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SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

LIMITATIONS OF THE FIRST LAW


The First Law of Thermodynamics is another form of the Law of Conservation of
Energy. It merely states that when a process takes place, energy can neither be
created nor destroyed. It does not clarify whether certain processes can take place or
not. From many observations of common experiences, we observe that processes
follow a definite direction. We also notice that just because a process satisfies the 1 st
law of Thermodynamics, it does not mean that it can actually take place.
Example:
1. Heat flows from a hot body to a cold on its own but never vice-versa. Even if this
process were to happen, it would still satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics.
2. Consider a vehicle moving up hill at the expense of fuel burnt. If we reverse this
process i.e., make it move down hill, it is not possible to get the fuel back. Even if
this were to happen, it would still satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics.
Other important examples
Include:
3. Water flows from a higher to lower level and not vice-versa.
4. Electric current is flows from higher to lower potential. And not vice-versa.
5. A magnetic pole would move from higher to lower potential. And not vice-versa.
6. There is no engine with affiance =100%. Even if it were to exist, 1st law would
not be violated.
Even if these were to happen, they would still satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics.
From this observation, it is clear that processes follow a definite path. Even if this
path is reversed, and we get a process that does not actually take place, this would still
satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics . This is the limitation of the 1st law of
Thermodynamics.
Definitions:
1.
2.
3.

Heat Reservoir: It is a body of very high mass, so high that its temperature is not
affected by any heat Transfer. It can also be defined as a body of mass, which
can absorb or supply heat without any change in its temperature.
Heat Source : It is a heat reservoir of very high mass which can supply heat
without any change in its temperature.
Heat Sink : It is a heat reservoir of very high mass which absorbs heat without
any change in temperature.

4.

Heat Engine : A heat engine is defined as a device that produces net positive
work while absorbing heat from a source and dissipating heat to a sink.

5.

Heat Pump :

A heat pump is a device that operates in a cycle and transfers heat from a low
Temperature body (sink) to a high Temperature body (source) with the aid of external
work.
Difference between a Heater and a Refrigerator:
Essentially, both the , heater and the refrigerator are heat pumps. In case of heater ,
the purpose is to heat while in the case of the refrigerator, the purpose is to cool.
Performance parameters:
1. Efficiency: It is a term used to measure the performance of a heat engine. It is
defined as the ratio of the net +ve work output to the energy supplied. We may write.
= (W/Q1) = (Q1Q2/Q1)
2. Coefficient of performance: It is a term used to measure the performance of a heat
pump. COP of a heater is the ratio of heat supplied to the work input.
i.e. COPh = Q1/W = (Q1/Q1-Q2)

COP of a refrigerator is the ratio of heat absorbed to the work input.


i.e , COPr = Q2/W = (Q2/Q1-Q2)
1. Show that. the COP of heat pump & refrigerator operating between same
temperature limits, are related as COPh = COPr +1 we know that,
Ans)
COPh = Q1/(Q1- Q2)
COPr =

Q1/(Q1- Q2)

RHS= COPr +1= Q1/(Q1-Q2) = COPh = LHS


Therefore COPh = COPr +1
2. It is required to heat a building for winter the heating required is 58 kW. The
energy supplied to the Heat pump is 8 RW. Determine the COP of this device. If
this device were to the used as a refrigerator. What would its COP be?
Ans)
COPh = 58/8 = 7. 25(COP of the heat pump)
COPr = 7.25-1(COP of the refrigerator)
= 6.25
3. An engine of thermal efficiency of = 30% drives a refrigerator. of COP =5.
What is the heat input to the engine for each Mega Joule of heat removed from the
cold body by the refrigerator? If the system is used as a heat pump of same COP,
how many Mega Joules of heat would be available for heating for each Mega
Joule of heat input to the engine.
Ans)

= W/Q3 = 0.3
COPr = Q2/W =5
Q1/Q3 = 1.5

Therefore COPh = Q1/W =5 Q1/Q3 = 1.5


Hence Q1/Q3= 1.5
Therefore for every MJ removed from refrigerator, 1/1.5 MJ is supplied to it = 0.67
MJ.
4. The thermal efficiency of an engine 33% Determine:
i)
ii)
iii)

Heat supplied per 1800 Wh of work delivered.


