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Introduction to Neurofeedback

www.CenterforBrain.com

Introduction to Neurofeedback
Michael Cohen - Director
Renee Chilcott, LMHC, Boca Raton
C th i Moritz,
Catherine
M it Ph.D.
Ph D Clinical
Cli i l Director
Di t
Nathalie de Fabrique, Ph.D. New programs
Liz Doyle,
Doyle Ph.D.
Ph D Assistant Director
Roger DeBeus, Ph.D. EEG analysis

If a patient has major


problems with:

Anxiety or Depression
Emotionally Reactive
Cognitive or learning deficits
Impulse Control
M t control
Motor
t l (gross/fine
(
/fi motor)
t )
Poor attention/concentration
I
Insomnia
i
Sensory Integration?

Whats the solution?

Targeted Solution to Problems


Medication
Therapy (OT/PT/Speech/Etc)
EEG Neurofeedback

Other Support

Exercise
Diet and blood sugar
Nutrition and Brain Nutrition
Other Neuroregulation Tools
CES, AVS

Can playing a game with your EEG


change mood, anxiety, or sleep?

What does the EEG measure?


Theres over 100 billion neurons
EEG measures millions of neurons doing
the same thing at the same time
Generated from multiple systems of
oscillating rhythms

Listen to the audio of Brain Science Podcast on Brain Rhythms.

"Rhythms of the Brain" with Gyorgy Buzsaki is complex but very relevant superb
explanation of this core function.
function Audio link is a very understandable 1 hour interview
about the book concepts. Much easier to absorb. Google /brain scienc podcast Buzski

EEG AFFECTS
How your brain PERFORMS
Level of alert/awake
alert/awake, sleep
Attention
Emotional
E
i l control,
l mood,
d behavior
b h i
Cognitive performance
and more. . .

What is EEG neurofeedback?


Computer equipment monitors EEG.
Computer provides visual or auditory
feedback based on EEG activity.
EEG rhythms increase or decrease as a
result of the feedback.
(the
(th bbrain
i responds
d tto it
its own b
beat).
t)

Improved timing increases stability, and


efficiency
ffi i
(your brain works better)

The amount of delta, alpha, theta or


beta waves is related to our
state of general arousal

Three Things to Learn About


Neurofeedback
1) Anyone can change their EEG
Including Cats

2) Training the EEG can have profound


effects
3) Its Learning. Once trained and learned, the
effects tend to hold

History of EEG biofeedback


1958, alpha biofeedback study
Joe Kamiya at U Chicago
Subject 1, asked to identify alpha
state

11st trial,
i l 60 tones 60 guesses, hhalf
lf right
i h
2nd, trial 65% correct
3rd trial 85% correct
4th, after initial mistakes, 400 correct
guesses in a row

1968
1968, 11st congress iin A
Aspen C
Colorado,
l d fi
field
ld
named biofeedback
Al
Alpha
h training
t i i adopted
d t d by
b counterculture
t
lt
and practitioners oversold its claims

From Kamiya (1978)


Science paper

History of SMR biofeedback


(stabilization)
Can cats learn to change their EEG?
First study with cats on operant
conditioning of the EEG done by M.B
Sterman UCLA,
Sterman,
UCLA 1967

10 cats trained to produce EEG activity (SMR 1219 Hz over motor strip) for chicken broth & milk

Published animal research


study shows clear changes in
EEG. Clearly no placebo effect.

NASA and SMR biofeedback


In 1960s, Mercury astronauts
claimed natives waved at them
when
h th
they flew
fl over the
th Pacific.
P ifi
(i.e., they hallucinated)
In 1967, Gordon Allies, inventor
of amphetamine, was contracted
t test
to
t t toxicity
t i it off Mercury
M
capsule rocket fuel with David
Fairchild
Allies died prematurely.
Fairchild asked Sterman to help
finish work.

MB Sterman

Stermans original
g
1967 Studyy for NASA
Cats exposed to rocket fuel
Time

Avg 2 hours+ for seizures


with EEG trained cats
vs. 1 hour for normal cats

NASA Rocket fuel

Cats NASA & SMR biofeedback


Cats,
Tested rocket fuel on 50 cats,, 10 from
Stermans previous SMR training study.
After 1 hour,
ho r cats go into grand mal sei
seizure
re
Inject 100 mg/kg or so of fuel into each cat

EXCEPT:
EXCEPT 7 ddelayed
l d seizures,
i
3 not at all.
ll
seizure thresholds changed in these 10
Not explainable by placebo as cats didnt know
what to expect, and experimenter blind because
effect
ff t was entirely
ti l unexpected
t d

Improved functioning
with
ith SMR training
t i i

(C3)

Sterman, MB (2000). Basic Concepts and Clinical Findings in the


Treatment of Seizure Disorders with EEG Operant Conditioning.
Clinical EEG, 31(1), 45-55.

Studies in Epilepsy ADHD Beyond


196
1967 SMR
S
conditioning
di i i in
i
general
1973 Epilepsy
1975 Peak Performance
1976 ADHD
1977 Addiction
1978 Anxiety disorders
1978 L
Learning
i di
disabilities
biliti
1980 Sleep Disorders
1995 Brain Injury
1995 Lyme's Disease
1996 CFS
1997 Mood disorders
Neurofeedback Applications by year of 1st publication

Dr. Rodolfo Llins is the


Dr
noted neurosciencist at the
N.Y.U. School of Medicine,,
He believes abnormal brain
rhythms
yt s help
e p accou
accountt for
o a
variety of serious disorders,
including depression and
d f
dysfunction
i associated
i d with
ih
TBI.

