Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities,
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority,
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public.
1 +, 1 +
01 ' 5
Jawaharlal Nehru
! $ ' +
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
! > 0 B
BharthariNtiatakam
IS : 4991  1968
( Reaffirmed 2003 )
Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN
OF STRUCTURES FOR EXPLOSIONS
ABOVE GROUND
( Third
Reprint
UDC
BUREAU
MANAK
Copyright 1969
BAHADUR
NEW DELHI
Gr g
1993 )
69985 : 62404
INDIAN
OF
BHAVAN.
AUGUST
STANDARDS
SHAH
ZAFAR
MARG
110002
September
1969
IS : 4991  1968
Indian
Standard
Engineering
Sectional
BDC
39
Representing
Chairman
DR JAI KBISENA
Committee,
Members
DB A. S. ABYA
Research
Institute
( CSIR ),
( Continued on page 2 )
STANDARDS
BUREAU
OF
INDIAN
MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002
IS:49911968
( Continued from page 1 )
Members
Representing
Directorate General of Observatories, Ministry
Transport & Aviation, New Delhi
Director General, ISI ( Exoficio Member )
Da A. N. TANDON
SHRI R. NAGARAJAN,
Director ( Civ Engg )
of
Secretary
SHRI BIMLESH KUMAR
Assistant
Blast
Resistant
Director
Design of Structures
BDC 39:2
Subcommittee,
Convener
DR A. S. ARYA
Members
DR A. R. CIIANDRA~EKARAN
Sanx C. I?. GHO~H
Ds SAMPOORAN SINGH
SHBI
P. K. MISR~ ( AIrernate
SARI K. K. SUIJ
IS : 4991
1968
Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN
OF STRUCTURES FOR EXPLOSIONS
ABOVE GROUND
0.
FOREWORD
IS : 4991  1968
standard blast loadings (see 12.2 ), are recommended
in this standard.
Nevertheless,
this standard
also contains
necessary
information
for
evaluating
various parameters
of a blast wave generated by any other
size of explosion at a given distance and the design of a structure
for
It may be mentioned
that if a building receives a shock
the same.
stronger
than the one for which it is designed, it is likely to suffer a
higher category of damage.
0.6 Fires may generally follow an air raid, it is, therefore, important to
to the relevant Indian Standdesign structures
against fire. Attention
ards on fire safety is, therefore, invited.
8.7 Flying splinters from a bomb may also cause considerable
damage
Wall thicknesses conto the portion of the structure exposed to them.
sidered
safe against
flying splinters
from a bomb are given in
Appendix
C.
0.8 In the formulation
of this standard, in addition to other publications
the following have been consulted:
BIGCS (J M). Introduction
to structural
dynamics, 1964. McGraw
Hill Book Company, Inc, New York.
KINNEY (G F ). Explosive shocks in air, 1962. The Machmillan
Company,
New York.
NORRIS( C H), HANSEN ( R J), HOLLEY JR ( M J), Broos (J M),
NAYMET ( S), and MINAMI ( J K ). Structural
design for dynamic loading, 1959. McGraw Hill Book Co, Inc, New York.
Design of structures
to resist nuclear weapon effects.
Manual of
Engineering
Practic No. 42, 1964. American
Society of Civil
Engineers,
New York.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Department
of Army, Army Corps
of Engineers.
Design of structures to resist the effect of atomic
weapons, Manual No. TM58563,
1957, Government
Printing
Office, Washington.
0.9 For the purpose of deciding
whether a particular
requirement
of
this standard is complied with, the final value, observed
or calculated,
expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 21960*.
The number of significant
places retained
in
the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value
in this standard.
1. SCOPE
1.1 This standard
covers the criteria for design of structures for blast
effects of explosions above ground.
This standard does not cover the
design for blast effects of nuclear explosions.
*Rules for rounding off numerical valuea ( re,?jsed).
4
IS:4991
1968
definitions
shall
2. DEFINITIONS
2.0
For
the purpose
of this
standard,
the following
apply.
