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The First Law of Thermodynamics is another form of the Law of Conservation of

Energy. It merely states that when a process takes place, energy can neither be

created nor destroyed. It does not clarify whether certain processes can take place or

not. From many observations of common experiences, we observe that processes

follow a definite direction. We also notice that just because a process satisfies the 1 st

law of Thermodynamics, it does not mean that it can actually take place.

Example:

1. Heat flows from a hot body to a cold on its own but never vice-versa. Even if this

process were to happen, it would still satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics.

2. Consider a vehicle moving up hill at the expense of fuel burnt. If we reverse this

process i.e., make it move down hill, it is not possible to get the fuel back. Even if

this were to happen, it would still satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics.

Other important examples

Include:

3. Water flows from a higher to lower level and not vice-versa.

4. Electric current is flows from higher to lower potential. And not vice-versa.

5. A magnetic pole would move from higher to lower potential. And not vice-versa.

6. There is no engine with affiance =100%. Even if it were to exist, 1st law would

not be violated.

Even if these were to happen, they would still satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics.

From this observation, it is clear that processes follow a definite path. Even if this

path is reversed, and we get a process that does not actually take place, this would still

satisfy the 1st law of Thermodynamics . This is the limitation of the 1st law of

Thermodynamics.

Definitions:

1.

2.

3.

Heat Reservoir: It is a body of very high mass, so high that its temperature is not

affected by any heat Transfer. It can also be defined as a body of mass, which

can absorb or supply heat without any change in its temperature.

Heat Source : It is a heat reservoir of very high mass which can supply heat

without any change in its temperature.

Heat Sink : It is a heat reservoir of very high mass which absorbs heat without

any change in temperature.

4.

Heat Engine : A heat engine is defined as a device that produces net positive

work while absorbing heat from a source and dissipating heat to a sink.

5.

Heat Pump :

A heat pump is a device that operates in a cycle and transfers heat from a low

Temperature body (sink) to a high Temperature body (source) with the aid of external

work.

Difference between a Heater and a Refrigerator:

Essentially, both the , heater and the refrigerator are heat pumps. In case of heater ,

the purpose is to heat while in the case of the refrigerator, the purpose is to cool.

Performance parameters:

1. Efficiency: It is a term used to measure the performance of a heat engine. It is

defined as the ratio of the net +ve work output to the energy supplied. We may write.

= (W/Q1) = (Q1Q2/Q1)

2. Coefficient of performance: It is a term used to measure the performance of a heat

pump. COP of a heater is the ratio of heat supplied to the work input.

i.e. COPh = Q1/W = (Q1/Q1-Q2)

i.e , COPr = Q2/W = (Q2/Q1-Q2)

1. Show that. the COP of heat pump & refrigerator operating between same

temperature limits, are related as COPh = COPr +1 we know that,

Ans)

COPh = Q1/(Q1- Q2)

COPr =

Q1/(Q1- Q2)

Therefore COPh = COPr +1

2. It is required to heat a building for winter the heating required is 58 kW. The

energy supplied to the Heat pump is 8 RW. Determine the COP of this device. If

this device were to the used as a refrigerator. What would its COP be?

Ans)

COPh = 58/8 = 7. 25(COP of the heat pump)

COPr = 7.25-1(COP of the refrigerator)

= 6.25

3. An engine of thermal efficiency of = 30% drives a refrigerator. of COP =5.

What is the heat input to the engine for each Mega Joule of heat removed from the

cold body by the refrigerator? If the system is used as a heat pump of same COP,

how many Mega Joules of heat would be available for heating for each Mega

Joule of heat input to the engine.

Ans)

= W/Q3 = 0.3

COPr = Q2/W =5

Q1/Q3 = 1.5

Hence Q1/Q3= 1.5

Therefore for every MJ removed from refrigerator, 1/1.5 MJ is supplied to it = 0.67

MJ.

4. The thermal efficiency of an engine 33% Determine:

i)

ii)

iii)

Ratio of heat supplied to heat rejected.

Ratio of work delivered to heat rejected.

Ans)

i)

= (Q1- Q2)/ Q1

= W/Q1

0.33 = (0.5/ Q1)6480 KJ

ii)

iii)

Q1 = 19440 KJ

1/3 = 1- 1/R

1/R = 2/3

R = 1.5 = Heat Supply/Heat rejected

Q2/W = 2/3

Therefore

(W/Q2) = 1.5

It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a Thermodynamics cycles and

has no effect other than heat transfer with a single reserves and performance of work.