Three Things to Learn About


Neurofeedback
1) Anyone can change their EEG

2) Training the EEG can have profound


effects
3) Its Learning. Once trained and learned, the
effects tend to hold

Changes in cortical timing (EEG)


promotes changes (neuroplasticity):
Behavior
Attention
Mood and Affect
g
Emotional Regulation
Ability to maintain calm (reduce anxiety)
Sleep
Cognition

Three Things to Learn About


Neurofeedback
1) Anyone can change their EEG
2) Training the EEG can have profound
effects

3) Its learning. Once trained and


learned the effects tend to hold
learned,

Neurofeedback Training
How Much Neurofeedback Training to
Learn New Brain Patterns?
Takes multiple sessions 15 to 70
Typical
yp
30-40, but whats typical?
yp
How much training is required to learn other tasks?

Over-Training
g is required.
q
Train multiple sessions after stability achieved.
Dont stop learning till you can maintain over time

Risk: Stopping the moment things look good

Problem with impulsivity?


A history of poor choices/same mistake?
Little planning or organization?
Frontal Lobe

Where do you target?


Pre-Frontal
Pre
Frontal Lobe

Temporal Lobe
Parietal Lobe

Easily upset or very emotional?


Poor memory retrieval?
Depression?
Frontal Lobe

Where do you target?


Pre-Frontal
Pre
Frontal Lobe

Temporal Lobe
Parietal Lobe

1) Overwhelmed with noise, visual stimuli?


2) Hard time listening or sitting?
3) Hard to understand when things go too fast?
Where do yyou target?
g

Frontal Lobe

Pre-Frontal
Pre
Frontal Lobe

Temporal Lobe
Parietal Lobe

Neurofeedback is really about


NeuroPlasticity
Book: The Brain that Changes Itself :
Dr Norman Doidge
Dr.
Plasticity relates to learning
Changes can profoundly alter the pattern of
neuronal activation in response to experience
experience.
Experience can actually change the brain's
functional organization

Normal EEG
Normal EEG
your brain is more in tune - more efficient. More
y
alert, more focused, more calm, better able to shift
gears

Disregulated EEG
Excessive slow or fast EEG
Less Stable (Unstable) Brain.
Causes you to work harder
harder. Brain is less efficient;
Harder to control and regulate emotion, behavior,
attention.
Harder to switch gears.

Disregulated EEG vs. Normal EEG

A disregulated brain often has


too much slow activity.

This brain is alert and awake


awake. In EEG terms
terms,
smaller means more activated, better functioning.

Live EEG Demo


Can the individual change his EEG?
Observe changes
g in brain behavior
There are a varietyy of ways
y to train the brain.
This is just one approach.

Neurofeedback works with medications


and other therapies to help improve:
Attention
Emotional stability
Behavior
Affect
Aff
regulation
l i (Mood,
(M d anxiety)
i )
Cognition
Sleep

When your brain is more stable


and efficient:
You can think more clearly
You are more present for therapy
Medications can often a) work more
efficiently or b) reduce dosage
efficiently,
Motor function often works better, more
stable
bl
Emotionally more stable

Courtesy of
Q-Metrx

EEG brain map helps target training

Slow alpha at the anterior cingulate increases with eyes


open. Thats not normal.

More balanced EEG activity produces


more balanced function
Greater

flexibility
More
M
emotional
ti l stability
t bilit
Better self-control
Reduced tendency to be triggered
More stable mood

Joubert Syndrome
How to use Neurofeedback?
Find

a clinician willing to work with you


relatively
l ti l close
l
by
b ...

Note: Not all credentialed providers are good at working with


challenged kids. Make sure they are.

Or
Learn

how to work with your own child

Requires getting a system, getting trained,


having a clinician to supervise you

How to find a clinician


in your area?

You may want to visit our educational website at


aboutneurofeedback.com/how_to_choose_a_provider.htm. You'll find appropriate
questions to ask potential providers to see if they are a good fit for you.
To check for providers in your area, you can explore any of the following sites:
www.isnr.org/isnrlist.cfm
www.eegspectrum.com/Providers/
www eegspectrum com/Providers/
(BCIA Biofeedback Certification Institute)
www.resourcenter.net/Scripts/4Disapi6.dll/4DCGI/resctr/search.html?
http://directory.eeginfo.com/
http://www
http://www.ochslabs.com/providers.php
ochslabs com/providers php (LENS providers,
providers another type of neurofeedback).
neurofeedback)

There is no single comprehensive list of providers, but the above listings represent many of
the mainstream options. Being on these lists is not a guarantee of quality or competency. You
sho ld check eexperience
should
perience and credentials as suggested
s ggested on the aboutneurofeedback
abo tne rofeedback site above.
abo e

How to get trained and do


neurofeedback at home?

Center for Brain Training does offer training courses that allow parents to come
learn to do neurofeedback. We also work with people who may be able to come
to your home and train you there.
Ch k www.CenterforBrain.com
Check
C t f B i
f more information.
for
i f
ti
There
Th are certain
t i
criteria to be met. Call for more details.

Some clinicians will provide home trainers to their patients


patients. Talk to local
clinicians and see if they will do that. Most wont do it unless you have some
sessions with them first so they can bet a better understanding of the
individual being trained.

There could be other companies willing to train parents to do neurofeedback.


We dont believe parents should do neurofeedback without clinical supervision.
It simply
Its
i l too
t complex.
l