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RUSSIAN GRAMMAR IN TABLES


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7- ,


2016

811.161.1'36(0.054.6)
81.2-2-96
89

..
89
Russian Grammar in Tables.
[
] : . / .. . 7- .,
.
. : , 2016. 101 . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-9765-0966-5
The textbook is constructed as a reference book focusing on the difficult items of
Russian grammar in an easy and understandable form. The tables of the book include
the meaning, formation and changing of different parts of speech.
This textbook is designed for foreign students learning Russian language from
any level. It can be used both by students and teachers for explaining, learning and
revision of grammar material, for systematization of knowledges, and for preparing
for exams as well.
, . ,
.
,
. ,
, .

811.161.1'36(0.054.6)
81.2-2-96

ISBN 978-5-9765-0966-5

. ., 2016

, 2016

CONTENTS
The gender of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nouns in - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
8

The uses of cases:


1) The Prepositional case ( 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The Accusative case ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) The Dative case ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The Genitive case ( 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) The Accusative or the Genitive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) The Instrumental case ( 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
10
12
14
16
17

The declension of nouns:


1) The endings of nouns according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) Questions according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) Genitive plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) Special endings in the Prepositional singular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) Nouns ending in - / - / - (singular) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) Special endings of masculine nouns in the Genitive singular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) Three types of the declension of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8) Irregular declension of some nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9) Indeclinable nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19
19
19
20
20
20
21
23
23

Mobile vowels in nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

Formation of nouns in the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Special cases of formation of nouns in the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25
25

Nouns with the singular or plural form only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

The use of prepositions and in the Prepositional expressing place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Where? Where to? Where from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
27

Generic endings of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

The declension of adjectives:


1) The endings of qualitative and relative adjectives according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) Types of the declension of qualitative and relative adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) Adjectives with the stem in the soft consonant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The declension of possessive adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29
30
31
32

The declension of nouns and adjectives (general table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


The declension of nouns, adjectives and possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33
34

Personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
35

The declension of pronouns:


1) The declension of personal pronouns and reflexive pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The declension of possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) The declension of interrogative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The declension of demonstrative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) The declension of determinative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) The declension of indefinite pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
36
36
36
37
37

Formation of interrogative, negative and indefinite pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

Indefinite pronouns and adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

Negative pronouns and adverbs with the particle - intensifying the negative constructions . .
Negative pronouns and adverbs with the particle - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39
40

Pronouns , , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

Numerals: cardinal, ordinal, collective, fractions, decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

The declension of numerals:


1) The declension of cardinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The declension of ordinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) The declension of collective numerals 2 - 7, / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The declension of fractions and decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45
46
46
47

Formation of degrees of comparison of qualitative adjectives and adverbs of manner . . . . .


Special cases of formation of degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs . . . . . . . . .

48
49

Complete and Short-form adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Formation of short-form of qualitative adjectives and passive participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases of formation of short-form of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50
51
52

Verb forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

The conjugation of verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

Consonant interchange in verb stems in the present tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Special cases of verb conjugation and past tense formation (irregular verbs) . . . . . . . . . . . .

55
56

Aspects of the verb:


1) Formation of the aspectual pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The use of the aspects of the verb in the present tense, past tense and future tense . . .
3) General table: the use of the aspects of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The use of the aspects of the verb in the infinitive form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) The use of the aspects of the verb in the imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) Verbs which have no aspectual counterpart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57
58
61
62
64
66

Formation of the imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

Verbs of motion:
1) Verbs of motion without prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The use of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) Tense and mood forms of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) Verbs of motion with prefixes indicating spatial relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) Verbs of motion with non-spatial prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) Synonymous constructions of verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) Figurative meaning of verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8) Aspects of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9) Formation of the aspectual pairs of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70
71
74
76
80
81
81
83
85

Verbs with the particle - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

The participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

The verbal adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Passive constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

Indefinite Personal constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

Constructions of time (when?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

Direct and Indirect speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

Complex sentences with conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

The main meanings of prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
8

:
1) ( 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) ( 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) ( 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
10
12
14
16
17

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . .
4) .
5) - / - / - . . . .
6)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19
19
19
20
20
20
21
23
23

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
,

25
25
26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
? ? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

:
1) . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29
30
31
32

( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, . . . . .

33
34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
35

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
36
36
36
37
37

, . . . . .

37

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

- ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39
40

, , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

: , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) 2 - 7, / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45
46
46
47

. . . . . . .

48
49

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50
51
52

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55


( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57
58
61
62
64
66

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70
71
74
76
80
81
81
83
85

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

(?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

/ The gender of nouns

1)

feminine: - she

masculine: o - he

neuter: - it

hard

soft

hard

soft

hard

soft

consonant

window

sea

brother

hero

sister

family

letter

sun

boy

museum

small girl

week

ring

field

person

tram

girl

village

matter, business

happiness

engineer

tea

woman

land, earth

word

misfortune

husband

hockey

wife

song

number, date

health

son

case, occasion

daughter

idea

place, seat

heart

friend

May

(girl)friend

article

face

Sunday

house

nightingale

flat

cherry

coat

dress

university

sparrow

school

tower

armchair

towel

concert

serpent; kite

exhibition

bedroom

mirror

college

theatre

stream

car

nanny, nurse

apple

monster

office

harvest

work, job

statue

milk

desire

shop

battle, fight

hotel

surname

wine

pencil

custom

pen

station

egg

attention

suitcase

sanatorium

bag

organization

summer

name, title

magazine

cafeteria

newspaper

profession

sky

decision, solution

table

commentary

book

army

tree

occupation; lesson

chair

script

cup

lecture

lake

meeting

document

planetarium

paper

line

embassy

timetable

agreement

jockey

meeting

lecture hall

state

announcement

lane

system, structure

street

history

government

report, message

plant

layer

factory

accident

society

reading

beer

building

2) masculine ( - ):
- father, - grandfather, - uncle; - men, - young men
short male names: (), (), (), ()

3) neuter (-):
- time, - name, - banner, - flame, - tribe, - seed
7

4) - / Nouns in -
masculine
- car
- ensemble
- nail
- hospital
- guest
- day
- rain
- animal
- calendar
- stone
- potatoes
- cough
- control
- ship
- the Kremlin
- bear
- cloister
- finger-nail
- zero
- fire
- midday
- brief-case
- way
- strap
- piano
- rouble
- steering wheel
- style
- dictionary

feminine

- performance
- coal
- level
- festival
- lamp, torch

- package
- illness
- pain
- eyebrow
- thing
- power
- chest
- sadness
- dirt
- distance
- door
- detail
- daughter
- life
- record, entry
- bed
- blood
- laziness
- horse
- love
- mother
- furniture
- small change;

months:
- January
- February
- April
- June
- July
- September
- October
- November
- December

suffix - / -
- teacher
- teacher
- writer
- reader
- inhabitant
- spectator
- switch
- secretary
- librarian

trifle

- snowstorm
- youth
youthfulness

- carrot
- thought
- hatred

o - he

consonant

- she

- it

m/f

- oil, petroleum
- news
- night
- footwear
- autumn
- queue, line
- memory
- square
- short novel
- help
- bedding

- industry

- dust
- joy
- speech
- role
- connection
- table-cloth
- speed
- boldness
- death
- conscience
- salt

- profession

- exercise-book
- fabric
- purpose
- part
- wool

- brother
- museum
- sister
- family
- window
- sea
- dictionary
- door
- father, - uncle
- grandfather,

exception

/ The uses of cases


/ The Prepositional case ( 6)
MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

1. The place of an action


? where?

? ?
EXAMPLES

- ?
- ,
.

.

verbs:
- to live
- to be
- to be situated
- to work
- to study
- to have a lesson
- to rest
- to stroll
- to stand, - to sit
- to lie, - to hang
2. The object of speech or
thought

.
,
.
.
.

/ ,

.
- ?
- .
- ?
-
.

? ?
about whom / what?
verbs:
1) verb + noun
- to speak, to say
- to tell
- to ask a question
- to think
- to write, - to read
- to inform
2) noun + noun
- to remember about
- to dream
3. Time /
/


.

.
.
.
.
- ?
- .

? - ?
when? - ?
- ?
- ?

4. Transport /

/ 2009-
/ .

- ?
I- /
- 1799 .

, ,

.
- () ?

- .

? / ?
by what? / how?

: , , ,
, , ,
,

verbs of motion

: ,
: (,
),
.

5. Clothes /
?
6. The musical instrument

? to play

-
-
:
(),
, , .

/ The Accusative case ( 4)


MEANING

1. An object /
? ?
transitive verbs:
- to see
- to love
- to know
- to understand
- to wait
- to meet
- to remember
- to lose
- to find
- to forget
- to buy
- to read
- to write
/ - to take
- to receive

CONSTRUCTION

without a preposition

? ?
EXAMPLES

- ?
- .
- ?
- .

? - .

2. Introduction
,

.
.

3. Direction of motion (action) / - in, at, on

? where to?

- across, through

- ?
- .

- ?
- .

- behind
()

1) verbs of motion

.
.

2) verbs:
/ - to put
/ - to put
/ - to hang

verb + ? + ?

.
.

.
.

3) other verbs

.
.
.

10

MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

4. Time /
1) ? when?

- on + :

- ?
- () .
.

- in future tense

+ , ,
, ,

all

- ( )

2) A certain period of time



a) How long time?
?
?

, , ?

whole
,

- .
.
.

process - imperfect
) ?

- within

result - perfect

+ , , ,
, ,

-
?
- .

) ?
( ?)

- to stay for

-
?
- .

3) Recurrence of action

every
, ,

-
?
-
.

? how often?
5. Space (a part of the way)
( )

+ /

()?

6. Weight /
()?
7. Price /
? to cost

+ /

+
Acc.


, ,
, ,

9. Cause /
?

verb + number

8. Game /
? to play

- for

.
.

11

/ The Dative case ( 3)


MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

1. The recipient /
?
verbs:
- to give
- to buy
() - to write
() - to give a present
- to show
- to bring
- to pass
- to send

? ?

- ?
- .
Acc.

? + ?

Prep.

- to say
- to tell
- to inform
() - to write

? + ?

() - to advise
? + inf
- to help
- to allow (permit) to do
() - to promise
() - to disturb
Nom.
2. verb to like
1) + + (thing)
()
+ ? / ?
2) + + inf (action)
3. Age /

+ number + (a) /

.
.
M .
.
- ?
- ,
.

(, , ) ?

4. in Impersonal sentences:

the person (object) experiencing


a certain state or condition

+ inf

:
(),
-

m
f
n
pl.

Nom.

+
(thing)

( )
-.
+ inf (+ )

Instr.

+ 1) adverb (condition)
2) impersonal verb

+ inf

12

.
.
.

.
.

MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

5. The person who is the aim


of the motion

- to

? (?)

.

6. An object or a place to
which motion is directed
? ?
(),

7. Motion along a surface

verbs of motion

EXAMPLES

- () ?
- / .
.

.
.
- to
.
verbs of motion
.

- along
verbs of motion
and their synonyms

- ( ) ?
- .
.
.
.
.

8. The attributes formed from


the subjects of education
,

()

noun + noun

? ( ?)

9. Way (means) of communication


()

- by, on

to send

to watch

to show

to search for

to call

to speak

to listen

to broadcast
to telecast

to inform, report

to perform

to tell

13

/ The Genitive case ( 2)


MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

1. Negation /

/ .
positive:

Possessor: ?

Gen.

(-, -, -)
(-)
negation:

Nom.

/ .

/
.

Gen.

/
.

2. Possession /
- - - ? whose?

name of owner - Gen.

3. Relation:
an object is defined by means of
another object, related to the first
or including it as part of a whole

Nom. + Gen.

/ .
/ .

/
.
? - .
? - .
? - .

- ? ( ?)
- .

? ?

:
,

4. Comparison /

? ?



simple comparative degree
of adjective (adverb) + Gen.

5. Measure and quantity


.
.
.
1 , , , ,
2, 3, 4 , , , ,
5 , , , ,

1) Exact number of persons or ardinal numerals + Gen.


Nom.
objects (more than one)

singular: 2, 3, 4 - ,


plural: 5 ... - ,
( )
2) Relative number of objects
or persons
()
verb:
present - 3 person, singular
past - 3 person, singular, neuter

+ plural

-
?
-
() .
.
.

,


() .


100

3) Part of the whole



4) A certain amount, quantity
of something
,
-

5) A set of objects or persons


()

Gen.

uncountable noun: singular

countable noun: plural

Gen. plural

14

,
,
,

6. Time or date /
1) ?
What date is it today?

ordinal
2) Date of the action
number

+ +
? when? / ?

3) The beginning and the end ... - from ... to


of the time interval

- ?
-
.
- ?
- 1978
() .

/
.
.

? =
?

?
- before
? - during
?
- after

- ?
- (
, ) .

7. The place from where the


action is directed (the starting from:

point of motion)
()
,
(
- - from behind
)

/ /
.

4) ? =

? / ?