2.1 Blast Wind  It is the moving air mass along with the overpressures resulting
from pressure difference
behind the shock wave front.
The blast wind movement
during the positive phase of the overpressures is in the direction
of shock front propagation.
2.2 Clearance
decays down
pressure.
Time This
to the sum
pressure
the drag
It is the coefficient
of the negative power of
the fall of pressure with time in the pressuretime
It
is the pressure
deflection
to the
It is the point
vertically
below
above
is the
atmosphere.
c
atmospheric
pres
resulting due to
If the shock front
discontinuity
between
It propagates
away
the blast
from the
rs:49911968
point of explosion in all directions at a speed greater than the speed of
sound in the undisturbed atmosphere.
2.14 Sideon Overpressure by any surface.
2.15 Transit Time  It is the time required for the shock front to travel
across the structure or its element under consideration.
2.16 Yield  It is a measure of the size of the explosion expressed in
equivalent weight of reference explosive.
3. NOTATIONS
3.1 For
apply.
the
a
B
Cd
E
H
I
j
K.
KLM
Kt
KU
k
k, & k,
purpose
and i?
ks
M
Mt
M,
In
n
Pt
IS : 4991  1968
p*
P(Z)
Pa
pressure
PS
Sideon overpressure
Peak sideon overpressure
Dynamic pressure
40
R,
S
T
to
ta
to
t*
ft
u
W
Y,
YWI
z
!
Ambient atmospheric
PC3
PW
2
a
*r
member
4 B or H whichever is less
Effective time period of structural member
Clearance time
Duration of the equivalent triangular pulse
Time for positive phase of sideon overpressure
Duration of the equivalent triangular pulse for drag loading only
Transit time
Shock front velocity
Yield of explosion
Deflection/deformation
at yield point of idealised resistance deflection curve
Maximum deflection/deformation
permitted in the design
of the structure
Tension steel ratio
Compression steel ratio
Decay parameter
Deflection at point r of an assumed deflected shape for
concentrated loads
Deflection at point x of an assumed deflected shape for distributed loads
Ductility
ratio = %
(I
4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
STRUCTURES
IS:49911968
is approximately
vertical.
The effective
yield of a contact
burst is
This condition
is
almost double of an equal explosion high in the air.
assumed to give most serious effects.
4.2 Shock Wave  As a result of explosion,
a shock wave is generated
in the air which moves outward in all directions from the point of burst
with high speed causing timedependent
pressure and suction effects at
all points in its way.
The shock wave consists of an initial positive
pressure phase followed by a negative ( suction ) phase at any point as
The shock wave is accompanied
by blast wind causing
shown in Fig. I.
dynamic pressures due to drag effects on any obstruction
coming in its
way.
Due to diffraction
of the wave at an obstructing
surface reflected
pressure is caused instantaneously
which clears in a time depending
on
the extent of obstructing
surface.
FIG
SHUCK
WAVE
PRODUCED
BY BLAST
4.3 Pressures
IS ; 4991
1968
5. BLAST
FORCE
5.1 Maximum
Values
for Reference
of Pressure
with
to the following
TimeThe
relations:
p8=plo(
q=qo
NOTE
1 +)
l
u t>
pressure
varies
with
time
e diO
eZ!rr/
sure (I decays much faster with time than the sideon overpressure p.
9
IS : 4991  196%
NOTE
2 Since
the use of these relations in design problcrn would
involve tedious calculations, the pressure time relations in the positive phase
are idealised by using a straight line starting with the maximum pressure
value but terminating at a time ta OP t, such that the impulse value remains
the same.
This criteria has been adopted in this standard.
TABLE
BLAST
PARAMETERS
FKOM GROUND
1 TONNE EXPLOSIVE
BURST
OF
( Clause 5.1)
DISTALNCE,PEAK SIDE
m
ON
OVERPlIESSVtiE
x
RATIO
PW.'Pll
(2)
~~AOH
NO.
hI
1865
092
(51
5.39
718
933
11 ..a.,
1Gc;
148
142
l36
A3:!
