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LAKESIDE CAMPUS LIBRARY

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Purpose
Evaluating information
Acknowledging sources
Citing and Referencing

CITATION &
PLAGIARISM

What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism is the act of
presenting anothers work
or ideas as your own.

to steal and pass


off (the ideas or
words of another)
as one's own

to present as new and


original an idea or
product derived from
an existing source

to use (another's
work) without
crediting the
source

TYPES OF
PLAGIARISM

Act Of Plagiarizing Is Done

Clone
Rephrasing
Copy paste
Remix

Aggregator
No proper
citation
Inaccurate
citation

#1. Clone
Submitting anothers work, word-for-word, as ones own

#2. CTRL-C
Contains significant portions of text from a single source without
alterations

#3. Find - Replace


Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content
of the source

#4. Remix
Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together

#5. Recycle
Borrows generously from the writers previous work without citation

#6. Hybrid
Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without
citation

#7. Mash-up
Mixes copied material from multiple sources

#8. 404 Error


Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information
about sources

#9. Aggregator
Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains
almost no original work

#10. Re-tweet
Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the texts
original wording and/or structure
Source: http://plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/types-of-plagiarism/

Original Text
I think if you do something and it turns
out pretty good, then you should go do
something else wonderful, not dwell on it
for too long. Just figure out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

ORIGINAL TEXT
I think if you do
something and it
turns out pretty
good, then you
should go do
something else
wonderful, not
dwell on it for too
long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

EVIDENCE #1
I think if you do
something and it turns
out pretty good, then
you should go do
something else
wonderful, not dwell on it
for too long. Just figure
out whats next
Copied word for word

ORIGINAL TEXT
I think if you do
something and it
turns out pretty
good, then you
should go do
something else
wonderful, not
dwell on it for too
long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

EVIDENCE #2
Jobs (2006), said I think if you
do something and it turns out
pretty good, then you should
go do something else
wonderful, not dwell on it for
too long. Just figure out whats
next. which only comes to
show that even the greatest of
all moguls are not relying on
the success of his todays but
also to continue to work on
future of his products.

Proper quotation marks and


it shows that this student
know what they are writing

ORIGINAL TEXT
I think if you do
something and it
turns out pretty
good, then you
should go do
something else
wonderful, not
dwell on it for too
long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

EVIDENCE #3
Sometimes in striving and
undertaking any
responsibilities, there is
always a time when
something goes well and
rejoicing about it is
prolonged. Of course there
is no harm in basking in it
but there is always a need
to move on and try to
adventure into other fields
to see what is next.
Extract is understood and
properly quoted

ORIGINAL TEXT
I think if you do
something and it
turns out pretty
good, then you
should go do
something else
wonderful, not
dwell on it for too
long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

EVIDENCE #4
I think if you do
something and it turns
out pretty good, then
you should go do
something else
wonderful, not dwell on
it for too long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)
No quotation marks

ORIGINAL TEXT
I think if you do
something and it
turns out pretty
good, then you
should go do
something else
wonderful, not
dwell on it for too
long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

EVIDENCE #5
I think if you do
something and it turns
out pretty good, then
you should go do
something else
wonderful, not dwell on
it for too long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)
Proper quotation marks

ORIGINAL TEXT
I think if you do
something and it
turns out pretty
good, then you
should go do
something else
wonderful, not
dwell on it for too
long. Just figure
out whats next.
(Jobs, 2006)

EVIDENCE #6
I think if you do
something and it turns
out great, then you
should go do something
else better, not
celebrate on it for too
long. Just think of whats
next.
Changing some words

Why is Plagiarizing a
serious matter?

How would you feel if all the time and effort that you
have spent coming up with something unique is
claimed ownership by another irresponsible human
being?

YOU ARE GUILTY OF THEFT!

HOW TO AVOID
PLAGIARISM?

What is Citation?
A citation is the way you tell your
readers that certain material in your
work came from another source.

How to avoid plagiarism?


Citing and Referencing

APA Citation
Style 6th Edition

Accuracy and
completeness are
important

Be consistent and
precise!

Keep track of all your


sources throughout
your research process

The Rules of Referencing

A reference must be
included every time you
use someone elses idea
or information

The Rules of Referencing

When do we provide referencing?...

Quote

use exact words of the source with


quotation marks ( ).

Paraphrase

restate in your own words

Summarize

draw out the key points or main


arguments of the original text

Copy

(reproduce a diagram, graph or


table from someone elses work)

The Rules of Referencing


References must appear in two
places:

1. In Text Citation

2. Reference List

Examples of In Text Citation

Examples of References

APA Style
Citation in the
text

Complete reference
list/bibliography at
the end

The tiering of journals has also become


an integral part of the
academic decision making process
relating to tenure, promotion and
pay increases (Pechlaner, Zehrer,
Matzler, & Abfalter, 2004).

In Text Citation
Authors family
name

Year of publication

Page numbers
(if appropriate & where
available)

Two authors or five authors


Include all family name
If six or more authors: authors
Put et al. after the first authors family name
e.g.
Many factors are known to affect the successful
outcomes for students at university (Johnston,
2003)
OR
Johnston (2003) claims that there are many
factors that are known to affects the success of
students at university.
Use direct quote from an original source
to indicate information from a specific table, chart,
chapter, graph, or page.

