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Subject lecturer: Dr. XU Zhao

Department of Electrical Engineering

Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Email: eezhaoxu@polyu.edu.hk

R

Room:

CF632

Tel: 27666160

outline

Transformer

-ideal

-actual

-connections

-tap change

Per unit

load model

Transformers - History

1882 Edison inaugurates first central generating station

in USA

400 lamps, each consuming 83 W

DC supply

because of low distribution voltage

1886 William

Willi

Stanley,

St l

W

Westinghouse

ti h

engineer

i

iinstalls

t ll

first AC system using transformer at Great Barrington in

Massachusetts

primarily due to invention of transformer

Transformers

Makes possible:

1. Power generation at the most economical level

2. Transmission and distribution at the most economical level

3. Power utilisation at the most suitable level

4. Measurement of high voltages (potential transformer) and

high

g current (current

(

transformer))

5. Impedance matching, insulating one circuit from another or

insulating DC circuits from AC circuits

core

Ideal Transformer

zFirst we review the voltage/current relationships for an ideal

transformer

no real power losses

magnetic core has infinite permeability

no leakage flux

zWell define the primary side of the transformer as the side

that usually takes power, and the secondary as the side that

usually delivers power.

primary is usually the side with the higher voltage, but may

be the low voltage side on a generator step-up transformer.

permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field

within itself.

itself

1 = N1m

d 1

2 = N 2m

d 2

d m

d m

= N1

=

= N2

v1 =

v2

dt

dt

dt

dt

d m

v1

v2

v1

N1

=

= a = turns ratio

=

=

dt

N1

N2

v2

N2

Current Relationships

ampere s law

mmf =

'

H

i

d

L

=

N

i

+

N

i

11

22

C H ds

B length

l

h

= N1i1 + N 2i2'

length

= N1i1 + N 2i2'

area

8

Current/Voltage Relationships

i1

N2

=

or

'

N1

i2

'

N 2i2 .

Hence

i1

N2 1

=

=

i2

N1 a

Then

v1

i

1

a 0 v

2

=

1

0

i2

Impedance

p

Transformation Example

p

Example:

Example: Calculate the primary voltage and current for an impedance load

on the secondary

v1

=

i

0

1

v1 = a v2

10

v1

= a2 Z

i1

i1

0 v2

1 v2

Z

a

1 v2

=

aZ

Real Transformers

z Real transformers

have losses

have leakage flux

have finite permeability of magnetic core

Real power losses

resistance in windings (i2 R)

core losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis

11

Eddy currents arise because of changing flux in core.

core

Eddy currents are reduced by laminating the core

and the frequency

using material with a

thin BH curve

12

1 = l1 + N1m

2 = l 2 + N 2m

Assuming a linear magnetic medium we get

l1 = Ll1i1

l 2

Ll 2i 2'

d m

di1

v1 = r1i1 + Ll1 + N1

dt

dt

v 2 = r2i 2 + Ll 2

'

13

di 2'

dm

+ N2

dt

dt

r1/2 accounts

for copper

pp loss

EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

is required to maintain m in the core

N1i1 N 2i2 = m

This value is usually modeled as a magnetizing current

m N 2

i1 =

+

i2

N1

N1

i1

14

N2

= im +

i2

N1

m

where i m =

N1

Using the previous relationships,

relationships we can derive an

equivalent circuit model for the real transformer

impedances to the primary side

'

2

r2 = a r2

x2' = a 2 x2

15

re =

'

r1 + r2

xe = x1 + x2'

EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

16

Parameters

Two simple tests used to determine transformer equivalent

circuit parameters

Open circuit test

Short

Sh t circuit

i

it test

t t

to obtain value where no data available

17

18

Transformer rated voltage applied to one winding while other winding open

circuited

Choice of energized winding depends upon availability of suitable

voltage source

Allows measurement of magnetizing inductance

Rc1

19

Since transformer unloaded, current IOC

represents excitation current through shunt

branch

Current ~5% rated current

Voltage drop across leakage reactance, winding

resistance

i t

off energized

i d winding

i di

can be

b ignored

i

d

during open circuit test, measured power

practically equal to core loss

Core loss assumed to remain constant for different load

levels

20

21

Magnitude of admittance of

shunt excitation branch,

referred to energized side

|YOC| = |IOC|/|VOC|

Phase angle of admittance

-OC = -cos-1[POC/(VOC IOC)]