2. Clausius statement :

It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a Thermodynamics cycles and

has no effect other than heat transfer from a cold body to hot body

Perpetual motion machine of kind 2: (PMMK2).

A device that would violate the 2nd law of THERMODYNAMICS is called PMMK2 .

PMMK2 can be of two types.

Type 1:

This device violates the Kelvin Planck statement of 2 nd law of Thermodynamics. It

absorbs Q1 amount of heat from the source and performs an equivalent amt of work=

Q1 It rejects heat to the sink .Such a machine would be 100% efficient. This, we

know, would violate the Kelvin Planck statement . (Fig (a))

Type 2:

As shown in Fig (b), such a machine would transfer an amount of heat Q from the low

temperature sink to the higher temperature source without the aid of any external

work. Such a device would violate the Clausius statement of the 2 nd law of

Thermodynamics.

Equivalence of the 2 statements:

i)

statement:

Proof:

Consider Heat Engine that violates Kelvin-Planck statement of 2nd law. Let it absorb

Q1 amount of heat from a source and perform an equivalent amount of work = Q1.

Consider a Heat Pump which would make use of the work delivered by this Heat

Engine .Let the Heat Pump extract Q2 amt of heat from the sink we realize that it

would deliver Q1 + Q2 amt of heat to the source. If we consider the HE and the HP

together as a single device, as shown, we notice that this combined device extracts a

net amt of heat = Q2 from the sink and delivers a net amt of heat = Q 2 to the source.

Such a device would obviously violate the Clausius, statement are equivalent.

ii)

statement:

Thermodynamics. Let it extract Q2 heat from sink and deliver it to the sources without

the aid of any amt, work. Consider a Heat Engine operates between the same source

and sink .Let it source and reject Q 2 amount of heat from the sink of the Heat Pump

and Heat Engine together are considered, as a single device as shown, this combined

device would absorbs a net amount of heat = Q1- Q2 and performs has a net amount of

work = Q1- Q2 .It has a net heat transfer of (Q 2-Q2) = 0 with the sink. Such a device

would violate the Kelvin-Planck statement of 2nd law of Thermodynamics. Hence, the

statements are equivalent.

Reversible Process:

From the 2nd law of Thermodynamics, it is clear that no engine can be 100% efficient.

This leads us to the next question. Between a given source and a sink, what is the max

efficiency possible? What are the processes involved in the functioning of such an

An engine whose functioning is entirely based on reversible processes would be the

most efficient engine between a given source and sink, such an engine obviously a

hypothetical engine. But, it serves to understand the functioning of such an engine. To

know what the upper limit of efficiency could be.

Factors that render a process irreversible:

1.Friction:

Consider a block provided with a rope drawn over a pulley and provided with

weights at, the other end as shown. The block rests on a sliding surface. On increasing

the weights at one of the ends, the block may be moved up the sliding surface .As it

moves up, the sliding surface gets heated due to friction. If this process were to be

reversed, and the block brought, back to its original position. This would again heat

up the sliding surface . If the block and the sliding surface together are considered as

part of a system, then, in order to restore the system to its original state, same amount

of heat, say Q needs to be removed as indicated, on doing so, the system is restored to

its original state but the surroundings are not. Hence the process is irreversible. The

irreversibility is on account of friction.

2.Unrestrained expansions:

provided with a piston as shown. If by some means the thin membrane is made to

rupture, the gas would expand and fill up the entire volume. But since the gas is

expanding against vacuum, there is no work done during this process. This is

referred to as unrestrained expansion. If the gas in the cyclinder is considered part

of a system, then, in order to restore the system back to its original state, same

amount of work (W) needs to be done by the piston and some amount of heat say

Q, has to be rejected to the surrounding. In doing so, the original state of the

system is restored while the surrounding cannot be.

Consider a source at temp T1 and sink at, temp T2 (T 1>T2). Let Q1, amount of

heat be transferred from the source to the sink. If this process has to be reversed

we need to make use of a heat pump which would deliver Q 1 amount. of heat back

to the source with the aid of external work W=Q 1-Q2. Considering the source, sink

and heat pump together as part of a system, we notice that it is possible. To restore

the system to its original state but not be the state of the surrounding.

4.Mixing of substances:

Consider any two gases say N2 and O2, taken in a chamber, and separated by a thin

membrane as shown. If it ruptures, the 2 gases would expand and fill up the entire

volume. It is a case of unrestrained expansion for each of the gases considering

the gases to be a part of a system, we realize that if the system has to be restored

to its original states, some amount of work needs to be done as well as heat to be

transferred. In doing so, even though the system may be restored to its original

state, the surrounding is not.

