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06

STRUGGLE & FREEDOM


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Non-Violence

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Gandhi in
South Africa

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Gandhi could gain the Trust & Respect


of the Common People of India....
Involvement in the Problems of
Indians in South Africa
His Protest in South Africa
He Lived among the Common
( Food, Clothing, Language)
Common People Found him as a
Saviour
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Activity 1 (Group Discussion)


Divide the Class in to Three Groups. Discuss the
Early Struggles of Gandhi based on these Points
and Prepare a Note
1. Champaran Struggle
2. Ahmedabad Cotton Mill Struggle
3. Peasant Struggle in kheda

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In Champaran (Bihar) 1917


Economic Problems of Indigo Farmers
He Launched 1st Satyahraha there
Govt. appointed a Committee
Problems of Peasants were Resolved
After Struggle he worked for them
By establishing Primary School
By Initiating Medical Aids
By Involving in Cleaning activities
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In Ahmedabad
(Gujarat) 1918
Cotton Mill Workers
They were Denied
Plague Bonus
Gandhi used
Satyagraha as a tool
Authorities Agreed to
Hike the Wages
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In Kheda
(Gujarat) 1918
Farmers
Due to Drought &
Crop Failure
Rulers Decided
to Collect Tax
Gandhi used Satyagraha and asked
them not to Pay Tax
Authorities agreed to Reduce the Tax
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Activity 1 (Group Activity Consolidation )

o
o
o
o

Early Struggle of Gandhi


All were Regional & Economic issues
He used Disobedience & Satyagraha
Ensured the help of Local Leaders
His Method of Struggle was
accepted by Everyone
People believed that Gandhi could
solve all their Problems

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Results of the Early Struggle of Gandhi


o People understood his Ideology &
Method of Struggles
o Common People were attracted to
the National Movement
o City centric National Movement
spread to Rural Areas
o Gandhi became a National Leader
acceptable to All
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Activity 2 (Group Discussion)


Divide the Class in to Groups. Discuss about
these points and make a short note

1. Rowlatt Act
2. Jallianwala Bagh

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Rowlatt Act 1919

By Sydney Rowlatt
To Prevent Extreme Activities
Limited the Civil Rights
Any Person could be Arrested &
Imprisoned without Trial

Gandhi Suggested Satyagraha


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Gen.Dyer

Bullet marks on the walls

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The narrow
lane used for
entering the
park premises.

Jallianwala Bagh
memorial,Amritsar
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Bullet
marks on
the walls of
the park
premises
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1650 rounds of bullets


were fired by troops on
20,000 innocent people.

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Activity 2 (Group Activity Consolidation )

Towards the National Movement


o Rowlatt Act was an example for the
violation of Human Rights by British
o The Worst example of the British
approach was Jallianwala Bagh (1919)
o Jallianwala Bagh incident Intensified
the Protests at the National Level
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NonCooperation
Movement

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1st
National
Level
struggle
by INC
Led by
Gandhi
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Activity 3 (Listing the Points)


What were the Characteristics of NonCooperation Movement

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Students shall
boycott English
Schools
Denial of
Taxes

Lawyers shall
Boycott Courts

NonCooperation
Movement

Returning the
British Awards
and Prizes
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The Public shall


Boycott Foreign
Products
Boycott
Elections

People Responded to Gandhis Appeal


for Non-Cooperation

Farmers Refused to Pay Tax (Awadh)


Tribal People entered the Forest & Collected
Forest Products (Andhra)
Farmers Refused to carry luggage of the Colonial
Officials (Uttar Pradesh)
Workers Struck Work
Lawyers Boycotted Courts
Students Quitted British Schools & Colleges
Public burnt Foreign Cloths
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Gandhi Motivated the People to


Participate in Constructive Programmes
To Make Indigenous Products
To Spin Khadi by Charka
To Establish National Schools

To Popularise Hindi
To Eradicate Untouchability

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Gujarat Vidya Pith

Kashi Vidya Pith

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Jamia Millia

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Caliph Abdlmecid II,


the last caliph who
held the office from
1922 to 1924
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Maulana Mohamad Ali


& Shoukath Ali
As a part of National
Movement
Active Partition of
Muslims
Gandhi Travelled
across India with
Khilafat Leaders
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Result of Khilafat Movement

Anti-British Feeling all over India


Hindu-Muslim Unity was Intensified
Strengthened National Movement
Even at the Grass root Level
Support of Muslim Community

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Activity 4 (Slogans)
Prepare some Slogans Supporting the NonCooperation Movement.

