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().

II.

-
..
,
. , 7, . , 142190, ., , e-mail: filvys@yandex.ru
(-) .
() : 1)
( ) ; 2) ,
.
- (sin- )
() ( ).
- ( ),
n ( )
- - (n(r) ~ cos(knr)/rk).
, cos-
. ,
n- (sin- ) En ~ n2
n-
(cos- ) En ~ (n-1/2)2. En>0
( IQ- , ), En<0
( FQ- , ),
(R+rind) ,
rind .
-
. ,
n En, ,
n,
: D
(, 60, 70) n.
.
537.86

.
.
.
( )
. ,
[13].


(. 1).
.
,
(. 1). , (. 1),
,
. -,
, ()
(. 1) 100 [1]. -, ,
(. 1), [3]. -,
_______________________________________________________________________________________
.., , 2012, 48(5), 2241.

22

[3] () 20 >En>0
, ,
. ,
, : , ,
, , [13].
() cos- (
) sin- () (). -
, ,
. , ,
(). (
) ,
, n(0)=0
cos- -
. 3,, I. ,
, ( os-
). 4
sin- . , sin- (En~n2)
- - ,
, os-
(En~(n-1/2)2). n>> -
- ,
(. I). , [13] ,
. I,
cos-
, (r) = 2k1/2rk k 0 (
k = 0, = 1). k = 1
k = 0,5.
, ,
, (. 1, . I),
..
( n-
) ,
- - ,

.

. 1.
[1].
. + ; - ,
. ,
.

23

,
,

(60 70). (rind),
,
(cos-) 60 70

(~ 10-2 ) -
60 70.
.
-
,
. -
[13].

(v << ) = h/mv, m
v , c . , ,
. ,
() (,
, ) . ,
,
( ), e = 12,25[]/ 7,6 ( e/2 3,8 ,
e/4 1,9 ). .
1 , -
, e/4 0,3 . 60 0,36 [4, 5].
. ,
En ~ 1 ,
. l ( e = 7,6 )
, 10l ( 76 ). ,
, (
),

(. 1 . 2, . I).
,
( , ,
. 1). Q- ( ) ,
,
(. 1).

, ,
[13], ,

(. 1) [1].


, [13].

:
( , ),
,
[13].
,
,

24

- . [2],

(Q-: , ).
(~ 1 C60, 70 .
). ,
(. 1),
, , ,
. -
, ( ),
10
. , [13]
(. 1)
.
.
-
. 2 (. I)
[13].
60 = 9010-30 3.
. , , ,
,
(. 2, . I . 2) [13].
C60 (. 2, . I)
60
(., , [6])
.
( )
R
, ,
(1), . I U(R+rind) =
(. 2).
(. 2) , -
, .
rind,
,
(. 2).
,
(. 2).
, ( )
rind (. 2 . 2, . I),
R+rind (. 2).
R - . (
) (- )
(. 2).

()
, - ,
, ,
, U(r) (. 2,). -
= (R+rind)/R,
, , -, [23].
( ) C60
, . ,
(. 1, . I) ,
, , (

25

.. ).
(. 2, . I).

. 2,. ()
(
),
E > 0 R+rind.
. .. ,
-
.

. 2,. ()
.

[8]
, [7, 9],
max60 120 2. 60, rind 60. [8]
rind 60 0,26 . ( N=70
rind 70 0,28 .) rind 60 ,
[79]
En
( ).
60 rind 0,26 : 1)
[8]
max(En) = (R+rind)2; 2)

(C60 70),
En = En(R+rind), 3) [79] [13]
-
60 70 cos-. ,
R+rind 0,72 ~ 1 60
70. R+rind
(rind = rind (L)).
Q-: ,
[79]
I , , ,
.
[79] ,
(. 2).
c
En<0 (. 2,). FQ-,
, .
(. 2,).

En>0,
(. 2,) . ,
. En>0
IQ-, ,

26

. , ,
( ) ,
(. 2,)

.
() .
,
, ,
.
3D- [23] ,
. 2,. ,
[79].
(Q-),
, (
(. 2,)),
(). ,
,
, (
).