22

Complex admittance of

excitation branch

YOC = |YOC| -OC

= GC jBM

Corresponding resistance and

reactance calculated as

RC = 1/ GC

jXM = 1/ jBM

If necessary parameters may be referred to primary or secondary side as

required

RC1 = a2RC2

XM1 = a2XM2

23

50 kVA

kVA, 2400/240 V,

V 50 Hz single phase transformer

Open circuit test performed on low voltage side

Results

VOC = 240 V

IOC = 5.4 A

POC = 186 W

24

Example Contd

Open Circuit Test

|YOC| = IOC/VOC

= 0.0225 siemens

HV side

a = 2400/240 = 10

-2 = -cos-1[POC/(VOC*IOC)]

= - 81.75

81.75

Yoc = |Yoc|(-2)=Gc2-jBm2

YOC = 0.0033 j*0.022 [S]

RC2 = 309.6

309 6 (=1/G

( 1/Gc2)

Xm2 = 44.8 (=1/Bm2)

25

30 96 k

Xm1 = a2Xm2 = 4.48 k

Lm1 = Xm1 / 2f

=14.26 H

Rated currents

26

One winding short circuited while just enough voltage

applied to other winding to ensure rated current flows in

both windings

Allows measurement of equivalent resistance, RE, and

leakage reactance XE, of windings as seen from supply side

Equivalent resistance can be compared with measurement of DC

resistance to determine impact of frequency of windings resistance

27

With transformer short circuited voltage required to

produce rated current very low

Voltage

V lt

~5

5 - 10% rated

t d voltage

lt

Current through magnetising branch is negligible

voltage

lt

d

drop across transformer

t

f

equivalent

i l t series

i

impedance

Also when rated current flows through windings during

short

h

circuit

i

i test, measured

d power equals

l to rated

d copper

loss

28

Re1=R

R1+a

a2R2 and Xe1=X

X1+a

a2X2

29

Magnitude of series impedance of Equivalent series resistance

transformer, referred to

(referred to HV side)

energized (HV) side

RE1 = PSC/I2SC = R1 + a2R2

|ZE1| = |VSC|/|ISC|

Equivalent series reactance

(referred to HV side)

XE1 = (|ZE1|2 - RE12)

= X1 + a2X2

30

If using complete equivalent circuit parameters for secondary can be

determined according to:

R1 = a2R2 = RE1/2

X1 = a2X2 = XE1/2

31

50 kVA

kVA, 2400/240 V,

V 50 Hz single phase transformer

Short circuit test performed with low voltage side shorted

Results

VSC = 48 V

ISC = 20.8 A

PSC = 620 W

32

Magnitude of series impedance of Equivalent series reactance

transformer, referred to

(referred to HV side)

energized (HV) side

XE1 = (|ZE1|2 - RE12)

|ZE1| = Vsc/Isc=48/20.8 = 2.3

= X1 + a2X2

= (|2.3|

(|2 3|2 1.43

1 432) = 1.8

1 8

Equivalent series resistance

(referred to HV side)

RE1 = PSC/I2SC = R1 + a2R2

= 620/(20.8)2 = 1.43

33

Example

Transformer Equivalent parameters

RE1

I1

Ideal

transformer

XE1

I2/a

V1 RC1

Xm1

aV2

V2

needed p

parameters of equivalent

q

circuit

for 50 kVA, 2400/240 V transformer:

RC1= 30.96 k,

XM1= 4.48 k,

RE1 = 1.43

1 43 ,

XE1 = 1.8

1 8

34

Example

Transformer Equivalent parameters

R1

Ideal

transformer

X1

I1

R2

X2

I2

RC1

Xm11

V2

By assuming

X1 = a2X2 = (XE1)/2

can derive necessary parameters for full equivalent circuit

of 50 kVA 2400/240 V 50 Hz transformer:

R1 = 0.715 ,

R2 = 0.00715

X1 = 0.9 ,

X2 = 0.009

35

Example

Transformer Voltage

Regulation/Efficiency

RE1

I1

Ideal

transformer

XE1

I2/a

V1 RC1

Xm1

aV2

transformer with parameters as determined

previously if operated at rated load, 0.8 power

factor lagging

lagging, at rated secondary voltage

Rated

Rated load (rated secondary current)

