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The Paint System

The various superimposed coats within a painting system have, of course, to be compatible with
one another. They may be all of the same generic type or may be different, e.g. chemical
resistant types, such as a recoatable polyurethane finish coat, may be applied onto
epoxyprimer and intermediate coats. However, as a first precaution, all paints within a system
should normally be obtained from the same manufacturer and used in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.
An important factor in the coating system is the definition and measurement of the dry film
thickness (dft). Dry film thicknesses are generally checked on the complete paint system,
although individual films may be checked separately. Usually, nominal dry film thicknesses are
specified but sometimes minimum values are quoted.
For nominal dry film thicknesses, individual values less than 80% of the nominal thickness are not
acceptable. Values between 80% and 100% are acceptable provided that the overall average
(mean value) is equal to or greater than the nominal.
Specifications for minimum dry film thicknesses require careful paint application to avoid
excessive film thickness. The over application of paints can result in the formation of high
stresses and may cause premature failure of the system. Wet film thickness (wft) checks may
also be required during the application of the coating to check that a subsequent satisfactory dry
film thickness will be achieved.

MAIN GENERIC TYPES OF PAINT AND THEIR PROPERTIES


(a) Air drying paints
For example alkyds
These materials dry and form a film by an oxidative process, which involves absorption of oxygen
from the atmosphere. They are therefore limited to relatively thin films. Once the film has formed
it has limited solvent resistance and usually poor chemical resistance.
(b) One pack chemical resistant paints
For example acrylated rubbers, vinyls
For these materials, film formation requires only solvent evaporation and no oxidative process is
involved. They can be applied as moderately thick films though retention of solvent in the film
can be a problem at the upper end of this range. The formed film remains relatively soft and has
poor solvent resistance but good chemical resistance. Bituminous paints also dry by solvent

evaporation. They are essentially solutions of either asphaltic bitumen or coal-tar pitch in organic
solvents.
(c) Two pack chemical resistant paints
For example epoxy, urethane
These materials are supplied as two separate components, usually referred to as the base and
the curing agent. When these two components are mixed, immediately before use, a chemical
reaction occurs. These materials therefore have a limited 'pot life' before which the mixed coating
must be applied. The polymerisation reaction continues after the paint has been applied and after
the solvent has evaporated to produce a densely cross linked film which can be very hard and
has good solvent and chemical resistance. Liquid resins of low viscosity can be used in the
formulation thereby avoiding the need for a solvent. Such coatings are referred to as 'solvent
less' or 'solvent free' and can be applied as very thick films.

Chemica
Tolerance
Binder

Syste

of poor

m cost

surface

Solvent

Water

resistan resistan resistan


ce

ce

ce

Overcoati
ng after
aging

Comments

Black

Very good

Limited to black or

Coatings

with

dark colours. May

(based on Tar

coatings of

soften in hot

same type

conditions.

products)

Low

Good

Moderate Poor

Good

Good decorative
Low
Alkyds

Medium Moderate

Poor

Poor

properties. High

Moderate Moderate Good

solvent levels.
High build films that
remain soft and are

Acrylated

Medium

Rubbers

High

susceptible to
Poor

Good

Poor

Good

Good

Epoxy

sticking.
Can be applied to a

(Surface

Medium

Tolerant)

High

range of surfaces
Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

and coatings.

Epoxy
(High

Susceptible to

performance Medium

Very

Very

chalking in U.V.

High

Very Poor

Good

Good

Good

Poor

light.

Urethane

High

Very Poor

Very

Good

Very

Poor

Can be more

and

decorative than

Polyurethane

Good

Good

epoxies.

Organic
Silicate and
Inorganic
Silicate

May require special


High

Very Poor

Moderate Good

Good

Moderate

surface preparation

Summary of the main generic types of paint and their properties

PAINT COATINGS
Paints are usually applied one coat on top of another and each coat has a specific function /
purpose. These are described as follows.