Ratio of heat supplied to heat rejected.
Ratio of work delivered to heat rejected.

Ans)
i)

= (Q1- Q2)/ Q1
= W/Q1
0.33 = (0.5/ Q1)6480 KJ

ii)

iii)

Q1 = 19440 KJ
1/3 = 1- 1/R
1/R = 2/3
R = 1.5 = Heat Supply/Heat rejected
Q2/W = 2/3
Therefore

(W/Q2) = 1.5

STATEMENTS 2nd OF THERMODYNAMICS

1.Kelvin- Plancks statement :


It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a Thermodynamics cycles and
has no effect other than heat transfer with a single reserves and performance of work.
2. Clausius statement :
It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a Thermodynamics cycles and
has no effect other than heat transfer from a cold body to hot body
Perpetual motion machine of kind 2: (PMMK2).
A device that would violate the 2nd law of THERMODYNAMICS is called PMMK2 .
PMMK2 can be of two types.
Type 1:
This device violates the Kelvin Planck statement of 2 nd law of Thermodynamics. It
absorbs Q1 amount of heat from the source and performs an equivalent amt of work=
Q1 It rejects heat to the sink .Such a machine would be 100% efficient. This, we
know, would violate the Kelvin Planck statement . (Fig (a))
Type 2:
As shown in Fig (b), such a machine would transfer an amount of heat Q from the low
temperature sink to the higher temperature source without the aid of any external
work. Such a device would violate the Clausius statement of the 2 nd law of
Thermodynamics.
Equivalence of the 2 statements:
i)

Violation of KelvinPlancks statement leads to violation of Clausius


statement:

Proof:

Consider Heat Engine that violates Kelvin-Planck statement of 2nd law. Let it absorb
Q1 amount of heat from a source and perform an equivalent amount of work = Q1.
Consider a Heat Pump which would make use of the work delivered by this Heat
Engine .Let the Heat Pump extract Q2 amt of heat from the sink we realize that it
would deliver Q1 + Q2 amt of heat to the source. If we consider the HE and the HP
together as a single device, as shown, we notice that this combined device extracts a
net amt of heat = Q2 from the sink and delivers a net amt of heat = Q 2 to the source.
Such a device would obviously violate the Clausius, statement are equivalent.
ii)

Violation of Clausius statement leads to violation of Kelvin -Planck


statement:

Consider a Heat pump that violates Clausiuss statement of 2nd law of


Thermodynamics. Let it extract Q2 heat from sink and deliver it to the sources without
the aid of any amt, work. Consider a Heat Engine operates between the same source
and sink .Let it source and reject Q 2 amount of heat from the sink of the Heat Pump
and Heat Engine together are considered, as a single device as shown, this combined
device would absorbs a net amount of heat = Q1- Q2 and performs has a net amount of
work = Q1- Q2 .It has a net heat transfer of (Q 2-Q2) = 0 with the sink. Such a device
would violate the Kelvin-Planck statement of 2nd law of Thermodynamics. Hence, the
statements are equivalent.
Reversible Process:
From the 2nd law of Thermodynamics, it is clear that no engine can be 100% efficient.
This leads us to the next question. Between a given source and a sink, what is the max
efficiency possible? What are the processes involved in the functioning of such an

engine. These processes are known as Quasi-static processes or reversible processes.


An engine whose functioning is entirely based on reversible processes would be the
most efficient engine between a given source and sink, such an engine obviously a
hypothetical engine. But, it serves to understand the functioning of such an engine. To
know what the upper limit of efficiency could be.
Factors that render a process irreversible:
1.Friction:

Consider a block provided with a rope drawn over a pulley and provided with
weights at, the other end as shown. The block rests on a sliding surface. On increasing
the weights at one of the ends, the block may be moved up the sliding surface .As it
moves up, the sliding surface gets heated due to friction. If this process were to be
reversed, and the block brought, back to its original position. This would again heat
up the sliding surface . If the block and the sliding surface together are considered as
part of a system, then, in order to restore the system to its original state, same amount
of heat, say Q needs to be removed as indicated, on doing so, the system is restored to
its original state but the surroundings are not. Hence the process is irreversible. The
irreversibility is on account of friction.

