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Tekla Structures

16.0
2009
2010 Tekla Corporation

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Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xpower, Xsteel Xstreet
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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

, ............................................................................ 3


1.1

................................................................................................................................................... 7
................................................................................................ 10
, ................................................................................... 11

1.2

........................................................................................................ 12
...........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................
()....................................................................
.............................................................................
Kmode ...................................................................................................................

1.3

13
15
15
17
17
18
18
19
22
22
24
25
25
25
26

............................................................................................. 27
............................................................................................... 30
................................................................................................................................ 31

1.4

................................................................................................... 31
...........................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
, ....................................................
.......................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................

2.1

31
31
32
32
33
34

35

................................................................................................................................................. 35
............................................................................... 36
TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

2.2

......................................................................................................................... 36
.............................................................................................................
......................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
.......................................................................................
....................................................................................................
............................................................................................

2.3

................................................................................................................... 40
.................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
......................................................................................

2.4

41
42
43
43

.................................................................................................................... 44
...........................................................
...................................................................................................
..................................................................................................
............................................................................................

2.5

37
38
38
39
39
39

44
45
46
46

........................................................................................................................... 48
........................................................................... 48
............................................................................... 49
............................................................................ 49

2.6

............................................................................................................................. 50
.............................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................
....................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

51
53
54
55
56
57
59

61

3.1

.................................................................................................... 61

3.2

.............................................................................................................. 65
.......................................................................................................
......................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
, ..................................................................
................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

66
68
68
69
69
70
70
71

............................................................................. 72
....................................................................................................... 72
STAAD.Pro.............................................................. 73
3.3

............................................................................................................................. 73
........................................................................................................
..............................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................
............................................................................................
......................................................................
.........................................................................................................

3.4

............................................................................... 80
, ...........................................................
..............................................................................
.......................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
............................................................................................................

3.5

80
81
81
81
82

....................................................................................... 82
> .....................................................................................
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...................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................
......................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
..........................................................................

74
74
75
77
78
78
79

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

83
85
85
86
89
90
90
91
91
92

, Tekla Structures
.
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Tekla Structures, , .
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(p. 7)
(p. 12)
(p. 31)

1.1

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Tekla Structures.
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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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https://extranet.tekla.com. Tekla Extranet Tekla
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(p. 10)
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2.
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7.

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(p. 65) (p. 86).
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12).
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Tekla Structures. .
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(p. 82).
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10

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

, (p. 11)
(p. 31)

(p. 32)
(p. 33)
(p. 34)

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(p. 12)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

11

1.2

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(p. 27).

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(p. 13)
(p. 19)
(p. 22)
(p. 22)
(p. 24)
(p. 17)
(p. 15)
(p. 15)
(p. 18)
(p. 25)

12

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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(p. 27)


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14

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

1.
2.
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4.

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(p. 12)


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(p. 15)
(p. 12)


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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


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(p. 15)
(p. 12)
(p. 61)


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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

17

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18

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

(p. 12)


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Tekla Structures. . , (p. 11)
(p. 31).


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Tekla Structures ,

. . (p. 86) (p. 68).

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

19



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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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(
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X, Y and Z ,
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, X, Y
Z.


( 1000 ).

X, Y Z
.
,
Tekla Structures .
. . (p.
61).

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

21

(p. 12)



x ,
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61).
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(p. 12)
(p. 61)


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Tekla Structures .

22

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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(p. 69).


(, 1.
, 2. . .).

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(p. 15).

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(p. 22).

Tekla Structures
,

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(p. 12)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

23



(61)
(62) ,
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Tekla Structures
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:
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(p. 13).

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(p. 19).

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x y:
x y
.

.

:
.

24

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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column_filter.


Tekla Structures
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Tekla Structures
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1.
2.
3.

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K*L. K . L , ,
Kmode. .
() (p. 25).

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(p. 12)

()
Tekla Structures ,
. Tekla Structures
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(p. 25)
Kmode (p. 26)


K*L, K , L
. :
1.
2.
3.