8. Place where a person (object) - at / by, near


is, or where an action takes place near
() - (not) far from
;
- behind
,
- in front of
()
- opposite
? / ?
- in the middle of
- around
Place of motion / - past
- along
verbs of motion
9. The place where the action -
to reach
is directed
? where to?
verbs of motion (with prefix )

- ?
- / -
.
.
.
.
- ?
- .
- () ?
- .
- ?
- .

.
.
.
.
.
.

10. A part of the way



11. Cause /
?
- ?
12. Purpose /
/ ?
13. Exception /
/ ?
14. Absence /
/ ?
?

... - from to

- - because of
- for
- apart from, except

- without


?



-


, .
, .
.

15

? / The Accusative or the Genitive?


verbs
I. after the verbs:
() - to ask for
- to want
()

Accusative case
if the speaker means
a definite person or object

Genitive case
if the speaker means
an abstract or non-specific object

3.

.
(
- direction)

imperfect

imperfect

, ,

imperfect

()

pass,

, decision, ,
permission,
happiness, freedom,
independence, peace,
rest, peace
, defence, protection,

justice,
fairness,
sympathy
attention,

()

excuse, help

II. after the verbs:

if the action involves


the whole object

if the action involves


part of the object

, - jug ()

, ()

, , ()

, , ()

- to buy
- to bring

, ()

, ()

- grapes ()

( - bunch of)

- to give
- to take

, ()

, (some amount)

- to drink
- to eat

buying some individual items,


people say:

buying provisions (),


people say:

, ,
( , ).

(,
, ).

(, , ).

(, ).

III. if the transitive verb


is preceded by
negation

the object
a specific person or thing

the object
an abstract or unspecified thing

+ verb

- to meet

- to know

sympathy
mutual understanding
,

- to love

noise, heat

- to see

, sense

- to feel

cold, ache, hunger

- to find

support

(), ()

- to demand, to require

- to look for
- to wait

- to pour
- to put
- to slice
- to pick

16

/ The Instrumental case ( 5) ? ?


MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

1. Together with /
1) Joint action
C
verbs:
verbs of motion, - to be
- to speak
- to talk to
/ - to meet
() - to introduce
() - to say hello to
() - to say good-bye to
() - to consult
2) Emotional state (condition)
accompanying an action
,

? How?
3) The presence of the quality of
an object:
:

-
?
- ()


.

- with

- with

.
.

- appearance ()
- food ()
- architecture of building
( )
- ontent ()
4) The question about the health
of a person

- ?
- .

words:
- with pleasure
- with interest
- with pride
- with wonder
- with joy
- with difficult

.
.



? - .

- with

- ?
- .
2. Profession and rank / ,
Nom.

compound predicate with the verbs:

- to be
- to become
- to be

present: - .
+ Instr.

past: + +
future: + +
?

1) Interests and occupation



?

(there is no verb )
() .
- () ?
- () .
.
- ?
-
. / .

3. The object /
verbs:

- ?
- to be occupied (with) - ().
- to be keen on smth.
- to be interested / /
.

2) The object of the emotional state


words:
- to be delighted
- to be indignant
.
- to admire
- enjoy, take pleasure

- to be satisfied (with)

3) another verbs

17

MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

4. The instrument of action


there is no preposition

EXAMPLES
?- .

.
.

5. Place /

prepositions:

- ?
- .

- above

in front of

between

behind, after

- under
- near to, close by

.
.
.
.

6. Passive constructions

Nom.

perfect

+ +
short past passive participle

Nom.

imperfect

+ +
7. Time /
?
- seasons

Not long ago from the action

- just before

- ?
-
.

.
.

.
.
.

?
8. The means and manner of action

.
there is no preposition

(
).
(= ).

9. Purpose /
- for
? what for?

10. Congratulations

,
. =

.
Acc.

/
- with

()
I congratulate you with
! Happy birthday!
! holiday, celebration
! Merry Christmas!
! Happy New Year!
! Happy Easter!
: ! Same to you!

18

/ The Declension of Nouns


SINGULAR
CASE

h a r d
1 - Nominative
onsonant
? / ?
2 - Genitive

? / ?
3 - Dative

? / ?
4 - Accusative
inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.
? / ?
5 - Instrumental

? / ?
6 - Prepositional

hard

soft

inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.

()

hard

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

()

soft

no ending

? / ?

PLURAL

f+m

s o f t

/ Questions according to the case


CASE
1
2
3
4
5
6

Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Instrumental
Prepositional

ANIMATE OBJECT
?
?
?
?
?
?

INANIMATE OBJECT

who?
of whom?
to whom?
whom?
by whom? with whom?
about whom?

?
?
?
?
?
?

what?
of what?
to what?
what?
by what? with what?
about what?

/ Genitive plural
CASE

1Nom.
singular

MASCULINE
onsonant

museum

FEMININE

, , ,

thousand

hour

sanatorium

question

teacher

month

boy

day

news

apple

sea

thing

business

field

week

mother

floor

stop

daughter

unstable vowel :

seat

window

letter

1. after sibilants - , , , ,
2. instead of ,

19

word

girl

+ unstable
vowel /

no ending

(girl)friend

doctor

2Gen.
plural

NEUTER

no ending
+ unstable
vowel /

/ Genitive plural

feminine
neuter

Special case:

- station
- building

Exceptions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

() / - neighbours
- / - friends, - / - sons
/ - children, / - parents, / - people
/ - watch, / - glasses; / - money
- / - brothers, - / - chairs
- / - tree, - / - leaves
- times, - persons; - / - eyes
() / - soldiers, - / - boots

Speial endings in the Prepositional singular


? / Where?
- on the bridge
/ - in / on the nose
- on ice
- in the eye
/ - on / in snow
- in the mouth
() - at the corner - on the forehead
- on the floor
- in the battle
- in the meadow
- in smoke
- on the edge
- in the Crimea
? / When?
2015 - year
- hour

- in the wood
- in the port
- in the airport
() - in the corner
- in the garden
/ - in / on the cupboard
- on the bank

- / - / -

Nouns ending in - / - / - (singular)


gender
masculine
neuter
feminine

1 - Nominative


6 - Prepositional (?)

3 - Dative

Speial endings of masculine nouns in the Genitive singular


masculine nouns

- soup
- tea
- sugar
- cheese
- honey
- chocolate
- poison
- grapes
- people

meaning: part of the whole


(-) - plate of soup
(-) - cup of tea
(-) - piece of sugar
200 () (-)
(-) - jar of honey
(-) - bar of chocolate
(-) - a little poison
(-)
(-) - many people

20

endings

-
or
-

/ Three types of the declension of nouns

Declension I: feminine + masculine nouns ending in A -


SINGULAR
case
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

consonant + A
(except , , , , , , , )
animate
inanimate
- mother - mountain

consonant +
animate

, , +

inanimate
- land

animate
- dog

inanimate
- book

- line

PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

SINGULAR
, , , +
+
animate
inanimate
animate
inanimate

Nom.

case

vowel (except ) +
animate
inanimate

wifes mother

rain cloud

she-wolf

street

fairy

statue

Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

ending
-
-

-
- ()

PLURAL

-
no ending
-
an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
-

Declension II: 1) masculine nouns without any ending in the Nominative


SINGULAR
consonant
case (except , , , , , , , )
animate
inanimate

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

, ,

animate

inanimate

animate

inanimate

artist

table

teacher

dictionary

grandson

sunflower

sanatorium

PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

21

SINGULAR
, , ,
animate
inanimate
1
- knife
Nom. friend, comrade
- march
2

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Instr.

6

Prep.

animate
- prince

1
Nom.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
4
Acc.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

case

inanimate

(except -)
animate
inanimate

month

hero

occasion, case

ending
-
-
anim. = Gen.
inan. = Nom.

- ()

PLURAL

- , -
- ,

-
anim. = Gen.
inan. = Nom.
-

Declension II: 2) neuter nouns ending in - ()


SINGULAR
consonant + O

case

animate
Nom. - word
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

consonant + E
(except , , , , )

inanimate
- sea

, , , , +
animate
- monster

ending

- building

-
-
-
- = Nom.
-

PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

-
no ending /
-
- = Nom.
-
-

Declension III: feminine nouns ending in -


case

SINGULAR
animate
,

inanimate

daughter, mother

exercise book

2 - Gen.
3 - Dat.

,
,

4 - Acc.
5 - Instr.
6 - Prep.

1 - Nom.

PLURAL
ending

animate

inanimate

ending

,
,

an. = Gen.
in. = Nom.

,
,

,
,

22

/ Irregular declension of some nouns


SINGULAR
PLURAL
= declension III
masculine
- way

- time

2 - Gen.

3 - Dat.

4 - Acc.

5 - Instr.

6 - Prep.

case
1 - Nom.

ending
-

SINGULAR
= declension III

PLURAL
= declension II: 2

neuter: ending -

- time, - name, - banner, - flame


- tribe, - seed, - burden

/ Indeclinable nouns
- bureau, office
- jury
- interview
- cafe
- cinema, movie
- coffee
- compartment

- underground, subway
- overcoat
- piano
- radio
- taxi
- hobby
- highway

23

All inanimate nouns are neuter,


but the word is masculine.

/ Mobile vowels in nouns

1 - Nom., singular, masculine

2 - Gen., plural, feminine / neuter

nouns ending in:

nouns ending in:

-() /- (-) /- /- /- /- /- /-

- /- /- /- /- /- /- /- /- /-

-
call, bell, ring
-
piece
-
sock
-
gift
-
lane
-
ambassador
-
drawing
-
baby, child
-
machine(tool)
-
corner
-
coal
-
flower
in words of one syllable /

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

log
oar
village
small girl
girl
land
toy
kopeck
ring
armchair
spoon
sheep
song

-
-
-
-
-

day
forehead
moss
mouth
sleep, dream

-
-
-
-
-
-

letter
towel
shirt
heart
bench
match

-
-
-

wind
foreigner
stone

-
-

pine (tree)
cup

-
-
-

end
light
eagle

-
-

-
-

singer
seller, (shop)assistant

-
-
-

artist(e), actress
jar, tin, can
roll, loaf

ice
lion
stream
nightingale

-
-
-
-
-

bottle
branch
fork
board, plank
fir (tree)

soldier

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

note
boat
stamp
window
stop
postcard
mark, note
fairy tale

()

masculine (nouns ending in -)

(stem ends in -)

-
-
-
-
-

-
-

grandfather
boy

24

Formation of nouns in the plural


masculine: - he

NUMBER

feminine: - she

table

question

SINGULAR

lesson

briefcase

car

museum

newspaper

script

month

window

sea

station

business

dress

pen

towel

building

thing

, ,
,
, , ,

consonant

- they

week

floor

PLURAL:

neuter: - it

, , +

, +


Special cases of formation of nouns in the plural
-

friend

mother

-
time

brother

daughter

name

-
son ()
-
husband ()

-
-

- cook
-
-

-
banner

foreman

-
tribe

teacher

- city
- house
-
-

-
-
child - children
chair
seed
-
()
- train
-

- shore
leaf
()
- island
-

- evening
- -
tree
- voice
sky
kitten
- colour
-
- -
ear (of corn)
- eye
wolf-cub
miracle

- number
-

- forest
wing
- meadow
-
- snow
feather
-
- - cold
flower
apple
- century
- sort
- edge, land
- side
person - people

25

- citizen

- peasant

- Englishman

-
owner, host

-
gentleman, Mr.

-
Tatar

-
Bulgarian

Nouns with the plural form only


1) Objects consisting of two or more identical parts
,

2) Some substances and foodstuffs

3) Some abstract ideas


- scissors
- scales
- glasses
- money
- trousers
- clock, watch
- shorts, pants
- chess
- cream
- perfume
- canned goods
- cabbage soup
- ink
- elections
- finance
- negotiations
- funeral
- twenty-four hour
- week days
- holidays

Nouns with the singular form only


1) Substances and medicines

2) Food

3) Sets of objects or persons


(collective nouns)

(c )

4) Certain vegetables and berries


5) Certain actions

6) Feelings and some abstract ideas



7) Borrowed nouns (neuter, indeclinable)
c
( )

- iron
- copper
- aluminium
- aspirin
- meat
- butter
- sugar
- salt
- milk
- clothes
- footwear
- tableware
- furniture

- oxygen
- nitrogen
- hydrogen
- iodine
- fish
- cheese
- rice
- flour

- young people
- humankind

() - potatoes
() - carrots
- cabbage
- onions
- vine, grapes
- pea
- raspberries
- parsley
- reading
- swimming
- harvesting / cleaning up
- hunting
- struggle
- love
- youth
- hatred
- darkness
- health
- metro, subway
- radio
- cinema
- main road
- taxi
- coat
- cafe
- jury
- interview
- menu

26

( 6)

The use of prepositions and in the Prepositional expressing place


verbs: - to be, - to be situated, - to live, - to work, - to study
- to walk, - to rest; - to stand, - to lie, - to sit, - to hang
verbs of motion are not used!
1. the position of the subject
? - (on the table) / (in, inside the table)
relating to its surface
- country, - city, - village, - center

- region, - oblast, region


- house, - entrance, - flat, - room



, , , ,
open space: - street, - square, - avenue
? Where?
- main road, - road
! - lane

, = in / at / on
- north, - south, - east, - west
- floor
- theatre, - cinema, - museum, - club
2. buildings -
, - restaurant, , , - hospital

, , - school, - university
- hotel, - shop, - pharmacy, - bank
- performance, - concert, - exhibition
3. events, shows ,
- discotheque, - party, - ballet
- work, - meeting, - meeting
- lesson, - lecture, , - excursion
- stadium, - market, - holiday cottage in the country
4. remember exceptions
- post office, - factory, - plant

- homeland, - island
- railway station, - station, - stop
,
! - airport
- business trip, - on holiday

? ? ?

inanimate
? where? [in, at, on]
place
() /
I was / will be in (at)

6 - Prepositional case
m

-
f

- at home

? where to?
direction
/ - I (will) go to
/ - I went to
4 - Accusative case
m

f

- / -
- home

? where from?
from the place
/
I came from

2 - Genitive case
m - / -

f

- / -
- from home

animate (person)
? = ? [at]
2 - Genitive case
m - / -

- / -

? = ?
3 - Dative case
m - / -

? = ?
2 - Genitive case
m - / -

- / -

adverbs
- here
- there
/ - on the right / left
- below
, - above
- in front
, - behind

- to here
- to there
/ - to the right / left
- down
, - up
- forward
- back

27

- from here
- from there
/ - from the right / left
- from below
- from above
- from the front
- from behind

? where?