.
C60 0,26 ~ 14 [23].
, ,
, (FQ-)
(IQ-). , FQ-
() (. 2,), IQ-
(. 2,). ( ~ 0,1 c
[79]) (. 2,),
IQ- ()
E>0 ( , ).
IQ- (
), ,
,
.
-
- -
n-
n 0 .
(n)
[10, . 131132; 11, . 303], ,
.
( ),
. ,
n ,
n 0 .
() .
, n(r) ~
Ansin(knr)/r [10], En ~ n2.
, , sin- (). U(r) c

, [10]. sin-
n- 2, En<0 ( FQ-). (
)
() .

27

() ,
n(0) = 0.
,
,
, ,
, . En>0
n(r) -,
n(r)
- - -
- .
()
, n(0) = , n(R) = 0. ,
,
sin- (),
(1/4 . 3,, . I), (. 1, . I).
(
) ,
, - -
n-
c En>0 ()
(. 2,). , ,

(, .),
, sin- (),
cos- ( ) En>0. cos-
n- (. 2, 3, . I)
.
, cos- ( ) En
~ (n-1/2)2, 1- = . (, (5), . I,
cos- Ecos1 4 , Esin1 sin- (4), . I.)
, (. . I [13]).
,
,
.
60 70.
n- ,

,
(1) U(R+rind) = (. 2,)
En, n- ,
, Wn(r)
dr (. 3, 4).
, 1- c Ecos1
- , (2), . I,
(. 3). ,
En dV - , ,
| n(r)|2dV = 4r2|n(r)|2dr [11]. ,
r -
(, ) cos- cos2(knr) (. 4), sin- (c Esin1)
sin2(k1r) (. 4). .
cos-
(. 4),
cos- .
- - ,
. ( -

28

cos- .) (. 4)
cos- ( n = 1)
, sin- ( n = 1). , cos- ( n = 1)
, sin- ( n = 1). ,

, , n(r)-
.
|n(r)|2dV = 4r2|n(r)|2dr < 1
|n(r)|2dV = 2r|n(r)|2dr < 1
. cos-
n(0) . , [3].
,
. (
) En = pn2/2m
, pn = const.

. 3. 1cos~cos(k1cosr)/r
(r ) [3].

. 4. 4r2|n(r)|2dr

1/2- (c Ecos1)
(c Esin1)
.
- . 1/2-
( 60).



60,
, ,
[79], cos-. ,
[3] 60 cos- :
Encos = 2 (n-1/2)2 2/2mR2 = 0,37(n )2/(RC60+rind)2 []. n = 1, 2, 3, ;
EncosC60, n=1,2,3,4 = 0,24; 2,2; 6,0; 11,8 [],
sin- :
Ensin = 2 (n-1/2)2 2/2mR2 = 0,37n2/(R +rind)2 []. n = 1, 2, 3, ;
EnsinC60, n=1,2,3 = 0,96; 3,85; 8,66 [].

(1)

(2)


(. 2 . 2, . I),
: En = 0,24; 2,25; 3,8; 4,9; 6,1 [8], 0,2; 1,5; 4,5;
5,5; 8 [9]. , ,

29

En>0, 12 . (
n (1) (2) En>12 .) (. 5)
C60 E1 0,20,24 [8, 9],
cos- Ecos1C60= 0,24 .
sin- ,
rind 0,9 ,
, (R + rind)2 120 2 [8] (. 5,).
rind = 0,26
[8] , [2] (. 5,,).

. 5. C60 : ) 60
[8]. cos- C60 (
n = 1, 2, 3, 4), (5), . I, 60
; ) SF6 60 60 (T = 673 K) [9].
sin- C60 (
n = 1, 2), (6), . I, 60
; )
60 [7].



, rind ,
R N1/2 (N ,
4RN2 ~ N),
. (1) (2)
, N
RN:
RN = (RC60 N / 60 ) + rind )/( RC60 + rind).
R70 = 1,03 70; R84 = 1,09 R90 = 1,12 84 90 .
, 70 (4), . I, , cos-:
En=1-4 = 0,21; 1,9; 5,6; 11,1 .