2.Unrestrained expansions:

Consider gas and vacuum separated by a thin membrane taken in cyclinder


provided with a piston as shown. If by some means the thin membrane is made to
rupture, the gas would expand and fill up the entire volume. But since the gas is
expanding against vacuum, there is no work done during this process. This is
referred to as unrestrained expansion. If the gas in the cyclinder is considered part
of a system, then, in order to restore the system back to its original state, same
amount of work (W) needs to be done by the piston and some amount of heat say
Q, has to be rejected to the surrounding. In doing so, the original state of the
system is restored while the surrounding cannot be.

3. Heat transfer three a finite temperature difference:

Consider a source at temp T1 and sink at, temp T2 (T 1>T2). Let Q1, amount of
heat be transferred from the source to the sink. If this process has to be reversed
we need to make use of a heat pump which would deliver Q 1 amount. of heat back
to the source with the aid of external work W=Q 1-Q2. Considering the source, sink

and heat pump together as part of a system, we notice that it is possible. To restore
the system to its original state but not be the state of the surrounding.
4.Mixing of substances:

Consider any two gases say N2 and O2, taken in a chamber, and separated by a thin
membrane as shown. If it ruptures, the 2 gases would expand and fill up the entire
volume. It is a case of unrestrained expansion for each of the gases considering
the gases to be a part of a system, we realize that if the system has to be restored
to its original states, some amount of work needs to be done as well as heat to be
transferred. In doing so, even though the system may be restored to its original
state, the surrounding is not.
5.Other factors:
a). Hysterisis and I2R losses in electrical circuits.
b) Combustion
c) Flow of water from a higher to a lower level, etc.,
Identify the factors in the following statements, which render process irreversible.
1. Automobile on road friction, combustion.
2. Man walking on road- friction.
3. Germination Heat transfer thru a finite temperature difference
4. Curing of cement Heat transfer thru a finite temperature difference
5. Throttling unrestrained expansion.
6. Sugar solution. Mixing of substances.
Internally and externally reversible processes:
Consider 2 cases of heat transfer:
i)
Involving heat transfer thru an infinitesimally temperature difference.
ii)
Thru a finite temperature difference T as shown is sketch.

Heat transfer thru an infinitesimal difference is reversible, deviation from


Thermodynamics equilibrium is negligibly small. But, if heat is transfer due to a
finite temperature difference T as shown in fig (b) the process takes place with
significant deviation from Thermodynamic equilibrium. If this process has to be
reversed, we need to make use of a heat pump, which makes use of external work.
In this case, if we consider the bodies at the 2 temp. (T+T) and T) and the heat
pump at part of a single system, we notice that though the system may be restored
to its original condition, the surroundings are not. Hence, this is a case of an
internally reversible but externally irreversible process. But, in the case of a
Quasi- static process (Reversible), it is both internally and externally reversible.
Corollaries of the 2nd law of THERMODYNAMICS:
Corollary 1: Compassion between heat engines:
There can be no heat engine, which is more efficient than a reversible engine of
between the same temperature limits (reservoirs).
Proof:

Consider on irreversible engine Irreversible(I) & reversible engine (R) operating


between same temp limits, T1 & T2 as shown let both be supplied with same
amount of heat Q1. Let WI= Work done by irreversible engine,
WR = Work Done by reversible engine,
Q2 =heat rejected by irreversible engine.

Q2 = heat rejected by reversible engine.


