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1. .

1.
1. () 
, . 
, 
.
,
f(x), ( ).
, 
:
dy
= f (x ).
dx

(1)

dy = f(x)dx.

(2)


. 
, ,
(1) (2), :
y=

f (x )dx + C .

(3)

(3)
 , . 
3

, (1) (2) 4
. 
, , 
.
(3) (1), 
, . , 
, 
, .
2. (1) 
, 
. 
:

dx
F x, y, = 0,
dy

(4)

F .
, (
dy
),
. 
dx
dy
(4)

dx
, , 
:
dy
= f ( x, y ),
dx

(5)

f , , , 
, , . . 
(1) f . (4)
(5) , 
. , 4
, ,
.
(4) (5) 
4

= (), , (4) (5),


. 
; .
:
F(x, y, y', y'') = 0,

(6)

, 
( ),
y'' = f(, , y').

(7)

. F
f , 
, ;
, , ' ( ) , '' 
. (), ,
(6) (7), 
. 
. 
, n :
F(x, y, y', y'',, y(n)) = 0,
y(n) .
3.
, 
.
:
dy
= f ( x, y ).
dx

, 
. (, ) , f,
dy
(5)
.
dx
5

y = (x) (5); ,
= (), 4
dy
.

dx
, .
, (, )
(5) ;
. , 
,
dy
arctg
( 
dx
,
). 
:
, ,
. ,
, 

. :

dy
= x 2 + y 2.
dx

(8)

, ' = 0, = = 0 ( ),
1
1
1
),
y = , x 2 + y 2 = (
2
2
2
' = 1 2 + 2 = 1 . . 
(8), (0, 0)
,
. 
, . .
. , 

: 4
6

, 4
:
= (, ).

(9)

, (, ) 
,
. 
(9), 
. , ,
, (0, 0), 
, :

, 0, 
0 
( ). ,
0 0 , , (9), :
y0 = (0, ) 
; ,
.
4. , 

. 
.
, 
(8) (8 )
, 
n n 
. ( );
,
,
. 
, 
. :
|

= (, ),
7

(10)

; , :
y' = (x, ).

(11)

(11) C,

:
y' = x| (x);

(12)

, (11) :
y = (x) + C
/

(11 ).
(11) ; (10) 
, . . 'C (, ) 0, 0, C0,
'C (, 0) 0, :
= (,).

(13)

, ( ):

(x, (x, C)) .

(14)

, (13), 
(11),
:
y = ' x (x, (x, y)).
/

(15)

, (11)
. ,
(15), ' x (, ),
8

' x {, (x, )}, (16) ' x (x, ). 


, , :
(x, y, C) = 0,

(16)

, , :
'x + 'yy' = 0.

(17)

(16) (17), 


F(x, y, y') = 0.

(18)

, (16)
. :
(, , 1, 2, ,n) = 0,

(19)


1, 2, ,n. 
, , 
(19),
? , 
. 
(19) n . :

+
y = 0,
x
y

2
2

+2
y+
y ' '= 0,
2
xy
y
x

3
3

y
+
+
y
=
+
3
...
'
'
0,

3
2
y

x
x y

(n)
n
+ +
y = 0.

n
y
x

(18)

(19) (20) n + 1 ;
n C1, C2, .., Cn.
, . . x, y,
y',, y(n) n (n + 1)
. :

F(x, y, y', ,y(n)) = 0,

(21)

. . n . 
, (19) y 
(x, C1, C2, , Cn) ,
(20); (21), 
(19) (20), ,
(x, C1, C2, , Cn),
, , (19), 
(21). , , n 
, 
n .
,
. , 
, , 
n n 
.

2.
1. :
dy
= f (x ).
dx

(1)

:
dy = f(x)dx.
10

(2)

(1) (2)
, () . 
, f()
< < b 
. , = b = ,
= , b = . ,
(),
f(x), ( 
). 
, 
. 
, (1) (2) :

y=

f (x )dx + C .

(3)

,
, < < . 
, , 
. , (3) 
(1). ,
. 

< < b. ,
(3)
:
x

y=

f (x )dx + C ,

(4)

x0

0 (, b). 
0, :
(0) = .
11

0 = x0,
(3 ) :
/

y = y0 +

f (x )dx.

(5)

x0

, ,
, . . ,
() 
0 . , 
(0, 0) (1)
f(x).

. , < x < b,
< <
/

//

(1). (3 ), (3 ) ,

x
, y = f ( x )dx , 

x0

y ( ) = 0.
f(x)
(3) .
, (1)
. , 
,
.
, ,
. 
(. . 
) , , 
, ,
.
12

2. , 
:
dy
= f (y )
dx

(6)

dy = f(y)dx.

(7)

, () 4
.
, f(y) < < b,
a > , b < + . = () 
, x = (y). 
, ,
:
dx
1
=
.
dy
f (y)

(8)

,

, .
< y < , 
f(y) . (8) :
dx =

dy
,
f (y )

:
x=

dy

f ( y) + C .
13

(9)

0, 0 ( < x0 < + , < 0 < ),


(5) :

x = x0 +

dy

f (y) + C .

(10)

y0

(9) (10) .
, . 
( , ) f() ,
, ; 0
, ( 
) 
. , 
. , = (x 0)
(4). ,
< x < + , < <
. ,
(8).

f(x) = 0

(11)

0. ,
= 0 (8) . 
, , (10) (2, 3,
1), = 0 (
, ), 0 , 
(11).
= 0, = 0
= 0, 
, , (x0, 0)
.
14

3. :
dy
= f ( x ) ( y ),
dx

(12)


, :
. ,
,
x dx, 
dy.
dx (). :
dy
= f ( x )dx .
( y )

(13)

, : ,
, 
(7). (7 ) 
. ,

, ,
. ,

; , 
. :
/

dy

(x ) = f (x ) dx + C ,

(14)

. , 
(12), (14),
x, . .
(12).
, ( ) .
15

, (14)
() 
= 0, = 0. :
y

0=

y0

dy

( y )

f (x ) dx = (x, y; x , y ).
0

x0

, (x, y; x0 , y0 )= 0 ,

1

=
.
x0
( y0 )
y xy=
=y
0

0; ,
( y0 ) 0 . y = y0 (y0) = 0,
(12), ,
(14), y = y0. :
M(x)N(y)dx + P(x)Q(y)dy = 0,

(15)

(12),

, , 
. N(y)P(x):

M ( x )dx
Q( y )dy
+
= 0.
P(x)
N (y)

M ( x )dx
+
P (x )

Q( y )dy
= C.
N (y)

16

3.

dy
= f ( x, y )
dx

, f(x, y)
, . . 
:
f(tx, t) = f(x, ).
(10) t =

(1)

1
, :
x
y
f ( x, y ) = f 1, .
x

y
.
x

y
, , 
x

:
dy
y
= .
dx
x

(2)


, 
y
, ,
x
, :

u=

y
,
x

= ux.
17

(3)

dy
du
= u+ x

(2), 
dx
dx
:

u+ x

du
= (u ),
dx

du = [(u) u]dx.

(4)

[(u) u], 
, :

du
dx
= .
x
(u) u

du

(u)u = lnx + C .

(5)

y
u , 
x
(2).
,

dy
ax + by + c
=
,
dx a1x + b1y + c1

(6)

a, b, , c1 . = c1 = 0,
, . 
. 
: x = + h, = k, h k
18

. : dx = d , dy = d, 
(15), :
d
a + b + ah + bk + c
=
.
d a1 + b1 + a1 h + b1 k + c1

h k
:
ah + bk + c = 0
,
a1b + b1 k + c1 = 0

(7)

:
d
a + b
=
.
d a1 + b1

x h, y k,
h k ,
(32). (16) ,
:
ab1 a1b = 0. .
a
b
1 = 1 = , , :
a
b
dy
ax + by + c
=
.
dx (ax + by ) + c1

(8)

,
:

z = ax + by.
19

dz
dy
, (8) :
= a+ b
dx
dx

z+c
1 dx a
=
.
b dz b z + c1

, , 
x, .

, :

dy
= f (x ).
dx

(9)


1 = , 1 = + ,

(10)

. dx = dx1, dy = dy1,
. , F(x, ) = 0
(1),

F(x1, y1) = 0,
F(x, y + C) = 0

(11)

. 
(11), 
(9).
(10) ,
(, )
(). (9) 
(9), . .
( = 0,
20

, ).
f(x0). 
(10) ,
F(, , ') = 0
:

F(, , ') = 0.

(12)

dy
= f (x ),
dx

(13)

x1 = x + C, y1 = y.
.
,
+ .

4.
, 
,
:

dy
+ By + C = 0.
dx

, , 
. ,
,
21

.
:

dy
+ Py = Q,
dx

(1)

, Q . Q = 0,
:
dy
+ Py = 0.
dx

(2)

(2) (
), (1) . 
(2) 
:
dy
= Pdx, ln| y |= Pdx + ln|C |;
y

Pdx

y = Ce

(3)

(2),
, (3), 
, . 
(2) 
(3),
, .
(3) (1), 
:
dC
e
dx

Pdx

CPe

Pdx

+ CPe

22

Pdx

= Q,


dC
= Qe
dx

Pdx

C = Qe

Pdx

dx + C1,

C1 . 
(3),
(3):

Pdx

Pdx

y= e
C1 + Qe
dx .
( 4)

,
. , 

(5) . C1e

Pdx

(2),
(37), . .

. e

Pdx

Qe

Pdx

dx

, , 
1 = 0.

: , Q 
, n . n = 0,
,
n = 1 :
dy
+ (P Q ) y = 0
dx

23

, n 0, n 1.
(26) yn, :
y n

dy
+ Py n+1 = Q.
dx


, . . y n + 1. 
:
z = yn+1,
:
dz
+ (n + 1) Pz = (n + 1) Q.
dx

z y n + 1,
, 
. n > 0 = 0.

2.

,

1.
1. (0, 0) f(x, )
. :
: f(x, ) , (x, ) (x0, 0). 
1

. 0
f ( x, y )
dx
1
(0, 0).
,
=
dy
f ( x, y )
(0, 0)
. , 
(0, 0). :
= (y); x = 0, = 0

dx
= 0.
dy

, (0, 0) 
.
(0, 0) 
.
: f(x, ),
(0, 0), ,
(, ) (0, 0),
1
f(x, )
. , 
f ( x, y )
ax + by
,
= 0, = 0. 
cx + dy
, (, ) (0, 0),
25

+ by = 0, 0. (x, )
cx dy = 0, ( ),
; 
. ,
(0, 0)
0/0.
2. 
:
dy ax + by
=
.
dx cx + dy

(1)

ad bc = 0,
,
,

= x + y, = x + y,

(2)

, , , ,
,
. , , 
, ( 
). (2) :

d = dx + dx, d = dx = dy .
d
,
d
dx dy

(1) cx + dy + b. :
d (cx + dy )+ (ax + by )
=
.
d (cx + dy )+ (ax + by )

26

(2),
, . . :

(cx + dx ) + (ax + by ) = = (x + y ).

, 
:

(c )+ a = 0
.
d + (b ) = 0

(3)


, :
c a
d

=0,

2 (b + c) + bc ad = 0.

(4)

, 
(2) 
, :

(c ) + = 0
.
d + ( ) = 0

(5)


, , . .

2 (b + ) + b ad = 0.
27

(6)

, 
(5) (5 ). ,
1 2 . , 1,
(4), 2 (5), 
, .
/

0
. , , , a 0,


(4) :
c 1

,
=
a

(5):
c 2

.
=
a

. . 0 . , (1) 
(2), , , , , :
d 1
=
.
d 2

(7)

(2) ( 
) , (
, )
.
28

,

. (7) 
:

d
d
= 1
.

ln| |+ ln|C |
2

.
1

= C | |

ln| |=

(8)

2.
1. , 
:
dy
= f ( x, y ),
dx

:
dy f(x, y)dx = 0,
, N(x, ), 
:
(, )dx + N(x, )dy = 0.