? where to?

? where from?

place

direction

from the place

6 - Prepositional

4 - Accusative

1 - Nominative
/

city

/ f

country

north / south
/
east / west
/
sea / lake
/
mountain(s)
- pl.
village

street

square
f
lane

house // home

entrance

floor

flat

room

hotel

center

school

university

museum

theatre, circus
,

swimming pool
club

park

wood, garden
/
pl.
guests at sbs house
exhibition

conert

excursion
f
performance

party

lesson

, factory, plant
airport

railway station

station
f
market

shop

drycleaners

pharmacy

bank

embassy

clinic

business trip

f, church
holiday

work

firm

office

company
f
meeting

/
restaurant, pub

/
/
/
/
/
-

//

28

/
/

/
/
/
-

//

2 - Genitive
/
/
/








,



/

/



/

/ Generic endings of adjectives

- new
- red
- young
- small
- bad
- good
- fresh
- hot
- common
- big

S I N G U L A R
feminine
?

- blue

Stem ending
in:
a hard
consonant
, ,

, , ,

a soft
consonant

masculine
?

neuter
?

PLURAL
?

The declension of qualitative and relative adjectives


1) Stem ending in a hard and soft consonant
CASE

n
hard

1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

S I N G U L A R
m
n
feminine
soft
hard
soft

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

PLURAL
hard

soft

inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.

= declension

= declension

2) Stem ending in , ,
CASE
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative

S I N G U L A R
masculine
neuter
/

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

2 - Genitive

3 - Dative

feminine

PLURAL

inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.

5 - Instrumental

6 - Prepositional

= declension

= declension

29

Types of the declension of qualitative and relative adjectives


S I N G U L A R

CASE

masculine
?

neuter
?

PLURAL

feminine
?

1) Stem ending in a hard consonant


1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

2) Stem ending in the soft consonant


Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

3) Stem ending in the soft consonant ,


1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

4) Stem ending in , ,
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

30

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

CASE

S I N G U L A R
neuter
m
n
?

masculine
?

PLURAL
feminine
?

5) Stem ending in ,
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

(spell , pronounce )

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

Adjectives with the stem in the soft consonant


- blue
- autumn
- winter
- spring
- summer

- yesterdays
- todays

- tomorrows
- morning
- evening
- early
- late
c - Saturday

- last years

- New Years
- upper
- lower
- front
- middle
- rear
- distant
- near

- neighbouring
- ancient
- domestic

- last
- extreme
- superfluous
- sincere
- five-year

- three-year
- internal
- external

- of this place, local

- of that place, local

- outside, extraneous

31

- old

- of those days
- former
- present
- present

- unilateral

- versatile

- multilateral

- all-round
- habitual

/ The declension of possessive adjectives

CASE

masculine
?

S I N G U L A R
neuter
m
n
?

PLURAL
feminine
?

1) suffix
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

2) suffix
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

3) suffix /
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

4) Surnames - : suffix / ,
masculine
CASE
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

no ending

animate = Genitive

suffix
, ,
,

animate = Genitive

feminine

suffix
, ,
,
,
,

32

plural

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

suffix /

( )

( )

The Declension of Nouns and Adjectives (general table)


S I N G U L A R
NOUNS
CASE
1 - Nominative
? / ?

masculine

neuter

? / ?

feminine

consonant

4 - Accusative
inan. = Nom.
anim.= Gen.
? / ?
2 - Genitive
-
? / ?
3 - Dative
-
? / ?
5 - Instrumental
- ()
? / ?
6 - Prepositional

ADJECTIVES

feminine +
masculine

-
-

masculine
?

neuter
?

-
-
inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

feminine
?

-
-

-
-
()

= declension

P L U R A L
CASE
1 - Nominative
? / ?
2 - Genitive
? / ?
3 - Dative
? / ?
4 - Accusative
? / ?
5 - Instrumental
? / ?
6 - Prepositional
? / ?

ADJECTIVES

NOUNS

- , -

no ending, , -

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.


-

-
= declension

33

,
The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns

I. the DECLENSION of Nouns (singular)


QUESTIONS
animate
inanimate
?
?

CASE
1 - Nominative

who?

2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4 - Accusative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

what?

of whom?

of what?

to whom?

to what?

whom?

what?

m = Gen.

m = Nom.

() ?

() ?

with whom?

with what?

about whom?

about what?

MEANING

EXAMPLES
masculine feminine

II. the DECLENSION of Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns

1
Nominative
2
Genitive
3
Dative
4
Accusative
5
Instrumental
6
Prepositional

? / ?

? / ?

? / ?

animate: ?
m = Gen.
inanimate: ?
m = Nom.

? / ?

? / ?

CASE
1 - Nominative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4Accusative

EXAMPLES: singular
masculine
feminine

QUESTIONS

CASE

animate = Gen.

inanim. = Nom.
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

EXAMPLES: plural

34

Personal pronouns

singular

plural

1Nominative

/ Possessive pronouns

SINGULAR

PLURAL

masculine

feminine

neuter

[chy]

[ch-y]

[ch-y]

[ch-ye]

[my]

[may]

[may]

[maye]

whose?

my

you
he
it
she

your
his
its
her

we
you
they

our
your
their

own

[yeev]
[yeey]


The declension of personal pronouns and reflexive pronoun

1 - Nom.
s
i
n
g
u
l
a
r

p
l
u
r
a
l

2 - Gen.

3 - Dat.

4 - Acc.

5 - Instr.

6 - Prep.

me

()

()

you

you

he

him

she

her

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
/
( )

it

we

us

you

you

they

them

( )

( )

( )

( )

- oneself

it

35

SINGULAR

CASE
1 - Nominative

2 - Genitive

3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental

6 - Prepositional

4 - Accusative

masculine

neuter

feminine

,
, ,

,
, ,

,
, ,

,
, ,

+
+

animate = Gen. /
inanimate = Nom.

= declension

= declension

- his

- her

m:

n:

4 - Accusative
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive

3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental

6 - Prepositional

1 - Nominative

PLURAL

animate = Gen. /
inanimate = Nom.

all cases

1 - Nominative

The declension of possessive pronouns

m:

n:

4 - Accusative
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive
/
3 - Dative
/
5 - Instrumental
/
6 - Prepositional
/
/

- their

The declension of interrogative pronouns


f:

pl:

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

f:

pl:

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

/
/
/
/

whose?

what?
which?

The declension of demonstrative pronouns

1 - Nominative

m: /

4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

n: / f: /

/
/
/
/

36

pl: /

this / that

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

these / those

/
/
/
/

?
?

m:

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

The declension of demonstrative pronouns

n:

4 - Accusative

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

n:

n:

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

2 - Genitive

3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

m:

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

n:

pl:

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

pl:

myself

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

yourself
himself

pl:

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

all

f:

f:

6 - Prepositional

f:

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

5 - Instrumental

such

The declension of determinative pronouns

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

m:

1 - Nominative

m:

4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

pl:

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

/
1 - Nominative

f:

ourselves

the most
the same
the very

The declension of indefinite pronoun

1 - Nominative

- several, a few

2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4 - Accusative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

Formation of interrogative, negative and indefinite pronouns


Interrogative
?

Negative

-
somebody

who?

nobody

Nom.

what?

nothing

Nom.

something

whose?

nobodys

anyones

what? which?

none, whatever

any, some

Indefinite
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-

which?

some

how much?

(not) at all

some

37

several, a few

/ Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs

pronouns

adverbs

suffix / prefix

- //
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

meaning

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- once
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

someone, somebody
something
any, some
anyones
some
somewhere
to somewhere
from somewhere
ever, one day
for some reason
for some reason or other
somehow

meaning

1)
I dont mind,
It is all the same to someone,
It doesnt matter,
Its not important
-

(-)
2) question: I absolutely
dont know, I have no idea
:
3) May be, probably
,

It happened,
but I dont know what,
I dont remember
-
, /

-
-

with
prepositions
-
-

/

examples
- ? ( , .)
-.
- !
- ? ( , .)
- .
( , .)
- .
( , .)
? - - .
- ? - , .
( , .)
- ?
, , -
.
- . ( , .)
- .
( , .)
? - - .
( , .)
- . -
.
- .
( , .)
, ? - - .
- .

I know,
but I dont want to tell you
-

I dont have time for details


,

- .
!
- .
, -
.
( , ,
.)

38

Negative Pronouns and Adverbs with the particle Intensifying the Negative Constructions

Double negation:
1) particle + verb - to express the negative constructions
2) particle - to intensify the negative constructions
particle

negative
pronouns

negative
adverbs

construction

conjunction

adverbs of
degree

examples

- nobody
() - nothing
- none, whatever
- nobodys

preposition
+ pronoun

() .
.

.
.
.
.

- never
- no way
- nowhere
- nowhere (to)
- from nowhere

+ verb - not once =

+ noun Gen.
- not one, not a single

.
.

..., ... - neither ... nor ...

,
.

completely
absolutely

not at all

.
.
.

39

Negative Pronouns and Adverbs with the particle Meaning: there is no person / object / time / place / reason to do smth.
pronouns
2Gen.
nobody
nothing

3Dat.

4Acc.

subject = 3 Dat.
direct object = 2 Gen.

5Instr.

6Prep.



impersonal sentence
3 Dat.

()

adverbs

nowhere
no where to
from no where
theres no reason to do

there is no time, busy

+ inf.

examples

meaning

,
.

:
= , .
= ,
.

, .
- ?
- , .
,
.

= ().
:
= , .

,
.

= ,
.

- ?
- , .

= ,
.

= , .

- - ?
- , .

= ,
.
:

, .

= , .

= (),
.

().

= , .

, .

= , .

, .

= .

= ,
.

= , .

= , .

, ( )
.

= ,
(reason) , .

Compare:
.
.

1 Nom. + + + verb
3 Dat. + + inf.

40

He doesnt do anything.
He doesnt have anything to do.

/ Pronouns , , , , , ,

m
f
n
pl

pronouns

determinative
pronoun
oneself

meaning
,

C is used with the verb (before or
after it) in Nominative case and
shows that the action was done by
the subject of the sentence
without anybodys help.
It is closely connected to the verb and
does not answer the question "?.

In other cases it is used after nouns


and pronouns to emphasize them
(similar to English oneself, personally).

myself / yourself / himself / itself


ourselves / yourselves / themselves
Nom.
Gen. / Acc.

Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

reflexive pronoun

oneself

is used to replace the subject


and to show that the subject of the
sentence is also the object of its own
action.
This pronoun cannot be used as the
subject of the sentence.
myself / yourself / himself / itself
ourselves / yourselves / themselves

examples
.
- ?
- , .
. Its her fault.
.
() .
.
.
,
.
.
1. , .
for himself

. about himself
.
.
2.

= .
.

3. - expressions:
(, ) (). - he is at home / in his office
: - pull / - push
(). - they go home
.
? - How do you feel?
- to rely on
- to imagine
- ? - to have
- , .
() - to behave
! - surprise: well, I never!
- to think about yourself
- to ones taste
? - . - so-so
() () . - nice-looking
- to come out of oneself, fly off the handle

. - he blames himself
- to come to ones senses
. - to dissatisfied
- to keep oneself in hand
() . - to be confident
- to take oneself in ones hands
() - to praise
,
- smb. is beside oneself with fury, anger; one is nearly out of ones mind

m
f
n
pl

determinative
pronoun

. - Im my own master.

1) + adjective
complex superlative degree: the most
2) + pronouns / : the same
clarification, identity
,

3) + noun (place / time): the very

exact limit of time and space


,
.

.
,
.
()
- right at the beginning (end)

- in actual fact

41

m
f
n
pl

.

.
,
- all over the town
- dirty all over
- wet through

1. attribute
all, the whole

determinative
pronoun
2. subject / object:
1) (pl.) - group of people
everybody, everyone
2) - subjects and events
,
everything, all

1) .
.
2) , .
,
.
.
. - He told her all.
:
- the image of his father
- at the top of ones voice
()!
- Good-bye! All the best!

