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# 8/29/2015

## When a fluid flows past a solid surface under

condition such that turbulence generally
prevails, there is a region immediately
adjacent to the solid surface where the flow is
predominantly laminar, followed by a
transition zone and turbulent core.
Eddy movements is dominating in the
turbulent core, whereas absence of eddy in
laminar zone restricts the mixing only to
molecular movement (i.e. molecular
diffusion).

8/29/2015

heated plate

## Mass transfer coefficient

Mechanism of the flow process involving
movement of eddies in turbulent core is not fully
developed, whereas the mechanism in the
laminar zone can be fully explained through
kinetic theory, at least for the gas phase.
Accordingly, it is customary to describe the
transport equation for the turbulent core in the
same manner as has been done for laminar zone.

8/29/2015

## Mass transfer coefficient

Steady-state molecular diffusion in fluid at rest and in
laminar flow can be represented by the following equation:

## is determined based on non-diffusional

consideration. Replacing
, characteristic of molecular
diffusion by F, the mass transfer coefficient:
=

+
+

## Mass transfer coefficient

Since the surface through which mass transfer
takes place may not be plane, N is defined as the
flux at the interface or phase boundary. So,
or
- any one of these must be at the interface.
F is a local mass transfer coefficient and it
depends on the local nature of the fluid motion.
For multi-component mixture, above equation is
not fully correct, but it can be used with in
place of
+ .

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## k-type mass transfer coefficient

For the two situation, which occur most
frequently, transfer of A through stagnant B
and equimolar counter-transfer, flux is usually
expressed in the following form: flux =
(coefficient) x (concentration difference)
Since the concentration can be expressed in
many forms, we have variety of coefficients.

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## k-type mass transfer coefficients

correlations are analogous to the
convective heat transfer coefficient
relation, =
Heat transfer equations are generally valid,
but use of mass transfer correlations for
transfer of A through non-transferring B is
somewhat restricted.
For the above case, it is valid when the bulk
flow term has small contribution and when
the concentration difference is minimal, so
that non-linear profile can be represented
approximately by a linear profile.
k-type coefficient equations for equimolar
counter-transfer are always applicable and
correct.

Equimolar counter-transfer

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## Relationship between F and k-type coefficients

Transfer of A through stagnant B:
=

But,
=
So,

+
+

## Relationship between F and k-type coefficients

Equimolar counter-transfer:
=

So,

and

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Film Theory
Total resistance to mass transfer is
offered by laminar sub-layer,
transition zone and turbulent core,
all put together. This resistance can
be replaced theoretically by
fictitious laminar sub-layer.

So,

## For mass transfer,

For heat transfer,

= h

8/29/2015

## Mass transfer coefficient correlations

Experimentally, it has been observed that
=
=
,
, , ,
Dimensional analysis by Buckingham pitheorem yields the following correlations:
=

## => Sh = (Re, Sc)

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Wetted-wall tower

## Combining above two equations:

Colburn analogy:

= /2

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Penetration theory
HlGBlE Penetration Theory:

## The penetration theory was propounded in 1935 by HlGBlE

who was investigating whether or not a resistance to
transfer existed at the interface when a pure gas was
absorbed in a liquid. In his experiments, a slug-like bubble
of carbon dioxide was allowed to rise through a vertical
column of water in a 3 mm diameter glass tube. As the
bubble rose, the displaced liquid ran back as a thin film
between the bubble and the tube, Higbie assumed that
each element of surface in this liquid was exposed to the
gas for the time taken for the gas bubble to pass it; that is
for the time given by the quotient of the bubble length and
its velocity.