(9)

, (9)
U(x, ):
M (x, y )dx + Ndy dU

29

U
U
dx +
dy .
x
y

(9)
() .
:

M=

U
U
,M =
.
x
y

(10)

(9) (1),
dU = 0, :

U(x,y) = C,

(10)

, ( 
); , , (11),
dU = 0. , (11), 
, (9) 
. () 
(1), = 0 0, ,
(11) , . .
U
(0, 0)

= N (x0 , y0 ) 0 ;
y x , y
0

(), (0, ),
:

U(x, y) = U(x0, 0);


N(x0, 0) = 0, (0, 0) 0, (9)
. 
,
(0, 0) = N(x0, 0) = 0; (9).
, (9) ,

. (10),
30

,
, :

2U
;
xy

M N
=
.
y
x

(12)

, (11) ,
, ,
U(, y), (8).
U
= U ( x, y ) , , 0 "
x
, :
x
U ( x, y ) = M (x, y )dx + (y ).

(13

x0

(13) "
. , "
(12) (), "
(9).
(13),
x
U
M (x, y )
:
=
dx + ( y )
y
y
x0
.
(13), :

x
U
N ( x, y )
=
dx + ( y ) = N ( x, y ) N (x 0, y ) + ( y ).
y
x
x0

N(x, ), () =
y
= N(x0, 0), () ( y )= N (x , y )dy .
0
/

y0

31

, U(x, ) ;
, (12):

U (x, y )

M (x, y )dx +

x0

N (x , y )dy = C .
0

(14)

y0

2. (33) 
, : (, ),
(33)
U(x, )? 
. ,
, :

(Mdx + Ndy )= dU ; M =

U
U
, N =
.
x
y

(15)

: 
? 
, (1)
: U(x, y) = C.
x; , C 
:
U
U
dx +
dy = 0
x
y

dy
U U
=
|
.
dx
x
y


dy
M
(33), :
.
=
dx
N
32

,
:

M
U U
=
|
N
x
y

U
U
x = y =
M
N

( 
U
U
). : M =
, N =
,
y
x
. . . , )
, )
, . )
. ,
 
, a U(, ) = . 1,
, 
. , 1(Mdx + Ndy) =
= (U) (Mdx + Ndy) = (U)dU
(U ) =

(U )dU . ,

= (U) (16)
1
(9). ,
(9)
(16). , , ,
 1. :

(Mdx + Ndy) = dU, (17)


(Mdx + Ndy) = dV, (18)
1
33

V x, y; 
, :

M =

U
V
U
V
, 1M =
.
, N =
, 1N =
y
y
x
x

:
U U
V V
:
=
:
x y
y y

U
x
V
x

U
y
=0

V
y

, U V
U
,
0,
y
: V = (U). (17) :

(Mdx + Ndy) = (U)dU = (U) (Mdx + Ndy),


1
/

1 = (U) , .
3.
. :
/

( M ) ( N )
=
y
x

M N
M
=

x
y y
x

34

(19)

, (19) ,
N

ln
ln M N
M
=

.
x
y
y
x

(20)

(19) (20) 
. 
, 
(9). ,
(19); , 
(19), 
, (9) .

3. ,

1. n
1. 
:

F(x, y, y') = 0.

(1)

, (1)
' n, 
D
x , 
.

(, , y') = n(, )'n + n1(, )y'n1 + + 0(, ) = 0.

(2)

(2)
n '. , D 
', . . n(, ), 
.
(2) ,
n ' ( ).


y

, , , '
y
F
0 (. . (2) 
y '
' ;
36

, 
). , ,
F
a > 0,
y

(3)

' (1 ) 
.
2. n
: (1)
y'; 
; 
, n
', n
, 
. , y',
; 
y' ,
,
. , 
n , 
, .

2. ,

1. ' 
, :

F(x, ) = 0.

(1)

(3) 
, 0
37

,
:
p = f1(x), p = f2(x),

(2)

(2), , :

y=
y=

f (x )dx + C ,
1

f (x )dx + C ,
2

(1)
,
.
, , , 

(1).
2.
F(y, y') = 0

(3)

,
dy
1
=
, ,
.
dx
dx
, . . :
= (),
,
dy
= p ,
:
dx

dx =

dy
/ (p )dp
,
=
p
p

38

x=

/ (p )dp
+ C.
p

(5) 
: y = (t), p = (t),
:
dx =

dy ' (t )dt
=
, x=
(t )
p

(t )dt

(t ) + C .

3. .

1. :

F(x. , ) = 0.

(1)

, , 
, (6) 
. ,
u, v.
(1):
= (u, v), = (u, v), p = (u, v).

(2)

(2) (1).
dy
, (1) p =
,
dx
dy = pdx. ,
dy, dx, :

du +
dv = (u, v )
du +
dv .
u
u
v
u

39


u v. , a v
, :

dv
u
=

du

v .

, 
. 
: v = (u, C), (2) :
x = {u, (u, C)}, y = {u, (u, C)},
. . (1), 
(u , ).
(2) ,
(1) ; 
(2) p. 
:

v = f(x, y).

(3)

dy = pdx, x y, :
f
f
dx +
dp = pdx
x
p

f f dp
+
= p.
x p dx

40

(4)

, 
dp

; :
dx
p = (x, ).

(5)

(3),
:
y = f{x, (x, )}.

2. :

x = f(y, p).

(6)

dy = pdx,
; 
,
, (6)
dy
1
dy
=
y ,
.
= p ,
dx
p
dx
:
1
p f dp
=
+
.
p
y
p dy

.
p = (y, )
(6), :

= f{y, (y, C)}.


41

, (6) (3),
.
3. . 
, , 
,
; , , 
. ,
, 
,
. . 
, , . .
: A(p)y + B(p)x = C(p), , ,
dy
p =
.
dx
( , () 0), 
:
y = (p)x + (p).

(7)

(14) (
(10)), :

p = (p) + [ '(p)x + '(p)].

(8)


, ,
:

' (p )
' (p )
dx
+
x=
.
dp (p ) p
p (p )

(9)

, , ;
(p ) dp

(p ) p

: x = C (p) + (p), , , (p )= e
.

42

x , 
: y = [C (p) + (p)] + (p) + (p).
p; 
,
(x, y, C) = 0.
4. 
; :
y = px + (),

(10)

() .
; :
dp
p = p + [x + ' (p )] .
dx

dp
[x + ' (p )]= 0.
dx


; 
dp
= 0 , p = C, (15)
:
dx
y = Cx + (C).

(11)

,
(10) . (11)

. + () = 0.
; = (). 
(10), :
/

y = x (x) + [ (x)].
43

(15)

x = '(p) (12)
:
x = (p), y = p'(p) + (p).
/

(13)

, (13)
(10); , , , 
(12), :
dx = ''(p)dp,
dy = [p''(p) + '(p) (p)]dp = p''(p)dp,
/

dp
= 0. , , (10), 
'
dx
:

p'(p) + (p) = p'(p) + (p).


(12) (13) ;
(11) 
. , (11)
. ,
() + [()] = + b ( b ). ,
: () + x'(x) + '[()]'(x) = . 
() : [()] = , 
: (x) = , ,
(x). , 
(12).
: y = px + (p), 0 = x + '(p), p C
:

y = Cx + (C), 0 = x + (C),
/

.
,
44

(11),
. , , . . (12),
(10). , #
,
.

4.
1.
. 

. , 
,
dy
= f (x, y )
dx

(1)


, (0, 0) 
( 
); ( 
0) ,
.
,
, 
, 
, . ,
(16) y,
dy
= An (x )y n + An 1 (x )y n 1 + ...+ A1 (x )y + A0 (x ),
dx


(. . < < b, k < y < k,
< < b k
df
)

dy
45

(, 
, , n = 1; , n = 2).
,
:
f (x, y ) =

P (x, y )
,
Q (x, y )

Q , 
0, 0,
Q(x0, y0) = 0, . . f = .
f (x, y ) =

P (x, y )
[ (0, y0) 0]
Q (x, y )

, ,
= ()

(. . ). ,
(0, 0) = Q(x0, y0) = 0 ( 
),
,
, . . 
(, )
, .
, 
; ,
, ,
. ,
, 
. , 
(16) , 
,
. f(x, ) 
,
df
,
.
dy
46

, f

df
,
dy

, , .
2. , , 
df
dy
= f (x, y ) ,

, ,
dy
dx
f .
,
' , 
.

.
F(, , y') = 0

(2)

, n ', . . :
n(, )y'n + + 1(, )' + A0(x, y) = 0,

(3)

'.
k(, )
( , k(, ) 
, D
x ). 
, (3) n
:
yi' = fi(x, y) (i = 1, 2, , n);

(4).

(4).

, n(, ).
,
f y '

.

y y
47

(2)
; :
F
y '
y
.
=
F
y
y '

(5)

Ak(x, ) 
, (5) ,
n 0 , . . , ,
, 
:
F (x, y, y ')
= 0,
y '

(6)


' fi(x, ),
(2). ,
, 
, y' (2) (6).


;

. (6) 
' (2); 
(2) '.

, . . 
(2), '.
' (2) (6), :
(x, ) = 0,
48

(7)

, , .
( ) 
. 
G k (k > 0) (4)
; .
, G, 
(5)
y '
, ,
y
; k (4) ;
, k 
. 
. (, k
, ,
(4) .)
, 
(4), , 
. , (5) 
, ,
. G , 
. 
G (4) 
, ,
. 
, . y
x
/

y = (x),

(8)

(7) ,
(2),
(5),
, , . .
(8).
(8) , 
: , , 
( ), , ,
49

(8), , , . ,
(2) :
y = (x),

(9)

(7). , , 
, ,
. . (2). ,
, 
. , (9) 
( 
). , ,
G, :
. ,
. , (9),
(7), 
(3), . ,
:
:
F ( x, y, p ) = 0, p =

dy
,
dx

(10)

, :
F (x, y, p )
= 0.
p

(11)

(10) (11), (8),


.
(9)
(10), , , .
3.

() . 
, , ', 
50

; ,
(10).
, ,
.
(10)
(, , ) = 0.

(12)

, (12), 
, :
1) . 
, (, , ') 

(12); (12)
(10),
, . . ;
2) . , ,

;
; 
, (4)
(10); ,


. ,
(12), , 
: (12) 
:
(x, y,C )
= 0.
C

(13)

(12) (13) ,

(, ) = 0
( ) .
51

(14)

5.
1.

F(x, , ) = 0,

(1)

. ,

(1),

. = , #
2
. (30) 
. 

x1, y1. , , tg = k, 
2
: 1 2 = ,
, 1 , . .
tg( 1 ) = k

dy1 dy

dx1 dx = k .
dy dy
1+ 1
dx1 dx

(2)

(2) (x1, y1) .


dy


dx
(1):
F F dy
+
= 0,
x y dx

52

x, y x1, y1.
dy

(2), :
dx
F (x1 , y1 ,a ) y1 F (x1, y1 ,a )
+
y1
x1
x1
= k.
F (x1, y1,a ) F (x1, y1 ,a ) dy1

dx1
x1
y1

(3)

,
, 
.
x1, y1 (1), x = x1,
y = y1:
F(x1, 1, a) = 0.

(4)

(4) (3), :
( x1, y1,

dy1
) = 0,
dx1

(5)


. , (5) #
(1). 
(4):

(x , y , C) = 0
1 1
.

, :
2
1 =

dy
1
, tg 1 = ctg , 1 =
.
dy
2
dx1
dx
53

, (3) :
dy1 F (x1, y1,a ) F (x1, y1,a )

=0.
dx1
x1
y1

(6)


a (2) (6).
2. ,
:

1( x, y,

dy
)=0.
dx

(7)

(, )
dy

,
dx
. = 1, = 1; 

(2), ,
dy

, :
dx

dy1
k
dy
dx1
.
=
dx k dy1 + 1
dx1

(7), ,
1, 1
, . . :
dy1

dx
= 0.
1 x1 , y1 , 1

dy1
+
1
k

dx
1

54

(8)

dy1
dy


dx1
dx

dy
1
=
.
dy1
dx
dx1

1
1 x1 , y1 ,
dy 1

dx 1

= 0.

(9)

4.

1.
1. ,
. n
(n > 1) :

F(x, y, y',, y(n)) = 0,

(1)

F .
y(n). 
x0, 0, 0',, 0(n), :

F(x, y, y', , y0(n)) = 0,



(1) (n). :

y(n) = f(x, y, y', , y(n1)).

(2)


(2), = 0,
:
y = y0, y' = y0', , y(n1) = y0(n1),
56

(3)

0, y0, 0', , y0(n1) . 


