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# EE3741 Lecture 2 Transformer and

## per unit calculation

Subject lecturer: Dr. XU Zhao
Department of Electrical Engineering
Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Email: eezhaoxu@polyu.edu.hk
R
Room:
CF632
Tel: 27666160

outline
Transformer
-ideal
-actual
-connections
-tap change
Per unit

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Transformers - History
1882 Edison inaugurates first central generating station
in USA
400 lamps, each consuming 83 W
DC supply

## Supply limited to relatively small distances from power station

because of low distribution voltage

1886 William
Willi
Stanley,
St l
W
Westinghouse
ti h
engineer
i
iinstalls
t ll
first AC system using transformer at Great Barrington in
Massachusetts

## AC supply chosen as dominant mode of electricity generation

primarily due to invention of transformer

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Transformers

Makes possible:
1. Power generation at the most economical level
2. Transmission and distribution at the most economical level
3. Power utilisation at the most suitable level
4. Measurement of high voltages (potential transformer) and
high
g current (current
(
transformer))
5. Impedance matching, insulating one circuit from another or
insulating DC circuits from AC circuits

core

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Ideal Transformer
zFirst we review the voltage/current relationships for an ideal
transformer
no real power losses
magnetic core has infinite permeability
no leakage flux
zWell define the primary side of the transformer as the side
that usually takes power, and the secondary as the side that
usually delivers power.
primary is usually the side with the higher voltage, but may
be the low voltage side on a generator step-up transformer.

permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field
within itself.
itself

## Assume we have flux m in magnetic material. Then

1 = N1m
d 1

2 = N 2m
d 2

d m
d m
= N1
=
= N2
v1 =
v2
dt
dt
dt
dt
d m
v1
v2
v1
N1

=
= a = turns ratio
=
=
dt
N1
N2
v2
N2

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Current Relationships

ampere s law
mmf =

'
H
i
d
L
=
N
i
+
N
i
11
22
C H ds

B length
l
h

= N1i1 + N 2i2'

length
= N1i1 + N 2i2'
area
8

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Current/Voltage Relationships

i1
N2
=
or
'
N1
i2

'
N 2i2 .

Hence

i1
N2 1
=
=
i2
N1 a

Then
v1
i
1

a 0 v
2

=
1
0
i2

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Impedance
p
Transformation Example
p
Example:
Example: Calculate the primary voltage and current for an impedance load
on the secondary

v1

=
i
0
1

v1 = a v2

10

v1
= a2 Z
i1

i1

0 v2
1 v2

Z
a

1 v2
=
aZ

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Real Transformers
z Real transformers
have losses
have leakage flux
have finite permeability of magnetic core
Real power losses
resistance in windings (i2 R)
core losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis

11

## Transformer Core losses

Eddy currents arise because of changing flux in core.
core
Eddy currents are reduced by laminating the core

## Hysteresis losses are proportional to area of BH curve

and the frequency

## These losses are reduced by

using material with a
thin BH curve
12

## Not all flux is within the transformer core

1 = l1 + N1m

2 = l 2 + N 2m
Assuming a linear magnetic medium we get

l1 = Ll1i1

l 2

Ll 2i 2'

d m
di1
v1 = r1i1 + Ll1 + N1
dt
dt
v 2 = r2i 2 + Ll 2
'

13

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

di 2'

dm
+ N2
dt
dt

r1/2 accounts
for copper
pp loss
EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

## Finite core ppermeabilityy means a non-zero mmf

is required to maintain m in the core
N1i1 N 2i2 = m
This value is usually modeled as a magnetizing current
m N 2
i1 =
+
i2
N1
N1
i1

14

N2
= im +
i2
N1

m
where i m =
N1

## Transformer Equivalent Circuit

Using the previous relationships,
relationships we can derive an
equivalent circuit model for the real transformer

## This model is further simplified by referring all

impedances to the primary side
'
2
r2 = a r2
x2' = a 2 x2
15

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

re =

'
r1 + r2

xe = x1 + x2'
EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

16

## Determination of Equivalent Circuit

Parameters
Two simple tests used to determine transformer equivalent
circuit parameters
Open circuit test
Short
Sh t circuit
i
it test
t t