Assume that the irreversible is more efficient. than the reversible engine.
i.e. I > R
Both are supplied with same amount of heat,
WI > WR.
(Q1 Q2 )>( Q1-Q2)
Q2> Q2
Q2 Q2 > 0
Reversing the direction of reversible heat engine, let it be made to work as a
reversible heat pump which absorbs heat Q2 from sink, delivers Q1 to source.
WI > WR , a portion of WI = WR may be supplied from I to R for the work needed by
R. This leaves us with an amount of work (W I WR). If we treat I and R together as a
single device, we notice that this device has a net heat transfer of (Q2-Q2) with the
sink, (Q1 Q1=0) with source and performs to work = (WI WR)
=(Q1 Q2) (Q1-Q2)= (Q2 Q2)
This device obvious violates the Kelvin Planck statement of the 2 nd law of
Thermodynamics. This leads to the conclusion that our initial assumption was wrong.
Hence, a reversible Heat Engine is the most efficient engine. Between a given pair of
temperature limits.
Corollary 2: Comparison between reversible Heat Engines :
All reversible engine operating between the same two temperature limits have same
(Effienciey).
Let >
Therefore W > W
R1

R2

R1

R2

(Q1 Q2) > (Q1-Q2)


Therefore (Q2Q2) >0
We conclude that R is a function of T1,T2.
R = f(T1, T2)
i.e. efficiency of a reversible engine is a function of temperature limits only.
Corollary 3: Thermodynamics temperature scale:
It is possible to have a temperature scale that is independent of any Thermometric
substance.
This temperature scale is derived from corollary 2 from which we conclude that the
efficiency of any reversible engine is a function of only the two temperature limits
involved. This means that irrespective of the working medium the efficiency of
reversible engine remains the same for a given pair of temperature limits this property

is made use of the arrive at a temperature, scale referred to as Thermodynamics


temperature scale.
Consider reversible engine R1, absorbing Q1 from source at T1 and rejecting heat Q2 to
Sink at T2.
Consider another Reversible Engine R2 absorbing Q2 rejected by Reversible Engine 1,
from source at T2
(Source for R2 is sink for R1) rejecting heat Q3 to sink at T3 consider another
Reversible Engine R3 which is absorbing Q1 from source at T1 and rejecting heat Q3 to
sink at T3 shown in the sketch. Reversible engine R1 and R2 together with heat
reservoir at T2 can be considered as a single device. This would also be a reversible.
engine since the engine R1, R2 are reversible. This combination device absorbs heat Q1
to sink at T3 but since all reversible engines operate between the same 2 temperature
limits have same of efficiency we notice that the efficiency of the combined reversible
device and engine R3 should have the same efficiency. Since both are supplied with
same heat Q1, we conclude that Q3 = Q3. We may write,
R1 = f (T1, T2) = 1- Q2/Q1
Q2/Q1 = f (T1, T2)
ThereforeQ1/Q2 = F (T1, T2)(1)
On the same lines, we may write.
R2= f (T2, T3) from which we get,.
Q2/Q3 = F (T2, T3) (2)
On the same lines considering engine R3
We may also write.
Q1/Q3 = F ( T1, T3 ) (3)
We may write.
Q1/Q3 = Q1/Q3 + Q2/Q3
Substituting equations (1) (2) (3).,
F (T1, T3) = F (T1, T2) x F (T2, T3) (4)
On observing the above expression.,
We see the LHS only has terms containing T1, T3 while RHS contains
T1, T2, T3, from the various expressions for F (T 1, T2) it is clear that equation (4) will
be satisfied only if: F (T1,T2) takes the form.
F(T1, T2)=( T1)/( T2)
Among the numerous possible functions Lord Kelvin choose F(T 1, T2) to be of the
form F(T1, T2) = T1/T2