(2) n
n
. 
y n 1
y1, y2, , yn1, y 
:
dy
dy
dy
= y1, 1 = y2 ,..., n 2 = yn 1.
dx
dx
dx

(4)

, k k
, yk =

dky
dx k

= y (k ) (k = 1, 2, , n 1),

y (n ) =

dyn 1
,
dx

(2) :

dyn 1
= f (x, y, y1, , yn 1 ).
dx

(5)

(4) (5) n 
n , y1, , yn2, yn1.

,
( ). 
n
. , (4) (5)
57

,
, , y1, , yn1 .
(4) . 
n 
. 
, y1, , yn1
: y1, y2, , yn. , 
:

dy1

= f1 (x, y1, y2 ,..., yn ),


dx

dy2

= f 2 (x, y1, y2 ,..., yn ),.


dx

dyn
= f n (x, y1, y2 ,..., yn ).
dx

(6)

2. n 
(6) 
.
(6) 0, y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0).

(6):
1) fi (i = 1, 2, , n)
:

D: 0 a < x < x0 + a, yi(0) b < yi < yi(0) + b (i = 1, 2, , n).


fi D 
, . .
, | fi | < (i = 1, 2, , n) , 
D;
58

2) D
y1, y2, ..., n: 
1', y2', , yn' y1'', y2'', , yn'' 
, D,
:

|fi (x1 , y '1 , y '2 ,..., y 'n ) fi (x, y ' '1 , y ' '2 ,..., y ' 'n )| K {|y '1 y ''1 |+
+ |y '2 y ' '2 |+ ...+ |y 'n y 'n |} (i = 1, 2, , n),

(7)

.
, fi D
y1, y2, , yn, ,
:

fi (x, y1 , y2 ,..., yn ) fi x, y ' '1 , y ' '2 ,..., y ' 'n =

)= yf (y y '' )+ ...+ yf
i

( )y

1 y
k

(y

y ' 'n ,

(8)

, yk (k = 1, 2,..., n)

yk = yk + (yk yk ), 0 < < 1.


/

//


.
fi

(i, k = 1, 2, , n) D
yk
(8) (7).
, 
fi
D
(i, k = 1, 2, , n).
yk
59

, 1) 2) 
(4):

y1 = y1(x), y2 = y2(x), , yn = yn(x),


0 h < < 0 + h, h =
b
= min (,
) = 0
M

y1(x0) = y1(0), y2(x0) = y2(0), , yn(x0) = yn(0).

(10)


.
yi(0). :

(
(
0)
0)
f1 x, y1 ,..., yn dx ,

x0

(
(
(
(
1)
0)
0)
0)
yn (x )= yn + f n x, y1 ,..., yn dx .

x0

y1(1)(x )= y1(0 )+

(11)

, 
. ,

| x x0 | h 

D. ,

1)
0)
0)
0)
(
(
(
(
| yi yi |= fi x, y1 , ..., yn dxM |x x0 |Mh b (i = 1, 2, , n)

x0

60

( h). 
:

f1 x, y1(1), , yn(1)dx ,

x0

yn(2 )(x )= yn(0 )+ f n x, y1(1), , yn(1)dx .

x0

y1(2 )(x )= y1(0 )+

(12)

, m 
(m 1) :

f1 x, y1(m 1), ..., yn(m 1)dx ,

x0

(
(
(
(
m)
0)
m 1)
m 1)
yn (x )= yn + f n x, y1
, ..., yn dx .

x0

y1(m )(x )= y1(0 )+

(13)

, (m 1) 
, , m

. , (m 1)
D | x x0 | < h,
m. ,
(m 1) :

| fi x, y1(m 1), ..., yn(m 1) | M

61

| x x0 | < h (i = 1, 2, , n), (13) :

| yi(m ) yi(0 ) |= fi x, y1(m 1), ..., yn(m1) dxM | x x0 |Mh b.

x0

m = 1,
m. , 
(13) D
0 h < < 0 + h. ,
, . .
(i = 1, 2, , n). , 
, :
yi(0 )+ [ yi(1)(x ) yi(0 )]+ [ yi(2 )(x ) yi(1)(x )]+ [ yi(m )(x ) yi(m 1)(x )]+ ...

(i = 1, 2, , n).

(14)

,
, . :
x
| yi(1)(x ) yi(0 ) | = fi x, y10 , ..., yn(0 )dx

x 0

)M | x x |,
0

2)
1)
1)
1)
0)
0)
(
(
(
(
(
(
f x, y1 , , yn fi x, y1 , , yn dx <
| yi (x ) yi |=
i

x 0

[ (

<

1)
1)
0)
0)
(
(
(
(
fi x, y1 ,..., yn fi x, y1 ,..., yn
dx,

[ (

x0

)]

) (

)]

) (

62

(15)


| yi(1) yi(0) |,
x
2)
1)
(
(
| yi (x ) yi | K

x 0

() ( )
{| y y | + ...+
1
1

|x x0 |2
.+ yn(1) yn(0 ) dx MnK | x x0 |dx= MnK

2
x 0

|}

(16)

(i = 1, 2, , n)
, yi(m1)(x) yi(m2)(x)
:

|x x0 |
| yi(m 1)(x ) yi(m 2 )(x )| M (nK )(m 2 )
(m 1) !

m 1

(17)

(i = 1, 2, , n);
, m 1 m 
. ,
x
m)
m 1)
(
(
| yi (x ) yi
(x )|= fi x, y1(m 1), ..., yn(m 1)
x 0

[ (

(
m 2 )
(
m 2 )
fi x, y1
,..., yn
dx<

)]

<

| f (x, y
i

) f (x, y (

(m 1), ..., y (m 1)
n
1

x0

63

m 2)

, ...,

x n

,..., yn(m 2 ) dx |K
yl(m 1) yl(m 2 ) dx<

x 0 l =1

| x x0 | m 1dx = M (nK )m 1 | x x0 | m .
< M (nK )m 1

(m 1)!
m!
x 0

(18

, , (18)
m. , | x x0 | < h, ,
(14), ,
, 

hm
M (nK ) m 1

. ,
m!
m=1

, ; , (14)
x0 h < x < x0 + h.
, 
. Yi(x) (i = l, 2, , n), :

Yi ( x ) = yi(0) +

( y

l
i

yil 1) = lim yi(m) ( x ).


m

i =1

, Y1(x), Y2(x), , Yn(x)


(6).
yi(m)(x) : yi(m)(x0) = i(0); 
(m )
, lim yi (x0 ) = Yi (x0 ) , . . Y i(x)
m

.
, (6).
(13) :

yi(m )(x )= yi(0 )+

{f (x, y
i

(x ), ..., yn(m 1)(x )) fi (x,Y1(x ), ...,

(m 1)
1

x0

64

( ...,Yn (x ))}dx + fi (x,Y1 (x ), ...,Yn (x ))dx

(19)

x0

(i = 1, 2,, n).
:
x

(
{f (x, y

) f (x,Y ,...Y )}dx |f (x, y ( )), ...,

m 1)
,..., yn(m 1)
1

m 1
1

x 0

x0

m 1)
(
fi (x,Y1 ,...,Yn ) dx
..., yn

K | y1(m 1) Y | + ... + | yn(m 1) Yn | dx,

x0

(20)

( ).
yi(m1)() (m = 1, 2, ...) (x0 h,
x0 + h) Yi(x) (i = 1, 2, ..., n),
N, m 1 > N

(m 1)(x ) Y (x )|<
: | yi
(i = 1, 2,, n), 
i
nKh
(19) (20)
:
x

( )
(
{f (x, y ), ..., y
1

x0

m 1
1

m 1 )
fi
n

(x,Y1 , ...,Yn )}dx

hnK = .
nKh

, m .
65

, , lim yi(m )(x ) = Yi (x ), 


m

(19) :
Yi (x )= yi(0 )+

f (x,Y , ...,Y )dx


1

x0

(i = 1, 2, , n), . . Yi(x)
(6). , , 
, .
, , Y1(), , Yn(), 
Z1(x), , Zn(x), Yi(x0) =
= Zi(0) = i(0) (i = 1, 2, , n) Zi Yi.
, ()
(x )= |Y1 (x ) Z 1 (x )|+ |Y2 (x ) Z 2 (x )|+ ...+ |Yn (x ) Z n (x )|

(21)

(x0 h, x0 + h). 
, () 0 
x, x0 , , , x0
x0 < < 1 () = 0,
, , x1, 
, 0
x. [0, 0 + h1], h1 
, h. (x) 
, , 
[0, x0 + h1] ,
0, , h1. 
(21) 
[0, x0 + h1] 
x = , 0 < < x0 + h1. Yi(x)
Zi(x) (6),
:
dYi
dZ i
= fi (x,Y1 , ...,Yn ),
= fi (x, Z 1 , ..., Z n ),
dx
dx

66


d (Yi Z i )
= fi (x,Yi , ...,Yn ) fi (x, Z 1, ..., Z n )
dx

(22)

(11) (x0 + h), x 


, [x0, x0 + h], :
Yi (x ) Z i (x )=

{f (x,Y , ...,Y ) f (x, Z 1, ..., Z


i

)}dx

x0

(i = 1, 2, , n). ,
, (10)
[0, 0 + h1] . :

|Yi (x ) Z i (x )|

K {|Y (x ) Z (x )|+ ... + |Y (x ) Z


1

(x )| }dx <

x0

x
<

Kdx = K (x x )
0

x0

(i = 1, 2, , n). i = 1, 2, , n,
:

|Yi (x ) Z i (x )|+ ...+ |Yn (x ) Z n (x )|< nK (x x0 ) nKh1

(23)

, : x0 < x < x0 + h1.


, , x = , (23)
, : < nK h1. 
, h1
67

. , h1

1
;
nK

< , < . 
. 
(0 h, x0 + h). 
, , D
(n + 1) ,
, 1, 2, , n. yi = yi(x)
(i = 1, 2, , n) 
, (x0, y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0)). 
,
0 + h x0 + h, 
, f1 
1 2 (, , x = x0 + h),
x0(1) = x0 + h, yi(1) = yi(x0 + h), i = 1, 2, , n 


(x0(1) h(1), x0(1) + h(1)).
[x0 h, x0 + h]
[x0(1) h(1), x0(1) + h(1)]. , 
, .
,
, fi 
1 2. , , 
. , 
n
n 1

x, y, dy ,..., d y
=
f

dx
dx n
dx n 1

dny

(24)

dyn 1
dy1
dy
dy
= f (x, y, y1 , ..., yn 1 ),
= y2 , ..., n 2 = yn 1.
= y1,
dx
dx
dx
dx

68


i , 
,
( ) (24):
n , 
,
dy
d n 1 y
,
, ..., n 1 ,
dx
dx
, :
dy
d n 1y
(n 1) (
= 0 = y 0 , = y, ..., n 1 = y0
dx
dx
).
3. 

( , 
). ,
, (x0, y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0)).

. 0 , a y1(0), y2(0),
, yn(0) ,
, , , D.

. (n + 1) 
, = 0,
. ,
 P x0 , y1(0 ), ..., yn(0 )

. | x0 x0 | ,

= 0, y1, 2, , yn = 0
(x0, y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0)). ,
(x0, y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0)), . ,
D , 
D, , = 0
/

69

y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0). 


D'
. (11), (12), , (7n) , 
i(m)
y1(0), y2(0), , yn(0).
i(m)(x) yi(x) 
:
y1 = 1( x, y1(0 ), y2(0 ),..., yn(0 ))

y2 = 2 ( x, y1(0 ),...., yn(0 ))

yn = n ( x, y1(0 ),..., yn(0 ))

(25)

(24) (4)
D'. , n
,
yi(0).
n , 
, ,
1, 2, , yn1 ;
(25) ,
. 

. , (24)
:
y = (x, y0, y0', , y0(n1)). (26)
, 0, 0', , y0(n1) 
, . . , 
: nM n 
:
y = (x, C1, C2, , Cn).
70

(27)

, , n 
, , :
(, , C1, 2, , Cn) = 0,

(28)


(24) (25). 

n 1 ; 
n 
. n,
(27)
(28) ( ) ,
. . , .
 
(27) , (28) 
(24) (25), 1, 2, ..., n 
, ', , y(n1).
, , 
(27). (27) ,
, 
0, , ', , y(n1) 
, :

(x0 ,C1,C 2 ,...,Cn )= y0

'= (x0 ,C1,C 2 ,...,Cn )= y '0


.