## Tests used by manufacturers to confirm design values or

to obtain value where no data available

17

18

## Open Circuit Test

Transformer rated voltage applied to one winding while other winding open
circuited
Choice of energized winding depends upon availability of suitable
voltage source
Allows measurement of magnetizing inductance

Rc1

19

## Open Circuit Test

represents excitation current through shunt
branch
Current ~5% rated current
Voltage drop across leakage reactance, winding
resistance
i t
off energized
i d winding
i di
can be
b ignored
i
d

## When rated voltage and rated frequency applied

during open circuit test, measured power
practically equal to core loss
Core loss assumed to remain constant for different load
levels

20

21

## Open Circuit Test

shunt excitation branch,
referred to energized side
|YOC| = |IOC|/|VOC|
-OC = -cos-1[POC/(VOC IOC)]

22

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

excitation branch
YOC = |YOC| -OC
= GC jBM
Corresponding resistance and
reactance calculated as
RC = 1/ GC
jXM = 1/ jBM

## Open Circuit Test

If necessary parameters may be referred to primary or secondary side as
required
RC1 = a2RC2
XM1 = a2XM2

23

## Example Open Circuit Test

50 kVA
kVA, 2400/240 V,
V 50 Hz single phase transformer
Open circuit test performed on low voltage side
Results
VOC = 240 V
IOC = 5.4 A
POC = 186 W

24

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Example Contd
Open Circuit Test
|YOC| = IOC/VOC
= 0.0225 siemens

## Referring these quantities to

HV side
a = 2400/240 = 10

-2 = -cos-1[POC/(VOC*IOC)]
= - 81.75
81.75
Yoc = |Yoc|(-2)=Gc2-jBm2
YOC = 0.0033 j*0.022 [S]
RC2 = 309.6
309 6 (=1/G
( 1/Gc2)
Xm2 = 44.8 (=1/Bm2)

25

## Rc11 = a2Rc22 = 30.96

30 96 k
Xm1 = a2Xm2 = 4.48 k
Lm1 = Xm1 / 2f
=14.26 H

Rated currents
26

## Short Circuit Test

One winding short circuited while just enough voltage
applied to other winding to ensure rated current flows in
both windings
Allows measurement of equivalent resistance, RE, and
leakage reactance XE, of windings as seen from supply side
Equivalent resistance can be compared with measurement of DC
resistance to determine impact of frequency of windings resistance

27

## Short Circuit Test

With transformer short circuited voltage required to
produce rated current very low
Voltage
V lt
~5
5 - 10% rated
t d voltage
lt
Current through magnetising branch is negligible

## Applied voltage may be assumed to occur wholly as

voltage
lt
d
drop across transformer
t
f
equivalent
i l t series
i
impedance
Also when rated current flows through windings during
short
h
circuit
i
i test, measured
d power equals
l to rated
d copper
loss

28

Re1=R
R1+a
a2R2 and Xe1=X
X1+a
a2X2

29

## Short Circuit Test

Magnitude of series impedance of Equivalent series resistance
transformer, referred to
(referred to HV side)
energized (HV) side
RE1 = PSC/I2SC = R1 + a2R2
|ZE1| = |VSC|/|ISC|
Equivalent series reactance
(referred to HV side)
XE1 = (|ZE1|2 - RE12)
= X1 + a2X2

30

## Short Circuit Test

If using complete equivalent circuit parameters for secondary can be
determined according to:
R1 = a2R2 = RE1/2
X1 = a2X2 = XE1/2

31

## Example Short Circuit Test

50 kVA
kVA, 2400/240 V,
V 50 Hz single phase transformer
Short circuit test performed with low voltage side shorted
Results
VSC = 48 V
ISC = 20.8 A
PSC = 620 W