128
22.93
24.9.5
6.71
28.22
29.74
15.39
lti.31
17*94
1!Yeu
20.20
OG6
O.B!I
o53
048
IA.45
1.26
1.23
I.10
l19
1.17
3lz?l
32.26
3352
345
35.5;
60
63
66
69
7
0.40
0.37
032
0.3%
0.30
116
A.15
114
113
ll:!
3629
37&
3805
3851
39.56
7.5
78
81
84
87
0.28
026
025
0.24
023
1.11
A104
1100
1.09s
1.095
90
93
96
99
022
0.20
019
018
1.086
1082
1077
1072
(1)
(3)
1s
21
24
27
8*OO
500
3.30
2.40
1.80
2wJ
230
1.9ti
175
1.60
30
33
36
39
42
1.40
120
l00
986
0.76
45
48
1
:4
57
15
(41
950
11.00
1638
(6)
10667
5.208
2643
I ..i3:!
w9Lo
0.583
0439
0312
0'235
O186
PEAK REFLECTED
OVEBPHESSURE 1tATIo
PrdPo
(7)
41'60
Q'7'50
1.
I"*94
8.48
B'SA
4.20
3'45
2'75
2'28
197
(I.142
0115
9.093
0.077
WOW
1.66
146
128
114
1 a01
2660
2780
26.76
29.25
2987
0054
0946
0.039
0033
0031
093
US6
0,77
U7%
06i
40.32
4082
41.58
42.34
4234
3071
3185
31.9
32.00
3226
0.027
0.03
06?2
0.020
0018
O62
OS58
05.5
053
0.56
4360
4433
4546
45.61
3339
34.70
3537
36.22
0016
0011
0.013
0012
0.47
043
041
0.40
NOTE 1 The
value of pa the ambient air pressure may be taken as 1 kg/cm*
at mean sea level.
NOTE 2 One
tonne of explosive referred to in this table is equivalent to
15 X 10s calories.
NOTE 3 Velocity
of sound in m/s may be taken ( 3315 f 0607 T ) where
T is the ambient temperature in centigrade.
10
IS : 4991 1968
For any explosion other than the reference explo5.3 Scaling Lnwssion, the peak pressures and time durations may be found from the
peak values given in Table 1 by the cube root scaling laws as given
below:
Actual distance
w1/s
Actual time
= WT.
.**
Scaled distance x =
.. .
. ..
(1)
Scaled time t,
. ..
. ..
(2)
where
W = yield of explosion in equivalent weight of the reference
explosive measured in tonnes,
x = scaled distance for entering the Table 1 for reading
peak values, and
=
scaled time read from Table 1 against scaled
to
distance.
NOTE  Aotuel
under cousiderstion.
6. BLAST
LOAD
distsnce
Actual
ON ABOVE
There
is messured
from the ground zero to the point
time is the time for 8ctuel explosion.
GROUND
STRUCTURES
two types of
a)
b)
Drag Type Structures  These are the open structures composed of elementslike beams, columns, trusses, etc, which have small
projected area opposing the shock wave. These are mainly
subjected to dynamic pressures q.
6.2 Closed
Rectangular
Structures 
( See Fig. 2 ).
6 p80 )
Pm+ 7 PO
.a.
p. = the ambient
atmospheric
pressure.
Taking
pa;12 Ikg/cm2, the value of pro are given in
11
IS:49911968
FIG. 2
6.2.1.1
the reflected
ABOVE GROUND
RECTANGULAR
STRUCTURE
where
Cd = drag coefficient
given
in Table
2, and
p7 = the reflected
overpressure
which drops from the peak
value p,. to overpressure
(ps + Cd q)in clearance time
t, given by:
t, = .3$
or t, whichever
...
is less
(4)
where
S = H or B/2 whichever
is less (see
U = shock front
= M.a
where
velocity
Fig. 2 )
a = velocity
M = Mach
number
of the incident
pulse
given
by
dp.
The
values of M for various conditions
are also tabulated in Table 1.