= 50 000 VA / 240 V = 208.3 A

I2 = 208.3 - cos-1(0.8) = 208.3 -36.87

if secondary voltage selected as reference

phasor

Required

R

i d parameter

t ffor approximate

i

t equivalent

i l t

circuit referred to primary

aV2 = 2400 0,

(I2/a) = 20.83 36 87 A

36.87

36

V2

Example

Transformer Voltage

Regulation/Efficiency

RE1

I1

Ideal

transformer

XE1

I2/a

V1 RC1

Xm1

aV2

V1 = aV2 + (I2/a)(RE1 + j*XE1)

= 2400 0

0 + 20.83

20 83 -36.87

-36 87(1

(1.43

43 +

j1.80)

= 2446.4 0.28

Voltage

V l

regulation

l i

| V2, full load |

| V1 | | aV2 |

100% =

100%

| aV2 |

2446.4 2400

=

100% = 1.93%

2400

37

V2

Example

Transformer Voltage

Regulation/Efficiency

Output power = rated load x power factor

I

POUTPUT = 50 kVA x 0.8 = 40 000 W

RE1

V1 RC1

Ideal

transformer

XE1

I2/a

Xm1

aV2

= (|V1|)2/RC1 + (|I2|/a)2RE1

= 193 W + 620 W = 813 W

OR Ploss =POC+I12Re1

Input power = Output power + losses

PINPUT = 40 000 W + 193 W+ 813 W = 41006 40813W

Efficiency:

100%

38

=9

97.55%

55% 98%

V2

For tests on three phase transformers

Power being measured is total three phase power

Measured voltage is line-to-line voltage

Measured current is line current

Previous formulae are valid for single phase transformer

Three phase measurements must be converted to per-phase values

39

Transformer Rating

Transformer rating determines conditions under which transformer is

designed to operate

Defined by:

frequency

voltage

current

apparent power (volt-ampere

(volt ampere product)

40

Voltage Rating

V1ratedd =

N1 ABmax

2

N1max

2

permissible within core

Problems with high peak flux density

high magnetising current due to core saturation

Increase in cores losses with both hysteresis and eddy

current losses controlled by maximum flux density

affected by maximum flux density that can be

tolerated by transformer

41

Current rating

Rated current of

1

transformer is

PL PC 2

I1,rated =

maximum rms current

that will not p

produce

RE1

excessive heating in

transformer insulation PL power that can be

For oil-impregnated paper

insulation maximum

temperature ~100

~100C

C

42

dissipated as heat

PC core losses of

transformer

at rated voltage

EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Current Rating

Method of cooling

cooling, surface area of transformer and even ambient

temperature will control amount of heat that can be dissipated

If transformer temperature considerably below maximum

permissible level can increase current above rated current

until insulation reaches design limit

Operation at temperatures above design limit can

pp

y

reduce life of transformer appreciably

43

Transformer has volt-ampere rating,

not a (real) power rating

Srated = V1,ratedI1,rated

or

Srated = V2,ratedI2,rated

Voltage rating and current rating essentially independent

Rating independent of power factor or load

Transformer can become fully loading supplying capacitive or

inductive loads even if load requires little real power

44

Distribution Transformer

Radiators

W/Fans

LTC

115 35 kV distribution

di ib i

transformer

f

45

Source: Tom Ernst, Minnesota Power

230/115 kV Transformer

230 kV surge

arrestors

115 kV surge

arrestors

Oil Cooler

Radiators

W/Fans

46

Oil

pump

p

p

Source: Tom Ernst, Minnesota Power

Polyphase Transformers

Formed as either

Three

Three single phase transformers connected together

Easy to replace failed units

th

three

phases

h

on a common core

Lower weight and cost for given transformer rating

than 3 individual units

6 rather than 12 external connections

(large saving for HV windings with complicated

structure)