(3)

,
70, 70,
[79]. (Ecos n=1 = 0,21 70)
C70 (0,2 [8]).
( - - -)
.

rind -
, . ,
[12] ( rind),
. rind = 0,28 70

30

, , [8]
E1cos = 0,2 .


,
, 60,
En>0,2 ,
(). ,
, ~ 1 ,
.
,
.
.

.
.
--
.
60 [4, 5].
-
[4, 5].
,
,
(. 1) [1],
- En~10 ,
[3],
, (. 1)
[13] . -
(. 1) , 0,2
12 (. 25).
k = 1 1,4 (D 1 ).

[3]

60
E = 2(E1+E2+E3) 17 ek@60 c k = 6.
0,2 20 ,
(., , [79]).
(. 1 [13])
. ,
.
60 cos- [3] (1) sin- (2).

(60) [79].
, , . 1
. ,
R
(. . 6 [3, 13]). --
- (. 1
. 6,). -
(17 [13])
(. 1). ,
,
.

31

. 6. ) -
, [13].
, n
60 .
, , [3]. )

60 () [13] ( 295 77 K).
R = 17 .


: V = 4R3/3. R
. , ,
( ) : VC = 4R2h. h
, . ( [13, 13, 15, 16]),
. [1]:
= VC/V = 3h/R.
(4)
3 (4) ( ).
2, R
(1/X + 1/Y + 1/Z)-1. X, Y, Z ,
. .
,
.
(4)
h: = 300h/R [%]. R
[1].


() 60 (. 1).
60 k = 1 6 60 [13].
, :
(. 1): FC60 = K(eN)2/R2 =
=K(ekNC60)2/R2 = K(ek4R2/h2)2/R2. N ,
; N60 = 4R2/h2 ,
R; e ;
K = 1/40 = 0,91010 2-2. , : C60 = FC60/S.
S = 4R2. [1]:
P60 = K(ekS/h2)2/(SR2) = 4K(ek/h2)2 = 2,9k2(h0/h)4 [].
(5)
h0 = const = 1 ; h 60 h 1 . k = 6,
1 104 . [14]
() 400 ,
1,1 . [13]
( ),
2,9 (k = 1) 104 ( k = 6). , (5),

. (

32

[15, 16].)

, ,
.
()
, :
F1-1 = K(ke)2/h2 ,
(6)
, ,
(), (. 1).
[1]:
F1-N = Kek(eN)/R2 = 4K(ke)2/h2.
(7)
(6) (7) , , 4
, .
, , ,
.
,
,
- () [13].

,
[1, 13].

(7) R,
(. 1) [1]: E(R) = K(eN)/R2 =
=4K(ke)/h2. ,
h/2 ( ): (R, h) 2K(ke)/h
9k [] [3]. , ,

, ,
(R, h),
60 Encos60 (1) Ensin60 (2).
-

n(En, R)
(. 6).
, (. 6).
,
, 2nNC60 = kNC60. NC60
, k
. R 17 [13]

60 cos- [3, 13] sin-
[13] ( (1) (2) ):
nC60 = En300h/(18Rn)= 0,22; 0,96; 1,0; 1,88; 2,0; 2,9 [%].
(8)
, ,
E2 = 1,5 [9], 1
sin-.
2cosC60 = VC/V = 0,6%, 1%. . 6 (. 6,)
[13] (. 6,) ( )
(60).
(8) , --

33

(n) (En), ,
n,
- : R
n. , -
, -
. --
, IQ- ( IQ
En>0) ek@C60,
- , [17]
1953 . [18].

[13]
- 60, 70 (, )
En
- ()
~ 1 (
60 D = 2(R+rind) 1,24 ). ( )
- ,
.
, - ,
60, 70 ~ 0,1
[79] 20 >En>0
(. 25). , ,

, (. 2, I).
,
R+rind, 60 (. 2, I).
, En>0 ,
() ,

(. 2, I).
60 ,
, ,

R (. 2, I) rind.

3D- 60 (. 2, I).
(, ) 60
( En>0). [13]
( , )
ek@CN ( [4, 5]). k
( 60 k 6 [13, 19]), N . ek@N
En, - ,
, ( )
- (, 60).
En, , ,

- (. 2,)

( ) .
(. 2,).
, , (sin-
- ) (cos-
- -
) n- (IQ-), 60 -,
En>0 (. 3, 4).