- without anything
- anything can happen
- thats all (the end)
, .
- Alls well that ends well.

m
f
n
pl

two identical or similar subjects


such = the same

demonstrative
pronoun
m
f
n
pl

this

that

demonstrative
pronouns

?
?

m
f
n
pl

demonstrative
pronoun

It is used like an adjective preceding


nouns and declines as an adjective, thus
having three genders and plural forms.
In the construction (This is )
the word o never changes. When in
English you use this and is together, in
Russian you need to use the pronoun
o.
When in English you separate this and
is, in Russian you use the pronoun
o. In both English and Russian the
adjective is placed behind the noun.

1) the same thing: that



2) =
the same

This is an interesting book.


(a statement that the book is interesting)

().
This book is interesting.
(This book is interesting compared to others,
I recommend it.)

. - This is a new film.


. - I love this film.
2. - , , .
- ?
- , () .
- ?
- , ,
. ( )
.
= (
, ,
).

!
!

42

,
().
,
. ( )
1. .

pronouns / / / + noun, adjective


adverb (degree) + verb, adverb

/ NUMERALS
ARDINAL
?

m
f
n
pl
m/n
f

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
2, 3, 4 000
5 - 20 000
1 000 000
2, 3, 4 000 000
5 - 20 000 000
1 000 000 000

() 1 Nom.
2 Gen. sing

2 Gen. pl

() 1 Nom.
2 Gen. sing

O R D I N A L (= adjective)
? (- / - / -)
m
f

pl

COLLECTIVE
?

/ / /

2 Gen. pl

43

m
f

+ animate nouns
2 Gen. pl:
,

rouble

2, 3, 4 / 22, 43 Gen. sing


Gen. pl
5 20,
Nom.

1 / 21, 31

dollar
kopeck year day





- indeclinable

hour

person
time



exceptions

/ ? 1 Nom. - How much does the house / the book cost?


1 / 21, 31
Acc. + Acc. + Gen. pl

5 20 / 30, 40

Acc. + Gen. sing + Gen. pl

, , ()
Acc. + Gen. pl + Gen. pl

()

()
Acc. + Acc.


Acc. + Gen. sing

7
Acc. + Gen. pl

() /

21 ( )

22 ( )

5 /
50

4 Acc. + 4 Acc.

f
m
n


give me

2, 3, 4 / 22, 43

()
()
() O /

4 Acc. + 2 Gen. sing

4 Acc. + 2 Gen. pl

5
6
7

pl

/ Mathematical operations

:
=

/
/


/

15 + 23 = 38
578 34 = 544
6 7 = 42
81 : 9 = 9
15 5 : 3 = 25

/ FRACTIONS
The numerator ()
The denominator ()
f
1-

f, Nom. sing
= 1/2
= 1/3

f
2-

a cardinal numeral
an ordinal numeral

Gen. pl
= 2/2
= 2/3

1 Nom.
2 Gen. pl

Nom.
3
and higher

Gen. pl
= 3/5
= 5/8

/ DECIMALS
1 -
0 -
2 -
3

Gen. pl

+ 5 Instr.

= 1/2
= 1/3
= 1/4
m / n
f

f
Nom. sing

+ 2 Gen. sing

= 1,5

1,6 =
3,1 =
4, 61 =
0,3 =
2,5 =
7,34 =
2,5 = 2 =
;

; (= 16 15 )
, , ,
,

44

/ The declension of numerals

I. / The declension of cardinal numerals


1) , , , = , , ,
CASE
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

SINGULAR
masculine
neuter

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

feminine

PLURAL

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

2) 2, 3, 4
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

m
f
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

3) 5 - 30 =
50 - 80 = both parts decline like the noun ( )
5 - 10

CASE
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
6 - Prepositional
5 - Instrumental

11 - 20, 30
( -)

50 - 80
( -)

4) 40, 90, 100


1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

5) 200, 300, 400 = the first part of these numerals declines like , ,
( , , )
500 - 900 = both parts decline, the first part of these numerals declines like
( , )
500 - 900 ( -)
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

45

6) (f) =
(m) =
7) In complex cardinal numerals each part declines separately.
.
.

345 = 5 Instr.

II. / The declension of ordinal numerals


1) Ordinal numerals = adjectives with the hard stem (, )
exception: = ,
CASE
1
Nominative
4
Accusative

SINGULAR
neuter

masculine

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

2
Genitive
3
Dative
5
Instrumental
6
Prepositional

PLURAL

feminine

animate = Gen.
inanimate = Nom.

2) In complex ordinal numerals only the final word has the form of an ordinal numeral.
We decline the final word only.

. .
Prep.

2009-o ( ).
Gen.

Gen.

25-o 1978-o ( ).

III. / The declension of collective numerals


Collective numerals = adjective plural

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2, 3

4-7

both

m:
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

46

f:

IV. / The declension of fractions


In fractions, both parts decline: the numerator and the denominator.
The numerator = cardinal numeral
The denominator = a hard-stem adjective
: .
=
=

1/2
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2/5

3/8

V. / The declension of decimals

1,..

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2,..
and higher

0,..

Gen. pl

- =
- / (f) =

= 1,5
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

m:

= 150
f:

47

Formation of degrees of comparison of qualitative adjectives and adverbs of manner


COMPARATIVE DEGREE

SIMPLE
COMPLEX

adjective
+ noun

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE

COMPLEX
COMPLEX
SIMPLE
simple comparative
1) suffix:

degree of adjective (- / - / -)

- more
- less

1) stem of adjective
+ suffix:
()
(after , , , , )

+
of all

+ adjective

the most
+ adjective

[ - than]

2) prefix

1) stem of adverb
+ suffix

- more
- less

2) prefix

+ some adverbs

()

beautiful

adverb
+ verb

quickly

()

SUFFIX

interchange of consonants

- / -

-
-

-
-

-
-
-
-
drop suffix -, -

-
drop suffix -, -

-
-
-
-

2) prefix

simple comparative
degree of adverb

is used seldom
-

(after , , , )

+ - animate
- inanimate

in all

/
EXAMPLES

- -
- -
- - ()
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- - -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
-- - -
-- - -
-- - -

48

bright, light
kind
strong
cheerful
expensive
strict
young
solid, hard
loud
short
light, easy
bright
hot
soft
strong
clean
often
thick, fat
dense, thick
simple, easy, ordinary
rich
steep, sharp
dry
quiet
cheap
narrow
close
low
high
rare
wide, extensive
distant, far-off
thin
long

Special cases of formation of degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs


comparative
degree

adjective

adverb

superlative degree

simple
complex / simple

,
good
better

,
bad
worse

,
small
smaller

,
big, large
bigger, larger

/

late
later


deep
deeper


sweet
sweeter

()
well
better
the best

()
badly
worse
the worst

()
little, not much
less
the least

()
many, much
more
the most

()
early
earlier
the earliest

complex
()
the best
()
the worst

the smallest

the biggest, the largest

the latest

the deepest

+ noun
simple comparative degree of adjective

Gen. 2

- simple comparative degree of adjective


- complex comparative degree of adjective
- comparison of two infinitives

- than

, .
, .
, .

Nom. 1

only Complex Comparative Degree of adjectives


:
taste

- salted
- bitter
- fried
- boiled
- smoked

- early
- proud
- tired
- friendly
- efficient, businesslike

, + adjective

Simple Superlative Degree of adjectives


suffix -
- strong (hard)
-
old
simple, easy / ordinary
-
-
rich
-
kind
-
new
-
difficult
-
tasty, delicious

-
-
-

49

suffix -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

high, tall
great
thin, slender
rare
light, easy
strict
close
quiet

/ Complete and Short-form Adjectives


COMPLETE-FORM adjectives: attribute -
1) The adjective is placed before the noun - predicate.
+ ( / ) + adjective + noun Nom. 1.
In the construction (This is ) the word o never changes. When in English you use this
and is together, in Russian you need to use the pronoun o:
. - This is an interesting book. (a statement that the book is interesting)
.
.
.
.

m
f
n
pl

2) The adjective is placed before the noun - object.


The adjectives and the pronoun change for gender, number and case and agree with the noun
they qualify in gender, number and case.
.
SHORT-FORM adjectives

COMPLETE-FORM adjectives
predicate -

The adjective is placed behind the noun - subject.


+ noun Nom. 1 + ( / ) + adjective.
The auxiliary verb is omitted in the present tense.
When in English you separate this and is, in Russian you use the pronoun o:
(). - This book is interesting. (This book is interesting compared to others, I recommend it.)
The pronoun is used like an adjective preceding nouns and declines as an adjective, thus having
three genders and plural forms.
m
f
n
pl

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

The adjectives agree with the noun they qualify in


gender, number (and case).

The adjectives are not declined, but agree with the


noun they qualify in gender and number.

past / future tense: Nom. 1 or Instr. 5


/ .
/ .

The Predicate is only a Short-form Adjective


1. subject: , , , , ,

, , .

2. attribute of the subject:

, , , ,

50

.
.
.



Formation of short-form of qualitative adjectives and past passive participles
SHORT-FORM
COMPLETE-FORM

- beautiful
- tall, high
- written
- open

masculine

SINGULAR
feminine

neuter

PLURAL

Some present participles passive have a short-form (bookish language):


- to love
- to respect
- to value
- to keep
- to torture
- to oppress

(-, -, -)

Short-form Adjectives that we use often:


masculine

feminine: -A

plural: -

neuter: -O

51

open
closed
to be right
glad
happy
enjoyed
busy
free
healthy
ill, sick
agree
ready
to be sure, confident
similar (to), someone looks like
familiar (with)
need
it is necessary
must, have to
it is possible
obligatory
grateful
faithful, sure; correct
visible
audible
full, filled with
worthy, fitting
indifferent (to)
typical (of)
characteristic (of)

Special cases of formation of short-form of adjectives


1. Mobile vowel ( )

() +

drop or + () + /
()

complete form ends in -

-
-
-
- (stressed)

masculine
(near) -
(short) -
(low) -
(short, brief) -
(strong) - (narrow) -
(easy) -
(adroit) -
(thin) -
(sharp, harsh) -
(sweet) -
(long) -
(funny) -
(full) -
(wicked, evil) -
- (harmful) -
(black) -
(useful) -
(clever) -
(necessary) -
(difficult) - (reliable) -
(poor) -
(faithful) -
(pale) -
(dirty) -
(bitter) -
(sick) -
(sharp) -
c (strong) -
(staunch) - (shapely) -
(sharp) -
(light) -
(sly) -
(frank) -
(sincere) -
(light-headed) -
(limited) -
(ordinary) -
(invariable) -
(long) -
(valuable) -
(inclined, disposed) -
(modern) -
(constant) -
!

(sure) -
(remote) -
(well-bred) -
(reserved) -

2. The adjectives and have no short forms.


in their place, we use the short forms
, - (-, -, -)
of the adjectives and
, - (-, -, -)
3. The adjectives which have no short-form
-
- , ,
ending in: -, -
- , , ,
-, -, -
- , ,
, , , , ,
colours
, , ,
prefix - / -

, ,

4. The adjectives used only in the short-form


, , - be glad
.
, , - must
.
, , - obliged .
, ,
, ?
- responsible, guilty, to blame

(), ,
( ),
, ,

52

/ Verb forms

INFINITIVE
- after vowels
- to read
- to speak
- to draw / paint
- to laugh

- after consonants
- to carry
- to go
- to grow
- to lead / drive

VERB FORMS
PRESENT TENSE
?
What are you doing now?

IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT

PERFECTIVE ASPECT

change in person and number


singular

What will you do tomorrow?

plural

() + / /

, ,
, ,
, ,

m
f
pl

() + / /

COMPOUND:
+ inf.

SIMPLE

verb has the I st conjugation

verbs have a onjugation (I and II)

FUTURE TENSE
?

- to be able to do
- to help
- to lie down
- to take care of / to be careful with

verbs have a onjugation (I and II):

PAST TENSE
?
What did you do yesterday?