Whole transformer must be replaced if single winding

fails

In both case,

case analysis procedure is identical

47

Polyphase Transformer

Winding connections

Wye wye

Delta delta

Wye delta

Delta wye

48

Vab

Vcn

VCNN

winding controls ratio of phase

g and p

phase

neutral voltages

currents

E.g

|VAN|/|Van| = N1/N2

|IAN|/|Ian| = N2/N1

VAB

|VAB|/|Vab| =

3|VAN|/3|Van|

= N1/N2

Ratio of line currents

|IA|/|Ia|

=

|IAN|/|Ian|

= N2/N1

49

Seldom used in industrial applications

Easy to develop voltage unbalances

Allows propagation of harmonics, especially triplen

harmonics (3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th harmonic, etc) through

transformer

50

IA

IAB

Iab

Ia

Vab

VAB

winding controls ratio of line

line voltages

g and p

phase currents

E.g

|VAB|/|Vab| = N1/N2

|IAB|/|Iab| = N2/N1

|IA|/|Ia|

=

3|IAB|/3|Iab|

= N2/N1

51

two continue to operate as a three-phase bank

Apparent power rating (kVA) of bank reduced to 58% or 1/3 of

original rating

Sometimes used to supply small load that is expected to grow

2 transformers used for 3 phase supply, with 3rd serving as spare

52

|VAB|/|Vab| = 3|VAN|/|Van|

= 3N1/N2

Ratio of line currents

|IA|/|Ia|

=

| AN|/(3|I

|I

|/( | ab|)

= N2/(3N1)

53

Iab

Ia

Vab

IA

VAB

winding controls ratio of phase

neutral voltage (HV) to lineline

voltage(LV)

l

(LV) and

d ratios

i off currents

through each single phase winding

E.g.

||VAN||/|V

| ab| = N1/N2

|IAN|/|Iab| = N2/N1

c

VCN

IAB

c

Vcnn

Ratio of line-line

line line voltages

|VAB|/|Vab| =

|VAB|/(3|Van|)

= N1/(3N2)

Ratio off line

l

currents

|IA|/|Ia|

=

3|IAB|/|Ian|

= 3N2//N1

54

Ia

Vaab

IA

VAAB

winding controls ratio of line

line voltage (HV) to phase

neutrall voltage

l

(LV) and

d ratios

i off

currents through each single

phase winding

g

E.g.

|VAB|/|Van| = N1/N2

|IAB|/|Ian| = N2/N1

Wye (HV) delta (LV) connections

Utilises insulation more efficiently

(Y-) for stepping down from HV to medium or LV as in

distribution transformers

(LV-YHV) Commonly applied to generator step-up

t

transformers

f

Grounding point desirable because it limits stress on lineground impedance of high voltage winding under some

fault conditions

Delta connection allows circulating path for harmonics

(especially triplen harmonics)

voltage waveform even in presence of load unbalances and

magnetizing current harmonics

55

Delta (HV) wye (LV) connections

Less commonly used as turns ratio on transformers not

used as effectively

y

Often applied for step-down transformers for

connection to distribution or LV network where single

phase loads connected that require neutral point

56

IAB

Ia

Vab

IA

VAB

c

Vcn

57

connections introduce phase shift

into voltage and current

waveforms

E.g. Delta wye connection |VAB|

/ |Van| = N1/N2

|Van| = |VAB|*(N2/N1)