(n 1) = (x0 ,C1 ,C 2 ,...,Cn )= y0(n 1)

(29)

(29) n n 
, 1, 2, , n, , ,
1, 2, , n, ,
. ,
71

(28), , (27)
(24), (28) 
, . , 
, . 
; :
(x0 , y0 ,C1 ,C 2 , ...,Cn )= 0

y '0 = 0

x 0 y 0

2
2
2

+ 2
y ' +
y ' +
y ' '0 = 0
0
2

x
xy
y
y 0

n 1

(n 1) = 0

+ ...+

y
y 0
x n 1

(30)

( )0 , x y 
x0 y0. n
n , 1, 2, , n, . . , 
, .

2. no ,

1.

y(n) = f(x)

(1)

. ,
(1) :

y (n 1) =

x0

f (x )dx + C1, y (n 2 ) =

f (x )dx + C (x x )+ C ,
dx

x0

72

x0

y (n 3 ) =

x x
2
C (x x0 )
dx dx f (x )dx + 1
+ C 2 (x x0 )+ C3,
2

x0

x0

x0

, ,

y=

x x
C (x x0 ) n1
dx dx f (x )dx + 1
+
(n 1)!

n
C2 (x x0 )
(n 2)!

n 2

+ Cn1 (x x0 )+ Cn .

(2)

(2) (1);
, (2)
(1),
: = 0
y0 = Cn, y0 = Cn1, y0(n2) = C2, y0(n1) = C1.
/

, (18)

y=

x0

x0

x0

dx dx... f (x )dx.

(3)

(1),
(n 1)
x = x0. (3), n
, ,
.
2.

F(y(n), y(n1)) = 0
73

(4)

n. 
, (4) y(n):
(n) =f(y(n1)); (5)
z : z = y(n1). (5) :
z' = f(z). 
:

x + C1 =

dz

f (z ).

, z: z =

= (x, C1). z y(n1), (n


1) : y(n1) = (x, C1);
n 1 ,
(4) :

dx dx (x, C ) dx + C x
1

n 1

+ C 3 x n 2 + + C n 1 x + C n .

y =

(4)
n, (n) (n1) 
t:
y(n) = (t), y(n1) = (t),
dy(n1) = y(n)dx, dx =
dx =

' (t )dt
, :
(t )

x=

' (t )dt
+ C1.
(t )
74

(6)
dy (n 1)

y (n )

, :

(t ) ' (t )dt
dy (n 2 ) = y (n 1)dx =
,
(t )
y (n 2 )=

(t ) ' (t )dt
+ C 2,
(t )

dy (n 3 ) = y (n 2 )dx, ...,dy = y ' dx

, ,

y = y ' dx + Cn ,

. . t n 
C1, C0, , Cn, , .
3.

F(y(n), y(n2)) = 0

(7)

.
z = y(n2) (21) :

F(z'', z) = 0.

(8)

(8) z'', . . :

z'' = f(z),

(9)

:
2z', : 2z'z'' = 2f(z)z', : d(z'2 ) =
75

= 2f(z)dz, z 2 = 2 f (z )dz + C1 . 


dz
= dx ;
:
2 f (z )dz + C1

(22 ):

dz

f (z )dz + C1

= x + C2 .

z y(n2) : (y(n2), x, C1,


C2) = 0, . . (17 ); ,
, , n 2 
,
(9). (9) y(n)
, :
/

y(n) = (t), (n2) = (t),

(10)

.
:
dy(n1) = y(n)dx,
dy(n2) = y(n1)dx,
t, .
dx,
(n1): y(n1)dy(n1) = y(n)dy(n2) (10),
y(n1)dy(n1) = (t) (t)dt, (y(n1))2.
:
/

y (n 1) = 2 (t ) ' (t )dt + C .

76

(n1) (n2),
(10). n 1
.

3. .
,
1. . n

F(x, y, y', , y(n)) = 0,


, ,
(x, y, C1, C2, , Cn) = 0.
,
n
F(x, y, y', , y(n)) = 0. 
: (x, y, C1, C2, , Cn) = 0
F(x, y, y', , y(n)) = 0.
, , 
( ),
1 2, , n, 
F(x, y, y', , y(n)) = 0. :

(x, y, y', , y(k), C

k+1,

Ck+2, , Cn) = 0,

(1)

k (
) n k . 
n k , ; :

+
y '+...+ (k ) y (k+1)= 0
x
y
y

n k
(n )
+ ...+ (k ) y = 0

x n k
y

77

(2)

n k + 1 (23) (2)
n k Ci (i = k + 1, , n) a,
(1) 
a. , (1)
, . . : (x, y, y', , y(n1), C) = 0,
(1). 
(1), 
, k, k
< n. , (1) 
F(x, y, y', , y(n)) = 0. , = ()
(1), , 
(1) (2), ; , F(x,
y, y', , y(n)) = 0, (1) (2), 
, .
(1), k
1,2, , k 
k+1, , n,
F(x, y, y', , y(n)) = 0, n , . .
. , 
(1) 
n
k < n, . . .
2. , 
. n 
; ,
k 1 ', , (k1)
, , y(k)
(1 < k < n 1). :

F(x, y(k), y(k+1), , y(n)) = 0.

78

(3)

y(x) = z, (3) :
F(x, z, z', , z(n1)) = 0 (4)
n k. , (4)
. n
n k < n. ,
(4):
(, z, C1, 2, , Cnk) = 0

(, y(k), C1, C2, , Cnk) = 0. (5)


(25) (4), 
n k . (25)
(1), . . , , ,
(4). k = n, 
(1).
, . . :
F(y, y', y'',, y(n)) = 0.

(6)

: 
dy
p =
; 
dx
. 
:
y ' '=

dy ' '
=
y ' ' '=
dx

dp dp dy
dp
=
=p ,
dx dy dx
dy

dp
d p
2
2
2
dy dy = p p d p + dp = p 2 d p +

dy2
dy
dx
dy 2 dy

79

dp
p
dy

, y x p

dp
,
dy

p
dky
. ,

dx k
dp
d k 1y
p,
, , k 1 . y'', y''',
dy
dx
, y(n) (6), 
n 1:

F1(y, p,

d k 1y
dp
, ,
) = 0.
dy
dx k 1

,
dp
, C1, , Cn1) = 0, 
(y, p, C1, , Cn1) = 0, (y,
dy
(26), 
, .
3.
.
(1) 
, ', '', , y(n) , . . :

F(x, ky, ky', , ky(n)) = kmF(x, y, y', , y(n)).

(7)

k; m . ,
1() , Cy1() 
( ). ,
()
1() m
1(), 
. u = ln, 
, u1() ,
u1 + lnC = u1(x) + C1 . ,
80

1 = , u1 = u + .
,
. ,
, u' = z 
n 1. u, 
y z:

y= e

zdx

(8)

, 
z, 
y (8). 
.
(8) x, :

y '= ze

zdx

, y ' '= (z ' z 2 )e

zdx

, y ' ' '= (z ' '+3zz '+z 3 )e

, , y(k) e

zdx

zdx

z k 1.
, (7)
:

F x, e

zdx

, ze

zdx

,(z / + z 2 )e

zdx

,... e

zdx

F ( x,1, z, z '+z 2 ,)

(m ). e

zdx

, n 1:
F(x, 1, z, z' + z2, ) = 0.
81

, 
(1), n 1 , :
(z, x, C1, 2, , Cn1) = 0

y'
, x, C1, C2, , Cn1) = 0.
y

z , 
(28), n:

y= e

zdx + lnC n

= Cne zdx .

,
, , 
, , dx, dy, d2y, , dny.
(1) :

(, , dx, dy, d2y, , dny) = 0.

(29)

,
(29) ( n)
, . . :

(k, k, kdx, kdy, kd2y, , kdny) km(, , dx, dy, d2y, , dny).
, , 
x ( ).
y
u =
, c
x
u1 = u, 1 = . ,
= lnx, ,
82

u , : u1 = u, 1 = + C.
, ; 
. 
,
, u:
= e , = ue .

(10)


. :
dx = e d , dy = e (du + ud );
dy
du
=
+ u.
dx
d
.
,
d 2y
dx
d 3y
dx

d
d

d 2u du
du
d
,

+ u
= e 2 +
d
d
d
dx

d 3u du
du d
d d 2u

+
= e 2 3
2
d
d dx
d
d d

. . , :

x = e , y = ue , dx = e d , dy = e (du + ud ),

d 2 y = e (d 2u + dud ), d 3 y = e (d 3u dud 2 )

(11)

( d 2y, d 3y, ,
, a d 2u, d 3 u, , 
). (11) 9),

83

em ; : (1, u, d ,
du + ud , d2u + dud , , dnu + ) = 0.
n , ;
.

, (9),
, dx
dp

, , dy, d2y, m;
dy
m 1,

d 2y

m 2 . . 
dx 2
: x = e , y = uem ; 
:
du
d
du

dy
= e m
+ mu
= e (m 1)
+ mu ,
dx
d
dx
d

d 2y
dx

d
d

(m 1) du
d

+ mu
=
e
d
dx

d 2u
du
= e (m 2 ) 2 + (2m 1) + m(m 1) u .
d

e ,

F;
.
, , . . 
.

4. ,

, (3)

(n 1) , . .
84

, y, y', , y(n) F(, y, y', , y(n)) =

F(, y, y', , y(n)) =

d
(, y, y', , y(n1)),
dx

+
y' ++
y(n),
y (n 1)
x
u

(1)

, (1) 
:

(, y, y', , y(n1)) = C,

(2)

, , (2)
(1). , (2)
(1); 
.

5.

1.
1. n 
,
dy
dny
,
, ..., n (y , x
dx
dx
). , 
n :

a0y(n) + 1y(n1) + + an1y' + any = F(x),

(1)

0, 1, , n ( F)
( , 
). n, 
0 . ,

<<b

(2)

0() 0 F()
. 0(x)
:

p1 =

ai
F (x )
(i = l, 2, , n), f (x ) =
,
a0
a0

86

(1) :

y(n) + p1y(n1) + + pn1y' + pny = f(x),

(3)

1, , n f() .

, (3). (1) (3) 
,
. ( )
, F() f(), ,
:

a0y(n) + a1y(n1) ++ an1y' + any = 0

(4)

y(n) + p1y(n1) ++pn1y' + pny = 0.

(5)

(4) (5) , (1)


(3), , $
(1) (3).
2. 
:
1)
. , 
:
x = ( ),

(6)

n
, /( )
87

< < ,
(2) ( 
= (), 
(2)). (6) : dx = ().

, :
/

dy dy d
1 dy
=
=
,
dx d dx ' ( ) d

d 2y
1 d 1 dy
1 d 2 y ()dy dy
,....
=
= 2

() d () d () d
3() d
dx
dky
( 
dx k
2
dky
dy d y
,
,
...
)
,
, 
d d2
d k

. 
(1) ai
F(x) (4), :

b0

dny
d n 1 y
dy
+ b1 n 1 + ...+ bn 1 + bn y = ( ),
n
d
d
d

b0 ( )=

a0 [ ( )]
0
[' ( )]n

< < ;
2) 
. , 
:
= v() + (x),

88

(7)

v, n
v(x) 0 (2). :

dy
d
=v
+ v ' + ',
dx
dx
d 2y
dx 2

=v

d 2
dx 2

+ 2v'

d
+ v ' ' + ' '.
dx

, n 
( ) k 
; (1)
;
a0v(x) 
(2). , :

y = v(x)

(8)


. (8) , 
(n 1) 
0. , (8) :

y(n) = v

(n)

+ nv'(n1) +,

y(n1) = v (n1) +

(5), :

(n)

+ (nv' + p1v)

(n1)


v(x) , nv' + p1v = 0, . .
89

+ = 0.

(n1)

2.
1. :

L[] y(n) + p1y(n1) + + pn1y' + pny = 0.