32

## Example - Short Circuit Test

Magnitude of series impedance of Equivalent series reactance
transformer, referred to
(referred to HV side)
energized (HV) side
XE1 = (|ZE1|2 - RE12)
|ZE1| = Vsc/Isc=48/20.8 = 2.3
= X1 + a2X2
= (|2.3|
(|2 3|2 1.43
1 432) = 1.8
1 8
Equivalent series resistance
(referred to HV side)
RE1 = PSC/I2SC = R1 + a2R2
= 620/(20.8)2 = 1.43

33

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Example
Transformer Equivalent parameters
RE1

I1

Ideal
transformer

XE1
I2/a

V1 RC1

Xm1

aV2

V2

## From open circuit and short circuit test can define

needed p
parameters of equivalent
q
circuit
for 50 kVA, 2400/240 V transformer:
RC1= 30.96 k,
XM1= 4.48 k,
RE1 = 1.43
1 43 ,

XE1 = 1.8
1 8
34

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Example
Transformer Equivalent parameters
R1

Ideal
transformer

X1

I1

R2

X2

I2
RC1

Xm11

V2

By assuming

## R1 = a2R2 = (RE1)/2 and

X1 = a2X2 = (XE1)/2
can derive necessary parameters for full equivalent circuit
of 50 kVA 2400/240 V 50 Hz transformer:
R1 = 0.715 ,
R2 = 0.00715
X1 = 0.9 ,
X2 = 0.009

35

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Example
Transformer Voltage
Regulation/Efficiency

RE1

I1

Ideal
transformer

XE1
I2/a

V1 RC1

Xm1

aV2

## Determine regulation/efficiency of 50 kVA

transformer with parameters as determined
previously if operated at rated load, 0.8 power
factor lagging
lagging, at rated secondary voltage
Rated
= 50 000 VA / 240 V = 208.3 A
I2 = 208.3 - cos-1(0.8) = 208.3 -36.87
if secondary voltage selected as reference
phasor
Required
R
i d parameter
t ffor approximate
i
t equivalent
i l t
circuit referred to primary
aV2 = 2400 0,
(I2/a) = 20.83 36 87 A
36.87
36

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

V2

Example
Transformer Voltage
Regulation/Efficiency

RE1

I1

Ideal
transformer

XE1
I2/a

V1 RC1

Xm1

aV2

## Primary voltage required to supply load

V1 = aV2 + (I2/a)(RE1 + j*XE1)
= 2400 0
0 + 20.83
20 83 -36.87
-36 87(1
(1.43
43 +
j1.80)
= 2446.4 0.28
Voltage
V l
regulation
l i

| V1 | | aV2 |
100% =
100%
| aV2 |

2446.4 2400
=
100% = 1.93%
2400

37

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

V2

Example
Transformer Voltage
Regulation/Efficiency
Output power = rated load x power factor
I
POUTPUT = 50 kVA x 0.8 = 40 000 W

RE1

V1 RC1

Ideal
transformer

XE1
I2/a

Xm1

aV2

## Total losses = core loss + copper loss

= (|V1|)2/RC1 + (|I2|/a)2RE1
= 193 W + 620 W = 813 W
OR Ploss =POC+I12Re1
Input power = Output power + losses
PINPUT = 40 000 W + 193 W+ 813 W = 41006 40813W
Efficiency:
100%

38

=9
97.55%
55% 98%

V2

## Test on Three Phase Transformers

For tests on three phase transformers
Power being measured is total three phase power
Measured voltage is line-to-line voltage
Measured current is line current
Previous formulae are valid for single phase transformer
Three phase measurements must be converted to per-phase values

39

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Transformer Rating
Transformer rating determines conditions under which transformer is
designed to operate
Defined by:
frequency
voltage
current
apparent power (volt-ampere
(volt ampere product)

40

Voltage Rating

V1ratedd =

N1 ABmax
2

N1max
2

## Rated voltage controlled by maximum flux density

permissible within core
Problems with high peak flux density
high magnetising current due to core saturation
Increase in cores losses with both hysteresis and eddy
current losses controlled by maximum flux density

## Size of transformer (cross sectional area of core)

affected by maximum flux density that can be
tolerated by transformer
41

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Current rating

Rated current of
1
transformer is
PL PC 2

I1,rated =
maximum rms current
that will not p
produce
RE1
excessive heating in
transformer insulation PL power that can be
For oil-impregnated paper
insulation maximum
temperature ~100
~100C
C