Vab

= 3|Van|+30

= 3 |VAB||*(N

(N2/N1)+30

)+30

then contains magnitude

g

change

g

and phase shift change

Vab/VAB = 3 (N2/N1)+30

Can determine similar

Possible to achieve phase

relationship for current ratio

shifts of

30

Ratio of line currents of

delta wye connection

150

|IA|/|Ia|

=

90

90

3|IAB|/|Ian|

depending upon manner

= 3N2/N1

by which windings are

For line current feeding delta

connected

d

winding IA

Need to standardize the

IA = 3IAB-30

relationship

IA/Ia = 3(N2/N1) -30

30

58

IEEE C57.12.70

C57 12 70 1978 American National Standard

Terminal Marking and Connections for Distribution and

Power Transformer

For both delta-wye and wye-delta connections the HV

terminal voltage will lead the corresponding LV terminal

voltage by 30

Currents in the transformers are displace by 30in the

direction of the voltages

g since the p

phase angles

g

of the

currents are determined by the load impedances

59

Polyphase transformers

120o

a+b+c=0

60

Polyphase transformers

Consist of 3 sets of primary and secondary windings on a

common magnetic structure

For balanced excitation flux produced in each winding of

1, 2 and 3 balanced

1 + 2 + 3 = 0

no flux in central magnetic path allowing it to be removed,

simplifying construction, reducing mass and cost of

transformer

Core

Most

M t common three

th

phase

h

transformer

t

f

construction

t

ti

Shell

61

Magnetic circuit consists of three

core sections in parallel

Similar

Si il tto d

delta

lt connected

t d

bank of single phase

transformer

Removall off return path

h for

f

flux ensures that both the flux

and voltage per phase must

sum to

t zero even for

f

unbalanced loading conditions

Limits production of triplen

h

harmonics

i under

d un-balanced

b l

d

loading conditions

62

63

Can be considered as a stack of 3 single phase units

Phase B coil wound in opposite direction to Phase A or Phase C

coils

Ensures that magnitude of combined fluxes such as 0.5*

0 5*a +

0.5*b or 0.5*c + 0.5*a will have same magnitude as flux

in outer section of core of 0.5*a

Allows significant reduction in core size (with respective to

stack of 3 single phase units)

64

Core construction

Laminated steel core

Transformer core built from layers

of steel laminate

Positions

P iti

off joints

j i t between

b t

layers

l

alternated to give mechanical

strength

Carefully

f ll constructed

d to lleave no

air-gaps in corner where laminates

overlap

Air-gaps lead to increased

losses within core

65

Core construction

wound steel core

Core wound from

continuous strip of grainoriented steel fed through

core

66

Winding construction

67

Winding construction

Windings made of copper or aluminium

While resistive losses may be significant in distribution class

t

transformers,

f

leakage

l k

l

losses,

mostt important

i

t t ffor HV

transformers

Windings construction to maximize coupling between primary

and

d secondary

d

coils

il

flux.

Performance enhanced further by

Minimize area in which flux leakage occurs

Increasing

g windings

g length

g to maximize p

path length

g for leakage

g

flux

68

Alternating excitation

of ferromagnetic material

Transformer excited by sinusoidal voltage

v = Ri + d/dt

= Vmcos(t)

related to excitation current by core dimensions and BB

H curve of core material

Ri small compared to back emf

~ (Vm/ )sin(t)

) i ( t)

Waveform of excitation or magnetising current will then be

governed by need to ensure sinusoidal variation in flux

l k

linkages

within

h core

69

Alternating excitation

of ferromagnetic material

To produce sinusoidal flux

linkages (and voltage)

Excitation current

become non-sinusoidal

consisting of

fundamental frequency

plus odd order

harmonics

If excitation current

sinusoidal

Flux linkages contain

harmonics

70

Difficult to compare

performance of

p

transformers of different

ratings

Parameter take on wide

range of values

71

Per-unit values offer

greater consistency of

parameter for different

transformer ratings

E.g. resistance of primary

windings

Allows easy identification of

major variations in

transformer design and

performance

f

72

Transformer Per-Unit

Per Unit Impedance

73

73

Auto-transformer

Transformers

T

f

provide

id

isolation between

windings

If isolation not required

voltage transformation

can be

b achieved

h

d with

h

single tapped winding

This is called an

autotransformer

74

Auto-transformer

Primary

P i

voltage

lt

applied:

li d V1,

V1 iinduced

d

d voltages

lt

are: V1/V2=N

N1/N2

(Eac/Ebc = N1/N2)

