theamountofmatterinanobject(howmanymoleculesmakeit
up)measuredingrams

2.
magnetism
attractsmetal(
iron
and
steel
)
BUTNOT
(aluminum,silver,gold,
copper)
3.
physicalstate
solid,liquid,gas
solid
tightlypackedparticleswithlittletonomovementinaspecific
shape
liquid
particlesmovesomeandwilltaketheshapeofanycontainer
gas
fastmovingscatteredparticles
4.

relativedensity
(sinkingandfloating)

5.

solubilityinwater
abilitytodissolve
Thesoluteisthesubstancedissolvingthesolventiswhatitisdissolvedinto
Solids,liquids,andgasescanallbedissolvedintoeachother

6.

theabilityto
conduct
CONDUCTORSaremetalsaluminum,copper,steel,iron,
gold,silver
or
insulate

INSULATORSareplastic,wood,Styrofoam,rubber
thermal(heat)orelectricenergy
(willconductelectricityoftenwithaplugorbatteries
(apowerSource))

Whatare
tools
wecanusetoclassifymatter?

tool

picture

whatitmeasures

Beakers,Measuringcups,
measuringspoons

Volume

Graduatedcylinders

Volume

Thermometers

Temperatureboilingpoint,
freezingpoint,meltingpoint

TimingDevicesstopwatch

Time

Triplebeambalances

Massingrams

Digitalscales

Massingrams

SpringScales

ForceinNewtons(onEarth
equalsmassaswell)

Rulers/measuringtapes

Lengthinmeters,cm

Senseofsight

Size,shape,color,texture,
patterns,partsofsystem,physical
state

Senseofsmell,hearing,
taste

odor,sound,flavor

Senseoftouch

Hardness,abilitytoroll,texture

Magnets

magnetism

beakers

Density,solubility,viscosity

Handlens

Magnifiestoseeproperties

Microscope

Magnifiestoseeproperties

Computers,journals

Organizationofdata

Wecanclassifymatterinmanydifferentways!!

Sometimesweneedtousetoolsjusttobeabletoseebecausemattercanbereally
small.
Weusemicroscopestomagnifymatterandgiveustheabilitytoseethings
wecantnormallysee.
Whenwelookataleafwithjustoureyes,weseecolor,size,
shape,texture.Whenwelookataleafunderamicroscope,wecanseethepartsofthe
leafthatmakephotosynthesishappen!!!

WecanuseoureyestodescribeThisleafscolor,shape,size,
patternofayoungleaf.

Weneedamicroscopetoseethecellsandchloroplastsonthetip

Matterchangesphysicallyifitis: Cut,torn,folded,frozen,melted,boiled,mixed,orif
piecesaretakenapart.

Examplesofphysicalchanges
:lemonade,foldedpaper,saltwater,meltedice,
sharpeningapencil,oramixtureofpaperclipsandmarbles.

ChangingStatesofMatter

Sometimesmatterchangesitsphysicalstate.Thesechangesoccurbecausethe
matterhasbeenheatedorcooled.Forexample,waterthatreachesitsfreezingpoint
turnsintoice.Waterthatreachesitsboilingpointturnsintowatervapor.Nomatter
what,itisstillwater.Ithasonlychangedstate.
Themoleculesthatmakeupwater
arestillthesame
.Wecallthisa
physicalchange
.Ifitcanreturntothestateitwas
previously,ithasonlychangedphysically.

LOSEENERGY
Aswater
losesheatenergy
,the
molecules
startmoving
slower
.Theare
closertogether.
Iftheyloseenoughheatenergy,theywillstopmovingaroundeachotherand
onlyvibrateagainsteachother.

Thisiscalledfreezing.

Waterfreezesat0C
.Italwaysfreezesat0C.
Onecup,onegallon,onedropletofwaterwill
ALWAYS
freezeat0C.

GAINENERGY
If
watergainsheatenergy
,the
molecules
startmoving
faster
.Theyare
spreadingapart.
At0C,theyarenolongerattachedtoeachotherandareabletomove
away/movearoundeachother.
Theyarechangingfromsolidstatetoliquidstate.
Thisiscalledmelting.

Watermeltsat0C.
Italwaysmeltsat0C.
Aswatergainsenergyandthetemperaturerises,moremoleculesreach0Cand
melt.

Aswatercontinuestogainheatenergy,themoleculescontinuetospreadapart
fromeachotherandmovefaster.
At100Ctheyaremovingveryfastandspreadingveryfarapart.
Thewatermoleculesareturningfromaliquidintoagasandareevaporating.

Thisiscalledboiling.
Allpure
waterboilsat100C
.

Ifyouhave100mLofwateritwillboilat100C.Ifyouhave300mL,1000mL,
even1567mLofwateritwillalsoboilat100C.

**Howcanwatermeltandfreezeat0C???
Italldependsonwhatishappeningtothemoleculesiftheyaregainingenergythey
aremeltingiftheyarelosingenergytheyarefreezingatthesametemperature!