5.Other factors:

a). Hysterisis and I2R losses in electrical circuits.

b) Combustion

c) Flow of water from a higher to a lower level, etc.,

Identify the factors in the following statements, which render process irreversible.

1. Automobile on road friction, combustion.

2. Man walking on road- friction.

3. Germination Heat transfer thru a finite temperature difference

4. Curing of cement Heat transfer thru a finite temperature difference

5. Throttling unrestrained expansion.

6. Sugar solution. Mixing of substances.

Internally and externally reversible processes:

Consider 2 cases of heat transfer:

i)

Involving heat transfer thru an infinitesimally temperature difference.

ii)

Thru a finite temperature difference T as shown is sketch.

Thermodynamics equilibrium is negligibly small. But, if heat is transfer due to a

finite temperature difference T as shown in fig (b) the process takes place with

significant deviation from Thermodynamic equilibrium. If this process has to be

reversed, we need to make use of a heat pump, which makes use of external work.

In this case, if we consider the bodies at the 2 temp. (T+T) and T) and the heat

pump at part of a single system, we notice that though the system may be restored

to its original condition, the surroundings are not. Hence, this is a case of an

internally reversible but externally irreversible process. But, in the case of a

Quasi- static process (Reversible), it is both internally and externally reversible.

Corollaries of the 2nd law of THERMODYNAMICS:

Corollary 1: Compassion between heat engines:

There can be no heat engine, which is more efficient than a reversible engine of

between the same temperature limits (reservoirs).

Proof:

between same temp limits, T1 & T2 as shown let both be supplied with same

amount of heat Q1. Let WI= Work done by irreversible engine,

WR = Work Done by reversible engine,

Q2 =heat rejected by irreversible engine.

Assume that the irreversible is more efficient. than the reversible engine.

i.e. I > R

Both are supplied with same amount of heat,

WI > WR.

(Q1 Q2 )>( Q1-Q2)

Q2> Q2

Q2 Q2 > 0

Reversing the direction of reversible heat engine, let it be made to work as a

reversible heat pump which absorbs heat Q2 from sink, delivers Q1 to source.

WI > WR , a portion of WI = WR may be supplied from I to R for the work needed by

R. This leaves us with an amount of work (W I WR). If we treat I and R together as a

single device, we notice that this device has a net heat transfer of (Q2-Q2) with the

sink, (Q1 Q1=0) with source and performs to work = (WI WR)

=(Q1 Q2) (Q1-Q2)= (Q2 Q2)

This device obvious violates the Kelvin Planck statement of the 2 nd law of

Thermodynamics. This leads to the conclusion that our initial assumption was wrong.

Hence, a reversible Heat Engine is the most efficient engine. Between a given pair of

temperature limits.

Corollary 2: Comparison between reversible Heat Engines :

All reversible engine operating between the same two temperature limits have same

(Effienciey).

Let >

Therefore W > W

R1

R2

R1

R2

Therefore (Q2Q2) >0

We conclude that R is a function of T1,T2.

R = f(T1, T2)

i.e. efficiency of a reversible engine is a function of temperature limits only.

Corollary 3: Thermodynamics temperature scale:

It is possible to have a temperature scale that is independent of any Thermometric

substance.

This temperature scale is derived from corollary 2 from which we conclude that the

efficiency of any reversible engine is a function of only the two temperature limits

involved. This means that irrespective of the working medium the efficiency of

reversible engine remains the same for a given pair of temperature limits this property

temperature scale.

Consider reversible engine R1, absorbing Q1 from source at T1 and rejecting heat Q2 to

Sink at T2.

Consider another Reversible Engine R2 absorbing Q2 rejected by Reversible Engine 1,

from source at T2

(Source for R2 is sink for R1) rejecting heat Q3 to sink at T3 consider another

Reversible Engine R3 which is absorbing Q1 from source at T1 and rejecting heat Q3 to

sink at T3 shown in the sketch. Reversible engine R1 and R2 together with heat

reservoir at T2 can be considered as a single device. This would also be a reversible.

engine since the engine R1, R2 are reversible. This combination device absorbs heat Q1

to sink at T3 but since all reversible engines operate between the same 2 temperature

limits have same of efficiency we notice that the efficiency of the combined reversible

device and engine R3 should have the same efficiency. Since both are supplied with

same heat Q1, we conclude that Q3 = Q3. We may write,

R1 = f (T1, T2) = 1- Q2/Q1

Q2/Q1 = f (T1, T2)

ThereforeQ1/Q2 = F (T1, T2)(1)

On the same lines, we may write.

