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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

Dr. Ajit C. Khanse, Ph. D.


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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

Agenda

SDC &
Design

Seismic
Design

Seismicity

Introduction

Plate
Tectonics

Structural
failures

Fault
Rupture

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International tunnel solution providers
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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

WORLD SEISMICITY: 1900 2013


Mw 7.0

Seismicity refers to the geographic and historical distribution of earthquakes. The dots
represent the epicenters of significant earthquakes. It is apparent that the locations of
the great majority of earthquakes correspond to the boundaries between plates.
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RING OF FIRE

Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the socalled Ring of Fire, a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
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PLATE TECTONICS

The Earth is made up of a dozen major plates and several minor plates. Tectonic
plates are constantly on the move. The fastest tectonic plate constantly races
along at 6 per year while the slowest plates crawl at less than1 per year [USGS]
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CONTINETAL DRIFT

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www.tectonics.caltech.edu

SAN ANDREAS FAULT, CA

The Pacific Plate (western side of San Andreas fault) is


moving horizontally in a northerly direction relative to the
North American Plate (eastern side of fault)
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RUPTURE PROPAGATION With Compliments from Prof. Krishnan, Caltech

EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE
Earthquake magnitude
M, is a measure of the
kinetic energy released
by an earthquake.

Due to limitations in the


ability of some recording
instruments to measure
values above a certain
amplitude, some of these
magnitude scales tend to
reach an asymptotic
upper limit. To correct this,
the moment magnitude,
Mw, scale was developed.
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EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE
1) Ground Shaking
2) Permanent Ground Deformation
3) Liquefaction (a) Sand Boils
(b) Lateral Spreading Landslides

(c) Graben and Horst

4) Basin Effect
5) Tsunami
6) Landslides
7) Structural Destruction
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PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE, Mw = 7.9 With Compliments from Prof. Krishnan, Caltech

GROUND SHAKING RESULTING IN STRUCTURAL FAILURE


The reverse-oblique fault line crosses the largest concrete gravity
Shigung dam in Taiwan. The eastern 80 % of the dam is uplifted by about
33 ft and the western part by about 10 ft. At fault-line, the concrete dam
wall was cut off and 23 ft difference appeared in the elevation.

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The 1999 Chi Chi, Taiwan Earthquake, Mw = 7.6

www.infra.kochi-tech.ac.jp/

PERMANENT GROUND DEFORMATION

The 1999 Chi Chi, Taiwan Earthquake, Mw = 7.6


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Ref: kyoto-u.ac.jp

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SOIL LIQUEFACTION describes a phenomenon whereby


a saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in
response to earthquake shaking or other sudden change in
stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid.
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A SAND BOIL is sand & water that


come out onto the ground surface
during an earthquake as a result of
liquefaction at shallow depth.

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..

LIQUEFACTION: Lateral Spreading Landslides

Lateral spread or flow are terms referring to landslides that commonly form
on gentle slopes and that have rapid fluid-like flow movement, like water.
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LIQUEFACTION: Lateral Spreading

Lateral spreading in the


soil beneath the roadway
embankment caused the
embankment to be pulled
apart, producing the large
crack down the center of
the road. (REF: USGS)
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The 1964 Alaska Earthquake, Mw = 7.9

BASIN EFFECT I

21-story, steel-frame building

15-story reinforced concrete building


Epicenter was 220 miles away from
Mexico City. Estimated 35,000 people
died in Mexico City, where 412
multistory (8 to 25 floors) buildings

collapsed completely and another


3,124 were seriously damaged. (USGS)
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8-story RC building

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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

The 1985 Michoacn (Mexico) Earthquake, Mw = 8.3

BASIN EFFECT II
Characteristics of the soil profiles

Extremely soft, saturated surface clays


At some places Plasticity Index 300
Friction angles as low as, = 5-15o
Zone

Depth Eff. Vs Predominant


(ft)
(ft/s)
period (s)
Transition
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285
0.6
Lake
125
250
2.0
Deep Lake 185
200
3.4

Map of seismic zonation and isoperiod


curves (in sec) of Mexico City
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Dynamic characteristics of
Soil deposits play vital role
[Aviles and Perez-Rocha 1998]

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The 1985 Michoacn (Mexico) Earthquake, Mw = 8.3

BASIN EFFECT III

Source-averaged basin amplification is period-dependent,


with the highest amplifications occurring for the longest
periods and greatest basin depths.