42

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

dissipated as heat

PC core losses of
transformer
at rated voltage
EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Current Rating
Method of cooling
cooling, surface area of transformer and even ambient
temperature will control amount of heat that can be dissipated
If transformer temperature considerably below maximum
permissible level can increase current above rated current
until insulation reaches design limit
Operation at temperatures above design limit can
pp
y
reduce life of transformer appreciably

43

## Apparent Power Rating

Transformer has volt-ampere rating,
not a (real) power rating
Srated = V1,ratedI1,rated
or
Srated = V2,ratedI2,rated
Voltage rating and current rating essentially independent
Rating independent of power factor or load

44

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Distribution Transformer

W/Fans

LTC

115 35 kV distribution
di ib i
transformer
f
45

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Source: Tom Ernst, Minnesota Power

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

230/115 kV Transformer

230 kV surge
arrestors

115 kV surge
arrestors

Oil Cooler
W/Fans
46

Oil
pump
p
p

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Source: Tom Ernst, Minnesota Power

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

Polyphase Transformers

Formed as either
Three
Three single phase transformers connected together
Easy to replace failed units

## Three phase transformer bank constructed with all

th
three
phases
h
on a common core
Lower weight and cost for given transformer rating
than 3 individual units
6 rather than 12 external connections
(large saving for HV windings with complicated
structure)
Whole transformer must be replaced if single winding
fails

In both case,
case analysis procedure is identical
47

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Polyphase Transformer
Winding connections
Wye wye
Delta delta
Wye delta
Delta wye

48

Vab
Vcn

VCNN

## Each single phase transformer

winding controls ratio of phase
g and p
phase
neutral voltages
currents
E.g
|VAN|/|Van| = N1/N2
|IAN|/|Ian| = N2/N1

VAB

## Ratio of line-line voltages

|VAB|/|Vab| =
3|VAN|/3|Van|
= N1/N2
Ratio of line currents
|IA|/|Ia|
=
|IAN|/|Ian|
= N2/N1

49

## Wye wye connection

Seldom used in industrial applications
Easy to develop voltage unbalances
Allows propagation of harmonics, especially triplen
harmonics (3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th harmonic, etc) through
transformer

50

IA

IAB

Iab

Ia
Vab

VAB

## Each single phase transformer

winding controls ratio of line
line voltages
g and p
phase currents
E.g
|VAB|/|Vab| = N1/N2
|IAB|/|Iab| = N2/N1

|IA|/|Ia|
=
3|IAB|/3|Iab|
= N2/N1

51

## One single-phase transformer can be removed and remaining

two continue to operate as a three-phase bank
Apparent power rating (kVA) of bank reduced to 58% or 1/3 of
original rating
Sometimes used to supply small load that is expected to grow
2 transformers used for 3 phase supply, with 3rd serving as spare

52

## Ratio of line-line voltages

|VAB|/|Vab| = 3|VAN|/|Van|
= 3N1/N2
Ratio of line currents
|IA|/|Ia|
=
| AN|/(3|I
|I
|/( | ab|)
= N2/(3N1)

53

Iab

Ia
Vab

IA
VAB

## Each single phase transformer

winding controls ratio of phase
neutral voltage (HV) to lineline
voltage(LV)
l
(LV) and
d ratios
i off currents
through each single phase winding
E.g.
||VAN||/|V
| ab| = N1/N2
|IAN|/|Iab| = N2/N1

c
VCN

IAB

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

c
Vcnn

Ratio of line-line
line line voltages
|VAB|/|Vab| =
|VAB|/(3|Van|)
= N1/(3N2)
Ratio off line
l
currents
|IA|/|Ia|
=
3|IAB|/|Ian|
= 3N2//N1
54

Ia
Vaab

IA
VAAB

## Each single phase transformer

winding controls ratio of line
line voltage (HV) to phase
neutrall voltage
l
(LV) and
d ratios
i off
currents through each single
phase winding
g
E.g.
|VAB|/|Van| = N1/N2
|IAB|/|Ian| = N2/N1