When load connected at 2ndary,

y, currents: I2 =I1+I3

as other transformers: N1I1=N2I2 we have

I2/I1=N1/N2 = a

I3 = (a-1)I1

Apparent powers: input S1= V1I1 Output S2=V2I2

Apparent power output of transformer 2ndary: Sw=V2I3=[(a=[(a

1)/a]*S2

Total power transferred through autotransformer is appreciably

greater than transferred by induction

75

Auto-transformer

Incorporates

co po a es leakage

ea age reactance,

eac a ce, wining

g resistance

es s a ce referred

e e ed to

o N1turn side

It also shows method of converting single phase transformer to

autotransformer

76

Auto-transformer

Compared

C

d with

ith ttwo-winding

i di

ttransformer

f

off

equivalent rating, autotransformer is

Smaller

S

ll

More efficient

With

With lower internal impedance

where voltages of two systems coupled by

autotransformer do no differ by a factor of

greater than ~ 3

77

Instrument Transformers

- Current Transformer

loss,

low-field

field intensity magnetic material

Secondary winding wound around toroid transformers

high current to 1-5A for measurement

Insulation of secondary must be adequate for voltage of

current carrying conductor

with little error

error. Sources of error include

Excitation currents

Core designed to operate at low flux densities

Load currents on secondary kept low

78

Instrument Transformers

- Current Transformer

Operating considerations

Secondary should never be

open circuited

open-circuited

All primary current would

become magnetizing current

driving core alternatively

between positive and

negative saturation

producing high voltage

pulses

l

iin secondary

d

windings

i di

79

Instrument Transformers

- Potential Transformer

On most systems, line-voltages cannot be measured

directly

Voltage measured using potential transformer

Allows low current metering

Performs isolation from high voltage system

Transformer however may

be physically large due to

need for insulation from

line voltage

80

80

z LTC transformers have tap ratios that can be varied to regulate bus

voltages

z The typical range of variation is 10% from the nominal values, usually in

33 discrete steps (0.0625% per step).

z Because tap changing is a mechanical process, LTC transformers usually

have a 30 second deadband to avoid repeated changes.

z Unbalanced tap

pp

positions can cause "circulating

g vars"

81

Voltage

V lt

magnitudes

it d and

d

current flow may need to

be controlled/maintained

Booster transformer is

designed to provide a

boost of voltage

magnitude along a line

E.g. +/-5 %(parallel

connection) or +/-10% (in

series)

i ) voltage

lt

regulation

l ti

82

zPhase shifting transformers are used

to control the phase angle across the

transformer, normally

autotransformer

zSince power flow through the

transformer depends upon phase

angle, this allows the transformer to

regulate the power flow through the

transformer

zPhase shifters can be used to

prevent line overloads and reduce

llosses.

83

Per Unit Quantities

Definition

Advantages

Formulation

Change of Base

Examples

84

Per-Unit Quantities

Any electrical quantity may be expressed in per-units as

a ratio of actual q

quantity

y to a chosen base value of that

quantity

E.g.

actual quantity

per unit quantity =

base value quantity

Actual quantity

value of quantity in actual units (such as volts, amps)

Base quantity

reference value with same units as actual quantity

85

Base quantity

Reference level

Always has same units as actual quantity being measured

PER-UNIT QUANTITY IS DIMENSIONLESS

Always a real number e.g.

e g 100,

100 or 1.5

15

Phase angle of per-unit quantity always the same as the phase-angle

of the actual quantity being measured

86

Advantages of Per-Unit

Eliminates need for conversion of voltages,

current and impedances across every

transformer

Per-unit quantities same on both sides of transformer

Reduces chance of computational error

numerical bounds when expressed in per-units

Nominal voltage or rated voltage of system usually

chosen as voltage base per-unit value of voltage

usually ~ 1.0 p.u.

Per-unit data can be checked rapidly for gross errors

87

Advantages of Per-Unit

Manufacturers

M

f t

usually

ll specify

if impedance

i

d

off

machines and transformers in per-unit or

percent based on name

name-plate

plate ratings

88

Per-Unit

Per

Unit Quantities

Single Phase Systems

Network behaviour characterised by 4 base

quantities

Power (apparent power)

Voltage

Current

Impedance

Base q

quantities must satisfy

y electrical laws

Sbase = VbaseIbase

Vbase = IbaseZbase

Necessary

N

to

t select

l t two

t

base

b

values

l

from

f

which

hi h

remaining quantities will be specified

89

Per-Unit Quantities

Single Phase Systems

Usual to specify Power and Voltage bases

These parameter often determined according to rated

values or nominal values network

E.g. for transmission line nominal voltage 132 kV

and power rating 100 MVA

Power and Voltage bases

Sbase

Vbase (Vbase )

=

, Z base =

=

Vbase

I base

Sbase

I base

90

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Pick a voltage base for each different voltage level, VB. Voltage bases are

related by transformer turns ratios. Voltages are line to neutral.