Relative to the very-hard rock reference structure, general


maximum amplification is about a factor of 8. At Mexico
city (1985 Michoacn earthquake), seismic motion was
amplified up to a factor of 60 compared to the bedrock.
[Aviles and Perez-Rocha 1998]
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The 1985 Michoacn (Mexico) Earthquake, Mw = 8.3

Earthquake Magnitude vs Tsunami Intensity (1896 2005)

Earthquake Magnitude
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REF: USGS

TSUNAMI Seismic Sea Waves


Tsunamis are ocean waves caused by large earthquakes & landslides
that occur near or under the ocean.
Generated when thrust faults associated with convergent or destructive
plate boundaries move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing
to the vertical component of movement involved.

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Sumatra and the Andaman Islands are part of an island arc.

REF: USGS

Details of Tsunami Generation

Tsunami generation from an inter-plate thrust fault

The displacement of rock surrounding the inter-plate thrust

Diagram of tsunami splitting, soon after generation


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REF: USGS

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The 2004 Mw =9.2 Sumatra Earthquake: Rupture Propagation

USGS

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The 2004 Mw =9.2 Sumatra Earthquake: Rupture Propagation

USGS

LANDSLIDES
Landslide north of Fort Funston, San Mateo Coast, CA
The 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

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Landslides occur due to ground shaking alone or shaking-caused


dilation of soil materials, which allows rapid infiltration of water.

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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

REF: USGS

LANDSLIDE MITIGATION
The hazard from landslides can be reduced by
avoiding construction on steep slopes and existing landslides
stabilizing the slopes.
Slope stability is increased when
a retaining structure &/or the weight of a soil/rock berm are
placed at the toe of the landslide.
when mass is removed from the top of the slope.
When ground water is prevented from rising in the landslide
mass.
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TUNNEL DESTRUCTION
2004 Niigata Earthquake, Japan

1995 Kobe Earthquake, Japan


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KOBE, JAPAN 1995, Mw= 6.9

LOMA PRIETA 1989, Mw=6.93

There is not a fiercer hell than the failure in a great object Keats
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FEW Q&A

Q: There are no faults in the Central and Eastern United States


(CEUS). Earthquakes are rare. Is seismic design mandatory?

An intraplate earthquake occurs in the interior of a tectonic plate,


which could be due to unknown causative fault buried inside a plate.

Recall Load Combinations of AASHTO 2010 & ASCE 7-10.

Site-specific investigation of Seismic Design Category (SDC)


determines the type of design procedure.

Q: Traditionally unreinforced concrete liner has been provided in some


cases is it acceptable?

AASHTO 2010 has no comment. ACI 318-14 Ch. 18 on Earthquake


Resistant Structures does not allow unreinforced concrete. Further, the
ovaling deformation may induce considerable tensile hoop forces.
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FEW Q&A
Q: Since liner in rock is anchored to rock, the tensile hoop forces in liner
are apparent during ovaling response. Do we have these for liner in soil?

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Liner in Soil

FEW Q&A
Q: Since liner in rock is anchored to rock, the tensile hoop forces in liner
are apparent during ovaling response. Do we have these for liner in soil?

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Liner in Soil

FEW Q&A
Q: Since liner in rock is anchored to rock, the tensile hoop forces in liner
are apparent during ovaling response. Do we have these for liner in soil?