Rear Face 
3
strikes
following:
the
first
front
L
.E the travel
u
4s
= pressure
face.
The
time
intervals
of interest
TABLE
DRAG
(
Clause
DRAG COEFFICIENT
Cd
(1)
(2)
(3)
iii)
Front
Roof,
q0 =
q0 =
q0 =
vertical face
rear and side faces for
0 to 18 lcg/oma
18 to 35 kg/cm2
3.5 to 90 kg/cm*
10
;;
1
:
i
J
O:!
face, and
C,
SHAPE OF ELEMENT
i)
ii)
the
St
NO.
are
face.
COEFFICIENT
6.2.1.1
IS : 4991 1968
zero
04
For above
structures
For
ground
semiburied
structures
vi)
vii)
Sphere
0.1
Cylinder
1.2
This
covers
steel
tubes
used
as
columns,
truss
members, etc
20
This covms
flats,
angles,
tees,
I
sections, et0
Structural
Rectangular
shapes
13
projection
the average
in Fig. 5A,
When tt is greater
4ithan td the load on roof and side walls may be considered as a moving
triangular
pulse having the peak value of overpressure
( p,,+ C,. q0 ) and
time ta as shown in Fig. 5B.
when
fd is greater
time ft =
13
IS : 4991 1968
STRAIGHT
LINES
'c
.T
IME
TIME
38
FIG.
I
u
C.5
h + td
TIME
FIG. 4
of calculation
on pressuretime curves on a rectbuilding is given in Appendix A.
areas
of elements
14
SHOCK
?F
2u
Ittd
2u
TIME
5A
Average Pressure
Diagram td > tt
FIG.
PRESSURE versus
58
Moving
Pressure
FOR ROOF
SC
Transverse Variation
Pressure on Dome
of
IS:4991
1968
t(,=?j
NOTE
t,

...
. ..
,..
The pressures
_usOand
time
. ..
. ..
of the
(5)
explosion.
cd90
5
2
z
a.
TIME
FIG. 6
Cylindrical
ArchShape
rear faces
of above
ground
Structures
IS : 4991
7. BLAST LOAD
ON BELOWGROUND
1968
STRUCTURES
7.2 Buried
Rectangular
Structures
7.2.1 A rectangular
condition
structure
shown in Fig. 7.
is considered
buried
if it satisfies
the
F SLOPE
LLI
Fm.
7.3 Buried
condition
shown in Fig.
9.
is considered
buried
if it satisfies the
c.
w
..
TIME
TIME
8A FRONT
FOR
td)
tt
8B
FACE
AVERAGE
PRESSURE
REAR FACE
FOR
DIAGRAM
!t>td
PRESSURE
MOVING
PULSE
8C ROOF
FOR
FOR
td>
t t AVERAGE
PRESSURE
DIAGRAM
ttLtd
MOVING
80 SIDES
FIG. 8
PRESSUREversus TIME DIAGRAMS FOR
VARIOUS FACES OF BURIED STRUCTURE
PRESSURE
PULSE
IS : 4991 1968
TABLE 3
COEFFICIENT
OF EARTH PRESSURE
Kc,
( Clause 72.2 )
(1)
i)
ii)
iii)
COEFFKIENT
K.
TYPE OP SOIL
SL
NO.
(3)
(3)
Cohesionless soil, dry or damp
Cohesive soil:
a) Stiff uusatureted
b) Medium unsaturated
c) Soft unsaturated
f
4
1
VL
FIG. 9
7.4 SemiBuried
BURIED ARCH OR
DOME STRUCTURE
Structures
7.4.1 Semiburied
structures
are
those
7.4.2 A minimum
slope of 14 to 1 may be used for the earth cover.
The reflected
pressure effect imay be neglected and dynamic pressure
may be considered on the front face with drag coefficient 0.4.
For flatter slope the drag coefficient
may be reduced making it zero when the
slope becomes 4 to 1.
19
IS : 4991 1968
7.4.3 The loading on the earth
the above ground structures.
