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EUFIRELAB

EVR1-CT-2002-40028

D-09-01
http://www.eufirelab.org

EUFIRELAB:
Euro-Mediterranean Wildland Fire Laboratory,
a “wall-less” Laboratory
for Wildland Fire Sciences and Technologies
in the Euro-Mediterranean Region

Deliverable D-09-01

Wildland Fire Suppression Management and Planning:


a State of the Art

Sophie SAUVAGNARGUES-LESAGE,
Claude PICARD, Frédérique GIROUD, Nicolas RAFFALLI,
Gavriil XANTHOPOULOS, Domingos-Xavier VIEGAS,
Anibal OLLERO, Begona ARRUE,
Francisco RODRIGUEZ Y SILVA, Timo HEIKKILA

February 2004

The views expressed are purely those of the writers and may not, in any circumstances, be regarded as stating an
official position of the European Commission
EUFIRELAB

SUMMARY
Summary ............................................................................................................................................................... 1
Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................ 1
List of associated documents ................................................................................................................................. 1
1 Description of the institutions and responsible administrative organisations .................................................. 2
1.1 In France ................................................................................................................................................ 2
1.1.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 2
1.1.2 Fire prevention................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3 Fire prevision ..................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.4 Fire fighting organisation.................................................................................................................... 4
1.2 In Greece................................................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.2 Fire prevention................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.3 Fire detection..................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.4 Fire prevision ..................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.5 Fire fighting organisation.................................................................................................................... 8
1.3 In Portugal ............................................................................................................................................ 10
1.3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 10
1.3.2 Fire prevention................................................................................................................................. 10
1.3.3 Fire prevision ................................................................................................................................... 10
1.3.4 Fire detection................................................................................................................................... 10
1.3.5 Fire fighting activities........................................................................................................................ 11
1.4 In Spain ................................................................................................................................................ 12
1.4.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 12
1.4.2 INFOCA Plan in Andalusia ............................................................................................................... 13
1.4.3 Emergency management system in the INFOCA Plan. ..................................................................... 14
1.5 In Finland.............................................................................................................................................. 15
1.5.1 Basic information of Finland.............................................................................................................. 15
1.5.2 Responsibilities of the main forest fire authorities in Finland.............................................................. 15
1.5.3 Legislation and role of civilians ......................................................................................................... 15
1.5.4 Forest fire detection and monitoring.................................................................................................. 15
1.5.5 Fire risk assessment support in web-sites. ....................................................................................... 16
1.5.6 Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 16
2 Review of the different types of resources used for the control and suppression of forest fires.................... 18
2.1 In France .............................................................................................................................................. 18
2.1.1 The trucks ........................................................................................................................................ 18
2.1.2 The planes ....................................................................................................................................... 19
2.1.3 The helicopters ................................................................................................................................ 19
2.2 In Greece.............................................................................................................................................. 20
2.2.1 The trucks ........................................................................................................................................ 20
2.2.2 Aerial fire fighting means .................................................................................................................. 20
3 Review of the different fire fighting tactics................................................................................................... 21
3.1 IN France.............................................................................................................................................. 21
3.1.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 21
3.1.2 Offensive Manœuvre........................................................................................................................ 21
3.1.3 Defensives Manoeuvres................................................................................................................... 25
4 Review of fire fighter training programs....................................................................................................... 28
4.1 In France .............................................................................................................................................. 28
4.1.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 28
4.1.2 Standard1 : FDF1 (Forest fires)........................................................................................................ 29
4.1.3 Standard2 : FDF2 ............................................................................................................................ 29
4.1.4 Standard3 : FDF3 ............................................................................................................................ 29
4.1.5 Standard4 :FDF4 ............................................................................................................................. 29
4.1.6 Standard5 : FDF5 ............................................................................................................................ 29
4.2 In Greece.............................................................................................................................................. 29

D-09-01
EUFIRELAB

SUMMARY
This document presents the institutions in charge of the forest fire management in France, in Greece, in
Portugal, in Spain and in Finland. Organisations are described with some general information, fire prevention
aspects, fire detection aspects, fire prevision aspects and firefighting organisation.
In a second part, the document present the main resources used for fire suppression, mainly in France. Some
fire suppression plans in force in the different Mediterranean member states are summarised.
This first state of the art will be improve in the next months.