From this he arrived at the Thermodynamics temperature scale It is clear from the
form of F chosen by Lord Kelvin that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2
Hence, efficiency of a reversible engine operating between temp limits T1, T2 would
be given by the expression
R = 1 T2/T1
If we consider a reversible engine operating between the steam point and ice point we
would find that would be 0.268.
i.e. 1- Tice/Tsteam = 0.268
Or Tice /Tsteam = 0.732.
From the Celsius scale, we leave
Tsteam Tice = 100
i.e. Tsteam 0.732 Tsteam = 100.
Tsteam = 100/0.268 = 373. 13 K
Tice = 273.13 K
.
These values are assigned to the steam and ice- pts on the absolute Thermodynamic
scale with Celsius scale as reference. The units are named Kelvin after Lord Kelvin
i.e. Tice = 273.13 K
Tsteam = 373.13K
With F scale as reference, absolute Thermodynamic temperature scale takes the
form:
Tsteam Tice = 180
Tice = 0.732 Tsteam
Solving the above we get
Tice = 32F
Tsteam = 212F
The units for this scale are Rankines
Tice =491.64 R
Tsteam = 671.64 R
Corollary 3a:
It is impossible to reduce a system absolute zero, in a finite number, of operations.
Consider a no of reversible, engines:
R1, R2 , R3..,RN connected in series with the heat rejected by 1 becoming the
source for the next as indicated. Let the last reversible engine reject heat to a sink
which is at absolute zero by absolute Thermodynamics temperature scale, we
recognize that
TN/ T sink=QN/ QN+1
But T sink =0(absolute)

Therefore QN+1 = 0
But this would result in the last engine violating the Kelvin -Planck statement of 2 nd
law of Thermodynamics.
Hence, we conclude that absolute zero cannot be attained in actual practice, we may
say, if there are infinite engines connected in series, the last engine may reject heat to
a sink whose temperature tends to absolute zero. But, this is not possible in finite
number of operations.
Corollary 3b:
It is not possible to have negative values on the absolute. Thermodynamics
temperature scale:

Consider reversible engine R operating between source at temperature, T1 (absolute)


and sink at temperature = T2 (absolute)
From the above Thermodynamic temperature scale, the of the engine would be
R =1(T2/T1)
R =1+(T2/T1) 1
Since this is not possible, we cannot have negative values on the absolute
Thermodynamics temperature scale.
Carnot engine:
It is a reversible engine in which all the processes involved are reversible processes.

A Carnot engine consists of an insulated cylinder provided with frictionless piston and
a perfectly conducting member at one end. Provision is made for an insulated cap,
which can for fitted at one end when required .The engine is provided with a source at
T1 and sink at T2.
Processes involved:
i) 41 Reversible Isothermal heat addition: The insulated cap removed. The source is
brought in contact with the membrane. Heat is conducted in the cylinder. In a
reversible Isothermal process.
ii)23 Reversible adiabatic expansion:
The source is removed, the insulated cap is inserted, and the piston is allowed to
expand in a reversible adiabatic process.

iii) 34 Reversible Isothermal heat rejection: The cap is removed and the sink is
brought in contact with the membrane. Heat is rejected from the cylinder in a
reversible Isothermal process.
iv) 41Reversible adiabatic compression: The sink is removed and the cap is inserted.
The piston compresses the working medium in a reverse adiabatic process.
Expression for :

QS = p1v1* ln (V2/V4)
QR = p2v2* ln (V3/V2)
It can be shown that
V1/V4 = V3/V2 for a Carnot cycle

P1V1 = RT1
P2V2 = RT2
Substituting the above
carnot engine = (Qs QR)/ Qs = RT1* ln (V1/V4) RT2* ln (V3/V2) = (T1T2)/T1

RT1* ln (V1/V4)
carnot =1T2/T1
Therefore efficiency of the Carnot cycle depends only on temperature involved and
not on the working medium.
Reasons for impracticality:
1.All processes are reversible and hence impractical.
2. Frictionless piston is impractical.
3.During 1 half stroke of the piston there is a reversible isothermal process while
during the other half stroke, there is a reversible adiabatic process. The reversible
isothermal process needs to be very slow while a reversible and adiabatic process
needs to be very fast. This means that the piston should move very slowly for half a
stroke and very rapidly for the other half stroke, this is highly impractical.
Reversed Carnot engine:
A Carnot engine works on the Carnot cycle, which is a reversible, cycle Hence it is
possible to reverse the direction of all the processes and run the engine as a Heat
pump.
PROBLEMS

