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GenevieveHynes

6/23/15
HIST3005Makeupquiz

TheSovietUnionandChinawerebothcommuniststatesthroughmostofthe20thCentury,
yettheirexperiencesascommunistregimesandsocietieswereoftenquitedifferent.Identify
threesignificantwaysinwhichtheseregimesand/orsocietiesdifferedfromeachother.

BoththeSovietUnionandChinawereledbycommunistgovernmentsinthetwentieth
century.TheSovietUnionwasledfirstbyLenin,andlaterbyStalin,andChinawasledbyMao
Zedong.Theyhadmanysimilarities,astheywerebothledbythesamepoliticalpartyand
ChinasgovernmentwasmodeledaftertheSovietgovernment.However,thereweremany
differencesinhowthetwogovernmentsrespondedtosocialandpoliticalissuesintheir
countries.
OnewaytheSovietUnionandChineseregimesdifferedfromeachotherishowthe
communistgovernmentswereformed.InRussia,thecommunistrevolutiontookonlyayear.
WorldWarIwastakingitstollontheRussiansandmanyofthemwantedpeace,which,tothem,
meantcommunism.TheBolshevikpartywastheleadingcommunistpartyandtheirleader,
Lenin,promisedanendtoRussianinvolvementinthewar(whichhefulfilled).Chinas
transitiontoacommuniststatewasmuchmorelengthy.KarlMarxwasnotreallyknownin
Chinaafterthecollapseoftheimperialsystem,soacommunistpartywasnotformeduntil1921
(CCPChineseCommunistParty).Itthentookthatpartytwentyeightyearsofconflictwiththe
JapaneseandtheChinesenationalistpartytobecometherulingpartyofChina.
AnotherdifferencebetweentheSovietUnionandChinesecommunistregimesistheir
responsestoindustrializationoftheirsocieties.IntheSovietUnion,Stalinencouraged
industrializationofurbanareas.Hewantedhispeopletohavepatriotism.Heevenwantedthere

tobecompetition,andwagedifferencesbetweenworkers,aconceptthatinitselfseemsvery
anticommunist.InChina,MaoZedongdismissedthisformofindustrializationbecausehe
believedthatittookawayfromtheequalitythatwassupposedtobeincommunism.Insteadhe
triedtobringindustrializationtomoreruralareasinsteadofjustintheurbancityareas.Healso
providedbasictechnologicaltrainingtoall,notjustprofessionalexpertsintheseurbanareas.He
alsowantedChinatotransitiontoafullcommuniststateasquicklyaspossible,sohecreated
peoplescommunes,anideathatfailedmiserablyandcausedahugeeconomicdownfall.
ThethirdwaythattheSovietUnionandChinadifferedfromeachotherisinhowthey
purgedtheircountriesofanticommunists.IntheSovietUnion,theprocesswasmuchmore
secretiveandwasdonebythestate.Thegovernmentwouldcollectinformationonsuspects,and
thenarresttheminthedeadofnight.Theywouldeitherbeputtodeathortoworkinlabor
camps.ThiswascalledTheTerror.InChina,Zedongbecameparanoidthattheoldermembersof
thecommunistpartyweregoingtoturnonit,soheencouragedtheyoungergenerationtoattack
theeldergeneration.TheserevolutionarieswerecalledtheRedGuards.Theyaimedtogetrid
ofthepreviousgenerationofcommunists,andsoitwaslikethepartyhadturnedonitself.Itwas
muchmoreoutofthegovernmentscontrolthanTheTerrorwasintheSovietUnion.
Whilethesegovernmentsdidshareabasicsamenessinpoliticalideology,theirresponses
tosimilarissueswereverydifferent.Bothgovernmentsdid,however,encourageandconvince
manysurroundingcountriestoturntocommunism,howevermanyoftheoutcomesfailed.