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Swaraj is
Our Aim

We Want
Freedom

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India is Our
Land

Avoid Foreign
Cloths

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Stop All
Taxes

Chauri Chaura (UP)


Villages set afire
the Police Station
22 Policemen Died

Gandhi
Suspended
NonCooperation
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Lahore Session of
Congress

Poorna
Swaraj

Civil
Disobedience

Ultimate Aim of
Indian Freedom
Struggle is to
Attain Complete
Freedom

Disobey all AntiPopular & AntiDemocratic Civil


Laws by British

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Activity 5 (Listing the Points)


Prepare a Note about the Proposals put forward
by Gandhi to Gain Freedom

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Proposals Put forward by


Gandhi

To Remove Salt Tax


To Declare 50% Tax Relaxation for Farmers
To Increase Tax on Imported Foreign Cloths

To Release Political Prisoners


To Decrease Military Expenses

To Dissolve the Secret Observation Wing


To Start Coastal Shipping Service
To Implement Prohibition of Liquor

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Gandhi used Salt as a


Powerful Weapon
British got High
Income from Salt Tax
Heavy burden for
Poor People

British Banned Indigenous Salt Production


There was 3 fold hike on Salt Price
It was Inspired by all
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Payyannur
(Kerala)

Police
Tortured
& Gandhi
was
Arrested

Vedaranyaam (Tamil
Nadu)

They made Salt & Distributed


Hoisted National Flag
Chanted Anti-British Slogans
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Payyannur Salt March


(Kerala)

Vedaranyaam Salt March


(Tamil Nadu)
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Payyannur (Kerala)
K. Kelappan

Bombay (Maharastra)
Noakhali (Bengal)

Dharasana (Gujarat)
Sarojini Naidu

Vedaranyaam (Tamil Nadu)


C. Rajagopalachari
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Gandhi picking up grains of


salt at the end of his march

By Making Salt as a Tool of Protest


Gandhi Proved
Even an Unimportant Common
issue can be used as a Powerful
tool for Public Protest
To Secure Support of the Society
To Informed the Public in a simple
way to the Exploitation of the
British
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Activity 6 (Digital Presentation)


Prepare a Digital Presentation about the Salt
Satyagraha

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Women during Civil Disobedience

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79 Marchers accompanied Gandhi on


his march to Dandi. 5 from Kerala
No Name

Age

Province (British
India)

Raghavan

25

Madras Presidency

Thevarthundiyil Titus

25

Madras Presidency

Krishna Nair

25

Madras Presidency

Tapan Nair

25

Madras Presidency

Shankaran

25

Madras Presidency

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Civil disobedience
continued until
early 1931, when
Gandhi was finally
released from
prison to hold talks
with Irwin. It was
the first time the
two held talks on
equal terms, and
resulted in the
GandhiIrwin Pact.
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Activity 7 (Group Discussion)


Prepare a Note on Quit India Movement and its
Importance

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Quit India - 1942


Last Popular Protest
by INC under Gandhi
Based on NonViolence
Forced the British to
Leave the country
By Offering Complete
Freedom
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Factors Caused
Quit India Movement

Unwillingness of the
British to Implement
Constitutional Reforms in India
Public Disgust with Price Hike &
Famine
Assumption that the British would
be Defeated in the 2nd World War
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As a Part of Quit India

Gandhi Asked

Princely States shall Recognise the


Sovereignty of their People
Farmers shall not Pay tax
Govt. Officials shall Disclose their
Loyalty to INC without Resigning
Soldiers shall Disobey Orders to shoot
Indians, Without Quitting from Army
Students shall Boycott Education till
attaining freedom
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British
Suppressed
the Movement
Arrested
Gandhi &
Others
In Protest Mob
Destroyed
Many things
Clear Indication to Grab Freedom for the Country
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Activity 7 (Consolidation )

Quit India Movement

o It was a Struggle based on Non-Violence (Ahimsa)


o Unwillingness of the British to Implement
Constitutional Reforms in India, Public Disgust
with Price Hike & Famine, Assumption that the
British would be Defeated in the 2nd World War
were the Factors Caused for the Movement
o Complete Freedom of India was the Aim of Gandhi.
o British Suppressed the Movement but they could
not Control the Popular Agitations
o In Certain Areas the Struggle became Violent
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Alternative Paths

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Revolutionary Organisations

Swaraj Party

C.R.Das & Motilal Nehru

Hindustan Socialist
Revolutionaries from
Punjab, Rajasthan,
Republican Association
U.P & Bihar
Singh, Chandra Sekhar
(Republican Army) Bhagat
Azad, Raj Guru & Sukh Dev
Abhinav Bharat Society
Ghadar Party

Lala Hardayal

Anuseelan Samithi

Bareender Kumar Ghose,


Pulin Bihari Das

Indian Republican Army

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V.D. Savarkar

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Surya Sen

Swaraj Party (1923)

C.R.Das

Motilal Nehru

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C.R.Das & Motilal


Nehru
Opposed Gandhi's
method of Struggle of
Boycott
Argued for Legislative
Assembles
Contested Elections
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Hindustan Socialist
Republican Association
Bhagat Singh

1928
Military Wing
Republican Army
Overthrow the
British by Military
Action & Establish
a Federal Republic

Chandra Sekhar
Azad
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Raj Guru