34

(. (1)(3))
( ) 60 [79]
(. 5) [79]
. ,
(. 5,)
[8] (10%). [8]


- .

() E>0.
ek@60 ( )
Ei ( - ) -
60 ,
, 60,70 ..
-, 60 56 -1,
[20, 21], , [13].
(IQ-
) E = Ei Ei-1, i = 2 3. [79],
( ) ~ 10-1 .
IQ-
()
, () .
,
--
. -
,
.
(
.) , . ,
()
,
. ,
,
(
) ~ 1010 / [1]. -
,
.
,
() (. 1).
, ,
,
Wn
( : (n-1/2)2 cos n2 sin-) (, )
.
[13, 79, 13] :
1) ek@60, 70
()
En>0, (1)(3).
( )
;
2)
0,2 12 70 20 70;
3)
RR+rind, - ();

35

4) ()
ek@C60, 60,
,
;
5)
cos- (En ~(n-1/2)2) sin-
(En ~ n2).
ek@60

( (1), . I) -
( ,
60) (. (2), . I . 2,).
() (1)(3)
n-, .
-
:
(. 3, 4) [3]. , , ( 85%)
(. 4), -

rind,
rind (R R+rind). ,
sp2 ( ), [79]
rind 0,26 60,
.
.
, En>0
(, , .). R+rind (
), rind, R
. RN = (R60 + rind)/R60
( ),
[8] (. 5,), 60 1,56 1,71
0,24 2,07 . , [8], rind
0,2 0,26 .
,
60 (rind) ( RN) (
[8] 10%). ,
, ,
[79]
C60 rind = 0,26 , 70 rind = 0,28 . rind 0,26 : 1)
[8]
max(En) = (R+rind)2 2)

(C60 70),
En = En(R+rind). , ,
R+rind 1
. (
.)
8
(. 5) [79].
( )
,
( (4), . I) [8]
90% (. 5,).
- [13],

0,2 20 , [79, 13],
:

36

1) R () ;
2) (
) , (. 2, 5),

RN = (R+rind)/R;
3) (
En).
[13] -
,
( )
(. 1),
: , ,
,
[13, 13] ( . 1).

,
(, ) [13, 13].
,
, ()
D
60 (. 6).
,
, --
(. 6).
( )

(., , [13]). , ,
, [13, 13, 15, 16]
, -
. ,
() ,
, ()

(, 60, (. 6 [3, 13])) --
.

. : (R)
n,
. , 104
, .
n,
R h,
(8) ( (1)(3)). ,
, --
(n)
(En), ,
n,
: R
(, , 60) n(En, R) (. 6).
, ,
.

. , .
() . .

37

.
n- p- ,
,
.

[13, 13]

,
e1-6@60 (. (1)(3)),
( )
60,70 [8] 10% ( E1-2).
, .. , , [79],
(RN = R+rind/R).

60 70 , (
. 2).

.

( ).
[79, 13] ,

- ,
- -
. ,
(1)(3)
[79] (. . 36)
:
1) ,
-
(sin-) (Q-) (
) ,
n - (
). , - ,
(r) = 2k1/2rk k 0 ( k = 0,
= 1) n- . k = 1,
k = 0,5;
2)
n ,
- - ;
3) [13] (
) ek@C60 n = 3 k = 2n = 6 ( ) [13, 19];
4) , ()
, (
E>0 E<0).
En<0 ( FQ-),

En>0,
En>0 ( IQ-)
Q- (. 2). , [22, 23]
, .
En>0 , c En<0 ;

38

5) IQ- , ,
. FQ-
() (
) .
(IQ-)

[79]
En>0
.
, 60
- .. cos- (c Ecos n ~ (n - 1/2)2), -
-,
sin- (c Esin n ~ n2),
-. ,
,
- -

En.
, -
(IQ-) (
) , , ,
, () .
, -
(, 60), IQ-
En>0, R+rind.
(., , [79, 13] )
60, 70 ,
- (),
[16, 24]. 60
( n-) , ,
. 60
,
,
(). -
ek@Cn ,
. 2, -
,
, ,
.