GLOSSARY
None

LIST OF ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS


None

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EUFIRELAB
1 DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTIONS AND RESPONSIBLE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANISATIONS

The French Civil Security is represented at three


1.1 IN FRANCE
levels through operational centres
1.1.1 Introduction - National level: Ministry of the Interior- Civil Defence
and Security Department : the oper-ational centre of
The forest fire prevention policy has been set up by this Department is the COGIC
the Ministry of agriculture, the ministry of the Interior,
- Zonal level: Prefecture of the Zone – Civil Defence
territorial collectivities and forest owners. This policy
and Security Headquarters : the operational centre
contains four types of actions:
at this level is the COZ.
1.1.1.1 To know the risk and the fire causes - Departmental level: the operational centre at this
level is the CODIS
Set up of strengthened meteorological observation
networks by the regular evaluation of fuel moisture The Director of the Civil Defence and Security is a
content. high ranking official, Prefect, appointed by the Ministry
Researches are conducted in order to identify the of the Interior.
fire causes, allowing a daily prevention and fighting
To fill his mission, the Director has constituted an
means deployment more efficient operational centre, the COGIC, the national
1.1.1.2 To keep watch on the forest in order to headquarter of the Civil Security.
detect any fire start
This operational centre is in direct relation with the
During the high fire risk season, the forest seven zonal headquarters: the operational centre of the
observation combines ground fixed lookout, or mobile zonal headquarters are the COZ. Each COZ is
with different kind of patrols managed by a headquarter chief (professional fireman)
who is under the zonal sub-prefect and prefect. The
1.1.1.3 To supervise the forest fire equipment zonal prefect is the Sate representative at the zonal
Protection plan integrate prevention management level and entrusts the sub-prefect the defence and civil
(sylviculture, agriculture, clearing) and sometimes high- security mission. The zonal headquarter is the interface
tech surveillance equipment. They are completed by a between the departments of each zone and the
cartography system. direction of the Civil Defence and Security.
1.1.1.4 To inform and increase the public Each department has a departmental direction
awareness managed by a fireman officer, the operational centre of
- Education in the academic environment this direction being the CODIS.
- professional training Ministry of Agriculture :
- information to the public (vacationers, land - Represented at the national level by ONF
owners,…) - Represented at the regional level by the DRAF
- information exchange between the whole actors - Represented at the departmental level by the DDAF
concerned by the forest fires. and the departmental or inter departmental agencies
Three different Ministries are concerned with the 1.1.2 Fire prevention
forest fire management activities:
- Ministry of the Interior through the French Civil In France, prevention is managed by foresters ONF
Security: the DDSC is in charge of the prevention (National Forest Office), INRA (National Institute of
part in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture Agriculture Research depending from Ministry of
and of the operational part through several agriculture) and CODIS (civil protection headquarter /
operational centres Ministry of the Interior).
- Ministry of Agriculture which is in charge of the
ONF is a public establishment, under the Ministry of
prevention and forest management. Agriculture authority. It is composed of a general
- Ministry of Territorial Management and Environment: direction, 10 territorial directions, 67 departmental
participates in the rural area and forest management agencies and 500 operational units.
policy
The main tasks of the French Civil Security are:
- Prevention of all type of risks (civil, natural,
technological…)
- Person protection
- Protection of property and equipment
- Environment protection (forest fires, pollution….)

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EUFIRELAB
In the frame of the fire prevention, the missions of 1.1.3 Fire prevision
the ONF are :
Daily risk index prevision is made by the
- Forest protection: elaboration of prevention plan.
Meteorological cell Elaboration of risk maps for the
The aim of this work is the determination of the fire
whole forest fire zone
risk maps. More accurately, ONF applies different
methodologies in order to evaluate the fire risk This map is sent to the whole CODIS of the forest
ignition and fire risk propagation. fire zone (15 departments)
- Elaboration of vegetation cover maps: those maps
are realised with the collaboration of DDAF. They According to the risk map, national means (aircraft,
military and gendarmerie) are sent for the high risk zone
are mainly elaborated thanks to aerial photo and
survey
mainly by data collection in situ. Those maps are
updated every 10 years. Some methodologies are On the CODIS demand, national means are sent
actually tested with satellite photos. (aircraft, helicopters, reinforcement troops)
- Forest management; ONF realises the fire breaks, in
order to reduce the fire risk ignition and the fire Concerning the fire outbreaks detection, there is a
propagation. They propose the number of water network of lookout towers (set up by the CODIS) or
tanks that have to be in a given forested area for the automatic detection system in some strategic places
fire fighting. and patrols that criss-cross the massifs during fire
- Public information season (with horses, motorbikes or vehicles).
- Repression: if people don’t respect the instructions After the Departmental Direction fire organisation
given in the forested areas. consultation and by prefect delegation, DDAF can
decide , for prevention purposes, the closing of some
The prevention plans are conducted at the forest
« massif » scale (PIDAF) or at the communal scale tracks or ways in forested areas of the department.
(PPRIF). PIDAF is a contractual management plan DDAF set up watching persons in the forested
which aims at preventing fire by defining the forest massifs. They transmit their observations and if any the
management and areas to clear in order to prevent fire alert by the radio network to the double patrols
outbreaks and propagation. The PPRIF is a regulation DDAF/DDSIS
plan which defines the risk level and implies safety rules
and obligations to the new buildings for example. DDAF set up protection patrols DDAF/Conseil
Général, composed of two foresters on specific fire
trucks vehicles equipped with a water tank: those
patrols survey, detect and fight nascent fires.