Sukh Dev
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The Lahi charge that had


led to the Death of
Lala Lajpat Rai
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Abhinav Bharat Society

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V.D. Savarkar

Ghadar Party

Lala Hardayal
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Ghadar Party

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Ghadar Party

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Anuseelan Samithi

Anushilan_Samiti_office_
at_48,_Bidhan_Sarani

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Bareender Kumar Ghose,


Pulin Bihari Das
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Indian Republican Army

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Socialist
Ideology from
Russian
Revolution

Congress
Socialist
Wing within
INC
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Influence of Russian
Revolution

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Congress Socialist Party

JP Narayanan

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Chairman JP Narayanan
In Bombay 1934
Great role in Quit India
Movement
They led the Movement
when Gandhi and others
were arrested

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Aruna Asaf Ali

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Forward Bloc

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Against Gandhis Idea


S.C. Bose formed a Political
Party Forward Bloc
INA by Rash Behari Bose
Bose formed a provisional Govt.
in Singapore
Hoisted Indian Flag in Imphal
Support of Japanese Army
INA marched to the East West
border of India

Failure of Japan in the 2nd


World War demolished this Plan
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IndianNationalArmy

Failure of Japan in the


2nd World War 1939-1945

Japan Before & After War

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Jhansi Regiment of INA

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Activity 8 (Seminar / Digital Magazine)


Prepare a Seminar / Digital Magazine about the
Notable Revolutionaries of Indian Freedom Struggle

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Movements of Workers
& Peasants
Madras
Labour Union

Ahmedabad
Textiles
Association
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Founders of AITUC in 1920


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Objectives of

AITUC

To Organise &
act as a
Working Class
To Cooperate
with the Indian To participate actively
Working class
in the Freedom
outside India
Struggle
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All India Kisan Sabha


Farmers realized the
need for Organised
Struggle. Because
o Tax Law of British
o Exploitation of Zamindars
o Low Price for Agricultural Products
All India Kisan Congress (All India Kisan Sabha)
was formed under N.G. Ranga in Lahore
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Farmers Manifesto
Reduce 50% of Land Tax & Lease charge

Write off Debts


Cancel Feudal Taxes
Ensure Minimum Wages for Agriculture
Recognise Peasant Unions
These Demands were Prepared in the All
Indian Kisan Samiti held in Bombay
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Telengana Struggle
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Activity 9 (Match the Following)


Prepare a Match the Following Table about the
Movements of Workers and Peasants
A

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AITUC
All India Kisan
Sahba
Tebhaga Struggle
Telengana
Struggle
Navel Mutiny
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B
M.N.Joshy
N.G.Ranga

Bengal
Andhra Pradesh
Bombay

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Independence of India was speed up


2nd world War (1939-1945)
Financial Crisis in Britain
End of Imperialism
Intensified Freedom
Struggles in Colonies
o America & Soviet Union
were against Imperialism
o Labour Party in Britain
under Clement Attlee
o
o
o
o

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Clement
Attlee
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Claim For Pakistan

Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah & Gandhi

Muhammad Ali Jinnah & All


India Muslim League raised
claim for a separate Country
Called Pakistan
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Jinnah & Muslim League founders

Hindu Mahasabha
also claimed for
Divided India

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Role of Mountbatten

Mountbatten & his Wife with Gandhi

with Nehru

Mountbatten was appointed as the Viceroy of India


Argued that Partition was Essential
Prepared a Plan called Mountbatten Plan
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Activity 10 (Short Note)


Prepare a Short Note on the Role of Mountbatten
in the Independence of India

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Mountbatten Plan

Separate Country for Muslims


Divide Punjab & Bengal
Appoint a Commission to determine
the Borders
Conduct a Referendum to Determine
whether to add North West Frontier
Province to Pakistan or Not
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Sir Cyril Radcliff


Prepared Map
for Partition

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Divided
Punjab & Bengal
and formed
India & Pakistan

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British
Parliament
Passed the
Indian
Independe
nce Act in
1947
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Union Jack

Replacement of Power

Indian Tricolor

On 15th August
1947
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Head of State
14th Aug 1947

Jinnah

Prime Minister
15th Aug 1947

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Nehru

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Additional Activities
1. Discuss the role of workers & Peasants in the freedom
movement of India
2. Write a Short note on the role played by INA and S.C. Bose for
the Freedom of India
3. Name the different Revolutionary Organizations and their
Leaders who Dedicated their life to attain freedom for India
4. How can you say that The Quit India Movement was a Turning
point in Indias Freedom Struggle ?
5. Why Gandhi selected salt as a powerful weapon against the
British?
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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Angelo M.A. MA (Phi., His.)


www.masocialma.blogspot.in Michael
HSA (Social Science)
St. Marys H.S. Palliport
mamichaelma@gmail.com
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9746953695

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