8. RESPONSE
OF
8.1 Significant
berm surface
STRUCTURAL
may be computed
as for
ELEMENTS
Factors
TIME
IOA
FIG. 10
d I
ii
TIME
IO 6
IS : 4991  1968
IDEALIZED
ACTUAL
NON
.lZED
(GENERAL
 LINEAR)
yin
ye
PLASTIC
ym
DEFLECTION
DEFLECTION
FIG.
ELASTO
11
and ElastoPlastic
Response
k may be
lOB,
is given
by Fig.
the
\?rhere
Rm
= the required
resistance,
and
time ratios
21
TVand
lS:4991
1968
IS : 4991 1968
8.3 Elastic
ReboundAfter attaining
the maximum
response,
the
structure is found to oscillate and may have an elastic rebound
equal
and opposite to the maximum deflection.
Therefore,
members shall be
designed to have the same strength
for the reversal
of the effective
design load.
9. TIME
PERIOD
OF
STRUCTURAL
MEMBERS
element or framework
may be replaced by an equihaving
effective
stiffness kE and
valent single
springmass
system
where Mt is the actual mass of the
effective mass equal to I&.M$,
member under consideration
and KLM is a loadmass factor depending
upon the stiffness and mass distribution
in the member and its boundary
The equivalent
system is defined so that the deflection
of
conditions.
the equivalent
single mass is the same as that of some significant
point
The effective stiffness kE is defined with respect
in the given structure.
to the deflection of this point.
K J_V is equal to the ratio of mass factor K,lr
9.2 The loadmass
factor
to the load factor KL. The factors are evaluated on the basis of an
assumed deflected shape of the structure as given below:
KL.W = &I&
Mt
= total actual
= number
M,
= concentratedmass
*,
= deflection
at point r of an assumed
for concentrated
loads,
= distributed
0 (2) =
mass,
ofconcentrated
masses,
at point r,
mass intensity
= total dynamie
= number
load
( at any instant
of concentrated
23
shape
Pt
deflected
load points,
deflected
of time ),
&ape
IS : 4991 1968
dynamic
= concentrated
=
intensity
of
distributed
Pm
Pr
force
at point r, and
dynamic
structural
NOTE
2  The deflected shape is suitabl? chosen to resemble as
far as possible the true deflected shape takmg into consideration
whether the structure or member remains elastic or goes into the plastic range.
It may be taken the same as due to stattic application
of the dynamic load on the structure.
The deflected shape has to be
normalized such that @ = 1 at the point with respect to which the
effective stiffness kE is defined.
9.2.1 Two
given
typical
examples
in Appendix B.
T of the
explaining
the
evaluation
structural
member
may
of KL.+~are
be calculated
10. DYNAMIC
STRENGTH
OF MATERIALS,
DESIGN STRESSES
10.1 General 
Plastic deformation
of the structural
elements
should
be permitted except where the functioning
of the structure would be
adversely affected
by their permanent
displacements.
IS:4991 1968
TABLE
TRANSFORMATION
FACTORS
( Note
L
a van;
Mk,
kE
P = dymmio
prenaure,
MV at midspan.
MP, =
effective
spriq
constant
M,
Pt = dynsmio
et
support.
R,
load
M
= &&urn
1 of
plestio moment
resistance
ih%tAIN
FOR BEAMS
of seation
.
A_
f?ln
i!E
bYI
_B
Uniform
Mass
(4)
(5)
(6)
0.78
066
8MplL
8M,/L
Uniform
Pt=pL
Plastic
.Plastic
Rm
Rl
Supported
Concentrated at third
points P 2 each
Pt = P
1.0
049
1.0
0.33
384E1/5LJ

O39&,
O.llPt
0.38R, + 012Pt
48EI/L3
kwp: L
4M,lL
078R,
o28Pt
075R,
025Pt
_
_
Elastic
087
0430
BM,!L
O.BZR,
012P~
Plastic
1.0
056
6M,L
05ZR,
OO?P,
0.77
lZM,,:L
078
0.66
(8/L
1'0
0.37
(4/L)
Uniform
Elastic
Pat = pL
Elastic
/I
/I
(
OB )
Plastic
Fired
(81
(7)
.