Primers
The primer is applied directly onto the cleaned steel surface or, in the case of duplex systems,
the sealed metal coating. Its purpose is to wet the surface and to provide good adhesion for
subsequently applied coats. For primers applied directly to steel surfaces, these are also usually
required to provide corrosion inhibition. There are two basic types of primer.
(a) Primers pigmented with metallic elements anodic to steel
These primers are formulated so that, when a break in the coating (due to damage or local
corrosion) exposes the steel substrate, the anodic metal corrodes sacrificially in preference to the
steel. This effectively stifles steel corrosion and under-rusting of the primer until the anodic metal
is exhausted. Zinc-rich primers are the most commonly used of this type.
(b) Primers relying on the high adhesion and chemical-resistance properties of the
binder
With these primers, good adhesion is obtained (provided that the surface is very thoroughly
cleaned) and it is sufficient to prevent under-rusting at any break in the coating (due to damage).
Two-pack epoxy primers are typical of this type. These primers may contain inhibitive pigments
to interfere with the corrosion process. Zinc phosphate, for example, is a mildly inhibitive pigment
and is widely used in modern primer formulations.

Intermediate coats
Intermediate coats are applied to build the total film thickness of the system. Generally, the
thicker the coating the longer the life. Intermediate coats are specially designed to enhance the
overall protection and, when highly pigmented, decrease permeability to oxygen and water. The

incorporation of laminar pigments, such as micaceous iron oxide (MIO), reduces or delays
moisture penetration in humid atmospheres and improves tensile strength.
Modern specifications now include inert pigments such as glass flakes to act as laminar pigments.
Undercoats must remain compatible with finishing coats when there are unavoidable delays in
applying them.

Finish coat
The finish coat provides the required appearance and surface resistance of the system.
Depending on the conditions of exposure, it must also provide the first line of defence against
weather and sunlight, open exposure, and condensation.

Stripe coats
Stripe coats are additional coats of paint that are applied locally to welds, fasteners and external
corners. Their function is to build a satisfactory coating thickness at edges and corners where
paint has a tendency to contract and thin upon drying. Specifications should indicate the type
and number of stripe coats required and state when they are to be applied.

Wooden Surfaces
Surface Preparation

Previously painted wooden surfaces must be properly sanded to "roughen" the existing paint
film and to also remove any dust or grease. If mold is present clean with APCO MPOULD ACTION.

Fill any holes with appropriate wood filler.

Sand any filled areas with 180 sand paper and then spot prime with wood primer.

Now the wooden surface is ready for painting with the top coat

Apply one coat of OILPREP INTERIOR/EXTERIOR WOOD PRIMER by brush, roller or spray. If
thinning is required follow the instructions on the label. And use the proper thinning agent.

Painting

For Opaque finish you can choose conventional enamels (APCO ENDURE INTERIOR/EXTERIOR
ENAMEL GLOSS OR SEMI GLOSS.

Apply wood primer by brush, after thinning to given ratio by recommended thinner. Allow the
primer to dry for the recommended dry time.

If necessary fill holes with appropriate wood filler.


Sand the filled area with 180 grip paper & spot primer with OILPREP INTERIOR/EXTERIO WOOD
PRIMER.

Now the wooden surface is ready for painting with the top coat

Apply with brush roller or spray as desired and dependent on skills level.

The drying time of enamels is longer; hence care must be taken to ensure a dust free
environment while the paint film is drying.

Two coats of paint is sufficient in most cases, however if the earlier paint shade was
significantly darker than the new shade an additional or third top coat is recommended.

Wooden Surface - Transparent finishes


Surface Preparation

The Wooden Surface to be coated must be seasoned i.e. fully cured

Fill the larger cracks in the timber with wood filler, allow to dry, then sand the entire surface
with 80 or 120 sand paper depending on the texture of the timber. Make sure to sand in the direction
of the grain to avoid scratching and damaging the look of the grain and the timber.

The purpose of the filler is to fill the grains and pores and it should not be used as putty. The
excess filler must be removed. After 30 minutes the filler may be applied again if required. Allow 2 to
3 hours drying time.

Sand the filled surface with 220 emery paper


Staining with APCO TRANSTAIN is recommended if you prefer a light stain finish Do not use
APCO TRANSTAIN on exterior wooden surfaces.

Painting
For New Wood

Ensure that the surface to be coated is free from dust.

Choose any transparent coating from APCO like TIMBERCARE WOODENHANCE, METACARE 343
TIMBERCARE SOLID WOOD STAIN, and TIMERCARE NATURAL OIL STAIN

(Instructions for thinning) Two to three coats of finish coating application are recommended to
achieve the best results in terms of gloss and decorative appeal.

Containers should be firmly closed after use.

For Pre-Polished Wood

Sand the surface along the grain with 180 sand paper followed by 220 to achieve a really nice
smooth finish.

If staining is desired, completely remove the old finish. Wipe the surface free of loose dust

Proceed with the finish coats as explained above.

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