(1)

L[] 
(
, pi(x) ), 
(1), L[]
, $
. 
:
1) L[y1 + y2] = L[y1] + L[y2],

(2)

1 2 , n 
. , 
, : L[y1 + y2] = (y1 + y2)(n) + p1(y1 + y2)(n1) + +
+ pn1(y1 + y2) + pn(y1 + y2) = (y1(n) + p1y1(n1) + + pny1) +
+ (y2(n) + p1y2(n1) + + pny2) = L[y1] + L[y2]. 
.
, , , 
.
2) L[Cy] = CL[y],

(3)

n , 
, . .
. 
, .
, (2) (3), 

.
90

1. 1 2 () (1),
1 + 2 .
. 1 2 , 
: L[1] = 0, L[2] = 0. (2) L[1 + 2] = L[1] + L[2],
. .
2. 1 (1), Cy1 
( ).
. (7) L[C1] = CL[1], 
L[y1] = 0, .
1. (1) 1,
2, , k,
C1y1 + C2y2 + + kk (1,
2, , ).
2. 1, 2, , n 
n ,

y = C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn

(4)

, n .
, (4) 
.
2. , 
, (4)
, $
. 1(x), 2(x),, n(x), 
(, b),
, 1, 2, n, 
, , 
:

1 1() + 2 2(x) + + n n() = 0.

(5)

1, 2, n, 
(5)
91

( , i ),
( ). 
( , + ).
3. n ,
(n 1) : y1, y2, , yn.
..., yn
W [y1 , y2 ,..., yn ] W (x )y1
y2

y '

'
...
'
y
,
y
n
1
2

(n 1) (n 1)

(
n 1)
..., yn
y2
y1

(6)

. 
:
3. y1, y2, , yn ,
. 
y1, y2, , yn n , . . 
:

1y1 + 2y2 + + nyn = 0,

(7)

i .
, n 0 ( 
). (7) n, 
:
yn = 1y1 + 2y2++ n1yn1
( i =

(8)

i
, i = 1, 2,, n 1).
n

(11 ) :

y 'n = 1y '1+ 2 y '2+...+ n 1 y 'n 1

yn(n 1) = 1y1(n 1)+ 2 y2(n 1)+ ...+ n 1yn(n11)

92

(9)

(6) 1,
, , (n 1)
2
n1 .
W , (8) (9)
,
, W 0, . y1,
y2, , yn , 
, .
4. y1, y2, , yn [
(2)], W[y1, y2, , yn]
. :
W(x0) = 0, < 0 < b. i = 0 yi0
i(k)(0) yi0(k) :
C1y10 + C 2 y20 + ...+ Cn yn 0 = 0

C1 y '10+C 2 y '20+...+ Cn y 'n 0 = 0


(n 1)+ C y (n 1)+ ...+ C y (n 1) = 0
C1y10
2 20
n n0

(10)

(10) C1, C2, ..., n 


, (10)
W(x0) = 0. , (10) n 
n C1, C2, ..., n, 
Ci . :
~
y (x) = C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn;

(11)

1 1 2
(1); (10) = 0:
~
~
~
y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0,, y (n1)(0) = 0.
/

(12)

(12), 
(1). ,
93

, = 0, ,
~
y () 0 ( < < b), (11):

C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn = 0


(2), Ci , . .
y1, y2, , yn .
. 3 4
:
, n 
n (1), , 
, 
. n

(1) .
4. , 
, 
( , ), (, b).
.
5. 
. 
, n2 aik (i, k = l, 2, ...,
n),
a11 a12 ...a1n

a21 a22 ...a2n

an1 an 2 ...ann

(13)

. n y1, y2, , yn
(1) : = 0 yi = ai1,
y'i = ai2,..., yi(n1) = ain (i = 1, 2, ..., n).
(2). (13) 
W[y1, y2, , yn] = 0. , W(x)
94

= 0, 3 
, y1, y2, , yn , . . 
(, W(x)
(, b)).
6. y1, y2, , yn
L[] = 0, :

y = C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn.


, , n 
, , 
.
, 

: = 0
y = y0, y' = y'0, , y(n1), = y0(n1),

(14)

y0, y'0, , y0(n1) , < 0 < b. ,


(4) , , (4)
C1, C2, ..., n , 
(14). 
i :
C1y10 + C 2 y20 + ...+ Cn yn0 = y0 ,

C1 y '10+C 2 y '20+...+ Cn y 'n 0 = y '0 ,


(n 1)+ C y (n 1)+ ...+ C y (n 1) = y (n 1)
C1y10

2 20
n n0
0

(15)

yi0 i() = 0; i0(k)


i(k)() x = x0. 
(15) , 
0, . . W(x0); 4 W(x0) 0. , 
95

(15) ( )
C1, C2, ..., n. (8), 
, , 
(14). .
4. , (8)
n , y1, y2, , yn
.
:
7. n + 1
(1) y1, y2, , yn+1, 
. n : y1,
y2, , yn. .
y1, y2, , yn ; 
, n
n + 1 ,
n+1 .
y1, y2, , yn ;
,

. , yn+1 : yn+1 = A1y1 + A2y2 + + Anyn.
. .
8.

y (x )+ p1y (n 1)+ ...+ pn y = 0,

y (n )+ p1y (n 1)+ ...+ pn y = 0

(16)

, 
, . . pi(x) pi (x) (i = l, 2, ..., n).
. (16),
(n 1) :

( p1 p1 ) y (n 1)+ ( p2 p2 ) y (n 2 )+ ...+ ( pn pn ) y = 0.

96

(17)

p1 p1 ,
< x < , p1 0.
1

(17) 1 p1 , 
( , ) (1), . . ,
1. (17),
, (16), . .
(n 1) , 1, 
n . 7 
, 1() p1 (). , (17)
: (p2 p2 )y(n2) + (p3 p3 )y(n3) + (pn pn )y = 0.
, , 
,
p3 p3 , , pn pn .
. 
, 
1. .
( a < x < b): y1, y2, , yn. 
. 
,
:
W [y1 , y2 , ..., yn , y ]y1
y2
... yn
y = 0.

... y 'n y '


y '
y
'
1
2

(n ) (n )

(
n)
(
n)
...
y2
yn
y
y1

(18)

, 
, (18) 
n .
i (i = l, 2, ..., n)
. 
97

; , (18) 
y1, y2, , yn. (n) W[y1, y2, , yn]. ,
, (, b).
(18), n
, ,

. , , . (18) 
:
y2 yn
y ' y 'n
y'
+ .... +
y (n ) y '1 y '2 y 'n y (n 1) (n 1 2 ) (n 22 )
y
y
yn(n 2 )
1
2
y1(n 1) y2(n 1) yn(n 1)
y1(n ) y2(n ) yn(n )
y1

y1

y2 yn

y '1 y '2 y 'n

+ ( 1) y y ' '1 y ' '2 y ' 'n = 0


y1(n ) y2(n ) yn(n )
n

:
y(n) + p1y(n1)+ +pny = 0,
:

p1 =

y1
y2 yn
y '1 y '2 y 'n
y1(n 2 ) y2(n 2 ) yn(n 2 )
y1(n ) y2(n ) yn(n )
W [y1, y2 , ..., yn ]

, 
, . 
, , 
, ,
, 
98

,
, n 
.
, n 1 
, , . . , 
, , 
W ' (x )
, W(x) =
p 1 . , : p1 =
W (x )
x
p1dx

x0

= Ce
. e.
W(x) = 0; :
x

W(x) = W(x0) e

p1dx

x0

(19)

(19), ( 
)
(n1),
. 
: y'' + p1y' +
+ p2y = 0, 1.
, y1.
W[y1, y] (19):

y1

y1

y = Ce

p1dx

y . 
x
p1dx

, : y1y' y1'y = C e
99

x0

y12, :

d
dx

y
1
=
Ce
y
y12
1

p1 dx

p1dx
Ce

y = y1
dx + C '
2
y1

(20)


, , . ,

, .
5. .

L[] y (n) + p1y (n1) ++ pny = 0

(21)

, y, ',

zdx

'',; y = e

n 1.
, (
z) , ,
, .
,
. , 
,
.
, 
. y = y1 
100

(21). z 
:
y = y1z.

(22)

(22) z 
, ; 
. (22)
. :
y' = y1z' + y'1z,
y'' = y1z'' + 2y'1z' + y1nz,
n
y(n) = y1z(n) + 1 y'1z(n1) +

n
y'' z(n2) ++ y (n)z.
1
2 1

(3 ) :
n
y1z(n) + [ 1 y'1 + p1y1]z(n1) + + [y1(n) + p1y1(n1) ++ pn1y'1 +

+ pny1] = 0.
z n; 
z L[1], ,
(1). ,
,
u = z'. , ,
y1, :
u(n1) + q1u(n2) + + qn1u = 0

(23)

n 1. 
, , :
u = z '=

d y
.
dx y1

101


: u1, u2, , un1. n z :

u dx, u dx, , u
1

n 1dx ,

y1, y2 = y1 u1dx, y3 = y1 u2dx, , yn = y1 un 1dx .

, 
(3 ). , 
: C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn = 0. 1
(
), :
/

C1 + C 2 u1dx + C3 u2dx + ... + Cn un 1dx = 0.

, : C1u1 +
+ C2u2 + + Cnun1 = 0, 
u1, u2, , un1. , 2 = C3 =
= Cn = 0. 1 0, , , 1 = 0, y1,
2, ..., n . ,
(1),

n 1. 
(1), 1 2. , ,
y
u = , (23)
y1
n 1.
y
u1 = 2 , 
y1
. ,
,
102

. r
(1) (z < n): y1, y2, , yn
/

y
u = (23), 
y1
/

y
r 1 : u1 = 2 ,
y1
/

y
y
u2 = 3 , , ur 1 = r . .
y1
y1
, :
1u1 + 2u2 ++ rur 1 = 0, , x, :

( 2

y2
y
y
+ 3 3 + ... + r r = 1 ),
y1
y1
y1

1y1 + 2y2 + + ryr1 = 0, 


1, 2, ..., r.
(23) , , r 1
/

u
. v = (v 
u1
), v n 2,
/

u
r 2 2
u1 ,
/

u3
u
, , r 1 . ,
u
u
1
1

, , 
n r. , r

, r .

3.
1. . 
:
L[y] y(n) + p1y(n1) + + pny = f(x).
103

(1)

f = 0 
, ,
L[y] y(n) + p1y(n1) + + pny = 0,

(2)

, , , 
(1). , (1)
(2) .
.  Y 
(1), 

.
Y (1 ), :
/

L[y] = f(x).

(3)

z,
y = Y + z.

(4)

(4) (1), 
(6) L[], L[Y] + L[z] = f(x).
(2), : L[z] = 0
, (1).
(1) (2) 
: y1, y2, . (2) : C1y1 +
+C2y2 + + Cnyn. z
(4), (1):
y = C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn + Y.

(5)

n .
, , , 
(5)
104

C1y1 + C2y2 + + + Cnyn ,


, . . = 0, 0
(2), :
y = y0, y' = y'0,, y (n1) = y0(n1),
y0, y'0,, y0(n1), n . 
(26) :

y '= C1y '1+C 2 y '2+...+ Cn y 'n+Y ' ,

y ' '= C1y ' '1 +C 2 y ' '2+...+ Cn y ' 'n+Y ' ' ,

y (n 1)= C1y1(n 1)+ C2 y2(n 1)+ ...+ Cn yn(n 1)+ Y (n 1).

(6)

(26) (26/) , ', ,


(n1) , '0, , 0(n1),
0; 
n n C1, C2, ..., n.

W(x) = 0; W(0) 0, y1, y2, ,
n, , . , C1,
C2, ..., n , (26),
, . .
2. . 
,


;
.
: 
,
. 
,
.
:
105

y(n) + p1y(n1) + p2y(n2) + + pn1y + pny = f(x),


/

(7)

f() ,
y1, y2,, n 
:
y(n) + p1y(n1) + p2y(n2) + + pn1y' + pny = 0.

(8)

(8) :

y = C1y1 + C2y2 + + Cnyn,

(9)

C1, C2, ..., n . (9)


8 ) , , 
(7), Ci .
(7) (9),
, , C1, C2, ..., n 
. n ;
n .
, (9) ( Ci)
(7), n 1 
; ,
. 
(9) :
/

y '= C1y '1+C 2 y '2+...+ Cn y 'n+y1

dC1
dC
dC
+ y2 2 + ...+ yn n .
dx
dx
dx

, ,
; n 1 
, ,
:

y1

dC1
dC
dC
+ y2 2 + ... + yn n = 0.
dx
dx
dx

106

(10)

' :

y' = C1y'1 + C2y''2 ++Cny''n,

(11)

, Ci. 
'' (11) ;
, 
i ( ):
y '1

dC1
dC
dC
+ y '2 2 + ...+ y 'n n = 0,
dx
dx
dx

(12)

//

:
'' = 1''1 + C2y''2 ++ ny''n.