Elastic
Simply
Elastic
Concentrated at midspar,
PC = P
Mass
(3)
__

hlcent
f
r eted
(2)
DYNAMIC RICACT~ON
LOADMiss FACTOB
RANCE
r
(1)
AND ONEWAYSLABS*
9.2 )
Chusa
at both ends
(3/L)
(Mps
) ( Mm
Mm)
+ Mpm )
384EI:LJ
036R, + O14Pt
307EI/LJ
03QR,
+ O*llP,
0,38R,
T 012Pt
071R,
O?lPt
0.75R,
O%P,
Concentrated
span
at mid
&tic
( OB )
Plastic
Pt = P
Elastic ( OA )
Pt=pL
Elastic
Plastic
( OB )
Elastic
( OA )
Concentrnted nt midspan
P4 =P
+ Mpm)
lQ2EI/L=
I
10
0.33
0.75
165EI/L3
0.78
0.66
160EI/La

1.0
043
;:;
0.4Q
033
(4/L)(M,,
LMmt)
Uniform
(Mps
( VI =
( V, =
039R,
038R,
Elastic ( OB )
Plastic
( 16/3L) Mrrs
( S/r.) ( Mp, t
(2/L)(Mps
2~47nn)
2M,,J
107EIiL3
I06EIILJ

( V, = 0.54R, A 0.14Pt )
( V, = 025R, + 007P1 )
078R,  028P 1 * Mpli L
0*75R,  O%P, * M ml L
*Taken from
*26R1 + 012Pt )
043R, + OIYP, )
c OlIPt i MPI:L
i O*IPt & IW,~,L
Design of structures to reaiat the effect of atomic weapons *, U.S. ~rrny Corps of Engineers Msn~l
25
FM5856.3,
1967.
TABLE 5
TRANSFORMATION
SIMPLE
( Note
Rm

M Pf,fa= Total
L!r
5
STRAIN
RANQE
a/b
Zo~i MASS
F ACTOB
__
KLM
(1)
Elestic
(OB)
Plastic
(BC)
(2)
I0
8:;
0.7
0.6
0.5
1o
09
0.8
8:;:
05
(3)
068
070
0.7 1
073
074
075
._
izr0.51
054
055
0.58
0.59
MAXIXUM
RESXSTANCE
CONSTANT
(4)
I
(6)
252 Ella
12 ( Mph
+ Mea
)/a
( 12Mefo + 1lMpfa )/a
( lIMpfa + l@&t!f,fb )/a %g:f$
201 El/a
( 12Mpfc + 9*8M,fb )/a
197EZla
! 12Mo
+ 9*3Msfa )/a
2OlEIla
( l&Me + gOMpf,ta )/a
12 ( Mpfa + Mpfb )/a
( 12Mpfo + 11Mm )/a
( 12Mpfo + 10%kfpn )/a
( 12Mpf. +
66Mpfb
( 12Mm +
6*OMpfa )/a
( 12Mpfa
9%!fnfb
)/a
)/a
I
Ll
edge
1 SPBINQ ,
Kn
FOUR SIDES,
I)YNA~~I~ HEA~TIONS
____h____l,
VA
(61
0*07Pt +
omPt
+
0*06Pt +
0*05Pt +
WO4Pt +
004Pt +
wowt
+
O.O8P* +
007P; +
0*18R,
OlBR,,,
014R,
013R,
WllR,
O.O9R,
0.16R,
0*15R,
013R,
0*06Pt + 0*12R,
O*05Pt + OlOR,
004Pt + 0.08%
VB
(7)
007Pt +
0.08Pt $
0.08Pt $
008Pt +
0*09Pt +
O*09Pt +
I 0*09P* +
w09P; +
O.lOPt +
O.lOPt +
OlOP,
O.llP;
U. S. Army
018R,
020R,
0.22R,
024R,
0.n
 y,
0*28R,
0*16R,
0.18R;;;
020R,
022R,
+ 025Rm
i O272;
E
**
Corps of

IS:49911968
10.2 Design Stresses for Structural Steel
10.2.1 The average dynamic yield stress of structural carbon,
weldable or rivet steels may be assumed to exceed the minimum
fied static yield stress by 25 percent and that of high strength
steels by 10 percent.