R2= f (T2, T3) from which we get,.

Q2/Q3 = F (T2, T3) (2)

On the same lines considering engine R3

We may also write.

Q1/Q3 = F ( T1, T3 ) (3)

We may write.

Q1/Q3 = Q1/Q3 + Q2/Q3

Substituting equations (1) (2) (3).,

F (T1, T3) = F (T1, T2) x F (T2, T3) (4)

On observing the above expression.,

We see the LHS only has terms containing T1, T3 while RHS contains

T1, T2, T3, from the various expressions for F (T 1, T2) it is clear that equation (4) will

be satisfied only if: F (T1,T2) takes the form.

F(T1, T2)=( T1)/( T2)

Among the numerous possible functions Lord Kelvin choose F(T 1, T2) to be of the

form F(T1, T2) = T1/T2

From this he arrived at the Thermodynamics temperature scale It is clear from the

form of F chosen by Lord Kelvin that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2

Hence, efficiency of a reversible engine operating between temp limits T1, T2 would

be given by the expression

R = 1 T2/T1

If we consider a reversible engine operating between the steam point and ice point we

would find that would be 0.268.

i.e. 1- Tice/Tsteam = 0.268

Or Tice /Tsteam = 0.732.

From the Celsius scale, we leave

Tsteam Tice = 100

i.e. Tsteam 0.732 Tsteam = 100.

Tsteam = 100/0.268 = 373. 13 K

Tice = 273.13 K

.

These values are assigned to the steam and ice- pts on the absolute Thermodynamic

scale with Celsius scale as reference. The units are named Kelvin after Lord Kelvin

i.e. Tice = 273.13 K

Tsteam = 373.13K

With F scale as reference, absolute Thermodynamic temperature scale takes the

form:

Tsteam Tice = 180

Tice = 0.732 Tsteam

Solving the above we get

Tice = 32F

Tsteam = 212F

The units for this scale are Rankines

Tice =491.64 R

Tsteam = 671.64 R

Corollary 3a:

It is impossible to reduce a system absolute zero, in a finite number, of operations.

Consider a no of reversible, engines:

R1, R2 , R3..,RN connected in series with the heat rejected by 1 becoming the

source for the next as indicated. Let the last reversible engine reject heat to a sink

which is at absolute zero by absolute Thermodynamics temperature scale, we

recognize that

TN/ T sink=QN/ QN+1

But T sink =0(absolute)

Therefore QN+1 = 0

But this would result in the last engine violating the Kelvin -Planck statement of 2 nd

law of Thermodynamics.

Hence, we conclude that absolute zero cannot be attained in actual practice, we may

say, if there are infinite engines connected in series, the last engine may reject heat to

a sink whose temperature tends to absolute zero. But, this is not possible in finite

number of operations.

Corollary 3b:

It is not possible to have negative values on the absolute. Thermodynamics

temperature scale:

and sink at temperature = T2 (absolute)

From the above Thermodynamic temperature scale, the of the engine would be

R =1(T2/T1)

R =1+(T2/T1) 1

Since this is not possible, we cannot have negative values on the absolute

Thermodynamics temperature scale.

Carnot engine:

It is a reversible engine in which all the processes involved are reversible processes.

A Carnot engine consists of an insulated cylinder provided with frictionless piston and

a perfectly conducting member at one end. Provision is made for an insulated cap,

which can for fitted at one end when required .The engine is provided with a source at

T1 and sink at T2.

Processes involved:

i) 41 Reversible Isothermal heat addition: The insulated cap removed. The source is

brought in contact with the membrane. Heat is conducted in the cylinder. In a

reversible Isothermal process.

ii)23 Reversible adiabatic expansion:

The source is removed, the insulated cap is inserted, and the piston is allowed to

expand in a reversible adiabatic process.

iii) 34 Reversible Isothermal heat rejection: The cap is removed and the sink is

brought in contact with the membrane. Heat is rejected from the cylinder in a

reversible Isothermal process.

iv) 41Reversible adiabatic compression: The sink is removed and the cap is inserted.

The piston compresses the working medium in a reverse adiabatic process.