(13)

, 
(n 1) :
y1(n 2 )

dC1
dC
dC
+ y2(n 2 ) 2 + ... + yn(n 2 ) n = 0,
dx
dx
dx

(14)

(n1) :

(n1) = 11(n1) + C2y2(n1) ++ nyn(n1).

(15)

, , (n):
dC
y (n )= C1y1(n )+ C 2 y2(n )+ ...+ Cn yn(n )+ y1(n 1) 1 +
dx
dC
dC
+ y2(n 1) 2 + ... + yn(n 1) n .
dx
dx

107

(16)

(9), (11), ..., (15), (16) (7),


:
n

C ( y ( )+ p y (
i

1 i

n 1)

+ ...+ pn 1 y 'i +pn yi ) +

i =1

dC
dC
dC
+ y1(n 1) 1 + y2(n 1) 2 + ...+ yn(n 1) n = f (x ) .
dx
dx
dx

, Ci
,
(1) , 
Ci:
y1(n 1)

dC1
dC
dC
+ y2(n 1) 2 + ...+ yn(n 1) n = f (x ).
dx
dx
dx

(17)

n
dCi
(11), (12), ..., (15), (17) n
(i = 1, 2, ..., n). 
dx

; ; 
dCi
, ,

dx
dCi
= i (x ) , :
:
dx

Ci = i (x )dx + i

(18)

( i ).
(9), 
(7):
n

y = 1y1 + 2 y2 + ... + n yn +

y (x )dx .
i

i =1

108

,
; , 
i , , ,
n

(8),

y (x )dx 
i

i=1

(7). , 
, 

.

4.
1. . 
: :

L[] any + an1y' + an2y'' ++ a1y(n1) + a0y(n);

(19)

z(x),
(29) (n 
) . z()
L[]. 
, i ,

, . (29)
z
zL [y ]dx , ,

,
. , :

a yzdx = a yzdx,
a y' zdx = a zy y (a z )'dx,
a y '' zdx = a zy ' ' (a z )'y 'dx = a
n

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

n 1

n 2

109

n 2 zy '

(an 2z )' y + y (an 2z )' 'dx .

a y
1

(n 1)zdx = a zy (n 2 ) (a z )' ' y (n 3 )+ (a z )' ' y (n 4 ) ... +


1

+ ( 1)

n 2

a y
0

(a1z )(n 2)y + ( 1)n 1 y (a1z )n 1dx,

(n )zdx = a zy (n 1 ) (a z )' y (n 2 )+ (a z )' ' y (n 3) ... +


0
0
0
+ ( 1)

n 1

(a0z )(n 1)y + ( 1)n y (a0z )(n )dx

, ,
, , :

zL[y ]dx = a

n 1zy

(an 2 z )' y + ...+ ( 1)n 1 (a0 z )(n 1)y +

+ an 2zy '(an 3z )' y '+ ... + ( 1)n 2 (a0 z )(n 2 )y ' +


+ a1zy (n 2 ) (a0 z )' y (n 2 )+ a0 zy (n 1 )+ y {an z (an 1 )'+

+ (an 2 z )' ' ... + ( 1) (a0 z )(n )} dx,


n

, ,

{zL[y ] yM [z ]}dx = [y, z ];

(20)


M[z] = anz (an1z)' + + (1)n1(a1z)(n1) + (1)n(a0z)(n) (21)
L[]
( ), [y, z ]
, ', ..., (n1), , z, z', ..., z(n1) , :
[y, z ]= y {an 1z (an 2z )'+...+ ( 1)

n 1

(an 3z )'+...+ ( 1)

n2

(a0 z )n 1}+ y '{an 2z

(a0 z )n 2 } +

+ y (n 2 ){a1z (a0 z )' } + y (n 1) a0 z .

110

(22)

n
[z] = 0

(23)

,
L[y] = 0.

(24)

(20) , 
z. 
z (33), z = z , (20)
d
[ y, z ] .
: zL[ y ] dx = [ y, z ] , , , zL[ y ] =
dx
, 
: 
(19) z (23),

(n 1) [ y, z ] . ,
z L[y]
, , [ z ] 0. , z
 (13), 
:

zL[y ]=

d
1[y ],
dx

(25)

, , 1
, y ,..., y(n1):
/

[y] = bn1(x)y(n1) + bn2(x)y(n2) + + b1(x)y, (25) + b0(x)y.


, z z (20)
, :
zL[ y ] =

d
| y, z | +yM [z ] .
dx

111

(26)

(25) (26) :
d
{1[ y ] [ y, z ]} yM [z ] = 0 .
dx

(27)

(27) n 
;
, 
, (26) 
. (25) 
:
/

bn1 = a0 z , bn2 = a1 z (a0 z ) ,


b0 = an1 z (an2 z ) ++ (1)n1(a0 z )(n1),
/

. . 1[ y ] [ y, z ] , (27) : [ z ] = 0.
, : 
z ()
L[y] , , 
(23).
(23)
(23); (24) 
. , (24)
:
[ y, z ],

(28)

() n 1.
, L[y] = f(x),
z , 

[ ] f (x )zdx + C . 

: y, z =

+ = Q, , 
, : Pz z = 0;
/

z = e

Pdx .
112

6.

1.


1. 
. , 
n 
, :

L[y ]=

dny
dx

+ a1

d n 1y
dx

n 1

+ a2

d n 2 y
dx n 2

+ ...+ an 1

dy
+ an y = 0,
dx

L [y ] y (n )+ a1y (n 1)+ a2 y (n 2 )+ ...+ an 1y ' +an y = 0.

(1)

1, 2, , an
() . ,
(1) 
, 
. , 
n ,
, . . 
. ,
(1) . ,

, .
113

, 

; kx, k . , 
,

y = ekx,

(2)

k , .
(2) , , , n ,
:

y' = kekx, y'' = k2ekx, y(n1) = kn1ekx, y(n) = knekx.

(3)

(2) (3) (1), 


L, :

L[ekx] = ekx(kn + a1kn1 + a2kn2 + + an1k + an).

(4)

(4), , n
k . 
,
L. F(k):
F(k) kn + a1kn1 + a2kn2 + + an1k + an.
(4) :

L[ekx] = ekxF(k).

(5)

,
L[], 
k. 
114

(2) (1), 
(4) . 
ekx 0; , :

F(k) = kn + a1kn1 + a2kn2 + + an1k + an = 0.

(6)

(6) k.
. 
k (2) k 
(6), (4) 
k x
, . . e 1 
(1).
n ; , n .
,
.

k1, k2,, kn.

(7)

(6) 
(1):

y1 = e

k1x

, y2 = e

k2 x

, , yn = e

kn x

(8)

, 
; :

W [y1 , y2 , ..., yn ]=y1


y2
... yn =

... y 'n
y '
y
'
1
2

(n 1) (n 1)
(
n 1)
...
y2
yn
y1

115

k x
= e 1

k1x
k1e

n 1 k x
1
k1 e

= e

k2 x

k2e

k2 x

...

k2n 1

...

(k1+ k2+ ...+ kn )x

k1

n 1
k1

kn x

kn x
kne

k x
knn 1e n

...

...

k2

...

k2n 1

...

k3

knn 1


; (k1 k2)(k1 k3) (k1 kn) (k2 k3)(k2
kn) (kn1 kn) , , ,
(5) . , 
(7) ,
(1) :
y = C1 e

k1x

+ C2 e

k2 x

+ + Cn e

kn x

(9)

C1, C2, ..., Cn .


. (9)


.
, ,
; (5)
. ( 
), , 
(5) ,
, . . k1 = + i
k2 = i. 
1, k1, :
y1 = e(
116

i)x.

(10)

(10) , , 
;
. f(x) 
:
f(x) = u(x) + iv(x),

(11)

u(x) v(x)
. , , 
u(x) v(x) (11) 
. .
. (11) 
( 
)

L[y] = 0,

(12)

u(x) v(x) (
) (12).
, 
L[y] :

L[u(x) + iv(x)] = L[u()] + iL[v(x)].

(13)

(13) ,
L[u] L[v] .
(13) ,
, : L[u(x)] = 0, L[v(x)] = 0, 
.
(10).
, :
y1 = e xei x = e x(cos x + isin x) = e xcos x + ie xsin x.
117

: k1 = + i
(1):
y1 = e xcos x; 2 = e xsin x.

(14)

, k2 = i 
, , , 
: 2 = e xcos x ie xsin x, . . (
)
(14). , ,
(6) 
(1) (14).

. (6)
, (7) < n,
, ,
(8) n. 
. 
L
uv. :

(uv )(n ) = u (n )v + n u (n 1)v '+ n u (n 2 )v ' '+ n u' v (n 1)+ uv (n ),


1

1
(uv )(n 1) = u (n 1)v + n 1 u (n 2 )v '+ n 1 u (n 3)v ' '+uv (n 1 ),
1
2

(uv )' '= u' ' v + 2u' v '+uv ' ' , (uv )

= u v + uv , uv = uv.

1, a1, ,
an , :
L|uv |= vL[u ]+

v (n )
v'
v''
v (n 1)
Ln [u ] (15)
Ln 1[u ]+
L1[u ]+ L2 [u ]+ ... +
(n 1)!
1!
2!
n!

118

L[y ]= y (n )+ a1 y (n 1)+ ...+ an 2 y ' '+an 1y '+an y,


L [y ]= ny (n 1 )+ (n 1)a y (n 2 )+ ...+ 2a y '+a
1

n 2

L2 [y ]= n (n 1)y (n 2 )+ (n 1)(n 2)a1y (n 3)+


...+ 2 1 an 2 y,

Ln 1[y ]= n (n 1)...2y / + (n 1)(n 2)...1 a1y,


Ln [y ]= n (n 1)...2 1 y .

n 1 y,

(16)

L[y], r = 1, 2, ..., n L[y] ,


,
.
(15) . ,
, a1, a2, ..., n , 
Lr[y] 
Fr(k), , Fr(k) r k
F(k), L[y]:

Fr(k) = F(r)(k).

(17)

(15), k 
. :

L[x me kx ] = x m L[e kx ] +

m m 1
m(m 1) m 2
x L1[e kx ] +
x
L2[e kx ] + ... +
1
12

m
+
xLm 1 [e kx ] + Lm[e kx ]
m 1

119

, (5) (17) : Lr[ekx] =


= ekxF(r)(k), :

m
m
L[ x me kx ] = e kx x mF (k )+ x m 1F ' (k )+ x m 2F ' ' (k )+ ...+
1

2

m (m 1 )
(k )+ F (m )(k ).
+
(19)
xF
m 1

k1 (6)
m. , , F(k1) = 0, F (k1) = 0,,
F( m1 1 )(k1) 0, F( m1 )(k1) 0. (19) 
m , m1,
; , m1
(1),
k1:
/

e k1 x , x e k1 x , x 2e k1 x , , x m1 1e k1 x .

(20)

,
, k2 m2, ..., kp mp, mi > 1,
m1 + m2 + + mp = n, kr , 
:
,
k px
k px
m p 1 k p x
e , xe ,..., x e

k2 x

, xe

k2 x

,..., x

m2 1

k2 x

(21)

(20) (21) 
n . , 
. , 
:

(r ) m11 k x p
(r )
k x
A0 + A1(r )x + ...+ A m 1 x e r
Pr (x )e r = 0,
r

r =1
r =1
p

120

(22)

Aj(r) . 
, p() 
.
kx
e 1 :
P1 (x )+

P (x )e

(kr k1 )x

= 0.

r= 2

() m1
, , 
, , 
,
:

Q (x )e(
p

kr

k1 )x

= 0.

(23)

r=2

, Qp(x) . (23)
1 ; ,
, , :

R p (x ) e

( k p k p 1 ) x

= 0.

(24)
( k p k p 1 ) x

0 , 
(24) , e
Rp(x), , p(), 

. (20)
(21), (1)
:
p

y=

,
r =1

121

(25)

Gr(x) mr 1 
. (25)
m1 + m2 + + mp = n, . . ,
.
2.
. 
:

L[y] = V(x),

(26)

,
, 
, 
, . 
,
. , 
.
L[y] = V1(x) + V2(x), , Y1 Y2 
: L[y] = V1(x), L[y] = V2(x),
: Y = Y1 + Y2. ,
: L[Y1 + Y2] = L[Y1] + L[Y2]. L[Y1] V1(x), L[Y2]
V2(x), L[Y1 + Y2] V1(x) + V2(x), .

k

L[ y ] =

P (x )e
r

r =1

[Pr(x) ] ,
.