Density

Think:ballofcottonvsblobofrock.Theyarethesamesize,butdothey
feelthesame?No!Theyhaveverydifferentmasses.Whenyoucan
compareanitemsmasstoitsvolumeyouarefindingitsdensity.
Densitydescribeshowtightlypackedthemoleculesofasubstanceare
Densitycomparesanobjectsmasstoitsvolume
Themoredensesomethingisthemoreitsinks

RelativeDensity
comparesanobjecttowateranddescribestheobjectsbuoyancy.If
isismorebuoyantitwillfloatinwater,ifitislessbuoyantitwillsink.

Example1

Styrofoammoleculesarespreadout
Styrofoamsmassislessthanitsvolumewhichmakesstyrofoam
lessdensethanwater.
Objectsthatarelessdensethanwaterwillfloatinwater.

Example2
Amarblesmoleculesareverytightlypacked
Amarblesmassisgreaterthanitsvolume.
Itismoredensethanwaterandwillsinkinwater

MixturesandSolutions

Mattercanbemixedwithothermatter.Whentwoormoresubstancesarecombined
wecallita
mixture
.
Mixtures
areusually
easytoseparate
because
eachingredient
keepsitsphysicalproperties
(forexample,inamixtureofsaladyoucaneasilypick
outthedifferentvegetables).Insomemixturestheingredientsspreadout,andin
otherstheycanstayclumpedtogether(basedontheirdensity).Nomatterwhat,
the
individualingredientsdonotchange
.Wecanstillseetheindividualphysical
properties.Anythingwecan
separatewithasimpletoolorwithourhands
isa
mixture.Someexamplesofmixturesare:
Cerealinmilk,snackmix,icewater,andironfilingsandsand.

Sometimesonesubstancewill
dissolve
intotheotherwhenmixing.Thisisaspecial
mixturecalleda
solution
.Youcannotseetheindividualsolidparticlesanymorebut
theyarestillthere.Ina
solution
,themoleculesofonesubstanceare
dissolved
evenly
andare
uniformlydistributed
(evenlyspreadaround)intothemoleculesof
another.
Examples:

Waterisanexampleofasolutionof2hydrogenand1oxygenmolecule.We
cannotseparatethehydrogenfromtheoxygeneasily,andwecannotseetheirseparate
physicalproperties.

Whenasubstancedissolvesinwateritdoesnotdisappear.Itisstillthere.For
example,whenyoudissolvesaltinwater,youcannotseeitanymorebutitisstillthere.
Thesaltisnowsosmallyoucannotseeit.Eachwatermoleculehasgrabbedsalt
moleculesinit.Thesalthasbeenevenlydistributedthroughoutthewater.Youcan
evaporatethewaterandthesaltwillbeleftonthesurface.

Inasolution,oneitemisthe
solvent
andoneisthe
solute
.
Thesolutedissolvesintothesolvent.
Lemonjuice(
solute
)
dissolvesintowater(
solvent
).
Somanythingswilldissolveintowaterthatwecall
watertheuniversal
solvent.
Ifsomethingwillnotdissolve,wesayitisinsoluble.
Thetemperatureoftheliquidwillincreasethespeedinwhichthingslikesugar,
tea,orcoffeewilldissolve

Solutionscanbemadeofsolidsliquids,butcanalsobemadeofliquidsorgasesthat
dissolveintootherliquidsorgases.
Examplesofsolutionsare:lemonade,air,carbondioxide,brass,saltwaterandKoolAid

Howdoweseparatemixturesandsolutions?

Mixturesareeasytoseparate.Wecanuseourhandorsimpletools.Wedetermine
whichtoolstousebasedonthephysicalpropertiesoftheingredients.

SeparatingMixturesandSolutions
TypeofMixture

Processtoseparate

Differentsizedsolids(rocks+sand)

Sievingusingastrainer/sieve/colander
Ifthepiecesarelargeenoughspoons,
forks,tongs

Insolublesolidsfromliquids(sawdust+

Filteringusingfilterpaper

water)
Liquidsthathavedifferentdensities(oil+
water)

Decantingallowoneliquidtosettleand
onetofloatontopandthenpouritoff

Magneticvsnonmagneticmaterials
(steel+aluminum)

Magnetismthemagnetwillattract
magneticmaterials

Solublesolidsfromliquids(salt+water)

Evaporationthewaterwillevaporateand
thesaltwillremaininthecontainer

Densityisapropertythatcanbeusedtoseparatedifferentliquidsorsolidsand
liquidssomethingssinkandothersfloat!Anotherwaytoseparateisbylettingthings
settleintolayers(thinkoilandwater).

Solutionsarehardertoseparatebutit
ISPOSSIBLE
.Theeasiestwaytoseparatea
solutionthathaswaterinitistoevaporatethewater.

Forexample,ifyouhaveasolutionofsaltwater,oncewaterreaches100C,itwill
evaporateandtheonlythingleftinthedishwillbesaltcrystals.Anotherexample:Ifyou
added20mlofsugarto100mlofwater,andthenyouevaporatedthewater,youwill
stillhave20mlofsugarinthedish.