## Wye delta connections

Wye (HV) delta (LV) connections
Utilises insulation more efficiently

## Turns ratio effectively increased

(Y-) for stepping down from HV to medium or LV as in
distribution transformers
(LV-YHV) Commonly applied to generator step-up
t
transformers
f

Grounding point desirable because it limits stress on lineground impedance of high voltage winding under some
fault conditions
Delta connection allows circulating path for harmonics
(especially triplen harmonics)

## Allows maintenance of system balance and good shape of

voltage waveform even in presence of load unbalances and
magnetizing current harmonics

55

## Delta wye connections

Delta (HV) wye (LV) connections
Less commonly used as turns ratio on transformers not
used as effectively
y
Often applied for step-down transformers for
connection to distribution or LV network where single
phase loads connected that require neutral point

56

IAB

Ia
Vab

IA
VAB

c
Vcn

57

## Delta-wye (or wye-delta)

connections introduce phase shift
into voltage and current
waveforms
E.g. Delta wye connection |VAB|
/ |Van| = N1/N2
|Van| = |VAB|*(N2/N1)
Vab

= 3|Van|+30
= 3 |VAB||*(N
(N2/N1)+30
)+30

## Turns ratio of this transformer

then contains magnitude
g
change
g
and phase shift change
Vab/VAB = 3 (N2/N1)+30

## Transformer Phase Shift

Can determine similar
Possible to achieve phase
relationship for current ratio
shifts of
30
Ratio of line currents of
delta wye connection
150
|IA|/|Ia|
=
90
90
3|IAB|/|Ian|
depending upon manner
= 3N2/N1
by which windings are
For line current feeding delta
connected
d
winding IA
Need to standardize the
IA = 3IAB-30
relationship
IA/Ia = 3(N2/N1) -30
30

58

## Transformer Phase Shift

IEEE C57.12.70
C57 12 70 1978 American National Standard
Terminal Marking and Connections for Distribution and
Power Transformer
For both delta-wye and wye-delta connections the HV
terminal voltage will lead the corresponding LV terminal
voltage by 30
Currents in the transformers are displace by 30in the
direction of the voltages
g since the p
phase angles
g
of the
currents are determined by the load impedances

59

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Polyphase transformers

120o
a+b+c=0
60

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Polyphase transformers
Consist of 3 sets of primary and secondary windings on a
common magnetic structure
For balanced excitation flux produced in each winding of
1, 2 and 3 balanced

1 + 2 + 3 = 0
no flux in central magnetic path allowing it to be removed,
simplifying construction, reducing mass and cost of
transformer

Core

Most
M t common three
th
phase
h
transformer
t
f
construction
t
ti

Shell

61

## Core type transformer

Magnetic circuit consists of three
core sections in parallel
Similar
Si il tto d
delta
lt connected
t d
bank of single phase
transformer
Removall off return path
h for
f
flux ensures that both the flux
and voltage per phase must
sum to
t zero even for
f
Limits production of triplen
h
harmonics
i under
d un-balanced
b l
d

62

63

## Shell type transformer

Can be considered as a stack of 3 single phase units
Phase B coil wound in opposite direction to Phase A or Phase C
coils
Ensures that magnitude of combined fluxes such as 0.5*
0 5*a +
0.5*b or 0.5*c + 0.5*a will have same magnitude as flux
in outer section of core of 0.5*a
Allows significant reduction in core size (with respective to
stack of 3 single phase units)

64

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Core construction
Laminated steel core
Transformer core built from layers
of steel laminate
Positions
P iti
off joints
j i t between
b t
layers
l
alternated to give mechanical
strength
Carefully
f ll constructed
d to lleave no
air-gaps in corner where laminates
overlap
losses within core

65

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Core construction
wound steel core
Core wound from
continuous strip of grainoriented steel fed through
core

66

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Winding construction

67

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Winding construction
Windings made of copper or aluminium
While resistive losses may be significant in distribution class
t
transformers,
f
leakage
l k
l
losses,
mostt important
i
t t ffor HV
transformers
Windings construction to maximize coupling between primary
and
d secondary
d
coils
il