10.2.2 For elastic design,
framework
may be assumed
yield stress of steel as given
the resistance
R, of various elements of a
The dynamic
to have just been reached.
in 10.2.1 shall be used for calculating
R,.
the ductility
design,
as follows:
ratio
ratio
ratio
may be assumed
DUCTILITY RATIO,
OF MEMBER
mild,
specialloy
P
1o
5o
( I/r ) =
180
(l/r ) < 60
For
5.0
10.0
20.0
intermediate
may be done.
Reinforcing
b)
Concrete 
higher
strength
than
of material
may be assumed
as follows:
SteelDynamic
yield
stress 25 percent
the minimum specified static yield stress.
The dynamic
cube compression
be assumed
to be 25 percent
higher than
static cube strength at 28 days.
strength may
the minimum
31
( second revision ).
IS :4991 1968
10.3.3 For elastoplastic
design of reinforced
concrete
members the
ductility ratio may be assumed as follows, provided that the steel ratio
remains less than balanced
steel ratio for plastic design:
DUCTILITY RATIO,
P
MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO
BENDING AND DIRECT
STRESSES
Minor
damage
Moderate
damage
Considerable
& 
damage
but
> 10
but
> 15
where
Z = compression
Z = tension
10.4 Design
Stresses
steel
ratio,
and
steel ratio.
for Masonry
or Plain
Concrete
10.4.1 The dynamic flexural strength of plain brick and stone masonry
m 1 be assumed to be the same as the corresponding
static strength.
The compressive
strength
shall be taken 25 precent
higher than the
corresponding
static strength.
to
10.4.2
1.5.
For unreinforced
Pressures
brick
Material
bearing
Static
Rock
crushing
pressures
may
be used
for
strength
Granular
soil
Static load per unit area for 4.0 cm settlement of the structure
Cohesive
soil
3 of static failure
load per unit area
determined
by quick undrained
test.
32
.
IS : 4991  1968
10.5.2
In the absenoe of test data on soils as envisaged
the design bearing pressure may be taken equal to twice
static bearing pressure.
working out the pressure under foundat.ion,
NOPE In
ground due to blast overpressures may be neglected.
10.5.3
For raft foundation,
under 10.5.1,
the allowable
the direct
loading
than
of
the
roof area.
11. LOAD
COMBINATIONS
FOR
DESIGN
11.1Wind or earthquake forces shall not be assumed to occur simultaneously with blast effects.
Effects of temperature
and shrinkage
shall
be neglected.
11.2 Live load on floors shall be considered as per IS : 875I 964* depending upon the class of building.
No live load shall be considered
on
roof at the time of blast.
12,RECOMMENDED
VALUES
OF BLAST
PRESSURES
FOR
DESIGN
12.1 The design parameters
that is the yield of explosion and its distance from the structure will depend upon the importance
of the structure and conditions
prevailing
in a particular
time and should
be
considered by the designer in each specific case.
12.2 For general
guidance
the buildings
may
charge of 100 kg at distances given in Table 7.
TABLE
BUILDING
DESIGN
BU~LDINQ
CATEGORY
be designed
FOR A CHARGE
for a bare
OF 100 kg
TYPE
DISTANOE,
In
Residential
Community
buildings, such as schools, offlcor,
cinemas, eto, and industrial buildings with continuous human occupancy
buildings
30
90
12.3General recommendations
are given in Appendix C.
*Code of practice
for st,ructural
40
for planning
safeBy of buildings:
33
blast
resistant
Loading standards
buildings
( revised).
IS :4991
1968
APPENDIX
( Clause
AN
Al.