.
Kmode.
. Kmode (p. 26).
K .
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Kmode. :
, .

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3*2,00.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

25

4.

L :
.

5.


. ,
, , Kmode.

, 3*4000.

>
> . ,

:

Kmode
Kmode , Tekla Structures
. .

26

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

L .

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L


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L


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1.3
,
Tekla Structures .
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...
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(2)
:


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Dx




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Dx


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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

27




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(p. 30).

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:
1000 1500 3000

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(p. 30).


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(z)

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z.


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28

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

HEA120|HEA140

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(
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Structures

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0 =
1 =

0 =

100 =

111 =
,

001 =

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).


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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

29


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(p. 31)


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30


1.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

> .

2.


,
.
:

= PL300,0*300,0
= RigidlinkMaterial
= 0,0
= 100*109 /2
= 0,30
= 0,0 1/K

(p. 85)

1.4

.

(p. 31)
(p. 32)
(p. 33)
(p. 34)


, Tekla Structures
.

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(p. 31)
, (p. 32)

Tekla Structures ,
(. (p. 66)):

(. (p. 68))
( , , .)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

31

(. (p. 13))

Tekla Structures ,
( ),
.


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.
(p. 27).

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Tekla Structures :

Tekla Structures
.
Tekla Structures .

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( )
.

Tekla Structures,
.

Tekla Structures
.

Tekla Structures .

Tekla Structures ,
.

. .
(p. 30).
.
. (p. 27).


, Tekla Structures
.
, . Tekla Structures

. .
(p. 45).
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,
( ) .

32

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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Tekla Structures .
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, 110 .
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1.
2.
3.
4.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

33

Eurocode




Eurocode,
.



,
.

AISC ()



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UBC ()


, .

CM66 (F)




,

.

BAEL91 (F)




,

.

IBC ()

.
.

ACI

318

.

5.


(p. 74)

OK.


Tekla Structures ( ),
( , P-delta) .
.
, . Tekla Structures
. . (p. 70).

34

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

,
. Tekla Structures ,
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.
, . (p.
50) .

, Tekla Structures
.

(p. 35)
(p. 36)
(p. 40)
(p. 44)
(p. 48)
(p. 50)

2.1
Tekla Structures
.

Tekla Structures,


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.
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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

35

. ,
, . Tekla Structures
, :

;
;
.

. (p. 36) (p. 73).


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(p. 41).
.

Tekla Structures .
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(p. 36)

Tekla Structures
.

.
. (p. 77).

(28). . (p. 59).

y
:
1.
2.

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.

. (p. 70).
.

(p. 75)
(p. 44)

2.2
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36

;
;
.

(p. 37)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

(p. 38)
(p. 38)



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(p. 33).
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Tekla Structures
. .
(p. 36).

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.
x, y, z. .
(p. 43).
, Tekla Structures
.

z x,
y.
x y .

(p. 51)
(p. 38)
(p. 38)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

37


Tekla Structures ,
, >
> > . .
(p. 33) (p. 73).
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( );
( ).


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y. Tekla Structures

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Tekla Structures
,
,
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Tekla Structures x
y.
0.
, Tekla Structures
.
.

(p. 51)
(p. 38)


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38

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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> > >
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.
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(p. 51)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

39

2.3

(, ,
).
.

. > > ,
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. .
.

(p. 41)
(p. 42)
(p. 43)
(p. 43)

(p. 36)
(p. 44)

40

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


Tekla Structures :


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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

41

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Structures .

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42

.
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

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, . (p. 46).
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(p. 43)


x, y, z.
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.

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.

P , , .
M , .
T , .

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

43

(+) (-) .
, ,
> > > ...
.

(p. 57)

2.4

, .

(p. 44)
(p. 45)
(p. 46)


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, Tekla Structures
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(p. 45).

44

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


Tekla Structures
.
, (
) .
.


1.

:
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2.


. . .


1.

:
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.

2.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

45


, .
, Tekla Structures .

.
x, y z .
, . .
(p. 48).

. . (p. 46).
.

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, .

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a b.