Figure 1-1: Daily map of wildland fire risk in France

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EUFIRELAB
Deals with the national means management and
1.1.4 Fire fighting organisation controls their dispatching
Fire fighting is managed by the French civil security - Asks the CODIS to give the alarm, and to assign
(ministry of the Interior) which is organised at French means located out of the forest fire zone
department geographic scale. - Involves reinforcement, as needed
- Requisitions the necessary means located within
The French Civil Security is represented at three geographical scope
levels through operational centres
- Reports the operational situation to the COGIC and
National level: Ministry of the Interior- Civil Defence to the Prefect of the Zone
and Security Department : the operational centre of this
Each department has a departmental direction
Department is the COGIC managed by a fireman officer, the operational center of
- Zonal level: Prefecture of the Zone – Civil Defence this direction being the CODIS.
and Security Headquarters : the operational centre
at this level is the COZ. The CODIS mission is to develop fighting plans
- Departmental level: the operational centre at this related to the main risks, and to supervise their
level is the CODIS application. It gives information to the Prefect and
others concerned authorities according to the
The Director of the Civil Defence and Security is a importance of the situation. It makes easier, during the
high ranking official, Prefect, appointed by the Ministry incident, the activities of the departmental public utilities
of the Interior. (French Electric Board…). To perform all those tasks,
To fill his mission, the Director has constituted an the CODIS employs permanent personnel in a variable
operational centre, the COGIC, the national number according to the risk period. Those operational
headquarter of the Civil Security. centres can be contacted 24 hour a day.
This operational centre is in direct relation with the CODIS provides the fire fighting plan co-ordination
seven zonal headquarters: the operational centre of the - To verify the right use of the transmission network
zonal headquarters are the COZ. Each COZ is - To be informed of the alerts and of the evolution of
managed by a headquarter chief (professional fireman) the different events
who is under the zonal sub-prefect and prefect. The - To inform the operational responsible of the different
zonal prefect is the Sate representative at the zonal departments
level and entrusts the sub-prefect the defence and civil - Operational means management
security mission. The zonal headquarter is the interface - Look for the complementary means required
between the departments of each zone and the - Activate the available means required by the COZ
direction of the Civil Defence and Security. for extra departmental reinforcement
According to the operational situation, this
operational centre