- after vowels (a few)

singular

plural

singular

plural

past tense +

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD




consonant + / vowel +

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

singular

plural (+ )

singular

plural (+ )

53

/ The conjugation of verbs

SINGULAR

PLURAL

(-, -)

II CONJUGATION:

inf. in

inf. in -

-, -, -, -,
-, -, -

PERSON

NUMBER

I CONJUGATION:

,
,
, ,

-
-
-
-
-
-

I
you
he / she / it
we
you
they

, - after vowels
, - after consonants
, , - unstressed
, , - stressed

, - after vowels and


soft consonants
, - after , , ,

infinitive

to work

to walk

to be ill

to draw, paint

to rest

to go

can

drop +

infinitive

to speak

to study

consonant +
vowel +

to give

to get up

EXCEPTIONS:
Verbs ending in - and -, -
II conjugation
c - to look, - to see, - to hate
- to depend, - to offend
- to suffer, - to turn round
- to drive, - to knock
- to shout, - to be silent, c - to hear
- to breathe, - to hold
- to sleep, - to fly
- to sit, - to lie, - to stand

54

Verbs ending in -
I conjugation
- to live
- to shave
- to sew
- to drink
- to beat
- to pour

Consonant interchange in verb stems in the present tense


-
-
-

-
-

-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-
-

I conjugation

infinitive

to write

to cry

to cut
to slice

to look for
to search for

to speak
to say, to tell

to can
to be able to do

to help

interchange

II conjugation

infinitive

to go
(by transport)

to see

to translate

to love

to prepare

to fly

to go
(on foot)

interchange

II conjugation

infinitive

to ask

to sit

to pay

to clean

to feed

to suffer
to tolerate

to carry
to wear

interchange

55

( )
Special cases of verb conjugation and past tense formation (irregular verbs)
PRESENT TENSE (imperfect) or FUTURE TENSE (perfect)
VERBS

to take

perf.
to take

to be

to live

perf.
to give

to eat

to drink

to sing

to go / drive

to go

to carry

to run

perf.
to lie down

perf.
to sit

to be able to do

perf.
to help
perf.
to understand

to want

to put
perf.
to die

to wait

to wash

to grow

SINGULAR

PAST TENSE
(, , )

PLURAL

()

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

56

, ,

, ,

, ,

/ Aspects of the verb


/ Formation of the aspectual pairs

imperfective aspect

perfective aspect

1. without a prefix

prefix

the verb with prefix and without it must have the same
meaning otherwise it is not an aspectual pair

without the suffix


- / -

3. suffix -

without the suffix -

2. suffix - / -

4. suffix -

6. / in the root
()

()

to rewrite, to copy
to write down, to record
to order, to book
to finish
to give
to pass
to stand up, to get up

suffix -

5. suffix -

to read
to write
to draw
to have lunch
to do
to sing
to play
to grow

to decide, to solve
to study
to end, finish
to turn on
to answer

suffix -

without /
in the root
()

()

to cry, to shout
to rest

to start, begin
to understand
to occupy, to have a lesson
to pick up, to lift, to go up

7. different words

57

to speak, to say, to tell


to take, to borrow
to buy
to put
to sit down, to set
to lie down, to go to bed
to look for - to find
to catch
to hang (up)
to return, to give back
to turn

/ ASPECTS OF THE VERB

imperfective: The action is (will be) named only, the result is unimportant.
, .
1. Find a fact: the action in general. The General fact
: , .
1) / / ?
What did you do yesterday?
What will you do tomorrow?
What are you doing now?
What were you doing?
What are you going to do?
past
compound future
present
- ?
- ?
- ?
- .
- .
- .
2) / / ?
Will there be any action or not?
past
compound future
present
- ?
- ? - ?
- , () ( ). /
- , . / , . - , . / , .
- , () ( ).
2. The specification of the details of the action (as a fact, person, place, time),
which had already been or it will be. The Individual fact
( , , , ), .

Are you doing something or not? Was there any action or not?

: ? / ? / ?

imperfective:

perfective:

1. The action continued (will continue) for


some time. The process.

The action is (will be) completed and finished.


The result (limit) of the action.

. .

, . .

The process went on for (in)definite time:

The result is achieved within some definite time:

- all day
4 Acc.
- whole evening
- during a week
2 - hours / 3 - days / 4 - years

+ 4 Acc. - within
?
+ - already
+ + + verb - yet

+ past, future - for a long time


= + present
( + past - a long time ago / - recently)

there is no present tense

- ? / present
- ?
How long ...?

- () / 3 .
- ? / past
- ?
- .

- () ? past
- , () . /
- , () .

- , . present
+ + verb - still

- ?
- 2 . past

- ? /

- ? simple future
- / / .

- ?

- 2 .
compound future

- ?
- 3 . simple future

58

imperfective:

perfective:

2. The action was (will be) repeated many times.


,
( ).

The action is single, not repeated.


,
( ).
/ /
/ / /

- usually
- always
- sometimes
- often
- seldom
- never
- many times
() - every time (day)
- every Sunday
- previously, used to

- ?
- .
present
- ,
.
- . past

-
?
compound future
- .

.
simple future

(to get up) . past

. past

3. Both actions took place simultaneously.


.

One action which produced a result took place


after another, which was also completed with
a result.
.

past

,
.
present
, .
past

.
.
past

,
.
compound future

, .
.
simple future
[ ]
imperfect - compound future
finish
1

- to return

4.
imperfect

perfect - to call

past

.
The action which began and finished while the
other action was taken place has perfective aspect.

, ,
, .

59

imperfective

perfective

5. The result of the action is no longer valid


at the moment of speech. (past)

,
.

The result of the action is still valid at the


moment of speech. (past)

.

verbs:
1) verbs of motion with prefixes -, -, + / , /
/ , /
2) / - to take
/ - to give
/ - to open
/ - to close
/ - to turn on
/ - to turn off
/ - to put on
/ - to take off
/ - to put
/ - to put
/ - to tidy
3) () - to love,
() - to like
- ?
- . (= + )

?
(= , )

.
(= , ;
+ )

.
(= )

6.
The absolute absence of an action
(no action at all).

IN THE NEGATIVE
The action was (will be), but there is no result
of the action.

:
( , ).

(),
.

= he did not do smth. / wont do smth.

= he couldnt do it / will not be able to do it


/

/
. ( .) present
() . past

. past

2 .
compound future

simple future

imperfective

present
past
compound future: + inf.

perfective

past
simple future

60


The use of the ASPECTS OF THE VERB (general table)
imperfect

perfect

1. :

___

1) / ?
2) / ( )
3) (? ?)
2. :

, 2
?

,
?

3. :

, , ,
, ;
4. :

:
perfect

_________
_________

+ (im)perfect

2
finish

past: perfect + perfect


future: 1) perfect + perfect
2) perfect + imperfect

IMPERATIVE:
positive perfect
negative imperfect
+ INFINITIVE perfect
+ INFINITIVE imperfect

61

The use of aspects of the verb in the infinitive form


modal word / verb + inf. to express the necessity, desire, possibility, intention or advice
, , , ,

modal words
, - it is necessary, need
- must, have to
- it is possible / may?
- it is impossible / it is not allowed

verbs
- to want
- to be able to do / can
- to ask
- to advise
- to recommend

imperfective

perfective

1. The action without indication of its limit.


By the meaning it is near the general fact.

1. The main thing is the result of the action.


.

.
.


, .

2. The action as a process /


.

3. The repetition of the action.


.

2. A single, non-repeated action.

, ().

, , . its stuffy
.
to air

-.
4. Start of the action with the meaning
its time to do smth.
.
with the modal words:
- its time to
, - it is necessary, need
- it is possible
.
! () !
. () !

? May I come in?

5. After verbs expressing:

3. After perfective verbs:

1) The beginning, continuation or the end of action.


, , .

- to have enough time / to be (make) it in time


- to forget
- to manage, succeed
( , )
- to be left
( , )

- - to begin, to start
(= ) - to begin
- - to continue
- - to finish
- - to finish
- - to stop
- - to stop
- - to give up doing

.
.
.

. .

62

imperfective
5. After verbs expressing:
2) The ability, the skill, the habit and the practice to realization of action.
, , , .

- to be able / to know how to do


() - to learn
- - to get into the habit of doing

3) Feelings /
.
.

() - to love / () - to like
- to hate
4) The exhaustion or the negative attitude to an action.

- - to get tired
- to no longer want to do
- - to get tired
- to decide not to do
- - to bore
- to change ones mind
( , - to be fed up)
- to forget how to do
- to avoid
- - to grow out of the habit of
- love no longer (stop loving)
, - to dissuade
6. With the words meaning the general permission, the right for action:
, , :

- - to be allowed
- may
- to have the right (to)
- duty (responsibility)

.
.
.

infinitive in the negative:


with the word (it is impossible, it is not allowed) and without it

imperfective

perfective

The action is not allowed, not recommended or


not necessary to do.

Physical impossibility to fulfill an action.


.

,
( ).

, .

, .

, .

, .

,
.
, . , .

() , .

= , ,

after words:
/ - need not (one should not)
- should not, ought not /
- is not worth / - its not time
- not necessarily
- it is useless / - it is harmful
- it makes no sense
- one must not / - one ought not
- I dont suggest you
() - to have no wish
() - I would not like
- /
not be allowed, to forbid .

/ / - it is enough
.

63

= , ,

= it is impossible

The use of the aspects of the verb in the imperative


Imperative forms may express: a request to do something, advice, a recommendation,
an inducement to an action, a command, a demand, an invitation.
(, , , , , , )

imperfective

perfective

1. The speakers attention is centered on the 1. The main thing is the result of the action.
action itself, on the process: how? - ?
.

, ( ). :
- , , ?
, , / .
- , .
.

, , .

2. The action is single, not repeated;


expresses a request to do something,
a demand, a command or advice.
. .
, .
- At the doctors:
, , , .
, ,
, , .
.
2. The action was repeated;
expresses recommendations.

, , . (request)

, . (advice)

/ , , . (request)

3. An inducement to an action.
.

, .

, .

1) The invitation to make an action.


.

, , 10 .

, .

- Having visitors:
:
(command)
, , , , - , , .
; , .
- / .
- .
2) The permission to make an action.
- , .
.
- .
- , , .
? - .

3) The suggestion to begin or continue an action


immediately: do it now!
( )
.

- At home:
- (), , .
- () .
- () () .
- () .
- () .

(), .

() .

(), .

, .

, , .

. .

? - .

64

IMPERATIVE IN THE NEGATIVE


imperfective
perfective
as a rule imperfective

The exception: the situations when the speaker


is
afraid that an undesirable action may occur.
The request not to make an action or the
prohibition to make an action.
:
.
.


+ words: , - look out!
.
()! - Dont talk!

()! - Dont forget!

() ! - Dont open the window!

, ()! - Dont break!


() !

! - Dont worry!

, ! - Dont fall down!


, .
Dont catch a cold!


()! - Dont get sick!
() ! - Dont be late!
() ! - Dont lose the keys!
, !
Dont fall asleep!

65

Verbs which have no aspectual counterpart

1) imperfective aspect

to be

to love

to sit

to call

to work

to be different from

to be situated

to be glad

to stand

to be called

to study

to cost

to have

to be bored

to lie

to have a name

to serve

to weight

to possess

to feel very sad

to grow

to teach

to belong to

to miss

to command

to be

to want

2) perfective aspect
1. The starting point of an action

prefix to start

prefix =
to begin to do

prefix - (... -)

verbs of motion (group I):

to start walking
to start driving
to start flying
to fall in love
to feel
to like
to start pouring
to blow

verbs of motion (group II):


=

to begin to walk; to pace the room


to begin bustle
to begin to speak
to begin to sing
to begin rustling
to begin shouting
to stop talking
to begin laughing
to begin weeping
to fall ill
to become / grow sad
to become interested
to begin to work / start working

to get angry
to burst into tears
to start laughing

66

2. The actions of short duration (the actions are limited in time)



verbs of motion (group II):

prefix = /
for a short while

to walk
to run about
to fly
to swim

to go for a (short) walk


to sleep
to sit
to lie
to stand
to play
to read
have a talk/ talk a little/ talk for a while
make a bit of a noise
to keep silent
to stay (for a short time)
to stay (for a while)

3. A certain period of time was taken up with the action



verbs of motion (group II):

prefix for a certain time:


- for a long time
- all day
- whole evening
2 - hours / 3 - days
4 - years
- during a week
- until evening

to spend the time in walking / to walk


to run about
to be swimming / to be sailing
to spend / to run through
to stay / to remain
to speak / to talk
to spend the time sitting / to sit
to spend the time lying / to lie
to spend the time working / to work
to spend the time reading / to read
to sleep
to be ill

4. Single actions, actions, performed on one occasion only


, ( )

suffix -
- once

to jump
to wave
to cry / to shout
to knock / to bang

5. The result (limit) of the action


()

prefix to finish

to finish reading
to finish writing
to finish playing
to fry
to eat up
to drink up
to smoke

67

/ Formation of the Imperative

I. SECOND PERSON
singular

plural
(polite form) +

stem of the verb () ending in:


VOWEL

- - -
() to read

CONSONANT
form of the verb ()

accent in the ending

- - - - -
() to write

2 CONSONANTS

- - -
() to remember

accent in the stem

- - - - -
() to get up

Special cases /
singular

plural

- / to beat
- / to pour
- / to drink
- / to sew

3)

- / to eat

4)

- / to lie

5)

verb with prefixes

from the stem -

1) / / + suffix -
- / to give
- / to get up
- / to recognize
2)

--

/ /

/ /

6) - - / to go out
- - / to study

! - - / to take out

/ /

after consonant -
after vowel -
- - - -
- -
- - - -
- -

/ to get dressed
/ to get undressed
/ to study
/ to wash

no imperative
verbs:
, , ,

____

____

68

II. Joint action: the speaker invites one or several persons to do something together
: ( )
-

forms
1)

singular:

plural:

- lets

imperfect - infinitive

perfect - verb , future

!
!
!
!
()

!
()
!
!
!
/
!

2) verbs of motion (group I):


verb , present
3) verb , future, perfect
()

() !
!
() !
!
!
!
!
!
/ !

4) verbs with the meaning


to start, to begin:

!
!
!

____

verb , past

III. 3rd PERSON: a command or permission is addressed to some third person


-
1)
- let him, her, them + verb: imperfect - present
perfect - simple future
( )
()

() .

() .

() . ()
.

