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Chapter 3. Development of Classroom Assessment Tools

General Principles of Testing (Ebel & Frisbie, 1999)
- guide teachers in assessing the learning progress of the students & in
developing their own assessment tools.
1. Measure all Instructional Objectives.
2. Cover all the learning tasks
3. Use appropriate test items
4. Make test valid & reliable
5. Use test to improve learning
Principles of High Quality Assessment
Assessing the performance of students is a critical task for teachers, therefore,
it should prepare the assessment tool appropriately.
Teacher-Made Tests developed to assess the learning progress of students w/in
the classroom.
Strength its applicability & relevance in the setting where they are utilized.
Weakness limited time & resources for the teacher to utilize the test &
Most common technical concepts in assessment are the validity & reliability.
Clarity of the Learning Target
When a teacher plans for his classroom instruction, learning target should be
clearly stated and must be focused on student learning objectives.
Learning outcomes must be Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic & TimeBound (SMART)
Performance Task should be presented to accurately demonstrate what
supposed to do & how the final product should be done.
Discuss clearly the evaluation procedures, criteria to be used & skills to be
assessed in the task.
Appropriateness of Assessment Tool
- type of test used should match the instructional objective or learning
outcomes of the subject matter posed during the delivery of the instruction.
1. Objective Test requires student to select the correct response or to supply a
objective refers to the scoring, it indicates that there is only
one correct answer.
eg. True/False, Matching Type, Multiple-Choice
2. Subjective Test permits the student to organize & present an original
answer. It has no specific
answer, hence, it is scored on an opinion basis, though there will be
certain facts & understanding expected in the answer.
3. Performance Assessment (Mueller, 2010) asked to perform real-world tasks
that demonstrate
essential knowledge & skills.
4. Portfolio Assessment based on the systematic, longitudinal collection of
student work created
in response to specific, known instructional objectives & evaluated in
relation to the same criteria.
Portfolio is purposeful collection of students work that exhibits the
students efforts, progress & achievements on one or more areas over
a period of time.
It measures the growth & development of students.
5. Oral Questioning used to collect assessment data by asking oral questions.
6. Observation Technique the teacher will observe how students carry out
certain activities
either observing the process or product.
Formal Observation planned in advance
Informal Observation done spontaneously
7. Self-Report responses of the students may be used to evaluate both
performance & attitude. It includes sentence completion, likert scales,
checklists or holistic scales.
Different Qualities of Assessment Tools
1. Validity appropriateness of score-based interferences; or decisions made
based on students





test results. The extent to w/c a test measures what it is supposed to

Reliability consistency of measurement; how consistent test results from
one measurement to
another. A test is reliable when it can predict practically the same
scores when test administered twice or w/ a reliability index of 0.61
Fairness the test item should not have any biases. It is fair to all examinees.
Objectivity agreement of two or more raters concerning the score of the
Scorability the test should be easy to score, direction for scoring should be
clearly stated.
Adequacy test should contain a wide range of sampling of items to
determine the educational
outcomes so that the resulting scores are representatives of the total
performance in the areas measured.
Administrability the test should be administered uniformly to all students so
that the scores
obtained will not vary due to factors other than
differences of the students knowledge
& skills.
Practicality & Efficiency teachers familiarity w/ the method used, time
required for the
assessment, complexity of the administration, ease of scoring, ease of
interpretation of the test results & the material used must be at the
lowest cost.

Steps in Developing Assessment Tools

1. Examine the instructional objectives of the topics previously discussed.
The 1st step in developing an achievement test is to examine & go back to
the instructional objectives so that you can match w/ the test items to be
2. Make a Table Of Specification (TOS) is a chart or table that details the
content & level of
cognitive level assessed on a test as well as the types and emphases
of test items.
- It is very important in addressing validity & reliability of the test
- It provides the test constructor a way to ensure that the
assessment is based from the intended learning outcomes.
- It is also a way of ensuring that the no. of questions on the test is
adequate to ensure dependable results that are not likely caused by
Preparing a TOS
- Selecting the learning outcomes to be measured. Identify necessary
instructional objectives needed to answer the test items correctly.
- Make an outline of the subject matter to be covered in the test.
- Decide on the no. of items per subtopic.
No. of Items = (no. of class sessions x desired total no. of
items)/total no. of class sessions
- Make the two-way chart of a TOS.
D.O. 33, s. 2004
60% - factual information
30% - moderately difficult or more advanced
10% - higher order thinking skills
3. Construct the test items.
General Guidelines for Constructing Test Items (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2007)
- Begin writing items far enough or in advance so that you will have
time to revise them.
- Match items to intended outcomes at appropriate level of difficulty
to provide valid measure of instructional objectives. Limit the
question to the skill being assessed.
- Be sure that the item deals with an important aspect of the content
area & not w trivia.
- Be sure the problem posed is clear & unambiguous.
- Be sure that the item is independent w/ all other items. The answer
to one items should not be required as a condition in answering the
net item. A hint to one answer should not be embedded to another

Be sure the item has one or best answer on which experts would
- Prevent unintended clues to an answer in the statement or
- Avoid replication of the textbook in writing test items.
- Avoid trick or catch questions in an achievement test
- Try to write items that require higher order thinking skills.
Determining the No. of Items
Two Factors: (1) Length of Time & (2) Type of Item Used
Assessment Format
Multiple-Choice HOTS
Short Answer
Short Essay
Extended Essay
Visual Image

Ave. Time to Answer

30 sec.
60 sec.
90 sec.
120 sec.
60 sec.
30 sec. per respond
10-15 min.
30 min.
30 sec.