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LAB REPORT SKPU 1711

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY


2016/2017 01
EXPERIMENT

: FLOW MEASUREMENT

LAB INSTRUCTOR
SECTION
GROUP NO.

:
:
:

GROUP MEMBERS

DATE OF

No Name
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
:

PREPARATION
DATE OF

NRIC

EXPERIMENT
GRADING SECTION
Criteria

ScoreComment

Total Mark

Cover Sheet
Report Summary
Theory
Experimental Procedures
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
References
Appendix

1.

Introduction

Measuring the flow rate is an important aspect in all industries. There are several ways to
measure the flow of fluids in pipes.
Objectives:
1. Measure the flow of water using different flow meters (Orifice plate flow meter and
measuring nozzle, Pitot tube, Venturi nozzle and rotameter) by applying Bernoullis
principle
2. Investigate the relationship between flow and pressure through different flow meters
3. Determine the corresponding discharge coefficients (Cd) for each flow meters
1.1

Theory on Venturi meter

The Venturi meter is a device for measuring discharge in a pipe. It consists of a rapidly
converging section (denoted as point 2 in Figure 1) which increases the velocity of flow
and hence reduces the pressure. It then returns to the original dimensions of the pipe by a
gently diverging the diffuser. By measuring the pressure differences, the discharge
coefficient can be calculated. This is a particularly accurate method of flow measurement
as energy loss is very small.

Figure 1: Schematic representation of a Venturi meter


Referring to the above Venturi tube diagram, the Bernoulli equation can be applied to
points 1 and 2. Following the analysis, the equations for flow rate can be derived.
Volumetric flow rate:

Qth= A V
3 3

2g

A
3

h1

1-

A1

where:

Qth

theoretical volumetric flow rate (m /s)


2
cross sectional area at 1 (m )
cross sectional area at 3 (m2)
height of manometer column 1 in meters (m)
height of manometer column 3 in meters (m)

A1
A3
h1
h3

The discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual volume flow rate to theoretical
volume flow rate:
Coefficient of discharge, Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical
The discharge coefficient is less than unity due to the losses caused by the wall shear stress,
the losses in contraction and the losses during expansion.
Q

act

C Q
d

th

h3

A 2

3
1
A

2g
= Cd A3

h1

dA 3

and Qact n h ..........where n C

2g
A 3 2

1
A
1

h1 h3

2g
3 A 3 2

1
A
1

This equation can be written as:


Log Qact = log n + aLog h
In order to find n and hence, Cd experimentally, a graph of Log Qact versus Log h can be

used.

1.2

Orifice Plate Meter

An orifice plate is a restriction with an opening smaller than the pipe diameter which is
inserted in the pipe; the typical orifice plate has a concentric, sharp edged opening, as
shown in Figure 2. Because of the smaller area the fluid velocity increases, causing a
corresponding decrease in pressure. The flow rate can be calculated from the measured
pressure drop across the orifice plate, P1-P3. The orifice plate is the most commonly used
flow sensor, but it creates a rather large non-recoverable pressure due to the turbulence
around the plate, leading to high energy consumption.

Figure 2: Schematic representation of Orifice meter


Referring to the orifice plate diagram, the Bernoulli equation can be applied to points 1
and 3. Following the analysis, the equations for volumetric flow rate can be expressed as
the following:

Q
th

where:

Qth
a
m

=a

2g h

2
1-m

theoretical volumetric flow rate (m /s)


2
cross-sectional area of plate (m )
ratio of cross-sectional area of plate to pipe, (a/A)
difference in height of manometer column (m)

The discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual volume flow rate to theoretical
volume flow rate:
Coefficient of discharge, Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical

act

C Q

d th
2g h

=C a

and Q

1.3

1-m

act C

aA

2- a 2
d
A

2g

C a

1-

a
A

2g h

..........where

aA

A 2-a 2

meter coefficient

Pitot and Pitot Static Tube

A Pitot tube is a simple device used to measure flow rates. It works for both liquid and
gas flows. The device, in its simplest form, consists of a small diameter hollow tube bent
into the shape of a L. Usually the upstream opening is smaller than the diameter of the
tube. The height, above the center-line, of the fluid in the in the vertical leg of the tube is
related to the velocity of the fluid in the flow. Pitot tubes (also called Pitot probes) and
Pitot-static tubes are widely used for flow speed measurement. A Pitot tube is just a tube
with a pressure tap at the stagnation point that measures stagnation pressure, while a
Pitot-static probe has both a stagnation pressure tap and several circumferential static
pressure taps and it measures both stagnation and static pressures. Figure 3 illustrates the
types of Pitot tubes.

Figure 3: a) A Pitot probe measures stagnation pressure at the nose of the probe, while
(b) a Pitot-static probe measures both stagnation pressure and static pressure, from which
the flow speed is calculated.