2)

appeals and congratulations


( / )

is used in journalistic writings


( )

69

!
Long live to peace!

/ Verbs of motion without prefixes


Group I

Group II

Verbs of unidirectional
motion

Verbs of non-directed or
variously directed motion

imperfective

to go, to walk
( - on foot)
to go, to drive
- by vehicle:

, ,
, , ,
, ,

to run
to fly
- by plane
- by helicopter
to swim, to sail
, - on a ship
, , - on a boat

to carry (in ones hands)

to carry (in a vehicle)

to lead
to drive a car

to trudge, to drag oneself along


to roam, to wander

to climb

to crawl

()

()

to carry, to drag (a heavy thing)


to trudge along (-)

()

()

to drive fast, to drive (animals)


to pursue (-)

()

leisure activities
not for the purpose of
transportation

to roll, to wheel (-)


to pull a sledge, to push a pram
to take smb. for a drive (for pleasure)
to go for a ride
( , ) - to ski
, - to skate
- to toboggan
- to cycle

- to ride a motorcycle
- to ride a horse
- to go for a drive
, , - to go boating

If there are wheels () you must use the verbs - and - .

70

/ The use of the Verbs of motion

past

present

future

group I: - (verbs of unidirectional motion) imperfective


() ,
() (imperfect) .
() ,
() (perfect) . - was going

movement in one direction


while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time)

/ .

process: movement in
one definite direction
at the moment of speech

,
(imperfect) .
,
(perfect) .

movement in one direction


while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time)

- /
? How long did it take you to get to ?
- () / 20 .

- ( )
/ ?
- / 25 .

- ( )
/ ?
- / 30 .

period of time

period of time

period of time

group II: - (verbs of non-directed or variously directed motion) imperfective


- previously, used to
( () )
() / () .
repeated movement
there and back
() / () .

single movement there and back:


? direction - Acc. - went
= () .
? place - Prep. - was
() / () .
round: the non-directed action

(different directions)

/
- every day
- usually
- always
- often
- seldom
- sometimes
- never

/
,
repeated movement
there and back

repeated movement
there and back
/ .

the non-directed action


(different directions)

the non-directed action


(different directions)

group I: - (start of motion) perfective


- ( )? subject (-, -)
- / .
start of motion + ?- set off

subject ,
[past verb]
!

() () /
() .

() / ().

2 actions: one after another


(result - perfect + start of motion)
,
.
,
.

in speech
start of motion in a minute:

/ .

/ .
/ .
intention to go somewhere
/
.
- will go
2 actions: one after another
(result - perfect + start of motion)

I am (we are) leaving.


Bye! Im off.

beginning of a new stage of movement

group I: - (to come, to arrive) perfective


/
8 .

/
9 .

group II: - (to come, to arrive) imperfective


() /
() 10 .
/
. = .
.

/
9 .

71


/
9 .

/ The use of the Verbs of motion

past

present

future

group I: - - (verbs of unidirectional motion) imperfective


.
.
.
/ ,
(perfect) .
- was taking

movement in one direction


while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time)

/
.
.

process: movement in
one definite direction
at the moment of speech


, .
movement in one direction
while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time)

group II: - - imperfective


(verbs of non-directed or variously directed motion)
- previously, used to

( () )
() / () .

- every day
- usually
- always
- often
- seldom
- sometimes
- never
repeated movement
there and back
/
.
the non-directed action
(different directions)

repeated movement
there and back
() / ()
.
- took
.

single movement there and back


/
.
round: the non-directed action

(different directions)

repeated movement
there and back

/
.

the non-directed action


(different directions)

group I: - - / - - perfective
- ()? subject (-, -)

8 :

- / .
- .

- /
-

start of motion + ?- has taken

- /

start of motion
- .

- will take
to take something or someone
to the required place

group I: - - (to bring, to carry, to take) perfective


/
.
.

/
.
.

group II: - - (to bring, to carry, to take) imperfective


/
.

12 .
/
.

/
.

/
.


15 .


15 .

= ,
.

72

/ The use of the Verbs of motion

verbs of motion without prefixes - group II


, , .
.
. .

Ability, skill, usual means of locomotion.

.
.
.

Movement as a persons permanent occupation.

INFINITIVE
.
.
.

, , (), + group II

.
.

the name of the movement


(without concrete movement): group II

/ .
/ .

positive - intention: + prefix /

/ .
/ .

negative: + without prefix /

/
/

present: now or plans (without prefix )


future: prefix

IMPERATIVE
/ () !
/ !
/ !
(* ) / .
/ .
/ ! // / !
/ ! // / !
* / !

(special case)

! / !
= ()!

[past verb: ]

+ / !

[future verb: ]

73

positive - group I:

Go!
Bring it!
Take it!

negative - group II:

Dont go!
Dont bring it!
Dont take it!

invitation: Come to see me! - group II


Lets go! now; We are off.
suggestion: Lets go somewhere together.

/ TENSE AND MOOD FORMS OF THE VERBS OF MOTION

infinitive

(-)

II

to go on foot

II

(-)

to go by transport

to arrive

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

to come

I
II
I
II

perfect

future:

infinitive
to run

to fly

II

(-)

to swim, to sail

arrival by swimming

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

infinitive

II

to carry in (ones) hands

imperfect

II

to carry in a vehicle

to lead; to drive a car


/

74

II

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

to go, set off

imperfect

II

(-)

infinitive

to climb

to climb into

II

to crawl

II

to roam, to wander

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

II

(-)

infinitive

to carry, to drag

to drag in(to)

II
I

to drive

II
/
(-)

to roll, to drive / to skate

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

/
/

future imperfect: + infinitive

tense

present
()

past
()

group I:

group II:

+
+
+

+
+
+

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

75

,
Verbs of motion , with prefixes indicating spatial relations
prefix
(-)

meaning

examples

Movement into smth.


The distance is not far from the entrance.

.
to enter
.

Movement from within:


- for not a long distance
- for a short while.

Gen.

We came to Moscow.
He came to the office / to the
doctors.
/ .
I came from England.
. - Gen.
When is he going to come?
/ ?
/ ! Come to see us! Come to visit!
Acc.

? different areas / :
?

Dat.

Gen.

Departure: ( - )

Gen.

/ .

for a long distance / for a long time.

Acc.

Its not necessary to say the purpose of the


, ( ).
? movement.
Acc.
?
, :
.
/ .
. / ?
Dat.
Approaching (near, close by).

(-)
.
().
?
.
same area / :

He left on a business trip.


When is he going to leave?
I went (up) to the cash desk

/ .

Moving away from an object for a short


().

The teacher approached the


blackboard.
The bus approached the bus
stop.

Dat.

distance.
(-)

He left the office / the doctors.


My brother is not in, he has left
to work.

. and bought a ticket.

exit

Acc.

. - Acc.

Arrival: ( - )
.

entrance
He came into the house / room.
The car drove into the garage.
May I come in? - Come in!

He went out of the house /


to the balcony.
/ .
Are you getting off (out)?
: ?
The doctor is not in, he is out,
, , . wait for him please.

?
, :
?
-
- .

/ . - Acc.
.
? - !

Come here / to me.


Gen.

The teacher stepped aside from

. the blackboard.

The bus went away from the


bus stop.

departure
The moment of departure of a means of
transport.
() 19 The train (the bus) leaves at 7
oclock p.m.
.
.
A short visit to smb. (some place).

We called on you for a moment.

Acc.
Movement performed while on the way
We popped (dropped) into a
somewhere.
shop on the way home.
.

.

Instr.

( I fetched my friend (and we left


together).
).
Dat.

?
?

Movement into smth. = prefix Arrival = prefix Movement behind smth.

( ). I called on my friend (and left alone).


/ .
He came into the house / room.
.
I will come to you tomorrow.
Come to see us (me)!
/
( , ) ! Come to visit!
Acc.

He turned the corner of the house.

Movement deep into smth.


(inside, upwards / downwards).

- Acc.

to walk far into the wood

to climb a tree /
to get under the cupboard

/ , / .

76

prefix

meaning
Movement past smth.

examples
- Gen.
. - Acc.
-

We walked past the theatre.

We went through the forest.


to drive through a tunnel
Let me pass!
Go into the room.

Movement over a definite distance.

() . - Acc.
() - Acc.
!
/ .
15 .

/
.

Movement through smth.

() -.

passage

We drove / covered 15 kilometres.

How much is a journey on the


metro.
() . - Acc. We crossed the street.
Movement across smth.
We crossed to other side of the
- .
street.
.

crossing
My friend moved to another city /

Acc.
. to a new flat.
() /

move
.
Movement from one place to another.

Gen.

Movement up to a definite place or object.

= Reaching a limit.
.

We reached (walked as far as)

Characterisation of the manner in which .


the distance was covered.

- ?

the theatre and stopped.


We reached the park by car.
- How do you get to the office?

( - - You have to go on the metro


).
to Arbatskaya station.
.

- ? - .

- How was your journey? - Fine.


(Did you reach us alright?)

() ?

How was your flight?

He reached (by car) the corner


of the street and turned left.
.
Indication of the time needed to cover it.

, .
.

Movement round smth.


(-) .

- Gen.
. - Acc.

We reached (on foot) our home


in half an hour.
We walked round the theatre.

Movement round an object obstructing


the way.

(, ) - Acc.

to drive round the mountain


(hole, puddle)

,
.

detour

Movement over the whole of the object


or over all the places.
- Acc. plural

to tour all the shops

()-

Upwards movement.

- Acc.

to drive uphill

to go up to the second floor

to run upstairs

- Gen.

to drive downhill

to come down from the second floor


( )

to run downstairs

()
()
/

to go, to run
to ones respective homes /
in different directions

()
()

to come, to run to one place

(-)

Downwards movement.
.

?
()-

Diverging movement.

+ particle
.
-

()+ particle

-
?

Converging movement.

.

77

, ,
Verbs of motion , , with prefixes indicating spatial relations
prefix

meaning
Arrival:

to bring
to deliver -

Departure:
-

- for a long distance


- for a long time
to take away
to lead off (away)

1. Movement into smth.:


the distance is not far from
the entrance.

to carry (bring, take) in

examples
.
.
.
, , .
, , .
.
() .
.
.
.
,
.
, , .
.
.

2. to pay money

3. to introduce new rules

.

(, ).

Movement from within:


- for not a long distance
- for a short while
to carry (take) out
Approaching (near, close by)

- to bring up to
to take up
- to give a lift
1. Taking an object or a
person to the required
place:

to take smb. (smth.) to


2. Moving away from an
object for a short distance:

.
.
, , .
.
().
, .
( ).
.
.
.
().
.
( ).

Put everything in order. / Tidy yourself up.

He took my book with him.


He took old things to the dacha.
In the summer he took his family out of
town.
It started the rain and the father took
the children home.
Take the dishes away, please.
The removal men carried the sofa into
the room.
Suppliers imported the goods into the
country.
The secretary led me into the
directors office.
The client paid (put) money into
customers account.
The government introduced new tariffs
(taxes, rules).
The removal men carried the sofa out
of the room.
They took away unimportant things.
He took the dog for a walk.
Please, take out the rubbish.
He carried things up to the car.
He gave me a lift to work (home).
Give me a lift, please.
He walked me to him (to the car).
He took the things to the car.
He took the shoes to be repaired.
Take the clothes to the cleaners.
He drove me to the airport (home).
Take these documents to the office.
He walked his son to school (to the doctor).

to take (lead) smb. aside


to lead away

( ).

He took me to the side.


He moved me away from the window.

Movement up to a definite
place or object: to reach

.
.
().
, .
() .

().
/ ,
.
().
/ .

He carried the things home.

to take smb. (smth.) to /


as far as
1. to take into =
2. to bring =

He brought me a book.
He brought the groceries from the
shop.
He brought his son from school.
Please, bring me sugar.
Please, bring me some souvenir.
Bring him to me.

3. Movement performed
while
on
the
way
somewhere:
to drop smth. off to smb.
4. Movement deep into
smth.

( ).

5. Movement behind smth.

78

He walked him to where he needed to go.

He drove me to the metro (to work).


Drive me to the metro, please.
They took the sofa into the house.
The porter took the luggage into the
room (upstairs).
Bring me the documents, please.
He delivered the groceries to mum.
He did not take us to the right place.
He led them deep into the forest (a
swamp).
They put things round the corner.

prefix

meaning
1. Movement across smth.
to take (transport) smth.
or smb. over / across

2. Movement from one


place to another:
to move
3. to reschedule
4. to transfer money
5. to translate
1. Movement past smth.
2. Movement through smth.

to carry (take)
past / across / along
3. :

to see smb. off


4. to spend time

examples
.

.
.
, .
()?
.
.

!
/
.
.
20
( ).
().
, .
( , ).
?

Diverging movement:
1. to deliver
to serve (up) ()

2. to separate
3. to get divorced

Converging movement:

to gather

Upwards movement

Downwards movement:
to take (drive, lead) down

/
(, ) .

.

.
(= ).


.
(
).
/
.
/
.

- / Prefixes - antonyms:

He took (led) his son across the road.