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1.2 IN GREECE 1.2.2 Fire prevention
1.2.1 Introduction Fire prevention activities are mainly in the
responsibility of the Forest Service. However, there is
The organisation responsible for forest fires some overlap with the GSCP, with the Fire Service and
suppression and management in Greece until 1997 was
with local authorities.
the Forest Service. Then, in May 1998, a new law gave
responsibility for forest fire fighting to the Greek Fire The structure of the Greek Forest Service has been
Service (GFS) (alternatively called Greek Fire Corps), altered decisively after the mid-1990s. It’s previous top-
which until then was responsible for municipal fires but down structure was broken down into the central offices
also contributed to forest fire fighting. Most aspects of in Athens, and the Regional Directions at the regional
fire prevention remained with the Forest Service. capitals. The central offices, belong to the Ministry of
However, the Forest Service was weakened Agriculture, forming its “General Direction for the
significantly as approximately one fourth of its Development and Protection of Forests and Natural
personnel as well as all the firefighting equipment Environment” (GDDPFNE). This General Direction
(vehicles, radios etc) were moved to the Fire Service. supports policy decisions at the Ministry. The Regional
Directions, however, belong to the MIPAD. The
Another state organisation that is involved in forest Prefecture level “Directions of Forests” at the capitals of
fires is the General Secretariat for Civil Protection
the 52 prefectures in the country, report to their
(GSCP). It was established by law in 1995 and was
corresponding regional direction, having very little to do,
gradually organised in the late 1990s. It is part of the
officially, with the GDDPFNE. In larger prefectures, or in
Ministry of Interior, Public Administration and
prefecture where forests are plentiful and/or important,
Decentralisation (MIPAD) and has a co-ordinating role
there is a further subdivision, the local forest service
for all types of disasters, including forest fires. In this
office called “dasarheio”. In those prefectures there are
area it provides support to the Fire Service from local
2-4 dasarheio per Direction of Forest. In that case the
authorities (Regions, Prefectures, Municipalities) in
Direction plays a co-ordinating role and has few
regard to equipment (water trucks, dozers, etc.) and
resources, while the “production” part is carried-out at
auxiliary personnel. Its planning includes, among other
the dasarheio level.
things, co-ordination for evacuations.
Given this structure, and mainly the fact that the
The Armed Forces generally support fire-fighting local level forest service offices are not linked directly
activities upon request. On high fire danger days Army
with the GDDPFNE, the role of the GSCP, in fire
and Navy units provide personnel and off-road vehicles
prevention is quite important. This is because the
for patrols in forests. During difficult periods soldiers
GSCP belongs to the MIPAD, to which report all the
undertake the task of surveillance and mop-up of fires
regions, and all the forest service units other than the
that have been brought under control, reducing the
General Direction in Athens. Furthermore, all local
number of fire fighters needed to remain on site for this
authorities are also under the MIPAD and by law, have
task. The Army also offers heavy equipment such as
to respond to the directions of the GSCP.
dozers and trucks upon request.
The fire prevention tasks then, are broken down as
The Air-Force has a much heavier contribution to follows:
forest firefighting. It operates the fleet of Canadair water
bombers on behalf of the Fire Service, taking The Forest Service is responsible for preparing
advantage of its “know-how”, its infrastructure and its infrastructures in the forest (e.g. water tanks, helispots,
resources. maintenance of forest roads, firebreaks) and of
maintaining forest vegetation in good condition, working
The Police is also involved in forest fire related
on fuel reduction in parallel to the other forest
activities. They provide traffic control and, when
management/silviculture activities. Furthermore, the
needed, coordinate the evacuation of villages, camps,
Forest Service has the responsibility of maintaining
etc. They also cooperate with the Fire Service in arson
contacts with the local people in order to “know” its area
investigations. The Police often undertakes surveillance
and identify potential problems. The General Direction,
of suspects in order to catch them in the act of arson.
also tries to work on publications and organise activities
that help inform people about forest fires and make
them love and respect the environment.