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a. .


Tekla Structures .

. .

46

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

,
,


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: Tekla Structures
,
.
:
. Tekla Structures
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.

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.

:
.

3/8 5/8, 1/2 1/2.


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.

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( 0,50 )
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

47

2.5
,
.
,
.

(p. 48)
(p. 49)
(p. 49)


,
.

Tekla Structures ( ,
) .
.

.
1.
2.
3.

48

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

, .
, . Tekla Structures
.
, . .
. ,
. . .

. . .


Tekla Structures .
, , ,
, .
> >
> :

, 1 250 ,
10 2500 . Tekla Structures
, 1 10 ,
250 2500 .


(p. 59) ,
. .
, .
.
X 3
1.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

49

(28)
.

2.6
.

> .
,
.

50

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

(p.
51)


(p. 53)


(p. 54)

(p. 55)

,
.


(p. 56)


,

.


(p. 59)

(p. 57)

,
.

Tekla Structures
. ,
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,
.

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,
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, Tekla
Structures
.


(p. 37)

(p.
38)


(p. 37)

> > .

1.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

51

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

.
, .
.
, .

,
, .
,
, .

7.

OK, .


1.
2.
3.

.
, , .
OK, .


1.
2.
3.

.
.
OK .
.

Tekla Structures
, .
Tekla
Structures .
.
,
1.
2.
3.

.
.
. Tekla Structures
.

,
1.
2.
3.

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.
. Tekla Structures
.


1.
2.
3.

.
.
.


1.
2.
3.
4.

, ,
.
.

.
OK.


1.

52

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

2.
3.


(.lgr), .
OK.

(p. 38)
(p. 36)

, ,
.

Tekla Structures ,
.
lm1.

,
.

(p. 36)

(p. 51)

x,
y z .


(p. 43)

(p.
44)

,



.


(p. 45)


X, Y Z.

,

.

1.
2.
3.

(p. 46)

.
.
OK .

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

53

4.
5.
.

,
.
.

, ,
.

Tekla Structures ,
.
lm2.

,
.

(p. 36)

(p. 51)

,

.


(p. 42)

x,
y z .


(p. 43)

(p.
44)

,



.


(p. 45)


X, Y Z.


(p. 46)

,

.

(p. 46)

54

1.
2.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

.
.

3.
4.
5.
6.
.

OK .
,
.
.
.

, ,
.

.
,
.
; Tekla Structures .
Tekla Structures

lm3.

,
.

(p. 36)

(p. 51)


(p. 42)

x,
y z .


(p. 43)

(p.
44)

,



.


(p. 45)


x, y z.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

55

,

.


(p. 46)

,

.

(p. 46)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
OK .
,
.
.

Tekla Structures ,
.

.
.
(p. 27).
.

,
.

, ,
.

,
.
.
.
Tekla Structures ,
.
lm4.

,
.

(p. 36)

(p. 51)

56

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

x,
y z .


(p. 43)

(p.
44)

,



.


(p. 45)


x, y z.

,

.


(p. 46)

,

.

(p. 46)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

.
.
OK .
,
.
.
( .)
,
.

Tekla Structures ,
.

.
.
(p. 27).
.

Tekla Structures ,
.
lm6.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

57

,
.

(p. 36)

(p. 51)


(p. 43)



.
.

,

.

(p.
44)

,



.


(p. 45)


x, y z.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

.
.
OK .
,
.
.
.




,
.
.

58

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

Tekla Structures
(28). .

-X

-Y

X, -X, Y, -Y

( )

,

.


,
.


(p. 45)


,

.

.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

59


,

.
.

X,

Y,
X,



.

.


(p. 49)

Tekla Structures .
,

.
(28) ,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
OK .
, .
, .

(28)

.
.
(p. 46).
.

60

(p. 78)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


. , .

,
.

, 1, (p. 7),
.

(p. 61)
(p. 65)
(p. 73)
(p. 80)
(p. 82)

3.1
,
. , , .

:
1.
2.

.
.
.