Forces due to motion,

F = m.a

T
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Liner in Soil

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC)


There are various correlations of the qualitative Modified
Mercalli Intensity (MMI) with quantitative characterizations
of ground-shaking limits for the various SDCs.
MMI V

No real damage

SDC A 0 < SM1 <0.1g

MMI VI

Light nonstructural damage

SDC B 0.1g < SM1 < 0.2g

MMI VII

Hazardous nonstructural damage

SDC C 0.2g < SM1 < 0.3g

MMI VIII Hazardous damage to susceptible structures SDC D 0.3 < SM1 < 1.12g
MMI IX

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Hazardous damage to robust structures

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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

SDC E SM1 > 1.125g

[11.6, ASCE 7-10]

MCER 1-second spectral response acceleration parameter, SM1 (%g)

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Map with associated regions of Seismic Design


Category, assuming Site Class D conditions

1 MAY 2015
SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC)


Seismic Design Category (SDC) depends upon
Topographic location,
Site soil class,
Occupancy (risk) category,
Deterministic design spectral response parameter at short
period SDS and that at 1-sec period SD1.
The design requirements depending upon SDC:

SDC A: No seismic design. Certain provisions shall be met.


SDC B & C: Analytical closed-form analysis procedure.
SDC D, E & F: The finite-element or finite-difference numerical
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modelling approach.

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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

[ASCE 7-10, AASHTO 2010]

LOAD CASE EXTREME EVENT - I


Designed to withstand seismic ground motions with a
Return Period of 2,500 years, corresponding to 2%
probability of exceedance in 50 years.
Values from Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER)
shall be used for Load Case Extreme Event I.
The recurrence interval, or Return Period (RP), is the
average time span between earthquake occurrences.
RP

T
PE
In 1

100

For PE = 2 and T = 50 years, RP 2,500 years


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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

[AASHTO 2010]

LOAD CASE EXTREME EVENT - I


, site-specific, deterministic

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps/us/application.php
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[AASHTO 2010]

RESPONSE SPECTRA
Response spectra
establish the ground
motion shaking intensity
level and are used for
deriving other ground
motion parameters, e.g.,
PGA / SM1 is used to find
PGV, shear strain, etc.
Response spectra are
used as target spectra for
generating design ground
motion time histories for
refined numerical analysis
Minimum three points are required
to establish Response Spectra
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LOAD CASE EXTREME EVENT - II


A 'realistic design basis earthquake',
typically taken as occurring once in a
period equal to about three times the
design life (3 x 100).
For CEUSA, the Return Period of
500 years i.e., 10% probability of
exceedance in 50 years.
The values for site class B are
obtained from USGS hazard maps.
Values for other soil class are
area-specific, probabilistic
http://geohazards.usgs.gov/hazards/apps/cmaps
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derived from Ch. 11 of ASCE 7-10


[AASHTO 2010]

LOAD CASE EXTREME EVENT - III


The Extreme Event III and
Construction Strength I combination
should consider a smaller

earthquake as a static load to be


combined with other loads
A Return Period of 10 years i.e.,
99% probability of exceedance in 50
years
The values for all site classes for

any probability are obtained from


area-specific, probabilistic, all soil types

USGS hazard maps.

http://geohazards.usgs.gov/hazardtool/application.php
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[AASHTO 2010]

SEISMIC DESIGN TOOL WORLDWIDE

Salah Bey Cable Bridge, Constantine, Algeria


http://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/designmaps/wwdesign.php
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SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR SDC B & C:

Axial/Curvature Deformation Along


Tunnel Due to Traveling Waves
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Ovaling/Racking Deformation of
Circular/Rectangular c/section to
Vertically Propagating Shear Waves

SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR SDC B & C:


The values of "Peak Gravitational Acceleration (PGA)" and
"Maximum spectral response at 1-s period (SM1)" are obtained
from the site-specific, deterministic hazard analysis from USGS.