Figure 4: Illustration of stagnation point at the opening of a Pitot probe

Referring to Figure 4, writing the Bernoullis equation between points 1 and 2:


P v2 z P v2
g 2g
g 2g z
1

and zeroing out z1, z2, and v2 we get


P v2 P
2

2g

Assigning values to the various parameters

Pgd

and P g(d h)

Substituting into the Bernoulli equation, neglecting friction, andsolving for v1 we obtain,
v2
2g

PP
o

g(d h) g d

Therefore, (theoretical velocity) is


v 2 g h
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Where h is head difference measured.


The difference between the Pitot tube and the static Pitot tube is the small opening on the
side of the submerged part of the tube. Unlike the stagnation tube, a direct measurement
of P is possible. Using the Bernoulli equation and neglecting friction:
P
1

v2

z P
1

g 2g
g
P P v2

2g

g g

v2 z

2g

P
v 2

The value of v calculated through the above equation is called theoretical value.
However, the actual value is calculated as:
v c 2gh or v c

c : equipment constant (c = 1 if Re > 3000 for pitot- static tube and depends on types of
pitot tubes).

2.0

EXPERIMENTAL & METHODS

2.1

Apparatus

The flow measurement experiment apparatus (Figure 5) comprises a Venturi nozzle (9),
an orifice plate, a measuring nozzle and a Pitot tube (8) for flow measurement and a
rotameter (3). The flow rate can be regulated using the gate valve (2). The pressure losses
at the measuring elements can be recorded using pressure connections with rapid action
couplings. The connections are connected to a six-tube manometer (6), which is fitted
with a ventilation valve. The six-tube manometer is used in order to determine the
pressure distribution in the Venturi nozzle or the orifice plate flow meter and measuring
nozzle. The total pressure is measured by a Pitot tube.

Base plate
with frame

Pressure
measurement
connections

Multi-tube
manometer

Rotameter

Gate valve for inlet


Water inlet

Water outlet

Flow meter with orifice plate,


measuring nozzle, or Pitot tube

Venturi nozzle

Figure 5: Flow measurement apparatus set-up (HM 150.13, G.U.N.T Gertebau GmbH)
The tube manometer panel (Figure 6) has 6 glass cylinders (11) with milimeter (mm)
scale for measuring the water column (WC). The unit mmWC is used here (10mmWC

1mbar). The measuring range is 390 mmWC. All the tubes are connected to one another

at the upper end and ventilated by a shared ventilation valve (12). The measuring
connections (10) are at the lower end. Differential pressure measurements are carried out
with the ventilation valve closed (12, 13), while relative gauge pressure measurements
with the ventilation valve open (12). Standard pressure unit is Pascal (Pa), where 1Pa =
2

1N/m = 10-5bar = 0.01mbar

Figure 6: Illustration of multi-tube manometer


Equating the pressure at the level (pressure at the same level in a continuous body of
static fluid is equal),
For the left hand side:
p1 p A gh1
For the right hand side:
p2 p A gh2
Pressure difference, p
p p1 p2 p A gh1 p A gh2
p p1 p2 g(h1 h2 )
Rotameter in this apparatus consists of a vertical conical measuring section, through
which the liquid flows from bottom to top. A specially shaped float moves freely in the
liquid flow and is carried along by the flow due to its flow resistance. This results in
equilibrium between the weight of the float on the one hand and its drag and lifting force
on the other. The float adjusts to a particular height in the measuring tube depending on
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the flow volume. Because of the operating principle, a reliable measuring range on a
rotameter never begins at zero, but at 5-10% of the final measuring value. The measured
flow rate value is always read at the upper edge of the float. The maximum flow
measured by the rotameter is 1,600 L/h.

Figure 7: Technique to read the measurement of a rotameter.


2.2

Experimental Procedure
1. Make sure all six manometer tubes are attached to the Venturi meter and
manometer panel.
2. Switch on the pump. Turn the gate valve open (slowly) then open the
manometers ventilation valve (12) (Let the water runs for a moment to release air
bubbles from the system).
3. Once bubbles are no more visible (from the manometer columns and connecting
tubes), close the gate valve followed by manometers ventilation valve (12) and
then switch of the pump.
4. Open the manometers air ventilation valve (13) slowly while monitoring the
water level in the manometer tubes drop. Close the valve when the water level in
the manometer column reaches 30-40 mmWC.
5. To begin the experiment, switch on the pump and open the gate valve slowly. The
flow of water is controlled by the gate valve.
6. Set the rotameter at a certain value. Monitor the changes in water column. Make
sure the water levels in all six tubes are within the measuring range (0-390
mmWC).
7. Repeat the measurement of manometer levels with different flows by controlling
the gate valve opening (minimum flow 200 L/h)
8. When the measurement is done, switch off the pump.
9. The experiment is continued with flow measurement by Orifice plate, nozzle and
Pitot tube. Similar procedure is applied.
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3.0

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

For all flow measuring meter:


1.

Discuss the trend of manometer water level respective to different flow meter.

2. Demonstrate the relationship between flow and pressure using Bernoulli principle
(plot graph).
3.

Determine the discharge coefficient for every flow meter.

4.

Explain the differences in their discharge coefficient.

5.

Suggest the most accurate flow meter based on the experiment.

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