Calculate the impedance base, ZB= (VB)2/SB

Calculate the current base, IB = VB/ZB

Convert actual values to per unit

Note,

magnitudes not

the angles. Also, per unit quantities no longer have

units (i.e.,

(

a voltage

l

is 1.0 p.u., not 1 p.u. volts)

l )

91

Per-Unit Quantities

Single Phase Systems

S per unit

P + jQ

=

= Pper unit + jQ per unit

Sbase

V per unit

V

Vv

=

=

v

Vbase Vbase

I per unit

Ii

=

I base

Z per unit =

92

Z z

Z base

EE3741 Ass. Prof Zhao Xu

Per-Unit

Per

Unit Quantities

Three Phase Systems

For 3 phase systems,

systems

Base power is total 3 phase

Base voltage is line-to-line voltage

Base line current assumed equal to base phase current

Assumption is that network wye connected

Base impedance is the same per-phase base quantity

93

Per-Unit

Per

Unit Quantities

Three Phase Systems

For 3 Phase Systems

Base power:

Base voltage:

Base current:

Base impedance:

94

ST,base= 3Sp,base

VL,base=3Vp,base

Ip,base = (ST,base)/(3VL,base)

= (Sp,base

)/(Vp,base

)

b

b

Zp,base = (VL,base)2/(ST,base)

= (Vp,base)2/(Sp,base)

Impedance characteristics of electrical equipment usually expressed as

percentage based on machine ratings

Machine ratings may be different from system voltage or power bases

Need formula to convert per-impedance or percentage impedance of

machine ratings to per-unit impedance for new base

95

Z actual

=

=

Z base ,old

(Vbase,old )2

Z actual

=

=

Z base ,new

(Vbase,new )2

96

Z base ,old

Z base ,new

(V

(V

base ,old

base , new

)

)

Sbase,new

Sbase ,old

Solve for the current

current, load voltage and load power in the circuit shown

below using per unit analysis with an SB of 100 MVA, and voltage bases of 8 kV,

80 kV and 16 kV.

97

Z BLeft

8kV 2

=

= 0.64

100 MVA

Z BMiddle

Z BRight

80kV 2

=

= 64

100 MVA

16kV 2

=

= 2.56

100 MVA

Same circuit, with

values expressed

in per unit.

98

Courtesy of Prof

Tom, UIUC

1.000

1

= 0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)

3.91 + j 2.327

VL = 1.0

1 00 00.22

22 30

30.88 22.32790

32790

I

2

VL

*

S L = VL I L =

= 0.189 p.u.

Z

SG = 1.0

1 00 0.22

0 2230.8

30 8 = 0.22

0 2230.8

30 8 p.u.

99

To convert back to actual values just multiply the

per unit values by their per unit base

S LActual = 0.1890 100 MVA = 18.90 MVA

A t l

SGActual

= 0.2230.8 100 MVA = 22.030.8 MVA

I BMiddle =

100 MVA

= 1250 Amps

80 kV

I Actual

0 22 30

30.8

8 1250 Amps = 275 30

30.8

8

Middl = 0.22

Middle

100

Solve for the current,

current load voltage and load power

in the circuit, assuming a 3 power base of

300 MVA,, and line to line voltage

g bases of 13.8 kV,,

138 kV and 27.6 kV. Also assume the generator

is Y-connected so its line to line voltage is 13.8 kV.

as before.

101

1.00

I =

= 0.22 30.8 p.u. (not amps)

3.91 + j 2.327

VL = 1.00 0.22 30.8 2.32790

= 0.859

0 859 30.8

30 8 p.u.

pu

2

VL

=

= 0.189

SL =

0 189 p.u.

pu

Z

SG = 1.00 0.2230.8 = 0.2230.8 pp.u.

VL I L*

102

S LActual = 0.1890 300 MVA = 56.70 MVA

SGActual = 0.2230.8 300 MVA = 66.030.8 MVA

Middle

I Middl

B

300 MVA

=

= 1250 Amps (same current!)

3 138 kV

A

l

I Actual

Middle = 0.22 30.8 1250 Amps = 275 30.8

103

Generator may be modeled in three different ways

a. Power Injection Model - the real, P, and reactive, Q, power of the

generator is specified at the node that the generator is connected

either the voltage or injected current is specified at the connectednode,

connectednode

allowing the other quantity to be determined

reactance Xd

reactance,

synchronous reactance

104

Load Models

Models are selected based on both the type of analysis and the

load characteristics

Constant impedance, Zload

Load is made up of R,

R L

L, and C elements connected to a network

node and the ground (or neutral point of the system)

Constant current, Iload

The load has a constant current magnitude I,

I and a constant power

factor, independent of the nodal voltage

Also considered as a current injection into the network

Constant power, Sload

The load has a constant real, P, and reactive, Q, power component

independent of nodal voltage or current injection

Also considered as a negative

g

p

power injection

j

into the network

105

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