1. A Heat engine works on the Carnot cycle between 900C & 200C. If the heat
received by the engine is 50 KW calculate the power developed.
Ans)
Q1/T1=Q2/T2
Therefore 50/(900+273) = Q2/(200+273)
Hence Q2=20.16KN
Power developed = W = Q1 Q2 = 5020.16 = 29.84KN
2. A Heat engine operates between a source at 300C and a sink at 30C. What is
the least possible heat that can be rejected when delivering 100 KW?
Ans) W = Q1Q2 (Engine rejecting least heat would have the maximum efficiency.
And maximum efficiency is for a reversible cycle)
W = 100KW
Q1/T1 = Q2/T2
Therefore W = Q2 *( T1/T21)
100 = Q2 *( 573/2431)
Q2=73.64KW
3. An engineer claims to have developed and engine producing power of 4.5 KW,
working between temperature limits of 1400C & 350C consuming 0.5kg. Of fuel /hr
with calorific value = 42000 kJ /kg. Comment on the claim.
Ans)W = 4.5KW
Q1=Mass flow rate Calorific value=0.5*(42000/3600)=5.833KW
= W/Q1 = 0.77
max = (1T1/T2) = (1623/1673) =0.628
Since is greater than max
The above claim is not valid.
4. A Heat engine works on Carnot cycle between temperature limits 800 K, 300K the
engine develops a power of 5KW .If the fuel used has a calorific value 4200 KJ/kg .
Determine the fuel consumption in kg/hr. Relative = 0.5
Relative efficiency = (Actual /Ideal )
Ans) Since

Relative efficiency = (Actual /Ideal )


If actual efficiency =
0.5 =( )/(1300/800)
W = Q1Q2 = 5 KW

Q1 = (R*42000/3600)
R = 1.371 kg/hr
5. A Carnot engine works between 2 reservoirs at T1 and T2 Kelvin. The work output
the engine is 0.6 times heat rejected If the difference in temperature between the
source and the sink is 200C, Determine
a. Source temperature.
b. Sink temperature.
c.
Ans) W = 0.6*Q2
W = Q1Q2
Therefore Q1=1.6Q2
= W/Q1 = (0.6Q2/1.6Q2) = 0.375
T1 T2 = 200
= (1T1/T2) = 0.375
Therefore T1=0.625 T2
Hence T1 = 533.33 K
T2 = 333.33 K
6. A domestic food freezer maintains a temperature of 15C .The ambient air
temperature is 30C. If heat leakage into the freezer is 1.75 KW, What is the least
power necessary to pump out the heat continuously?
Ans)

Q2 = 1.75 KW
Q1/T1=Q2/T2
W = Q1Q2 = Q2 *(T1/T2 1)
= 1.75 *(303/258 1)
Therefore,
W = 0.305 KW

7. A household refrigerator is maintained at 2C. Every time the door is opened an


average. Of 420 KJ of heat is introduced without altering temperature. The door is
opened 20 times in a day and the refrigerator operates at 15% of the ideal COP, the
atmospheric temperature is 30oC. The cost of work is 32 paise / KWh. What would be
the monthly bill for the month of June?
Ans) Heat removed from the refrigerator = Q2

Q2 = 420*20 = 8400kJ/day
COPR = T2/(T1T2) = 275/(303 275) = 9.82
Actual COP = 0.15*9.82 = 1.47
Therefore Actual COP = Q2/W
1.47 = (8400/W)
Therefore W = 5714.28 KW/day
Net bill = 5714.28*0.32*30/3600 = Rs 15.24
8. A heat pump is used to heat a house in winter to cool and reversed in summer .The
interior temperature is to be maintained at 20C. Heat leakage through, the walls and
the roof is estimated to be 0.525 KJ/s perC difference in temperature between the
inside and outside.
A) If the outside temperature is 5C. What is the min power required to drive the
pump.
B) For the same power input in summer what is the maximum outside temperature
for which the inside temperature can be maintained at 20C .