## Diagram shows common arrangement used to limit leakage

flux.
Performance enhanced further by
Minimize area in which flux leakage occurs
Increasing
g windings
g length
g to maximize p
path length
g for leakage
g
flux

68

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Alternating excitation
of ferromagnetic material
Transformer excited by sinusoidal voltage
v = Ri + d/dt
= Vmcos(t)
related to excitation current by core dimensions and BB
H curve of core material
Ri small compared to back emf
~ (Vm/ )sin(t)
) i ( t)
Waveform of excitation or magnetising current will then be
governed by need to ensure sinusoidal variation in flux
l k
within
h core

69

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Alternating excitation
of ferromagnetic material
To produce sinusoidal flux
Excitation current
become non-sinusoidal
consisting of
fundamental frequency
plus odd order
harmonics
If excitation current
sinusoidal
harmonics

70

## Transformer Actual Impedances

Difficult to compare
performance of
p
transformers of different
ratings
Parameter take on wide
range of values

71

## Transformer Per-Unit Impedance

Per-unit values offer
greater consistency of
parameter for different
transformer ratings
E.g. resistance of primary
windings
Allows easy identification of
major variations in
transformer design and
performance
f

72

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Transformer Per-Unit
Per Unit Impedance

73

73

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Auto-transformer
Transformers
T
f
provide
id
isolation between
windings
If isolation not required
voltage transformation
can be
b achieved
h
d with
h
single tapped winding
This is called an
autotransformer

74

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Auto-transformer
Primary
P i
voltage
lt
applied:
li d V1,
V1 iinduced
d
d voltages
lt
are: V1/V2=N
N1/N2
(Eac/Ebc = N1/N2)
y, currents: I2 =I1+I3
as other transformers: N1I1=N2I2 we have
I2/I1=N1/N2 = a
I3 = (a-1)I1
Apparent powers: input S1= V1I1 Output S2=V2I2
Apparent power output of transformer 2ndary: Sw=V2I3=[(a=[(a
1)/a]*S2
Total power transferred through autotransformer is appreciably
greater than transferred by induction

75

Auto-transformer

## Accurate model of autotransformer

Incorporates
co po a es leakage
ea age reactance,
eac a ce, wining
g resistance
es s a ce referred
e e ed to
o N1turn side
It also shows method of converting single phase transformer to
autotransformer

76

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Auto-transformer

Compared
C
d with
ith ttwo-winding
i di
ttransformer
f
off
equivalent rating, autotransformer is
Smaller
S
ll
More efficient
With
With lower internal impedance

## Its used extensively in power systems

where voltages of two systems coupled by
autotransformer do no differ by a factor of
greater than ~ 3

77

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Instrument Transformers
- Current Transformer

## Toroidal core wound from continuous strip of lowloss low

loss,
low-field
field intensity magnetic material
Secondary winding wound around toroid transformers
high current to 1-5A for measurement
Insulation of secondary must be adequate for voltage of
current carrying conductor

## Rated conservatively and may be considered as ideal

with little error
error. Sources of error include
Excitation currents
Core designed to operate at low flux densities
Load currents on secondary kept low

78

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Instrument Transformers
- Current Transformer
Operating considerations
Secondary should never be
open circuited
open-circuited
All primary current would
become magnetizing current
driving core alternatively
between positive and
negative saturation
producing high voltage
pulses
l
iin secondary
d
windings
i di

79

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Instrument Transformers
- Potential Transformer
On most systems, line-voltages cannot be measured
directly
Voltage measured using potential transformer
Allows low current metering
Performs isolation from high voltage system

## VA rating of potential transformer often very small

Transformer however may
be physically large due to
need for insulation from
line voltage

80

80

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

z LTC transformers have tap ratios that can be varied to regulate bus
voltages
z The typical range of variation is 10% from the nominal values, usually in
33 discrete steps (0.0625% per step).
z Because tap changing is a mechanical process, LTC transformers usually
have a 30 second deadband to avoid repeated changes.
z Unbalanced tap
pp
positions can cause "circulating
g vars"