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EUFIRELAB
During the fire season, on days of high fire danger, 1.2.3 Fire detection
the forest guards patrol the forest in order to stop
Fire detection is mainly the responsibility of the Fire
activities in the forest that may result in fire ignitions, to
Service. It operates, throughout the summer, a network
scare potential arsonists, and to detect probable fires as
of lookouts on many important mountain tops and other
early as possible. Unfortunately, the funding available
advantageous locations. The lookouts are manned with
to the Forest Service is very small and has been
temporary personnel. The permanent lookouts are
decreasing continuously in favour of fire suppression.
augmented by crews on fire trucks located at critical
The total personnel is less than 3000 people including
points in the forest. Firefighters on motorcycles are also
officers (foresters and assistant foresters), forest guards
used for patrols.
and clerical staff. With the available funds it is
impossible even to maintain the existing infrastructure, The Forest Service contributes to fire detection with
such as the forest roads, in good condition. forest guard patrols on high fire danger days. On such
Furthermore, active forest management is mainly days, and for a number of hours prescribed in individual
focused on “productive” forests in the mountains. As a presuppression plans that are prepared in advance of
result the most flammable pine (Pinus halepensis and the fire season for each Prefecture, there are also aerial
Pinus brutia) forests and maquis vegetation at the lower patrols operated by the Air-Force. Aerial patrols are
elevations are left without serious management (very mainly done using small GRUMMAN agricultural
little timber production). Also, there has been no airplanes and PZL- M18 Dromader one-engine planes
solution towards subsidising resin collectors who were a that carry about 1,9 tn of water. Under extreme
thriving working force in the pine forest twenty or more conditions, even Canadair water bombers are added
years ago, being simultaneously cultivators and during the critical hours of the day.
guardians of these forests. The lack of demand for their
product (resin) and the resulting poor financial revenues Until now, there are no operational automatic fire
have left only a few older people in this profession and detection systems in the country so all the work is done
the Forest Service has no resources to change this by visual observation. However, the high population
situation. density, especially in the areas with most fires (low
elevation, near the coast) results in many phone calls
The GSCP since 2001 is quite active in the field of by the public, to report starting fires. There is a unique
forest fire prevention. More specifically: number for this purpose (199) that rings to the Central
- It issues general prevention orders that also include coordination office in Attica or to the local coordination
specifications and directions for the development of center of the Fire Service in the other prefectures. The
presuppression plans at the local level. large number of mobile phones in Greece in the last few
- It prepares TV spots, radio messages and years (11.000.000 numbers available currently) have
newspaper advertisements that are made the public a valuable and effective source of fire
transmitted/published throughout the fire season. detection information.
The production is done in co-operation with
professional advertising companies. The content is Finally, airplane pilots, at least of domestic
decided with the help of Forest Service and Fire companies, flying over Greek territory, are required by
Service representatives, based on creative ideas of law to report any fires that they can detect.
the advertising professionals. 1.2.4 Fire prevision
- It monitors specific actions of fire prevention. One
example is the effort to reduce the number of illegal As said earlier, the GSCP is responsible for the daily
garbage dumps and to make those still operating fire prediction of fire danger in the country. A fire danger
safe. map with predictions for each local Forest Service office
- Since 2001 it caries the responsibility for the daily territory (dasarheio), is issued daily about 12:00 noon,
production of the fire danger map for the country during the official fire season (May 1st to October 30). A
during the fire season. team of specialised scientists carries the responsibility
for the task. The map is valid for the 24-hour period of
The Fire Service also has a role in fire prevention the next day, starting at 00:00 and reaching 24:00
through the patrolling of its trucks in the forest on days hours. As soon as it is prepared it is faxed to a number
of high fire danger. After a fire, it also assigns of pre-specified co-ordination centres (Fire Service,
specifically trained officers to investigate the fire Army, Air-Force, etc.). They are responsible for further
causes, which also acts as a deterrent for future arsons. immediate dissemination to their units involved in
firefighting. When high fire danger is predicted for an
area, that prefecture is included in the recipients. The
map is also uploaded on the GSCP web site about
13:00 hours (Figure 1-2), and from there it is
disseminated to the mass media and directly to the
public. When high fire danger is predicted for specific
areas, a special press release is also issued and
communicated to the mass media. They, in turn, have
to broadcast it including warnings and advise to the
public on measures to be taken.

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EUFIRELAB

Figure 1-2: Daily map of wildland fire risk in Greece

An example of the fire danger prediction map for the country, as it appears on the web-site of the General
Secretariat for Civil Protection (http://www.civilprotection.gr/dailyfire.htm) during the fire season. The specific
example was issued at 12:30 on 19/09/2003 and was valid for 20/09/2003.

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EUFIRELAB
- The Operational Coordination Center on forest fire
There are five levels of fire danger. Level 1 fighting (SKED) in Athens. It operates 24 hours per
corresponds to Low fire danger, Level 2 is Medium
day, receives calls for any incident (emergency
(usual for the summer season), Level 3 is High, Level 4
number 199), and mobilises the firefighting forces. It
is Very High, and finally Level 5 corresponds to
has direct responsibility for the region of Attica, while
Extreme or else “red flag alert”. Each rating is the result
it offers help around the country when incidents
of evaluating the probability of ignition (itself the result
exceed local capacity. It has the main responsibility
of environmental conditions, historic probabilities and
for all the aerial firefighting means in the country.
specific human activities such as suspicion for arson,
Apart from Fire Service officers, in the Centre there
special celebrations, extended weekends, etc.) and the
are representatives of the Forest Service, the Armed
difficulty of control. The matrix used for determining the
Forces and the Police.
final fire danger level is shown below.
The ground forces of the Greek Fire Corps have
Table 1. Fire Danger rating (1-5) as a function of grown significantly in the last few years. Currently, there
probability of ignition (fire risk) and difficulty of control.
are more than 10000 officers and permanent
firefighters, assisted by 5000 seasonal firefighters in the
Difficulty of control summer. The number of firetrucks has exceeded 1100
units of various types. Furthermore, the Greek Fire
Fire risk Low Medium High Very high Corps has acquired experience and its organisation has
Low 1 2 3 4 improved significantly.