Ans)
Case A) (Winter) Room = Source.
T2=5C=278K
T1=20C=293K

COPH = T1/(T1T2) = 293/(293278) =19.53


COPR = 18.53 = (19.531)
COPH= Q1/W
Therefore 19.53=(0.525*15)/W
Hence W = 0.403KW
B) Summer
COPR=Q2/W

293/(T20) = 0.523(T20)/0.403
(T 20)*(T20) = (293*0.403)/(0.525)
By solving the above quadratic equation
we get T = 35 C and 5C
5C is not possible
Therefore we get T=35C
9. Three Carnot engines A, B and C work in series between temperature limits 1000K
& 300 K. Work output is in the proportion.
WA : WB: WC:: 3:2:1
i)
ii)
Ans)

Determine intermediate temperature.


If heat supplied to engine A is 1000 KW, determine the power
delivered by each engine.

Let Wc = k
Therefore Wb=2k and Wa=3k
a = Wa/Qa
Therefore (1T2/1000) = 3k/1000
Q1/T1 = Q2/T2 = Q3/T3 = Q4/T4
Therefore1000/1000 = Q4/300
Hence Q4=300KW
(1T3/ T2) = 2k/ T2
(1T4/ T3) = k / T3
(1 300/ T 3) = (k / T 3)
T 3 = 300+k
T 2 = T 3+2k = 300+3k
1000 = T 2+3k
Therefore 1000 = 300 + 3k
k= 700/6 =116.67 KW
T 2 = 650K

T 3 = 416.67 K
Therefore
Wc=116.67KW
Wb=233.3KW
Wa=350KW
10. Two reversible engines R1 & R2 operate in series between a high temperature
reservoir at 800K and a low temperature reservoir at 300K. Determine the
intermediate temperature if both the engine have same efficiency
Ans)

W1/Q1 = W2/Q2
(1T2/T1) = (1T3/T2)
Therefore T2=(T1.T3) = 489.9 K
11. A refrigerator produces 2 tones of ice / day at 0C from water maintained at 0C.
It rejects heat to the atmosphere at 27C. The power to rum the refrigerator is supplied
by an engine, which is, supplied heat from a source maintained at 227C by burning a
fuel of calorific. Value. = 20,000 kJ/kg . Find the consumption per hour and power
developed by the engine assuming both the devices to be rum on Carnot cycle take L
fusion = 333.3 KJ/kg.

Ans)

Q3 = 333.3*(2000/24) = 27775kJ/hr
COPR = Q3/W = (27775/W) = 273/(300 273)
Therefore W = 2746.9 KJ/hr = 0.763 KW
Q1= m* CV = m*20000
(W/Q1) = (1300/500)
m = 0.3434 kg/hr
12. A Heat engine operates between two reservoirs at 1000K & 300K is used for
running a Heat pump, which extracts heat from reservoir at 300K at a rate twice that
at which the engine reject heat to it. If engine = 40% of maximum possible & COP
of Heat pump is 50% of maximum possible COP. What is temperature of reservoir to
which the HP rejects heat? What is the rate of heat rejection from the heat pump if
heat supplied to engine is 50 KW.
Ans)

max = (1300/1000) = 0.7


Actual = 0.7 * 0.4 = 0.28
COP actual = (2W/W) = 2
COP max = 4
4 = 300/(T300)
Therefore T = 375 K
(W/50)= actual
Therefore W= 50*0.28 = 14 KW
Hence heat rejected by the heat pump = 3W = 42KW
Q2 = 50 14 = 26 KW
COPR = (52/14) = 3.714
COP ideal = 7.428
COP ideal =300(300-T)
Therefore T=340K
13. An ice making plant reduces ice at atmospheric pressure. ,0C from water at
0C. The mean temperature of cooling water circulating through the condenser of
the refrigerator machine is 18C. Evaluate the minimum electrical work in KWhr
required to produce 1 ton of ice. Hfusion of ice at atmospheric pressure. = 333.5 KJ/
kg.
Ans)

Q2 = m*L = 333.5*1000 =333500KJ


(Q2/W) = T2/(T1T2) = 273/(291273)
333500/ W = 273/18
W =21989KJ = 6.108KWhr