6.2.5 )
EXAMPLE
OF CALCULATION
CURVES ON A RECTANGULAR
BUILDING
OF PRESSURETIME
ABOVE GROUND
EXAMPLE
Characteristics
Scaled
of the Blast
distance
30
x = = 64.65
( O1)4
From Table
1 assuming py= I.00 kg/cma and linearly
interpolating
between 63 m and 66 m for the scaled distance
64.65 m, the pressures are directly obtained:
P S0 = 0.35 kg/cm2
pro = 0.81 kg/cm2
q0 = 0.042 kg/cm2
The
scaled
times
t, and
td obtained
from
Table
1 for
1+6
d
7
a = 344 m/s
M=
b)
Pressures
Here
= 114
Pa
m/millisecond
on the Building
H = 3 m, B = 10 m, and L = 8 m
Then
te
S = 3 m
=3s=3x3u
o392
= 23.0 milliseconds>
ta
= 20.4 milliseconds>
td
34
IS : 4991  1968
rr=
As t,>ta
4s
=u
4x3
=1 30.6 milliseconds>td
0.392
no pressure
diagrams
041
E
vm
25
c4
ZE u
;a
I2
I& ;
0.33
mzl
trz
13.15
MILLISECONDS
rh4E
Average
Front
Loading
13 is
TIME MlLLlSECONDS
Moving Pressure Pulse on
Roof and Side Walls
Face
APPENDIX
B
( Clause 9.2.1 )
TYPICAL
Bl.
EXAMPLES
OF EVALUATION
OF Km
B1.1 The
considered
deflected
shape of the column in elastic
to be acting statically
is given by:
range
when p is
as uniti.
IS : 4991 1968
If mass is considered
af the column:
to be uniformly
distributed
Effective stiffnessof
the cantilever
will be defined
the deflection at the free end where 0 (Zr = 1
Period
B2.
of the cantilever
is thus obtained
A TYPICAL
EXAMPLE
OF
SINGLE
STOREY
FRAME
with respect
as:
EVALUATION
OF K&, FOR
y"+Y
The mass factor
;
K~is
kM =+
[m,l+2{m,(X)ldx]
0
36
0 (x) = ;
to
equation:
IS : 4991 1968
= ( m,l + $nph
equivalent
(along
the
load is:
f;,(t) =am) +
=
s.
P(t) (+)
dx
W + 3 ~0) h
is:
The
effective
stiffness kE will be given
by the total load
If
[P(r) and p(t) h ] causing unit displacement
at the top of the frame.
I
and p(t)
have
different
time variation,
numerical
analysis is
necessary.
APPENDIX
C
( Clause 12.3 )
GENERAL
Cl.
RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR PLANNING
RESISTANT BUILDINGS
BLAST
SIZE OF ROOMS
Cl.1
CORRIDORS
PROJECTIONS
C3.1 All
those made
C4.
slender projections
of brittle materials
like, parapets
and balconies
specially
should be avoided as far as possible.
CHIMNEYS
C4.1 Masonry
chimneys
on ftictory buildings
potential
hazard and should be avoided.
31
and boiler
houses are a
IS:4991
1968
corrugated
asbestos
sheets are especially
prone to blast damage.
When corrugated
galvanized iron sheets are used for roofing and/or cladding,
particular
attention should be paid to the fixtures fastening the corrugated
galvanized
iron sheets to the framework.
C6.
USE OF TIMBER
MATERIALS
AND
OTHER
INFLAMMABLE
C6.1 These
attack
attacks
C7.
ELECTRIC
WIRING
C9. DOORS
C9.1 Doors should be designed
load.
MINIMUM
WALL THICKNESSES
SPLINTERS
AGAINST
given
FLYING
WALL THICKNESS, cm
.__,____~
rFor Bomb with EquiFor Bomb with Equivalent Bare Charge of
valent Bare Charge of
100 kg
50 kg
(9
(1)
Reinforced concrete
Plain concrete or brickwork
38
(3)
38
45
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