Penetration theory

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Penetration theory
The diffusion of solute A away
from the interface (Y-direction) is
thus given by

## for conditions of equimolecular

counter-diffusion, or when the
concentrations of diffusing
materials are sufficiently low for
the bulk flow velocity to be
negligible. Because concentrations
of A are low, there is no objection
to using molar concentration for
calculation of mass transfer rates
in the liquid phase

Solution of the above PDE with the mentioned conditions can be conveniently done by the
method of Laplace Transform. The final solution is:

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flux

Penetration theory
Mass transfer flux is defined as the flux prevailing at the interface,
i.e. at y = 0

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## Regular surface renewal

It is important to note that the mass transfer rate falls off
progressively during the period of exposure, theoretically
from infinity at t = 0 to zero at t = .
Assuming that all the surface elements are exposed for the
same time te (Higbie's assumption), the moles of A (nA)
transferred at an area A in time te is given by:

## Regular surface renewal

Thus, the shorter the time of exposure the
greater is the rate of mass transfer. No precise
value can be assigned to te in any industrial
equipment, although its value will clearly
become less as the degree of agitation of the
fluid is increased.

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## Random surface renewal (DANCKWERTS)

DANCKWERTS suggested that each element of
surface would not be exposed for the same
time, but that a random distribution of ages
would exist. It was assumed that the
probability of any element of surface
becoming destroyed and mixed with the bulk
of the fluid was independent of the age of the
element and, on this basis, the age
distribution function of the surface elements
was calculated.

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## Random surface renewal (DANCKWERTS)

Thus, the overall rate of transfer per unit area when the surface
is renewed in a random manner is

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## Random surface renewal (DANCKWERTS)

Above equation might be expected to slightly
underestimate the mass transfer rate because, in any
practical equipment, there will be a finite upper limit to
the age of any surface element. The proportion of the
surface in the older age group is, however, very small
and the overall rate is largely unaffected.
It is be seen that the mass transfer rate is again
proportional to the concentration difference and to the
square root of the diffusivity.
The numerical value of s is difficult to estimate,
although this will clearly increase as the fluid becomes
more turbulent

## The film -penetration theory

TOOR and MARCHELLO proposed this theory
The whole of the resistance to transfer is regarded as lying
within a laminar film at the interface, as in the two-film
theory, but the mass transfer is regarded as an unsteady
state process. It is assumed that fresh surface is formed at
intervals from fluid which is brought from the bulk of the
fluid to the interface by the action of the eddy currents.
Mass transfer then takes place as in the penetration theory,
except that the resistance is confined to the finite film, and
material which traverses the film is immediately completely
mixed with the bulk of the fluid.
The third boundary condition is applied at y = yb, the film
thickness, and not at y = .

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## The film -penetration theory

With DANKWERTS rate of renewal of surface
elements, the final equation is,
,

(B)

(A)

(B)

(A)

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## Inter-phase mass transfer

Air-ammonia mixture in
contact with water
Constant temperature and
total pressure, maintained in
a piston-cylinder assembly
immersed in a constant
temperature bath.
This curve results
irrespective of relative
amount of liquid & gas
phases, depends only on T &
P imposed on 3-comp
system.

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## Inter-phase mass transfer

At a fixed set of conditions, referring to T & P,
there exists a set of equilibrium relationships,
which may be shown graphically in the form of
equilibrium distribution curve.
For a system at equilibrium, there is no net
diffusion of the component between the phases.
For a system not in equilibrium, diffusion of the
components between the phases will occur in
such a manner as to bring the system to the
condition of equilibrium.

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=

=
=

So,

## Also, as per the equilibrium

distribution relationship,
=f

## Whitman & Lewis two-film theory

Overall mass transfer coefficients

=
=

=
=

Similarly,

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Special case - I
Solute is highly soluble in the liquid (e.g. NH3 +
Air in contact with water) => m is very small
=>small concentration of solute in gas phase
give high concentration in the liquid phase.
Then

Special case - I

328059

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Special case - II
Solute is sparingly soluble in the liquid (e.g.
CO2 + Air in contact with water) => m is very
high =>high concentration of solute in gas
phase give low concentration in the liquid
phase because of low solubility of solute gas
in the liquid.
Then

Relative resistance

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