He took the computer into another
room.
He moved the sofa to another flat.
Move my things, please.
Can you reschedule the lesson?
We transfered money into your
account.
The translator translated the letter.
- translation
Translate these documents, please!
He walked / drove us past the
monument.
He carried the things through the
turnstile (gate).
He carried 20 kilograms of goods on
the plane (across the border).
He walked him through the park.
Show him around the office, please.
I will see you off (home, to the caf).
How did you spend your holiday
(vocation)?
The courier delivered the orders to the
clients.
The school bus took the children
home.
The negotiations should help to
separate warring sides (opposites).
They got divorced.
- divorce
The world summit gathered (brought)
the leaders together.
He brought all the goods to one
warehouse.
He took things upstairs / to the second
floor.
He took things downstairs / from the
second floor.

- , - , - , () - (), -

79

Verbs of motion with non-spatial prefixes (perfective)


prefix

MEANING
The start of motion.
Its necessary to say the purpose of the
movement.

group I -

EXAMPLES

.
.

An intention to do smth.
(future tense)


Acc.

Dat.
.

, . .
( )

The start of motion


Dat.

.
He began pacing the room.

The movements are limited in time.


=

(- ).

A certain period of time was


completely taken up with movement.

group II -



(- ).

- for a long time


- all day
- whole evening
- during the week
2 - 2 hours

Dat.
.


. Dat.

.

A single brief movement there and back



.
Instr.

1) With the purpose to get (to receive) .


smth.
.
-

-.

Acc.

2) With the purpose to be somewhere.


-.

.
- ()?
- .
()
.

The achieving of the intensity of motion


(... - )

,
.

, , , .
The prefixes , , , may have spatial or non-spatial meanings.

80

Synonymous constructions of verbs of motion


present imperfect = future perfect
- / ?
- / .

- When are you leaving?


- I am leaving tomorrow.

- / ?
- / .

- When is he coming / arriving?


- He is coming / arriving on Friday.

EXAMPLES

prefix

/ .

Tomorrow Im leaving (going) on a


business trip.

/ .

He went (left) on a trip.

/ ( , ).

He came into the house (flat, room).

/ ( ), .

Please, come in.

/ .

The car drove into the garage.

/ .

The removal men carried the things


into the room.

/
/

Come to see me (us)! Come to visit!

, / !

/ .

I will come to you tomorrow.

/ , .

Please, bring me the documents.

/ , , .

Please, bring me the report.

- ?
= ?

- How is it possible to reach Arbat?

- () .

- You need to go on the metro to


Arbatskaya station.

/ .

You need to take your son to the


doctor.

/
.

I want to take the children on holiday to


St. Petersburg.

Figurative meaning of verbs of motion


(, ).
() .
().
().
.
.
() .
.
() ().
(, ) .

() ().
- to suit
() / / .
(, ) ?
(, )?
(, ).
.
.
.
.
().

81

/ Figurative meaning of verbs of motion

/ .
- to keep a diary
- to conduct a war
- to keep notes
- to lead a fight
- to run a business
- to issue propaganda
- to run a household

to behave
- to hold a conversation
- to carry on an dialogue
- to conduct (lead, hold) a debate
- to correspond

() / -
- to chair a meeting
- to chair a session
- to work
- to hold a rehearsal
- to built a road

- to lead (teach) a course


, - to give (teach) a lesson
- to conduct a campaign
- to carry out a policy
- to carry out an operation

- to conduct research
- to make an observation
- to carry on (hold) negotiations
- to conduct elections
- to implement a reform

+ Acc. / + Prep.
() (). = () ( ).

to wear

()
to be lucky

Dat. (, , , ) + - present / () - past / - future

-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

to mislead smb.
to bring smb. up-to-date with events

to marry, get married to


to lose ones temper
smb. cant bear (stand) someone
He cant take difficulties.
to fly out
smth. has slipped my mind
-
- to drive smb. mad
to exasperate smb.
to start
to get (all) wound up
to get
to carry through to the scandal
to see smth. through to the end
to reduce smb. to tears
to let down
to sum up
to treat
to take



()
. =
/ , .
.
.
.

() / .
.

. () / .

. =
.
.
-
-
, .

What did he think of your suggestion?

to suffer from an illness


to under go an operation
smb. cant stand smb. / smth.
to react badly to
to convert
to change the subject
to pass
All troubles will come to an end.
This too will pass.
to demolish

, -

. / .
- antibiotics, - flying
,

to go mad

- .
, .
, =

to drive smb. mad

to give
to horrify
to be in use / to harm

.
/

82


ASPECTS OF THE VERBS OF MOTION with prefixes indicating spatial relations
- / - / - / - / (...) - (...) / / / / /

imperfective: The action is (will be) named only, the result is unimportant.
, .
1. Find a fact: the action in general. The general fact
: , .
/ ?
Was there any action or not?
Will there be any action or not?
past
compound future
- ?
- ?
- , . / , .
- , () ( ). /
- , () ( ).
2. The specification of the details of the action (as a fact, person, place, time),
which had already been or will be. The individual fact
( , , , ), .

- / ? - 15 . present
future
- ? - , .

perfective: The action in a definite situation. The definite / concrete fact


. -
- ? - . past
- ? - 9 .

imperfective: group II
/ + prefix
/ /
/
1. The action continued (will continue) for
some time. The process.
( ). .

perfective: group I
/ + prefix
/ /
/
The action is (will be) completed and finished.
The result (limit) of the action.
, .
.

? / + - already / + + () - yet, still

- ? present
- , () . / , .

2. The action was (will be) repeated many times.


,
( ).

- ?
- , . past
- ?
- , 20 . simple future
The action is single, not repeated.
,
( ).

- usually / - always
- sometimes
- often / - seldom
- many times
/ - every time / day
- on Sundays (every Sunday)
- previously, used to
.

present

7 .

present

,
9 .
past

8 .

,
8 . compound future

9 .
simple future

83

past

imperfective: group II
/ + prefix

perfective: group I
/ + prefix
One action which produced a result took
place after another, which was also
completed with a result.

3. Both actions take place simultaneously.


.
,
. present

.
1

,
. past
1
2
3

finish

4.

,
compound future
imperfect
/
perfect
/

. past
, , . imperative
The action which began and finished while
the other action was taking place has
perfective aspect.
, ,
, .

5. The result of the action is no longer valid at


the moment of speech. (past)

The result of the action is still valid at the


moment of speech. (past)

-, -, - + - , -
- , -
. ( + )
(= , )

.
(= )

- ?
- , , 6 .
6.

IN THE NEGATIVE /

The absolute absence of an action.

1. Physical impossibility to fulfill an action.

:
( ).

= (past)

+ inf.

, .

, .

, .
2. The absence of the result of an action.
.
, .

.
Prefix does not have the meaning of the process of an action.

84

Formation of the aspectual pairs of the Verbs of motion

imperfective: group II () + prefix

perfective: group I () + prefix

- / - / - / - / - / -

- / - / - / - / -
- / - + suffixes -, - / -

imperfective

perfective

imperfective

perfective

group II + prefix

group I + prefix

group II + prefix

group I + prefix

present

present

simple

future
compound: + inf

past

past

future
compound: + inf

85

simple

- / Verbs with the particle -


All these verbs are intransitive: they are never followed by an Accusative noun or pronoun without a
preposition.
: ()
( 4) .
MEANING
1. Truly reflexive verbs.

VERBS

EXAMPLES

() - to wash (oneself)

/ - to wash (hands and face) (= ).
- to bathe

The action is directed at the agent
(it reflects on the subject).
() - to shave
(= ).
/ - to dry oneself
/ - to comb ones hair
( ).
(= ).
/ - to dress

/ - to undress
subject = object
.
() - to prepare

- = (myself, himself ...)
/ - to get ready to do;

.
to assemble, gather
.

/ - to defend oneself .
() - to introduce, make the acquaintance

- . / - to meet
.
() - to meet, see each other
One action is being done by two or
(= ,
/ - to part


.)
several persons together, with each
person being the agent and at the () - to greet
same time the object of action.

() - to say good bye (to)


.

2. Reciprocal-reflexive verbs.


.

.

? 5 Instr.

/ - to embrace
() - to kiss

(= ,
.)

- to correspond
() - to consult
- to whisper
() - to quarrel
() - to swear
() - to be reconciled, make up
/ - to arrange matters

? - agreed?
- to fight
- to compete
- to trade, haggle
/ - to unite, join hands

some verbs
with the meaning of reciprocity
do not have the particle -C

-

- to be friends
- to speak
- to talk
- to argue
- to know
- to love
- to hate
- to respect
- to trust
- to help
- to disturb
- to write

86

5 Instr.

?
with somebody

4 Acc.

each other

3 Dat.

3. Generally reflexive verbs.


.
The particle -, while making the -, ,
verb intransitive, does not change .
its principal meaning.

1) Various changes in motion, - to move


condition or state.

,
.

/ - to set off; start; leave

/ - to stop, pause
/ - to rise
/ - to descend, go down
/ - to land
/ - to open
/ - to close, shut
/ - to return
/ - to turn
/ - to turn to look at smth.
/ - to bend
/ - to increase
/ - to decrease
/ - to shorten, reduce
/ - to gain strength
/ - to weaken
/ - to improve
/ - to worsen
/ - to change
() - to hide, conceal oneself


.

9 .

.


.

5 .

() /
.
expense / income

Involuntary actions, which take / - to catch cold .


place under the influence of outer () - to break
reasons.
/ - to hit, strike (against) .
,

.

nly animate subject

/ - to burn oneself
/ - to break
() - to break, burst, tear
- to have a good time
() - to be glad / happy
/ - to be pained, to grieve
- to be sad
/ - to be confused,
to be embarrassed

- to be worried
- to worry
- to get anxious
/ - to calm down
/ - to be surprised
- to be irritated
- to be angry
/ - to be indignant
/ - to admire
- to be interested
() - to learn, study
2) The beginning, continuation / - to begin
and end of action.

/ - to continue

/ - to end
, / - to finish
.
/ - to stop
/ - to conclude

87

.
.

.
,
.

.

.

.

.
.
10
.

2 .
7 .

3) Permanent characteristic of an - to bite


object.
- to scratch
. - to bend
- to prick, sting
/ - to smile at
4. Verbs that are never used
without -.
() - to laugh
- to admire
,
/
-.

.
.
.
.
.
:
.

- to fall in love

- to be
/ - to appear
- to become
- to need
() - to take care
- to treat
() () - to hope (for)
- to be proud of
- to doubt
/ - to agree
- to be afraid
() - to try
() - to try
- to strive
/ - to be occupied
- to work
- to be
- to lie down
/ - to stay
5. Impersonal verbs denoting - it happens
condition that does not depend on - it gets dark
any person.

+ 3 Dat.:

:
, . - he thinks, it seems to him

- want, would like


() - to like


12 .
.

() .
(ompare:
, .)
.
.
I cant sleep.

.
Sleep is sound toward the morning.

- he feels unwell
()

(ompare: ,
.)

()

Work is going well today.

.
She did not feel like working.

.
He hates staying at home.

.
He cant stay long in one place.

6. Imperfective verbs with passive

Nom.
Instr.
meaning.
+ +

.

7. Intensity of subjects action, - to knock


often taking place with some aim. - to aim (at)
(?) - to threaten
,
/
- .

- to scrutinize, to take a good look

/
- to fall to thinking, to be / become thoughtful

88

.
.

- .
.


.
.

/ PARTICIPLE (bookish construction) ?


- adjective: gender, number, case / verb: time (present - past), aspect (perfect - imperfect), active - passive

- it expresses some temporary quality of an object linked with a certain action


1 Nom.

Active Participle = (- / - / -) + verb


?

present - imperfect

- - to read
- - to write

verb []
,
-
- to have a lesson
suffix
(= )

/ - I conjugation - - to love
.

- to hear

/ - II conjugation
- - to study

past - (im)perfect
?
() - ()
()
- to read

verb []:

-
- - to die
! () - to come

,
(= )
- - suffix
.
- - suffix

4 Acc.

Passive Participle = + verb (transitive)


?

present - imperfect

verb []

(= ).

?
,

- - to read

suffix - I conjugation - - to love


- II conjugation
-
past - perfect
- - to see
suffix , ,
-

(= ).
Instr.

person, who is doing smth.

- suffix
/ - suffix

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
drop / +
verbs with roots / / : drop

- to finish

verb []:

-
-
-
-

Interchange of consonants:

- to open
- to close
- to kill
- to forget
- to start
- to take

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

to meet
to return
to find
to hurt, offend
to win
to liberate, vacate
to depict, portray
to invite
to throw
to lower
to look for
to use
to buy
to put
to leave
to rule in columns
to crush

to paint - - , to dance - -
to sell - - , to get up - -

89

/ VERBAL ADVERB
- adverb: does not change for gender, number and case; has no tenses / verb: aspects
- predicate (verb) - the principal action, verbal adverb - the action of secondary importance
- predicate and verbal adverb relate to one and the same agent
/ Formation of the verbal adverb

the RULE
- - - to read
- - - to sit
- - - to go
- - - to hear
- -

stem of present: verb []

verbal adverb
imperfect

suffix
suffix - after , , ,
suffix / - verb with

- - to read
- - to write
- - to put
- - to start laughing

stem of inf. perfect

verbal adverb
perfect

suffix
suffix - verb with

EXCEPTIONS
verbal adverb perfect

stem of future:

verbs of motion with prefixes:


, , ,
verb

verb []

- - -
- - -
- - -
- being + 5 Instr. ()
- -
- - to see
- - to hear

suffix

2 forms of verbal adverb perfect


verbs imperfect:
, , , ,
verbs with roots -, -, and suffix -

there is no verbal adverb


- to give
- to find out, to learn
- to get up
-
- ,
-
- ,

suffix +

imperfect verbs -
-

1) TIME (?)