.
,
Tekla Structures.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

61


. . .
(p. 13).

,

.
.
.

:

.


: ,

:
, .

,
. .

,
.
.

-
-

,

.
. .
(p. 15).

.
.
. .
(p. 15).

Ux, Uy, Uz, Rx, Ry Rz


. . .
(p. 15).

: ,
.
. .
(p. 17).

62

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

,
:
.
. .
(p. 17).

, .
.
:
. ,
,
.
:
.
.

1 ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.


, .

,
, ,
.
,
.
.


(,
),
.
,
.



,
.
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

63



.

(, ,
).
. . (p.
18).

.
. .
(p. 19).

,


(
).

.
.

.

,
.

, |,
: HEA120|HEA140

,
.
:

,
,

XS_AD_CURVED_BEAM_SPLIT_ACCURACY_MM
( > >
... > ).


,
.
.
. (p.
30).

64

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


.
, , :
1000 1500 3000
. (p.
30).


. . .
Defining numbering series.


,
.


XY

XY.

x y:

x y .

.
:

.
. . Defining
numbering series.


(
..)


,
.

,
.
.

.
,
.
.
.

, .

,
.

3.2
, Tekla Structures
. .

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

65

Tekla Structures ,
. . (p. 12).


1.
2.

> .
.


1.
2.
3.

> .
.
.

Tekla Structures ,
. ,
,
.

, .
, , ,
.

(p. 66)
(p. 68)
(p. 69)
, (p. 69)
(p. 70)
(p. 70)
(p. 71)
(p. 72)
STAAD.Pro (p. 73)


, . ,
:

66

, ,
.
. .

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

,
,

. Tekla
Structures
.

,

.


, ,
.


:

,
, .
Tekla Structures
.

Tekla Structures . .
(p. 31).
, Tekla Structures

.
,
:

(S78)
(S75)
(S58) (S91)
(61) (62)




.
.

(p. 68)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

67


,
,
.
(.
), Tekla Structures
. ,
.
Tekla Structures ,
, ,
.


, , .


. (p. 81).
, , .
, (p. 80).
(p. 65)
(p. 80)



.
Tekla Structures.

.
.
.

68

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


.

.


. .
.


.
.



. . (p.
19).

, Tekla Structures

. . .
, Tekla Structures
.
.

(p. 65)



. .
(p. 15).
Tekla Structures
1.
2.

. .

(p. 22).
.

.

, Tekla Structures
.
.

(p. 65)

;
, Tekla Structures ,
.


.
, , ,
,
Tekla Structures, Tekla Structures,
.

, .
,
.
.

Tekla
Structures

.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

69



. .
.

1-

P-delta

.
.

P-, Tekla Structures ,


. .

.
, .
.

. ,
, .
,
, .

(p. 65)

70

,
,
. x y
(z
).
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

UBC 1997

UBC 1997

UBC 1994

UBC 1994

IBC 2000

IBC 2000

IS 1893-2002

. ,

IBC 2003

IBC 2003

IBC 2006

IBC 2006

IBC 2006 (
)

IBC 2006
( )
.

IBC 2006 (/
)

IBC 2006

.

AIJ


()

Rw x y



SDS, SD1, S1
NA NV
CT
( ) x y




,
.

.

.


, .

(p. 65)


(
, )
:
1.
2.

.
. Tekla Structures
.
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

71

, ,
Tekla Structures
.


,
.

3.
4.



, .

, .

XYZ .

.
.

(p. 65)



, .
.

.

Tekla Structures

, .

Tekla Structures ,

(,
).

Tekla Structures
.


Tekla Structures

. ,
.

72

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


. .
(p. 18).
.

(p. 65)

STAAD.Pro
STAAD.Pro,

Tekla Structures.
.
STAAD.Pro.
.

STAAD.Pro

, ,
,

( ).

3.3

,

.

.
.
.
Tekla Structures
.

(p. 74)
(p. 74)
(p. 75)
(p. 77)
(p. 78)
(p. 78)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

73

(p. 79)


, Tekla Structures
. :

(p. 33)
(p. 74)
(p. 75)
(p. 38)

. ,
.
. ,
.