:
L[y] = Pm(x)e x,

(27)

Pm(x) = mxm + +p0 m 0. 


:
122

1) ,
F( ) 0. ,
, , :

Y = Qm(x)e x,

(28)

Qm(x) = qmxm + qm1xm1 + +q0. 


qm, qm1..., q0 , ,
, :
L[Qm(x) e x] = Pm(x)e x,

e x L[Qm(x) e x] = Pm(x).

(29)

, (17);
,  
F( ):

m
e x L[Qm (x )ex ] = qm x m F ( )+ x m 1F ' ( )+
1

m
+ x m 2F ' ' ( )+ ...+ F (m )( ) +
2

m 1

m 1 m2
+ qm 1 x F ( )+
x F ' ( ) + ...+
1

+ q1{ xF ( )+ F / ( )} + q0F ( ).

(30)

(30) m() 
, m + 1
m + 1 q0, q1, ..., qm
123

qm F ( ) = pm ,

qm 1F ( ) + qm F ( ) = pm 1,

m 1

qm 2F ( ) + qm 1
F ( ) = pm 2 ,

m r + 1
qm r F ( ) + qm r +1
F ( ) +

m r + 2
m (r )
+q m r + 2
F (a ) + ... + qm F ( ) = pm r ,

2
r

q0 F ( ) + q1F ( ) + q2 F () + q3F () + ... +

(m)

+qm F ( ) = p0 .

(31)

F( ) 0. (31)
qm, qm1..., q0:
qm =
qm 1 =

pm
,
F ( )

1
p
m
m pm
pm 1 qm F ' ( ) = m 1
F ' ( )

1
F ( ) 1 F ( )
F ( )

. . ,
(28) ( (31) q0, q1, ..., qm
,
[F( )]m+1 0);
2) 
r > 1. F( ) = F ( ) = = F (r1)( ) = 0,
F(r)( ) 0. (19) ,
L[e xxm] e x m r.

e x, m, 
:
/

Y = xrQm(x)e x = e x(qmxm+r + qm1xm+r1 + + q0xr).


124

(32)

(27) ,
(26) , :
e xL[xrQm(x)e x] = m().

(33)

, (19)
, F( ) = F'( )= ... = F (r1)( ) = 0. :

(34) (33)
$
(26 ), m + 1 $
q0, q1, q2,, qm:
/

125

(35)

m+ r m+ r 1 r

...
r
r
r

(r )
[F ( )]m+1 0,

qi(i = 0, 1, 2, ..., m) 
, (26). ,
: 

m(x)e x :
xrQm(x)e x,

(36)

r > 0 ,
Qm , m. 
(28)
(32) Qm(x).

, e x
,
. ,
.
3. 
. :
L[y] = V(x), L[y]
, a V(x) 
, 2 . 
, L
, . . L[y] y'' + qy.
V(x)
. , :
L[] y'' + qy = V(x) ~

a0
+
2

126

(a cosnx + b sinnx),
n

n= 1

(37)

q . Y(x) 
:

Y (x )=

A0
+
(Ancosnx + Bnsinnx ).
2 n=1

(38)

(38) (37) 
, (37)
(. . 
). , :
a
A
L 0 = 0
2
2

A0
a
= 0,
2
2

A0 =

a0
.
q


(38): 0 0, q 0 ( q = 0
0 = 0, 0 ).
, cosnx
sinnx, . .
L[ncosnx + nsinnx] = ncosnx + bnsinnx.

(39)

, , L[cosnx] = (n2 + q)cosnx,


L[sinnx] = (n2 + q)sinnx.
127

cosnx sinnx
(39), :

An =

an
2

n +q

, Bn =

bn
n2 + q

(40)

(40) , ,
n2 + q = 0. , q = n2,
. . L[y] = y'' + n2y. 
n,
ncosnx + bnsinnx ; 
a priori ( . a priori ) 
( n = bn = 0, 
, ncosnx + Bnsinnx
An, Bn 
). , , , 
(30) :

Y (x )=

a0
a
b
n cosnx n sinnx .
+
2
2

2q n=1 n q
n q

(41)

, (41) 
(37). 
. n, bn V(x)
0; , 
n, | an | < 1, | bn | < 1.
a
Y (x ) = 0 n 
2q
A
2 ( > 0 ). , (41), 
n
,
2A

, . . (41) !
n2
. , , Y()
(37). : qY + V(x);

128

x; ,
Y V, (37) (41) :
a
q 0 +
2q

n
n= 1

an
2

n 2an

(ancosnx + bnsinnx )=
n=1

n=1

cosnx

n q

a0
+
+
2
n q
bn

cosnx +

sinnx . (42)

n q

n 2bn
2


(41); ,
Y(x), :
Y'' (x) = pY + V(x), . . Y(x) (37).
n :
/

y (n ) + p2 y (n 2 ) + ... + pn y = V (x ) ~

a0
+
2

(a cosmx + b sinmx ),
m

(43)

m= 1

.
n = 4 :

A0 =

a0
(m 4 p2m 2 + p4 )am + p3mbm
,
, Am =
p4
(m 4 p2m 2 + p4 )2 + p32m 2

Bm =

p3mam + (m 4 p2m 2 + p4 )bm


(m 4 p2m 2 + p4 )2 + p32m 2

(44)

2.
1. . 

:
y'' + P(x)y' + Q(x)y = 0
129

(1)


p0()'' + p1()' + 2() = 0. (2)
, Q 0, 1, 2 
.
. 
:
d dy
p + qy = 0.
dx dx

(3)

,

. (3), ,
py'' + p'y' + qy = 0, , ' 
''.
(2) (x)
, :
( p0(x))' = p1(x). :
p0 '+p '0 = p1,

' p1 p'0
=
,

p0
ln =

p1

p dx
0

p '0 dx
,
p0

p1
dx
1
p
e 0 .
=
p0

(2) :
p1

p1

p1

dx
dx
dx

p p
p p
p
e
y ' '+ e
y '+ e
y = 0,
0

p0

p0

130


p1
p1

dx
dx

d p0
dy p2
p
e
+
e 0 y = 0,
dx
dx p0

. ., , (3),
p

p dx ,
p= e
0

p1
dx
p2
p0
q=
e
.
p0


:
y'' + Q(x)y = 0.

(4)


, . . (4).

7.

1.

1. .
. 

dyi
= fi ( x, y1 , y2 ,..., yn ; ) (i = 1, 2,, n)
dx

(1)

, 1, 2 ..., n

0

x x0 a, yi yi b (i = 1, 2, , n), 0 1,

(2)

fi
yk

(i = 1, 2, , n), ,
(0, 10, 20, ..., n0),
1 2 . , 
fi (2)
fi

: | fi | (i = 1, 2, , n),
yk
:

fi
<K (i = 1, 2, , n). 
yk

fi
1, 2 ..., n:
|fi(x, y'1,, y'n; ) fi(x, y''1,, y''n; )| < K{|y'1 y''1| + + |y'n y''n|}.
132

, 
1 2 x0 h < x <
b
< x0 + h, h = min a,
, 
M
,

yi(m )( x; x0 , y10 , ..., yn0 ; ) = yi0 +

f (x, y
i

(m 1), ..., y (m 1); )dx

x0

(i = 1, 2, , n; m = 1, 2, 3,)

(3)

, 
.
m , , (1):

yi = i(x; x0, y10, , yn0; );

(4)

(4) , ,
. 
(4), 
.
2. .

dyi
= fi (x, y1 , y2 , ..., yn )
dx

(i = 1, 2, n)
0
D: | x x 0 | < a, yi y i b (i = 1, 2, , n) 

fi

(i = 1, 2, n), ,
yk

133

x0, y10, y20, , yn0,


yi = i(x; x0, y10, y20, , yn0)

(5)

:
yi
yi
,
(i = 1, 2, , n; k = 1, 2, , n). 
x0 yk
, (5) 0, i0
,
0
b
h
0
D'( | x0 x 0 | , yi y i ). yi (5) 
2
2
(4), . , (5) 
yk0 yk0 ; 

~
y i = i ( x, x0 , y10 , ..., yk0 + yk0 , ..., yn0 ) (i = 1, 2, , n).

(6)

, (4),
:
~
d y i yi

= f x, ~y1, ..., ~y f (x, y , ..., y )


i
i
1
n

dx

(7)

(i = 1, 2, , n).
(7) 

:

~ ~
~
~ ~
~

fi x, y1, y2,..., yn fi (x, y1 , y2 ,..., yn )= fi x, y1, y 2 ,..., yn

134

0 < ij <1.
( ij(x, yk0)) 
, yk0. ,
x yk0 ,
y j y j 0 ,
, ij:

aij ( x, y ) =
0
k

) (

fi x, y1 , ..., y j , y j+1, ... f i x, y1, ..., y j y j+1...


~
yj

yy

),

0. 
0

0
y j y j x x , yk y k ,

ij

fi

yk

f i x, y1, ..., y j 1, y j y j+1...

y y

, , , aij yk0 = 0
aij (x,0 )=

af i (x, y1, ..., y n )


y y

. 

135

(7) yk0, 
:

~y y
i
i
d
y 0
k

dx

(
n

aij x, yk0

j =1

~
yj

) y y .
j

0
k

(8)

(37)
~
y1 y
1
, :
yk0 ,
~
y2

y2

yk0

~
yn

yn

yk0

; ij(, yk0) 

yk0. 
yk0
| yk0 |. , 
, :

y0 y0

= i 0 i = 0

yk
x= x

~
0
y y

y
k
k
i = k;
= k0 = 1.
y k
yk

x= x 0

~y y
i
i
i k;
y 0
k

(9)

: 
(8) , , 
, :
~

yi y
( x; x0 , y10 , ..., yn0 ) yi
i
= i
lim
0
yk0
yk0
yk0 0 yk

(i, k = 1, 2, , n).
136

(10)

(10)
10, , yn0) D', . . . 
:

(0,

dzi
=
dx

fi (x, yi , ..., yn )
zj
y j
j=1
n

(11)

(i, k = 1, 2, , n).

2.

1. :
dy1

= f1 (x, y1 , y2 , ..., yn ),
dx

dy2

= f 2 (x, y1, y2 , ..., yn ),


dx

dyn
= f n (x, y1, y2 , ..., yn ).
dx

(1)

, D
f1, f2, , fn y1, 2, ..., n
. 
.
x0, y10, y20, ..., yn0 D , 
D,
, : yi = yi0
x = x0 (i = 1, 2,, n). :
/

y1 = 1( x; x0 , y10 , y20 , ... yn0 ),

y2 = 2 ( x; x0 , y10 , y20 , ... yn0 ),

yn = n ( x; x0 , y10 , y20 , ...yn0 ).

137

(2)


x0, y10, ..., yn0, 
, . 
D (x0, y10, ..., yn0) 
(, 1, ..., n), ,
. x0, y10, ..., yn0, ,
, 1, ..., n , (2).
(, 1, ..., n) ,

(x0, y10, ..., yn0),
, , :

y10 = 1( x0 ; x, y1, y2 , ... yn ),

y20 = 2 ( x0 ; x, y1 , y2 , ... yn ),

yn0 = n ( x0 ; x, y1 , y2 , ... yn ).

(3)

(3) , (2)
/

( D ) 
y00, y10, ..., n0, 
, 1, 2, , n. ,
, 10,
20, ..., n0 1, 2, ..., n
0 , 
:

1 = ( x, y1 , y2 , ..., yn ) = C1,

2 = ( x, y1, y2 , ..., yn ) = C 2 ,
n = ( x, y1, y2 , ..., yn ) = Cn .