MEANING:

verbal adverb imperfect + verb imperfect


verbal adverb imperfect + verb perfect
1

,
.
,
.

2
finish

verbal adverb perfect + verb perfect


verbal adverb (im)perfect + verb imperfect

2) Cause (?)
=
3) Condition
=
4) Despite the fact that
=
5) ? =

, .
() , .

, .
= , .
, .
= , .

, .
= , .
, .

90

/ PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

Active construction
1 Nom. (subject)
4 Acc. (object)

Passive construction
5 Instr. (person, who is doing smth.)
1 Nom. (subject)

1.
Nom.

verb imperfect

Instr.

Nom.

Acc.

Nom.

Instr.

2.
Acc.

Nom.

short past passive


participle

Instr.

( / )

perfect verb [] +
suffix - / - (- /- /-)

.
Nom.

.
Acc.

Nom.

.
Nom.

Instr.

- / Indefinite Personal Constructions

1. no subject
2. verb - form

:
, - they say, it is said
(),



(),
(),
(),
(),

, - I was told that + ? 3 Dat.


- I was asked + ? 4 Acc.
? + 6 Prep.
.
.
.

91

- it was reported (informed)


on the radio / on TV + 3 Dat.

/ Constructions of time (? - When?)

1
2, 3, 4
5 - 20,

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
singular
Gen.
plural

hour

minute

day

week

month

year

time

exception

nouns - 2 Gen. - of
nouns - 1 Nom.

time:

1) () ?
? - fact

adverbs:
? - in

What time is it now?

2) ? = ? - event
? At what time?

morning
afternoon
evening
night

()

at
1 - 12

4 - 11
12 - 4
5 - 11
12 - 3

a.m.
p.m.

in the morning
in the daytime
in the evening
at night

() ? What time is it now? informal style: 1 - 12


Nom. + + ordinal numeral (Gen.)
+ Gen. + Nom.
16.05

16.10

16.15

()

16.20

16.55

16.50

16.45

16.40

()

16.30 = ()

ordinal numerals (neuter)


1 Nom.

2 Gen.

fact: ?

event: ? = / ?

What date is it today?


, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,

On what date?
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
/ 2014 -

1 Nom.
fact: ?
What month is it?

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

2 Gen.: of
/
?

date +
1 - 31

92

6 Prep.: in
event: ? =
? In which month?

in

[v]
[f]
[v]
[v]
[v]
[v]
[v]
[v]
[f]
[v]
[v]
[v]

fact:
nouns - 1 Nom.
?

adverbs
event: ? - in
?

What season is it?

autumn

winter

spring

summer

In which season?

in autumn

in winter

in spring

in summer

? In which ?
6 Prep.

event: ?
6 Prep. / 5 Instr.

()

this
last
next
future

2015 ()

fact: - 1 Nom.
?

event: ? - 4 Acc.
? - on

What day (of the week) is it today?

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday
-
day(s) off - week-end

on

m
f
n
pl

this

last

next

()

on

On which day of the week?


[f]

[va]
[f]

[f]

[f]

[f]

[v]

[v]
-

? - 4 Acc.
, , /
, ,

- this day / - the next day

m
f
n
pl

all

whole

every

without a preposition - 4 Acc.

, , , / , ,
/ , , / , ,
// /

+ 4 Acc.
+ 2 Gen.
+ 5 Instr.
+ 2 Gen.
+ 2 Gen.

/ / / / /
/ / / /
/ / /
/
/
/
/
()
, , , , , , , ,
, , ,
2 /
/ 3

prepositions
in, within
after
just before
before
till, until
during

+ 2 Gen.

from ... to

+ Gen. ... + Gen.

within: result
for: to stay

+ 4 Acc.
+ 4 Acc.

93

/ Direct and Indirect Speech


type of the sentence

DIRECT speech

INDIRECT speech
conjunction

Affirmative sentence
Question with a question word

:
.
Direct Question

Indirect Question
conjunctive words: , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,

/ - to ask?
? + 4 Acc.
/ - to answer
? + 3 Dat.

,
.

:
,
? .
particle - whether

Question
without a question word

The word containing the question


takes the initial position.
The particle is placed immediately
after that word (verb).

alternative:
2 answers - or
:
?

,
.
(= or )

:
?

,
.

():
?

, .
doubt, uncertainty:
, .
,
().
,
.
, .
I wonder, if

Dont use the conjunction .


conjunction

Request / Advice / Command


predicate - imperative

predicate - past tense (2 subjects)

() :
.

,
.

:
.

,
.

:
.

,
.

verb /

()
to advise smb to do

()

+ inf.

to ask to do

/
to order smb to do

( ) .

: / /

94

words are dropped

/ COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIONS


meaning

conjunction

examples

post position

,
.
result + cause
,
.
cause + result

.
cause + result
,
() .

cause

- because

? - why?

pre position or post position

result

- therefore

condition:
?
- on what condition?

1) real
2) unreal

despite the fact that


?
- in spite of what?

- since
..., () - if then
+ future / present
,
+ past
- although, ( - but)
( - even though)

- in spite of, despite the fact that
words which intensify the construction:

/ - /

,
.
, ()
.
,
.
, .

- still, all the same, nevertheless

time
? - when?

- when

1)

, .

2)

, .

3)
1

- while
- until
before:



- after

purpose
? - what for?
?
?
in the indirect speech
(instead of imperative):
- a wish
- a request
- a command
- a demand
- advice
- necessity

- as soon as

, .

+ infinitive - in order to

, ()
.
,
.
, .
, .
,
.
=
.
, ()
.
= ()
.

1 subject

+ past - so that
2 different subjects
I want smb. to do smth.
verbs: () - to want
() - to ask to do, to request
() - to command
/ - to tell
() - to demand
() - to advise
/ - need, necessary

predicate + () ,
information:
speech, thoughts,
knowledge, emotions
? / ? - about what?

,
.
,
.
,
.

, .
,
.
,
.
,
.

that

what
verbs: / - to say
/ - to answer
() - to know, find out
() - to think
() - to remember
() - to feel
() - to see
/ - to understand

95

, 10 .
( ),
.
, .
it seems to me

question
with a question word
explanation + attribute

, , ,
, ,
, ,
, that - what
inanimate

, that - who
animate

attribute
? - what?

m - - which / who
f -
n -
pl -
gender / number

case

noun, verb

() ,
? / ? /
? / ? / ?
, .
, .
, .
,
-
-
-
- 2
-

- .
,
-
-
-
- 2
-
- .
,
-
-
- 3
- 3
-
- .

1) indirect question
without a question word
alternative:
2 answers - or
The word containing the question
takes the initial position.
The particle is placed
immediately after that word (verb).

particle - whether

= - or
is impossible to use

2) doubt, uncertainty
comparison

[degree of comparison of adj. / adv] , .


- than
, .

, - as

to join /
1) simultaneous actions - 1subject

2) consecutive actions

3) cause + consequence
+

- and

to contrast -

- but

(II part - unexpected result)

to juxtapose (compare)
to join two sentences:
A begins a question

,
-
-
-
-
-
- .
1) : ?
, .
(= )
: ?
, .
(= )
2) , .
= , .
: , .
, .

, .
1) .
2) , .
3) .
, .
, .

, .

a - but

, .

? ?

a - and
,

, .

- not only but also

, .

96

/ The main meanings of prepositions


meaning

question

case

place: in, at

? where?

6 Prep.

location of an object:
in
time: / /
in
time: - on
direction of movement:
to
clothes
game

? where?

6 Prep.

? when?

6 Prep.

? when?

4 Acc.

? where to?

4 Acc.

?
?

6 Prep.
4 Acc.

place: in, at

? where?

6 Prep.

location of an object:
on
direction of movement:
to

? where?

6 Prep.

? where to?

4 Acc.

transport: by

? / ?
to go by what? / how?

6 Prep.

time:

? when?

6 Prep.

a certain period of time


(to stay some time): for
musical instrument
starting point
of movement: from
starting point of
movement: from behind
bad cause:
because of

4 Acc.

6 Prep.

? where from?

2 Gen.

()

? where from?

2 Gen.

- ? why?

2 Gen.

starting point of
movement is a person:
from

? where from?
=
? from whom?

2 Gen.

moving away from an


object for a short distance:

? where from?

2 Gen.

? why?

2 Gen.

preposition

from

...

cause (not under control):


because of
a part of the way:
from to
together with:
1) joint action
2) emotional state

3)

- appearance
- food
- buildings architecture

- content
4) question about the
health of a person

... ... ?

2 Gen.

? how?
5 Instr.

/ ?

97

-
-
-
-
-









700

? with whom?

(-, -, -)?

examples




/ 2015-
/ I-
/


()
()






()

/

-
-
-
- ?
- .

()

starting point of
movement: from

...

time: from ... to

?
where from?

()
2 Gen.

? when?
?

2 Gen.
4 Acc.
4 Acc.

movement through smth.

? when?
? where to?
?
?

movement through smth.

4 Acc.

()

object of speech or
thought: about
time: in
verb perfect
place:

? ?

6 Prep.

time: within

movement across smth.

1) behind

about whom / what?

?
?

? where?

4 Acc.

4 Acc.

5 Instr.

2) outside
3) at
direction of movement:
1) behind
? where to?

4 Acc.

cause: for

4 Acc.

purpose of motion (to


bring, receive smth.): for

? what for?

5 Instr.

place (person): at

? where? =
? at whom?

2 Gen.

place: by, near

? where?

2 Gen.

possessor of smth.

?
/ ?
?
/ ?

2 Gen.

2) out (of)
3) at

absence: without

purpose: for

place: near
direction of movement

is a person: to
approaching: to
(same area)

what for?

? where?
?
? where to?
? to whom?

2 Gen.
2 Gen.
2 Gen.
3 Dat.

? where to?

3 Dat.

motion along a surface

? where?

3 Dat.

attributes formed from


the subjects of education

?
?

noun + noun

means (way) of
communication:
by, on

? how?

3 Dat.

98

3 Dat.





()
(, , )

()
()
() /
()



2
/ / / /

1)
( )
2) ()
3)
1)

2)
()
3)

()


(, )



/






()

()

()
()
()
, , ,
( )
(e-mail)



time: before

movement: to reach to

? when?
?
how to reach (get) to?

2 Gen.

()

2 Gen.

time: just before

? when?

5 Instr.

place: in front of

? where?
?

5 Instr.

(, )

time: during

? when?

2 Gen.

()

time: after

? when?

2 Gen.

place: above

? where?

5 Instr.

place:
under // near

? where?

5 Instr.

direction of movement

? where to?

4 Acc.

2 Gen.

(, )
starting point of
movement:
from near, from under
(, , )

where from?

//
()



-
-
-

place: between

? where?

5 Instr.

()

place:
near to, close by

? where?

5 Instr.

place: around

? where?

2 Gen.

movement around smth.

/
?

2 Gen.

place:
to the right (left) of

? where?

2 Gen.

place: opposite

? where?

2 Gen.

place: not far from

? where?

2 Gen.

place: near, close to

? where?

2 Gen.

place: in front of

? where?

2 Gen.

place: behind

? where?

2 Gen.

place:
in the middle of

? where?

2 Gen.

movement past smth.

2 Gen.

place of motion:
along

2 Gen.

()

despite the fact that

?
in spite of what?

4 Acc.

comparison:
unlike
good cause:
thanks to
object of speech or
thought: about = ()
to oneself (silently)


/ ?
(why?)
/ ?
/ ?
about whom / what?

2 Gen.
3 Dat.
4 Acc.
4 Acc.

99


.

.
(, )


()
()

Kuzmina Natalia
RUSSIAN GRAMMAR IN TABLES
__________________________________


Please contact the author with any comments and questions by e-mail at knatalya@list.ru
www.russianforeveryday.ru

Special thanks to Mrs. Wendy Soucy

30.11.2015.
.

, 117342, .
, .
, . 17- ,
./
: (495)334-82-65;
. (495)336-03-11.
E-mail: flinta@mail.ru; WebSite: www.flinta.ru

. 324.

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Russian Grammar in Tables





Natalia Kuzmina
In 1991, Natalia graduated with Honors in Russian Language and Literature
from the Lenin Moscow State Pedagogical University.
In 1992, she completed a course in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language at
the Pushkin Institute of Russian Language.
Natalia has considerable experience in teaching foreign students and businessmen.
Since 1993 she has taught adult students at the Gnesins Russian Academy of Music
as well as at the British International Language Academy, Polyglot.
She also has extensive experience through her association with the following
international companies: Philips, Mars, Merloni, Procter&Gamble,
Danone-Bolshevik, TNK-BP, BP, and Baker Hughes.



..

RUSSIAN GRAMMAR
IN TABLES


Russian for foreigners

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