(p. 77)


,
.
, ,
> > > .
. .
(p. 33).
,
.
.

.
,
.

,
, . :


(sup)


(inf)


(sup)


(inf)


. , , Eurocode
(0, 1, 2).
.

(p. 77)

74

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16


,
. .

(LG)


.

1,00.


(ULS)



.



.

Eurocode,

,
AISC




(SLS RC)



.



.

Eurocode


.




.

Eurocode



(SLS)


.




.

AISC




CM66 BAEL91.

CM66,
BAEL91

(SLS QP)

CM66
CM66

CM66

BAEL91

BAEL91

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

75


IBC
(
)

IBC
()

IBC
()

IBC
()


UBC
( )

UBC
()



,

,

UBC
()

UBC
()


,

,

UBC
()

UBC
()

UBC
()

UBC
()

UBC
()

ACI 1
ACI 8

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

IBC
()

76


ACI
( 318

)

ACI


.
.

(p. 77)
(p. 33)
(p. 78)



1.
2.

> .

, .
, , ,
.

.
.


,
. .
(p. 79).

,
,
> > >
. .

(p. 78).

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

77



1.

,
.

2.

,
. . (p. 75).


. .
(p. 78).
OK.

3.

4.

Tekla Structures

, > >
> .
. (p. 77)
(p. 79).


.

. .

78

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16



.
,


. .

(p. 36).



(x
y),
,

(-x -y).



. .
(p. 70).

, Tekla
Structures
, (x -x y y).
.

(p. 77)
(p. 33)
(p. 75)


:
1.

,
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

79

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

. . (p. 75).
.
.

.
, .
OK.

. (p. 77)
(p. 78).

3.4
, .
> ,
.

, (p. 80)
(p. 81)
(p. 81)
(p. 81)

(p. 77)
> (p. 83)

,

1.
2.
3.

80

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

> .
.
. Tekla Structures
.


, ,
.


,
. .
(p. 81).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

,
.
> .
.
,
(p. 90).
,
(p. 90).



. :

, .


.
.
(p. 91) > (p. 83).
, Tekla Structures

. :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

.
> .
.
> > ....
,
.
.

, Tekla Structures
.
OK. Tekla Structures
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

81


, AD$$UtilityRatio
.


Tekla Structures
.
.

1.

(.)
.

2.

> ....

3.

4.

(p. 65)

3.5

.
.

.

82

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

>
(p.
83)

(p. 85)


(p. 85)

(p.
92)


.


.

>

,
.


. ,
, , ,
. .


.
.


(p. 65)


,
.


(p. 10)

,
.



(p. 66)

,
.


(p. 81)

,

.

,

(p. 11)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

83


,
. .
(p. 86).


. .
(p. 65).

,
,
. . ,
(p. 80).

,
,
. .
(p. 90).

,
,
. .
(p. 90).


.
. .
(p. 91).

,
,

.
,
,
.
. (p. 91).

84

, ,
.

(p. 80)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

.

1.

> .

2.

(p. 30)

1.

> .

2.

3.

(p. 31)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

85

.
Tekla Structures ,
.

.

, .

/
/


.
.


(p. 65)

,
.



(p. 66)

(p. 68)

,

.

,


.


,
.


(p. 10)

86

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

,
Tekla
Structures
.

,
Tekla
Structures
.

/
/

, Tekla
Structures
, ,

.

,
.

(p. 19)

...

,
, Tekla
Structures



.



(p. 89)

,


.
:

,


,

XS_AD_CURVED_BEAM_SP
LIT_ACCURACY_MM
( >
> ...
> ).

,
.

,

.

(p.
68)

,

.


(p. 69)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

87

/
/

,


.

.


.

.

,

.

Tekla Structures


.

(p.
69)

(p.
70)

,



.


(p. 71)


,
.



STAAD.Pro (p. 73)

,
.

(p. 70)

,
.


(p. 71)


,

.



