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MINI PROJECT-I (2016-17)

Group No.: B1-3

Synopsis No.: 2

Guide: Ms. Shubhangi



Project Title: FIRE ALARM

Student 1: Saumya Nair
Roll no.: 114A2078

Student 2: Nandita Nandi

Roll no.: 114A2082

Student 3:
Roll no.:

Student 4:
Roll no.:

1. Project Abstract
Fire alarms are prime necessities in modern buildings and architectures, especially in
banks, data centres and gas stations. They detects the fire in ambiance at very early
stage by sensing smoke or/and heat and raise an alarm which warns people about the
fire and furnish sufficient time to take preventive measures. It not only prevents a big
losses caused by deadly fire but sometimes proves to be life savers. Here we are
building one simple fire alarm system with the help of 555 Timer IC, which will sense
the fire (temperature rise in surrounding), and trigger the alarm.
The key component of the circuit is Thermistor, which has been used as fire detector or
fire sensor. Thermistor is temperature sensitive resistor, whose resistance changes
according to the temperature, its resistance decreases with the increase in temperature
and vice versa.
We have built the circuit using, mainly three components that is, Thermistor, NPN
transistor and 555 Timer IC.
Here the 555 timer IC has been configured in Astable mode so that Alarm (Buzzer) can
produce an oscillating sound. In Astable mode, capacitor C charges though resistance
R1 and R2, till 2/3 Vcc and discharges through R2 till it reaches to 1/3Vcc. During the
charging time OUT PIN 3 of 555 IC remains HIGH and during discharging it remains
LOW, thats how it oscillate. We have connected a Buzzer to OUT pin, so that it
produce beep sound, when 555 is high. We can control the oscillation frequency of the
alarm by adjusting the value of R2 and/or capacitor C.

MINI PROJECT-I (2016-17)


2. Block/circuit Diagram

3. Applications
For residential applications, fire alarm should be installed outside of each
separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms and on each
additional story of the family living unit, including basement and excluding
crawl spaces and unfinished attics.
Fire alarm should be installed in sleeping rooms in new construction and it is
recommended that they should be installed in sleeping rooms in existing
It is recommended that more than one fire alarm should be installed in a
hallway if it is more than 30 feet long.

MINI PROJECT-I (2016-17)


4. Advantages

It protects by identifying and guiding fire fighter

Tell the fire brigade exactly where the fire is so they can get to it ASAP
Minimize pesky false alarms caused by old fire alarm detectors
In the unlikely event of a fault, they can also tell you exactly where the problem
Alert people of a potential fire
Safeguard assets from fire damaged

5. Disadvantages
Blinded by thick smoke, vapors, grease and oil deposits on the detectors
High maintenance cost.
Very high temperatures are not applicable.
Variable resistor should be set properly if the transistor may damage.
It works only when at 9v power supply is given.

6. Reference (IEEE Paper/Book)

Peter J. Finley, Jr., Executive Analysis Of Fire Service Operations In Emergency
Management, Vineland Fire Department, Vineland, New Jersey
Chenebert, A., Breckon, T.P., Gaszczak, A. (September 2011). "A Nontemporal
Texture Driven Approach to Real-time Fire Detection".Proc. International
Conference on Image Processing.IEEE. pp. 17811784.