81

## Voltage regulation transformer

Voltage
V lt
magnitudes
it d and
d
current flow may need to
be controlled/maintained
Booster transformer is
designed to provide a
boost of voltage
magnitude along a line
E.g. +/-5 %(parallel
connection) or +/-10% (in
series)
i ) voltage
lt
regulation
l ti

82

## Phase Shifting Transformers

zPhase shifting transformers are used
to control the phase angle across the
transformer, normally
autotransformer
zSince power flow through the
transformer depends upon phase
angle, this allows the transformer to
regulate the power flow through the
transformer
zPhase shifters can be used to
llosses.

83

## Per unit notation

Per Unit Quantities
Definition
Formulation
Change of Base
Examples

84

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit Quantities
Any electrical quantity may be expressed in per-units as
a ratio of actual q
quantity
y to a chosen base value of that
quantity
E.g.

actual quantity
per unit quantity =
base value quantity
Actual quantity
value of quantity in actual units (such as volts, amps)
Base quantity
reference value with same units as actual quantity

85

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Base quantity
Reference level
Always has same units as actual quantity being measured
PER-UNIT QUANTITY IS DIMENSIONLESS
Always a real number e.g.
e g 100,
100 or 1.5
15
Phase angle of per-unit quantity always the same as the phase-angle
of the actual quantity being measured

86

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Eliminates need for conversion of voltages,
current and impedances across every
transformer
Per-unit quantities same on both sides of transformer
Reduces chance of computational error

## Many network quantities lies within narrow

numerical bounds when expressed in per-units
Nominal voltage or rated voltage of system usually
chosen as voltage base per-unit value of voltage
usually ~ 1.0 p.u.
Per-unit data can be checked rapidly for gross errors

87

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Manufacturers
M
f t
usually
ll specify
if impedance
i
d
off
machines and transformers in per-unit or
percent based on name
name-plate
plate ratings

88

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit
Per
Unit Quantities
Single Phase Systems
Network behaviour characterised by 4 base
quantities
Power (apparent power)
Voltage
Current
Impedance

Base q
quantities must satisfy
y electrical laws
Sbase = VbaseIbase
Vbase = IbaseZbase

Necessary
N
to
t select
l t two
t
base
b
values
l
from
f
which
hi h
remaining quantities will be specified

89

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit Quantities
Single Phase Systems
Usual to specify Power and Voltage bases
These parameter often determined according to rated
values or nominal values network
E.g. for transmission line nominal voltage 132 kV
and power rating 100 MVA

## Current and Impedance bases calculated from

Power and Voltage bases

Sbase
Vbase (Vbase )
=
, Z base =
=
Vbase
I base
Sbase

I base
90

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

## Pick a 1 VA base for the entire system, SB

Pick a voltage base for each different voltage level, VB. Voltage bases are
related by transformer turns ratios. Voltages are line to neutral.
Calculate the impedance base, ZB= (VB)2/SB
Calculate the current base, IB = VB/ZB
Convert actual values to per unit

## Note per unit conversion only affects magnitudes,

Note,
magnitudes not
the angles. Also, per unit quantities no longer have
units (i.e.,
(
a voltage
l
is 1.0 p.u., not 1 p.u. volts)
l )
91

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit Quantities
Single Phase Systems

## Per-unit electrical quantities calculated as:

S per unit

P + jQ
=
= Pper unit + jQ per unit
Sbase

V per unit

V
Vv
=
=
v
Vbase Vbase

I per unit

Ii
=
I base

Z per unit =
92

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

Z z
Z base
EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit
Per
Unit Quantities
Three Phase Systems
For 3 phase systems,
systems
Base power is total 3 phase
Base voltage is line-to-line voltage
Base line current assumed equal to base phase current
Assumption is that network wye connected
Base impedance is the same per-phase base quantity

93

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit
Per
Unit Quantities
Three Phase Systems
For 3 Phase Systems
Base power:
Base voltage:
Base current:
Base impedance:

94

## Electrical Engineering, HKPU

ST,base= 3Sp,base
VL,base=3Vp,base
Ip,base = (ST,base)/(3VL,base)
= (Sp,base
)/(Vp,base
)
b
b
Zp,base = (VL,base)2/(ST,base)
= (Vp,base)2/(Sp,base)

## Change of base formula

Impedance characteristics of electrical equipment usually expressed as
percentage based on machine ratings
Machine ratings may be different from system voltage or power bases
Need formula to convert per-impedance or percentage impedance of
machine ratings to per-unit impedance for new base

95

Z actual
=
=
Z base ,old
(Vbase,old )2

Z actual
=
=
Z base ,new
(Vbase,new )2

96

Z base ,old
Z base ,new

(V
(V

base ,old

base , new

)
)

Sbase,new
Sbase ,old

## Per unit example-single phase

Solve for the current
below using per unit analysis with an SB of 100 MVA, and voltage bases of 8 kV,
80 kV and 16 kV.

97

## Per Unit Example, contd

Z BLeft

8kV 2
=
= 0.64
100 MVA

Z BMiddle
Z BRight

80kV 2
=
= 64
100 MVA

16kV 2
=
= 2.56
100 MVA
Same circuit, with
values expressed
in per unit.

98

## Per Unit Example single phase

Courtesy of Prof
Tom, UIUC

1.000
1
= 0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)
3.91 + j 2.327
VL = 1.0
1 00 00.22
22 30
30.88 22.32790
32790
I

2

VL
*
S L = VL I L =
= 0.189 p.u.
Z
SG = 1.0
1 00 0.22
0 2230.8
30 8 = 0.22
0 2230.8
30 8 p.u.
99

## Per Unit Example, contd

To convert back to actual values just multiply the
per unit values by their per unit base

## V LActual = 0.859 30.8 16 kV = 13.7 30.8 kV

S LActual = 0.1890 100 MVA = 18.90 MVA
A t l
SGActual
= 0.2230.8 100 MVA = 22.030.8 MVA

I BMiddle =

100 MVA
= 1250 Amps
80 kV

I Actual
0 22 30
30.8
8 1250 Amps = 275 30
30.8
8
Middl = 0.22
Middle
100

## Three Phase Per Unit Example

Solve for the current,
in the circuit, assuming a 3 power base of
300 MVA,, and line to line voltage
g bases of 13.8 kV,,
138 kV and 27.6 kV. Also assume the generator
is Y-connected so its line to line voltage is 13.8 kV.

as before.

101

## Per Unit Example, cont'd

1.00
I =
= 0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)
3.91 + j 2.327
VL = 1.00 0.22 30.8 2.32790
= 0.859
0 859 30.8
30 8 p.u.
pu
2

VL
=
= 0.189
SL =
0 189 p.u.
pu
Z
SG = 1.00 0.2230.8 = 0.2230.8 pp.u.
VL I L*

102

## V LActual = 0.859 30.8 27.6 kV = 23.8 30.8 kV

S LActual = 0.1890 300 MVA = 56.70 MVA
SGActual = 0.2230.8 300 MVA = 66.030.8 MVA
Middle
I Middl
B

300 MVA
=
= 1250 Amps (same current!)
3 138 kV

A
l
I Actual
Middle = 0.22 30.8 1250 Amps = 275 30.8

103

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Generator may be modeled in three different ways
a. Power Injection Model - the real, P, and reactive, Q, power of the
generator is specified at the node that the generator is connected
either the voltage or injected current is specified at the connectednode,
connectednode
allowing the other quantity to be determined

reactance Xd
reactance,

## C. Norton Model - injected AC current, IG, in parallel with the

synchronous reactance

104

## EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Models are selected based on both the type of analysis and the
R L
L, and C elements connected to a network
node and the ground (or neutral point of the system)
The load has a constant current magnitude I,
I and a constant power
factor, independent of the nodal voltage
Also considered as a current injection into the network
The load has a constant real, P, and reactive, Q, power component
independent of nodal voltage or current injection
Also considered as a negative
g
p
power injection
j
into the network

105