(p.
72)

88

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

> ,
.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.
OK.

:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.


, .
.
,
,
, .
.
OK.

> (p. 83)


(p. 80)


, Tekla Structures
.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

...
.
, , ,
.
1
.
2
.
:
, .
:

( )

, ,
1,
, 2.

, ,
1,
, 2.

,
1


, 1.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

89

,
2


, 2.


, 1
2.

,
.
, ,
.

, , , .
, .

1.


.
adrules.

2.

OK, ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.

(p. 90)

> .
, .
, .
.

(p. 81)

90

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

1.
2.
3.
4.

> .
, .
.
.

(p. 90)
(p. 81)

,
.

, ,
> > > > .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

> .

.
,
.
, . .
(p. 75).

. .
(p. 78).
OK. Tekla Structures
.


, ,
. .
(p. 79).
.

(p. 77)
(p. 73)


,
.

Tekla Structures
analysis_results.db5
.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

91

,
, ( > >
... > ):

XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_DIVISION_COUNT
XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_DISP_DIVISION_COUNT
XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_MIN_DISTANCE
XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_GRID_SIZE

,
.


.

.NET Excel.
,
XS_AD_RESULT_DATABASE_ENABLED
> > > .

1.
2.
3.

> .
.
.



1.
2.
3.
4.
.

> .
.
.
.

(p. 81)

.
.

, ,
.

1.
2.

92

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

, .
> .

DOF
c. ........................................... 15

..............................................................31

Kmode .......................................................................... 25

..............................................44

........................................... 36
......................................... 78
................................................ 59
........................................ 70
.................................................. 36

...................................................38
................................................................48
........................................ 65, 81
.................................18
......................................................................70

..............................49, 59
............................................. 35, 36, 51
................................................... 36
............................................................ 38
........................................................ 38
............................................................... 37
..................................................... 38
.............................................................. 38

............................................ 61
..........................................................43, 57
......................................... 25
....................................................... 30

..............................................................22
.........................................24
....................................81
....................................74
.......................................74
..........................................74
......................................74

......................................................54

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

93

.................................49
...................69
...................................................... 34, 70
......................................................71
............................................................7
..........................................................35

.....................................................31

.........................................24
...................................................19
........................................89
..............................................7
.........................................69
................................45
...............................22
..........72
......................25
..................................................30

................................................................ 35, 50
....................................................36
..............................................................32
...............................................................43
.............................59
......................................................36
............................................................48
..................49
.......................................45
...................................................46
..........................................................45
.....................................................44
.....................................................44
...............................................................40
.......................................................70
...............................................................50
.............................................................73
......................................................................41
..................................................................42
................................33

.................................................................32

................69
..............................................45

....................................................38
......................................................................31
................................................15
.................27

........................68
..............................................19

94

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

................................................56
.............................................44
...........................................55

................................................................46

.....................................................................61
.......................................10

................................................................61
................................83
........................................................7
..................81
...................................................... 65, 81
.................................................................66
.................................................31
...............................................80
.........................................81
.........................................92
................................................................65
........................................70
........................................................ 65, 86
..................................................89
..............................................................81
..........................................68
..................................................................82

......................................................... 12, 25
.........................................13

.....................................................................92

................................................................48

..................................... 69
............................................... 70
.................................................. 70
............................... 22
......................................................... 36
................................... 38

...................................................... 85
................................................................ 50
.........................................65, 86
.............................................. 77
...................................................................... 85
.......................................................... 17
..................................................... 73
................................................... 78
......................................................................... 33
...............................................33, 74
............................................................... 74
......................................... 79
............................................ 77
...................................................................... 75
......................................................... 15
............................................................ 30

...................................................38
...................................................................... 11, 32
..........................................................30
........................................................31
...............................................................85
............................................69

........................................................15
............................................................15

.......................................43, 57
.............................................................. 41
....................................................... 53

......................................................7

..........................................68

................................68
..........................................................42

................81
........................................13

................................................82
.....................................................................11
................................................11
........................................................ 12, 25
................................................69
.................25

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

95