.
60,
(2) . I , , 4 [10] . V, 36
( ), . 12. ,
U(r) ~ Br2, [10],
, (1)(3)
.
, [13, 13, 22],
, [25],
[24], ,
[25]. -
-
, , , ,
() .
[16, 24]
60,70
. ,
() , , ,

39

41042 ( v/c ).
[26] .. ,
.
, ,
,
ek@Cn,
,
.
( 6)
.
ek@Cn k 1, , - (
1021 1022 -3,
-) - .
, ,
- [27].

- ,
,
.
[24]:
, ,
. , , ,
, , [24],
, . ,
, , , (, ),
[15, 16, 27], .

16.552.11.7014 16.523.11.3002 (
).

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and Resonances in the Properties of Nanocomposite Materials with Spatial Charge Layers. Surface
Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry. 2010, 46(6), 547557.
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. . 2011, (1), 1936.
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. . 2005. 81(4), 207211.
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. . .: , 1974. 752 .
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12. .., .., .. .
. . 2005, 175(9), 10041007.
13. Blank V., Vysikaylo Ph. et al. C60doping of Nanostructured Bi-Sb-Te Thermoelectrics. Phys. Status
Solidi A. 2011, 208, 27832789.

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14. . . . . .. .: , 1985. 672 .


15. .. -
. . .
-09 , , 23-25 2009 .
.: , 2009. 512 (. 141; 288, 310; 341; 387; 432; 468).
16. .. . .: , . 2009. 192 .
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18. .., ..
. . 1953, 91(4), 795798.
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. . 2001, 43(2), 350356.
23. .., .., .., ..
-.
. 2011, 13(1), 6771.
24. ..
. . 2004, 125(5), 10711081.
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15.08.11
Summary
The processes of physical doping of nano-structured (meta-) materials are investigated. Cumulative quantum
mechanics (CQM) as stated by the author was the base for the following: 1) Two types of interference and diffraction
(in the center) in the hollow quantum cavities for de Broglie waves of electrons, and 2) Two types of Vysikaylos
quantum-size effects due to polarization capture of electrons in the cavity quantum resonators. The first type of
interference and, accordingly, the diffraction at the center of the cavity corresponds to the interference of de BroglieFresnel (sin-wave with a node in the center of the resonator). This type is used to describe the localization
(accumulation) of electrons in the atom (quantum cavity with an atomic nucleus in the center of the cavity). The second
type of interference and, accordingly, diffraction is called Vysikaylo de-Broglie-Fraunhofer interference (diffraction
with the antinode of the de Broglie wavelength of an electron in the center of a hollow resonators), in which n the
functions of an electron are indefinitely accumulated (focus polarization "mirror") towards the center of a hollow
spherical or cylindrically symmetrical quantum resonator (n(r) ~ cos (knr)/rk). It is shown that the irregular cossolutions in the center of the cavity, for all of the wave phenomena, are regularized by the regularized geometric factor.
In the framework of CQM, the following is proved: along with the classical energy spectrum for asymmetric nfunctions (sin-waves harmonics) with En ~ n2 for hollow quantum resonators there are also symmetric n-functions
(cos-waves the fundamental tone ) with En ~ (n-1/2)2 realized in the experiments. Energy spectrum of states localized
by barrier, with En>0 (metastable IQ-particle partially open quantum dot, line or well), as in the case of En<0 (FQstable particle a closed quantum dot, line or well), is determined by effective internal box dimensions (R + rind) with
polarization forces, effective at the distance rind from the hollow molecule. Comparisons of the results of analytical
calculations with experimental observations conclusively prove the validity of CQM for the description of quantum-size
effects in the physical doping of metamaterials. For the first time it was demonstrated that in nanocomposite materials a
couple of "proper function n eigenenergy En that constitutes a quantum state in the nanoworld, marked by the main
quantum number n, in the mesoworld of nanocomposites physically doped by traps is replaced by two parameters:
diameter of the nanocrystal D and the resonance of the relative concentration of the modifier (traps, such as C60, 70)
n in the present work the self-assembly of hollow allotropic forms of carbon in resonant electrons is discussed.
________________________________________________________________________________________________

41