( 4)

(4)
(1), (4) $
138

. ,
.
(4) , 
, 1,
2, , n (2), . .
(1) (, , 
, , ). ,
, :
1) (1) 
, , 
, .
,
, 
. , 
(4).
, 
;
2) ,
,

,
 (1). , 

. , 

[ 1 (x, y1, ..., yn ), ..., 2 (x, y1 , ..., yn )]= C ,

(5)

, 
, 
(1), , 1, 2, , n 
139

, 1, 2, ..., n, 
, , .
2.
, 
. , 
(1) 1,
2, , n. , , (3) 
, 1, 2, , n.
(4),
, 
, 1, 2, , n. , 
(4) (3)
(5), ,
. , 

(x, y ,, y ) = C
1
n

(6)

y1, , n  (1);
,
. , 
:
dy1
dyn
+
+ ... +
= 0.
x y1 dx
y n dx

(7)

y1, , n (1),
dy1
dy
, ..., n (7)
dx
dx
(1), :

+ f1 (x, y1 , ..., y n ) + ...+ f n (x, y1, ..., y n ) = 0.


x
y1
y n

140

(8)

(8) y1, , n , 
(1). , (, y1, , n)
(n + 1) 
, .
(6)
, (8) (, y1, , n),
.
(0,10, ..., n)
, , ,
(8)
, . . , y1, , n. , 

(8). , ,
(8) ;
(1) (7), , (6).
,
.
, (8)
, (6) .
, (8),
:

.
3.  n 
(1), . . , 
1, 2, , n,
1, 2, , n n 1, 2, ..., n.
(1). ,
(4) ,
D ( 1, 2, ..., n )
. 
D (y1 , y2 , yn )
0, 10, ,yn0 .
1, 2, , n
1, 2, ..., n . 
~

0 y10 , y20 , ..., yn0 y10,


141

y20, ..., n0 
C1 , C 2 , ..., Cn , , 
(1):

y1 = 1( x, C1, C 2 , , Cn ), , yn = n ( x, C1 , C 2 , , Cn ),

= 0 
~

y10 , y20 ,..., yn0 . .


, n () 
(1). 
: (x, y1, ..., n) = , 
, n ,
: yn = (, y1, ...,
n; ). , , , (n 1) 
(4), n 1 n 1
. , $
. (n 1)
, n 1 ,
n , . . 
(1). , 
k ,
k .

3.

1. (4), (1),
, 
. ,
,
yi. 
(1), 
. 
142

( ), 

, . , 
(4) :
dx
dy1
dy2
dyn
=
=
= ... =
1
f1 (x, y1 , y2 , .., yn ) f 2 (x, y1 , y2 , ..., yn )
f n (x, y1 , y2 , ..., yn )

,
( 
,
). , 
dx ,
. : 
x, 1, 2, , n x1, x2, , xn. 
:
dx1
dx2
dxn
=
= ... =
.
X 1 (x1, x2 , ..., xn ) X 2 (x1, x2 , ..., xn )
X n (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )

(9)

1 (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )= C1 ,

2 (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )= C 2 ,
n 1 (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )= Cn 1.

(10)


, 
, i 

x1, x2, , xn.
143

(9) (1), , 
n, . :
X n 1
dx1
X (x , x , ..., xn ) dx2
dx
X
= 1 1 2
= 2 , , n 1 =
,
.
(
)
dxn X n x1 , x2 , ..., xn dxn
dxn
Xn
Xn

(11)

, 
, 10, 20, ..., n0
n(10, 20, ..., n0) 0. 
Xn,
i, i .
(45 )
,
10, 20, ..., n0
i: X1(10, 20, ..., n0) = X2(10, 20, ..., n0) == Xn(10,
20, ..., n0) = 0.
; 
(9). ,

.
. ,
(10)
/

(x , x , , x ) = C
1 2
n

(12)

,
. 
; , 
, , :

= dx1 +
dx2 + ...+
dxn = 0.
x1
x2
xn

144

dxi 
(9) i; 
, :

X 1 (x1, x2 , ..., xn ) + X 2
+ ...+ X n
= 0.
x1
x2
xn

(13)

, ,
(13) x1, x2, , xn, 
() 
. 
(12), (13)
. (

), (13)
, , , 
(13), 
, . 
(9), (10),
(
), n 1 
n 1 = C (i = 1, 2, ..., n 1) (
i

n 1 n x1, x2, , xn).


n 1 1,
2, ..., n1 
.
2.
.
(9), 
(9),
, 
, . ,
. n 1 
145

, ,
; n 2 , 

.

4. .

1. 

dxi
= X i (t, x1, x2 , ..., xn ),
dt

(1)

X i
(i, j = 1, 2, ..., n). 
x j

x1, x2,, xn ,
t, t0 < t < . (1)
. ,

t = t0, i = i0,

(2)

. . xi = xi(t; t0, 10, x20, ..., xn0) (i = 1, 2, ..., n).


. (2)
, > 0 > 0,
~

, xi0 xi0 < i = 1, , n,

~
~

0 0
0
0
0

xi (t; t 0 , x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) xi t; t 0 , x1 , ..., xn <

146

(3)

(i = 1, , n) t0 < t < + . ,
, ; 
, 0 > 0, > 0
~

, ( x10 , x 20 , , xn0 ) t = ,
i :

~
~

0
0
0
0

xi (T,t 0 , x1 , ..., xn ) xi T,t 0 , x1 , ..., xn 0

, x k0 x k0 < (k = 1, 2, , n). 
, t0, 10, , xn0,
,
~

: t0, x10 , , xn0 .


, 
, t


. x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n :

xi = x i + xi(t) (i = 1, 2, , n).

(4)

xi(t) = xi(t, t0, 10, , xn0); 


xi(t)
x i (t) 0 (i = 1, 2, ..., n), . . 
. , 
(4) (1). :

d xi d
+ ( xi (t )) = X i (t; x 1 + x1(t ), ..., x n + xn (t )).
dt
dt

147

o
x i , :
n

d xi d
X i
+ ( xi (t )) = X i (t; xi (t ), ..., xn (t )) +
xm
(t; xi (t ) +
dt
dt

xm
m=1

+ i x i , ..., xn (t )+ i x n ).

xi(t) (1), :
n

X i
d xi
=
xm
(t; x1(t )+ i x1, ..., xn (t ) + i x n ). (5)

dt
xm
m=1

, x m 
(5) .
0
x i = 0 (i = 1, 2, ..., n) 
x i (t) 0 (i = 1, 2, ..., n), .
,
, 
: xi(t) 0 (i =1, 2, ..., n). (3),
, ,
t0 < t < + 
. $
: ,
, ,
(1), 
.
2. , Xi
i 
, . .
X i (t , 0, 0, ...,0 )
= aij = const
x j

148

(i, j = 1, 2, ..., n). Xi


:
n

a x + (t; x , ..., x ),

X i (t; x1 , ..., xn )=

ij

j =1

i
x1 = x2 = ... = xn = 0. (1) :

dxi
=
dt

a x + (t, x , ..., x ) (i = 1, 2, , n).


ij

(6)

j =1

(6) ,

:
dxi
=
dt

a x
ij

(i = 1, 2,, n),

(7)

j =1


(6), ,
(1). (7)
(1) 
.
3. , 
, . . (7), 
,
(7) .
:
n

yy =

ik xk

(i = 1, 2,, n),

k =1

149

(8)

(7) . 
(6), :

dy1

= 1 y1 + 1* (t, y1 , y2 , ..., yn ),
dt

dy2

= 2 y2 + 2* (t, y1 , y2 , ..., yn ),
dt

dyn
*
= n yn + n (t, y1 , y2 , ..., yn ).
dt

(9)

1, 2, , n 
*
(8), i (t, y1, y2 , ..., yn ) :

i* (t, y1, y2 , ..., yn )=

a (t, x , ..., x ) (i =1, 2, , n).


ik k

(10)

k =1

. :
1) 
(7) ;
2) i (t, y1, y2 , ..., yn ) (6)
:

1
+
n
2
2
|i (t, x1, x2 , ..., xn )| M xi
(i = 1, 2,, n),
i=1

(11)

M , > 0;
3) 
(7) 
(7) ,
(6) .
150

. 3
(6)
*
(9). , i (t, y1 , y2 ,..., yn )
(9) (11). ,
| ik | <
(i = 1, 2, , n). , (10), :

| (t, y , y , ..., y )|=


n

*
i

k =1

( x12 + x22 + ... + xn2 ) 2

ik k

(t, x1, x2 , ..., xn )

M 1( x12 + x22 + ...+ xn2 )

1
+
2

(12)

k =1

M1 = M n.

, . 
xi:

xi =

ik yk ,

(13)

k =1

| ik |, . . | ik | < (i = 1, 2, , n),
2

xi2

n
n

=
ik yk |ik |yk | | 2

k = 1

k =1
k =1

2
2

(y
n

2
k

+ y 2j = n 2

k =1 j =1

|y ||y |
k

j =1

y .
2
k

k =1

151

| yk || y j |

yk2 + y 2j
2

,
n

xi2 L

y ,
2
k

(14)

k =1

i =1

L = n2 2. ,

yk2 = L1

k =1

x ,
2
k

(15)

k =1

L1 = n2 2. (12) (14) 
:

| (t, y , y , ..., y )| M y

*
i

2
k

1
+
2

(16)

k =1

1
+
M = M 1L2
.
(56) 1, 2 , :
*

1 d
2 dt

y = y + y (t, y , ..., y ).
2
i

i =1

2
i i

i =1

*
i i

(17)

i =1

i ; 

n n 1 ... i = ; > 0.
152

(18)

,
(17). (16) (18) :

1
n
n
n
2
1d n 2
yi yi2 + M * yi yk2

2 dt i =1
i =1
i =1
k =1

n
2
yi yk2 ,
k =1

1d n 2
yi yi2 + nM * yk2

k =1
2 dt i =1

1+

n
nM * n 2
1d n 2
2
yi 1
yi
yk .
2 dt i =1
u k =1

i =1

(19)

, k ,
1

1
y <
.

*
2 nM
k =1
n

2
k

(20)

, 
t = t0 k ,
(20), 

153

(20) 
t = t0. (19) :
1d n 2
n
yk (t ) yk2 (t ),

2 dt k =1
2 k =1

, t0 t, :
t

ln yk2 (t ) (t t 0 )
k=1
t 0

y (t ) e
2
k

(t t 0 )

k =1

y (t ).
2
k

(21)

k =1

(21) ,

y (t )

2
k

k =1

t . , (20) 
t0,
t > t0. , (21)
t > t0, t = t0 (20)
. (14) (15) ,

x (t ) LL e
2
k

(t t 0 )

k =1

, xk (t 0 ) <

LL1n

x (t ),
2
k

(22)

k =1

xk (t ) < , ,

(6) . ,
, (22), xk(t)
t . , .
154

4. . :
1) 
(7) ;
2) i (t, x1, x2, ..., n) (6)
(11), (6) .
. (6)
:

dyn e +1
k
= k yn e +1 + yn e + 2 +
t, y1 , ..., y2 ),
(
n ek +1
k
k

dt

dyn

= k yn + n (t, y1, ..., yn ).

dt
dy1
= 1y1 + y2 + 1 (t, y1, ..., yn ),
dt
dy2
= 1y2 + y3 + 2 (t, y1, ..., yn ),
dt
dye
1
= 1 ye + e (t, y1, ..., yn ),
1
1
dt

(23)

i (t, y1, ..., n)


1 (t, y1, ..., yn )=

ik k

(t, x1, ..., xn ) (t, x1, ..., n),

k =1

(16) , > | ik |.

n n 1 ... 1 = , > 0.
(23) y1 2 . . 
k ,

1 d
2 dt

i =1

yi2

i=1

yi2 +

yi yi+1 +

i =1

i i

(t, y1, ..., y2 ),

(24)

i =1

, 
i = e1 1 + 2, ..., n k, n.
155

*
(16) i (t , y1..., yn ) , yi yi +1 yi yi +1

yi2 + yi2+1
,
2

, (24), :
1

n
n
n
n
2
1d n 2
yi yi2 + yi2 + M yi yk2 .

2 dt i =1
i =1
i =1
i =1
k =1

(25)

, +
, : + = 1, 1 > 0.
(25) ,
(19), :

n
nM n 2
1d n 2
2
yi 1
yi 1
y .
2 dt i =1
1 k =1 k

i =1

(26)

(26) ,
(19), , (19)
(6), !
(6) .
, , !
, .

1. .
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

2.
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1. n . . . . . . . . . . . .36
2. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
157

4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
2. n ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
3. .
, . . . . . . . . .77
4. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84

5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .129

7.
. . . . . . . . . . 132
158

1.
. . . . . . .132
2.
. . . . . . .137
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
4. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

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