SM1 is used to calculate the shear wave peak particle velocity Vs


of soil
Using closed-form analytical equations, the free-field shear
strain, at the required depth is evaluated from PGA and Vs,
separately.
Bending moments and axial hoop forces are evaluated from
using closed-form equations.
Seismic forces are added to static loads with appropriate load
factors.
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Ch. 13 of AASHTO 2010

FE NUMERICAL PROCEDURE FOR SDC D, E & F:


(A) Pseudo-Static Seismic Coefficient Deformation Method for
(a) underground structures buried at shallow depths,
(b) when the subsurface conditions are not highly variable,
nor ground stability is a concern,
(c) simple and non-critical structures,
(d) low seismic area
(B) Dynamic Time History Analysis:
In a dynamic time history analysis, the entire soil-structure
system is subject to dynamic excitations using ground motion
time histories as input at the base of the soil-structure system
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DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS using Plaxis


Tunnel of any shape can be modeled

Dynamic Load input options:


1) Simple sinusoidal wave
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2) Any time-dependent force


3) Earthquake Time History

SOIL STRUCTURE INETRACTION (SSI)


The response of a structure to
earthquake shaking is affected by
interactions between three linked
systems:
1) the structure,
2) the foundation, and
3) the geologic media underlying
and surrounding the foundation.
[Fig. from H. Allison Smith & Wen-Hwa Wu, 1997]
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FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION (FSI)

Femarnbelt Immersed Tube Tunnel, Denmark


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SEISMIC DESIGN - INTRODUCTION

Offshore structures

Earthquake effects on structures


systematically bring out the mistakes
made in design and construction,
even the minutest mistakes
Newmark and Rosenblueth

Thank You!
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Q?

DESIGN STANDARDS
(1) AASHTO Technical Manual for Design & Construction of Road Tunnels
Civil Elements 2010

(2) FHWA-NHI-11-032, LRFD Seismic Analysis and Design of Transportation


Geotechnical Features and Structural Foundations, 2011

(3) FHWA-HRT-05-067 Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Structures: Part


2 Tunnels, Retaining Structures, Slopes, Culverts & Roadways, 2005

(4) ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
(5) AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 6th Edition, 2014
(6) AASHTO LRFD Seismic Bridge Design, 2nd Edition, 2011
(7) AISC 341-10 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, 2010
(8) ACI 318-14 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete & Commentary
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FEW NOTATIONS & DEFINATIONS


MCER = Risk-targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion.
Design response spectrum shall be determined by dividing ordinates of
MCER response spectrum by 1.5.
CR = risk coefficient; see Section 21.2.1.1
CRS = mapped value of the risk coefficient at short periods as defined by Figure 22-3
CR1 = mapped value of the risk coefficient at a period of 1 second as defined by Figure 22-4
SSD = mapped deterministic, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at short
periods as defined in Section 11.4.1
SSUH = mapped uniform-hazard, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at short
periods as defined in Section 11.4.1
S1D = mapped deterministic, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at a period of
1 second as defined in Section 11.4.1
S1UH = mapped uniform-hazard, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at a period
of 1 second as defined in Section 11.4.1

SS = 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods as defined in Sec. 11.4.3
S1 = spectral response acceleration parameter at a period of 1 second as defined in Section 11.4.3
SaM = the site-specific MCER spectral response acceleration at any period
SMS = the MCER, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods adjusted
for target risk and site-class effects as defined in Section 11.4.3
SM1 = the MCER, 5 percent damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at a period of 1 second
adjusted for target risk and site-class effects as defined in Section 11.4.3
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[Sec. 11.2, 11.3, ASCE 7-10]

DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA

T
S a S DS 0.4 0.6 for T T0 ( Eq.11.4 9)
T0

SDS = .Fa.CRS.SSUH or .Fa.SSD, lesser. (Eq. 11.4-1, 11.4-2, Table 11.4-1)

SD1 = .Fv.CR1.S1UH or .Fv.S1D, lesser. (Eq. 11.4-3, 11.4-4, Table 11.4-2)


for TS T TL (Eq. 11.4-10)

for T > TL (Eq. 11.4-11)

[Sec. 11.4, ASCE 7-10]


Presentation
Title
Response
Spectra

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