Expression for :

QS = p1v1* ln (V2/V4)

QR = p2v2* ln (V3/V2)

It can be shown that

V1/V4 = V3/V2 for a Carnot cycle

P1V1 = RT1

P2V2 = RT2

Substituting the above

carnot engine = (Qs QR)/ Qs = RT1* ln (V1/V4) RT2* ln (V3/V2) = (T1T2)/T1

RT1* ln (V1/V4)

carnot =1T2/T1

Therefore efficiency of the Carnot cycle depends only on temperature involved and

not on the working medium.

Reasons for impracticality:

1.All processes are reversible and hence impractical.

2. Frictionless piston is impractical.

3.During 1 half stroke of the piston there is a reversible isothermal process while

during the other half stroke, there is a reversible adiabatic process. The reversible

isothermal process needs to be very slow while a reversible and adiabatic process

needs to be very fast. This means that the piston should move very slowly for half a

stroke and very rapidly for the other half stroke, this is highly impractical.

Reversed Carnot engine:

A Carnot engine works on the Carnot cycle, which is a reversible, cycle Hence it is

possible to reverse the direction of all the processes and run the engine as a Heat

pump.

PROBLEMS

1. A Heat engine works on the Carnot cycle between 900C & 200C. If the heat

received by the engine is 50 KW calculate the power developed.

Ans)

Q1/T1=Q2/T2

Therefore 50/(900+273) = Q2/(200+273)

Hence Q2=20.16KN

Power developed = W = Q1 Q2 = 5020.16 = 29.84KN

2. A Heat engine operates between a source at 300C and a sink at 30C. What is

the least possible heat that can be rejected when delivering 100 KW?

Ans) W = Q1Q2 (Engine rejecting least heat would have the maximum efficiency.

And maximum efficiency is for a reversible cycle)

W = 100KW

Q1/T1 = Q2/T2

Therefore W = Q2 *( T1/T21)

100 = Q2 *( 573/2431)

Q2=73.64KW

3. An engineer claims to have developed and engine producing power of 4.5 KW,

working between temperature limits of 1400C & 350C consuming 0.5kg. Of fuel /hr

with calorific value = 42000 kJ /kg. Comment on the claim.

Ans)W = 4.5KW

Q1=Mass flow rate Calorific value=0.5*(42000/3600)=5.833KW

= W/Q1 = 0.77

max = (1T1/T2) = (1623/1673) =0.628

Since is greater than max

The above claim is not valid.

4. A Heat engine works on Carnot cycle between temperature limits 800 K, 300K the

engine develops a power of 5KW .If the fuel used has a calorific value 4200 KJ/kg .

Determine the fuel consumption in kg/hr. Relative = 0.5

Relative efficiency = (Actual /Ideal )

Ans) Since

If actual efficiency =

0.5 =( )/(1300/800)

W = Q1Q2 = 5 KW

Q1 = (R*42000/3600)

R = 1.371 kg/hr

5. A Carnot engine works between 2 reservoirs at T1 and T2 Kelvin. The work output

the engine is 0.6 times heat rejected If the difference in temperature between the

source and the sink is 200C, Determine

a. Source temperature.

b. Sink temperature.

c.

Ans) W = 0.6*Q2

W = Q1Q2

Therefore Q1=1.6Q2

= W/Q1 = (0.6Q2/1.6Q2) = 0.375

T1 T2 = 200

= (1T1/T2) = 0.375

Therefore T1=0.625 T2

Hence T1 = 533.33 K

T2 = 333.33 K

6. A domestic food freezer maintains a temperature of 15C .The ambient air

temperature is 30C. If heat leakage into the freezer is 1.75 KW, What is the least

power necessary to pump out the heat continuously?

Ans)

Q2 = 1.75 KW

Q1/T1=Q2/T2

W = Q1Q2 = Q2 *(T1/T2 1)

= 1.75 *(303/258 1)

Therefore,

W = 0.305 KW

average. Of 420 KJ of heat is introduced without altering temperature. The door is

opened 20 times in a day and the refrigerator operates at 15% of the ideal COP, the

atmospheric temperature is 30oC. The cost of work is 32 paise / KWh. What would be

the monthly bill for the month of June?

Ans) Heat removed from the refrigerator = Q2

Q2 = 420*20 = 8400kJ/day

COPR = T2/(T1T2) = 275/(303 275) = 9.82

Actual COP = 0.15*9.82 = 1.47

Therefore Actual COP = Q2/W

1.47 = (8400/W)

Therefore W = 5714.28 KW/day

Net bill = 5714.28*0.32*30/3600 = Rs 15.24

8. A heat pump is used to heat a house in winter to cool and reversed in summer .The

interior temperature is to be maintained at 20C. Heat leakage through, the walls and

the roof is estimated to be 0.525 KJ/s perC difference in temperature between the

inside and outside.