Direct Quotations : Less than 40 words


Kuh, Laird, and Umbach (2004) found a synergistic relationship often exists
between learner-centered educational practices and improved student
engagement
However, based on Bradford and Williams (2008), hospitalitys association, and
the perception of servitude still exists, especially where there is a lack of
knowledge about opportunities
Hospitality management curricula tend to be very strong in teaching students
the technical skills that are needed to be food employees and managers . . .
However, there are fewer opportunities for students to learn and practice
interpersonal/human skills and conceptual skills (Scheule & Sneed, 2001,p.34)

Direct Quotations: More than 40 words


Beleis (2012) study stated that:
In our argumentation, it could be argued that the consumption increase in
the hedonic-attribute condition would be blocked if a conict is created by an
explicit external activation of the health goal. In this study, we therefore
examined how the activation of a health versus indulgence goal before the
claim exposure inuences our previous results. We applied a priming
technique, resulting in three conditions: a control condition without healthor indulgence-goal activation (neutral prime), a condition with health-goal
activation (health prime), and a condition with indulgence-goal activation
(indulgence prime). The aim of priming is to activate a concept in long-term
memory (usually below the awareness threshold) by exposing participants to
words related to that concept (Bargh and Chartrand 1999). With this priming
technique, we simulated the activation of the health/indulgence goal.
(p. 904)

Useful verbs and phrases for


introducing direct quotes
As X states/ believes/ suggests /indicates/ points
out / observes/ explains/ argues/ outlines/
contradicts / proposes, ..
For example, X has argued that .
According to X, ..
X suggests/ believes/ observes that ...

List of References / Bibliography

List all the sources you have cited


Alphabetical order by authors last name
Provide appropriate information for each type of

source cited e.g. book, journal article.

APA CITATION

BOOKS:
Front cover
Hospitality
Strategic
Management;
Concepts and
Cases / Cathy A.
Enz

BOOKS:
Title page
Title

Authors
Name

Publisher

Publisher
Year of Publication

BOOKS:
Verso Page
Authors Name
Title of the Book

Books (2 -6 authors)
Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of book. Edition
(only include this if not the first edition). Place:
Publisher.
Enz, C.A. (2010). Hospitality strategic management:
concepts and cases. 2nd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley
and Sons.
** For books where there are more than seven authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 full
stops () then spell out the last authors name

Books (6 authors)
Authors, Initials. Last authors name, Initials
(Year). Title of book. Edition (only include this if
not the first edition). Place: Publisher.
Moncraz, E. S., Portocarrero, N. D., Kim, H., Lee, S., Yuan,
J., Fallon, A., ... Bauer, J. D. (2004). Accounting for the
hospitality industry. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice
Hall.
** For books where there are more than seven authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 full
stops () then spell out the last authors name

Electronic Books
Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of book. Edition (only
include this if not the first edition). Place:
Publisher. Retrieved month day, year from (URL
address).
Kumus, F., Altinay, L., & Chathoth, P. (2010). Strategic
Management for Hospitality and Tourism.
Massachusetts: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Retrieved April 9, 2013 from
http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.taylors.edu.
my/

Printed Journal Articles


Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Name of
Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number),
page numbers.
Baum, T., & Odgers, P. (2001). Benchmarking Best
Practice in Hotel Front Office: The Western
European Experience. Journal Of Quality
Assurance In Hospitality & Tourism, 2 (3/4), 93.

Electronic Journal articles (With DOI)


Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Name of
Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number),
page numbers. doi
Melissen, F. (2013). Sustainable hospitality: a
meaningful notion?. Journal Of Sustainable
Tourism, 21(6), 810-824.
doi:10.1080/09669582.2012.737797

Electronic Journal articles (Without DOI)


Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Name of
Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number),
page numbers. Retrieved from URL
Gustavo, N. (2013). Marketing Management Trends in Tourism
and Hospitality Industry: Facing the 21st Century
Environment. International Journal Of Marketing Studies, 5(3),
13-25. Retrieved from
http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b4c2
8eaa-2422-47c0-a4ac652d8948c14c%40sessionmgr113&vid=7&hid=101

http://www.acfchefs.org/

Websites
Authorship or Source. (Year). Title of web document
or web page. [type of medium] Retrieved from URL

Ayoub, K. (2013). Breakfast Champions.


[Website] Retrieved from
http://www.acfchefs.org/ACF/Resources/T
rends_and_Techniques/ACF/Resources/T
rends/breakfast.aspx

We can find out more about the nature of the


organization that owns the server from the
organization code.
.ac, .edu : academic or educational servers
.co, .com : commercial servers
.gov : government servers
.org : non-governmental, non-profitmaking
organizations

Website URL

REMINDER!

In-text Citation
1. (Surname, Year, page number) *refer to handout
Example: Jeffery Archer
(Archer, 2010, p. 101)
2. 6 authors, (Surname of first author et. al. year)
Example: Murray, Simeon, Marcus, Dawson, Segar,
Lee, Kingston
(Murray et. al., 2010)

3. Page number only if applicable

Reference List
1.

Invert authors name (Surname, Initials of forename)

REMINDER!

Example:
Davis Hall -> Hall, D.
Jane Chong Yen Hou -> Chong, J.Y.H.

2.

6 authors; first 6 names of author followed by and last


authors name
Example: Jane Chong, Lynn Dann, Ben Matthews, Jerome Detta, Ivan Marland,
Caleb Nedu, Jason Segel, Neil Patrick, Carlson Collin, Franklin Simon
Chong, J., Dann, L., Matthews, B., Detta, J., Marland, I., Nedu, C., Simon, F.

3.

Capitalize ONLY the first word of a title (exceptional for proper


nouns)

4.
5.
6.
7.

Use (&) instead of and


Punctuation
Indention
Arrange alphabetically

Local Names citation:


http://www.umlib.um.edu.my/publications/apa-guide.pdf
In-text citation rules
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/2/
APA Quick Citation Guides
http://www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/lls/students/apa_citati
on.html

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