A) If the outside temperature is 5C. What is the min power required to drive the

pump.

B) For the same power input in summer what is the maximum outside temperature

for which the inside temperature can be maintained at 20C .

Ans)

Case A) (Winter) Room = Source.

T2=5C=278K

T1=20C=293K

COPR = 18.53 = (19.531)

COPH= Q1/W

Therefore 19.53=(0.525*15)/W

Hence W = 0.403KW

B) Summer

COPR=Q2/W

293/(T20) = 0.523(T20)/0.403

(T 20)*(T20) = (293*0.403)/(0.525)

By solving the above quadratic equation

we get T = 35 C and 5C

5C is not possible

Therefore we get T=35C

9. Three Carnot engines A, B and C work in series between temperature limits 1000K

& 300 K. Work output is in the proportion.

WA : WB: WC:: 3:2:1

i)

ii)

Ans)

If heat supplied to engine A is 1000 KW, determine the power

delivered by each engine.

Let Wc = k

Therefore Wb=2k and Wa=3k

a = Wa/Qa

Therefore (1T2/1000) = 3k/1000

Q1/T1 = Q2/T2 = Q3/T3 = Q4/T4

Therefore1000/1000 = Q4/300

Hence Q4=300KW

(1T3/ T2) = 2k/ T2

(1T4/ T3) = k / T3

(1 300/ T 3) = (k / T 3)

T 3 = 300+k

T 2 = T 3+2k = 300+3k

1000 = T 2+3k

Therefore 1000 = 300 + 3k

k= 700/6 =116.67 KW

T 2 = 650K

T 3 = 416.67 K

Therefore

Wc=116.67KW

Wb=233.3KW

Wa=350KW

10. Two reversible engines R1 & R2 operate in series between a high temperature

reservoir at 800K and a low temperature reservoir at 300K. Determine the

intermediate temperature if both the engine have same efficiency

Ans)

W1/Q1 = W2/Q2

(1T2/T1) = (1T3/T2)

Therefore T2=(T1.T3) = 489.9 K

11. A refrigerator produces 2 tones of ice / day at 0C from water maintained at 0C.

It rejects heat to the atmosphere at 27C. The power to rum the refrigerator is supplied

by an engine, which is, supplied heat from a source maintained at 227C by burning a

fuel of calorific. Value. = 20,000 kJ/kg . Find the consumption per hour and power

developed by the engine assuming both the devices to be rum on Carnot cycle take L

fusion = 333.3 KJ/kg.

Ans)

Q3 = 333.3*(2000/24) = 27775kJ/hr

COPR = Q3/W = (27775/W) = 273/(300 273)

Therefore W = 2746.9 KJ/hr = 0.763 KW

Q1= m* CV = m*20000

(W/Q1) = (1300/500)

m = 0.3434 kg/hr

12. A Heat engine operates between two reservoirs at 1000K & 300K is used for

running a Heat pump, which extracts heat from reservoir at 300K at a rate twice that

at which the engine reject heat to it. If engine = 40% of maximum possible & COP

of Heat pump is 50% of maximum possible COP. What is temperature of reservoir to

which the HP rejects heat? What is the rate of heat rejection from the heat pump if

heat supplied to engine is 50 KW.

Ans)

Actual = 0.7 * 0.4 = 0.28

COP actual = (2W/W) = 2

COP max = 4

4 = 300/(T300)

Therefore T = 375 K

(W/50)= actual

Therefore W= 50*0.28 = 14 KW

Hence heat rejected by the heat pump = 3W = 42KW

Q2 = 50 14 = 26 KW

COPR = (52/14) = 3.714

COP ideal = 7.428

COP ideal =300(300-T)

Therefore T=340K

13. An ice making plant reduces ice at atmospheric pressure. ,0C from water at

0C. The mean temperature of cooling water circulating through the condenser of

the refrigerator machine is 18C. Evaluate the minimum electrical work in KWhr

required to produce 1 ton of ice. Hfusion of ice at atmospheric pressure. = 333.5 KJ/

kg.

Ans)

(Q2/W) = T2/(T1T2) = 273/(291273)

333500/ W = 273/18

W =21989KJ = 6.108KWhr

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