Medium 2 2 3 4 The basic elements that the GFS considers as


important for successful forest fire suppression are as
High 2 3 4 5 follows:
1.2.5 Fire fighting organisation - Analysis and evaluation of the characteristics of all
important past fires at Regional level, to identify
As mentioned above, the (GFS) is responsible for problems or special conditions that have come up
forest firefighting. This Service is under the auspices of during operations.
the Greek Ministry of Public Order and together with the - Good management of available human personnel
Greek Police they constitute the Security Forces. and firefighting means.
- Collaboration with other authorities that are also
The GFS has a top-down structure, one of the few
state organisations that have not been broken down involved in such operations.
into a regionalized structure in the 1990s. This is a The GFS acts immediately and independently for
significant advantage for the task of firefighting as it forest fire suppression. The co-ordination centre of the
allows easy mobility of resources between regions and GSCP, which is responsible for co-ordinating responses
good central co-ordination. On the other hand, the for all disasters, is kept informed for all major fire
military-like structure of the Fire Service that includes outbreaks, but not for minor events and the
Army-equivalent ranks often results in fire fighting being corresponding dispatching procedures. The same is
co-ordinated not by the best-qualified people but by true for the Forest Service. The local offices are
those of the highest rank. informed when fire events start becoming significant.
Otherwise they are informed after the fact for all fires
The GFS is managed by the Fire Corps
Headquarters in Athens and is under the command of that burned some area, to go and make a report of the
the Fire Service Chief, who holds the rank of Lieutenant fire that includes a map. The law requires this map in
General. Other than the Headquarters a number of order to declare the burned area under protection
other offices and Services exist. They are: (“under reforestation”) for the next 10-20 years.
- The Regional Administrations of the Fire Service for As the lookouts, the firetrucks and the calls to 199
the 13 regions in the country. inform the local (prefecture level administration) Fire
- The Prefecture level Administrations of the Fire Services, they are the ones responsible for first
Service at the capitals of the 52 Prefectures. intervention. The officer on duty mobilises the fire trucks
- The local Fire Stations that are ranked in classes A, closest to the event, informing simultaneously the
B, G and D, depending on the population size and commander of that administration. If there are local
the disaster potential (risks and dangers) of their aerial firefighting resources available, they are also sent
area of responsibility. immediately if there is any fear that the ground forces
- The Special Units of the Fire Service (E.M.A.K.) that may not be enough. If there are no local aerial
are Units with specially trained personnel in order to resources, until now, it is common practice to
deal with serious and demanding incidents, such as immediately inform the SKED in Athens and to ask for
earthquake rescue, industrial, technological, aerial support if there is any suspicion that the fire might
environmental accidents etc. escape initial attack. As a rule, aerial support is then
- Other support Services such as the Firefighting dispatched immediately if it is available.
Academy, Firefighting Garages, etc..
- Fire Stations of Volunteers.

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The commanding officer of ground forces in a fire The priorities on which decisions are based are:
event is responsible for co-ordination of the aerial - Fast and direct attack of fire.
means that participate in firefighting operations. This - Direct attack/control whenever possible.
commanding officer may be an officer assigned by the - Protection priorities: life of citizens, their properties,
commander of the local administration, or if an event natural environment.
continues for some time or appears serious from the
The GFS has given a very important role to aerial
start, may be the commander himself. If the fire
firefighting. The table below summarises the role of the
continues to grow, it is common that the regional
various aerial means as perceived in the GFS
commander may take-up co-ordination of the fire. In
operations philosophy:
very serious events (generally burning more than 200
ha) one of the deputy chiefs of the GFS or even the In regard to preparedness levels, the GFS during the
Chief himself with a support group of experienced summer maintains three levels of readiness:
officers, may come and undertake responsibility and
command. It is common that the latter arrive with a co- At the 1st stage some firetrucks are positioned in the
ordinating helicopter. In that case co-ordination may be forest while a significant number remains at the
performed from the air. stations. This stage corresponds to levels 1 and 2 of
predicted fire danger rating.
The co-ordinator of the fleet of aerial means must:
- Be in continuous communication with the The 2nd stage includes positioning of more firetrucks
in the forests (24-hour basis), continuous patrols and
commander of the ground forces.
high alert. This stage correspond to level 3 of predicted
- Take directions and must be informed by the
fire danger rating.
commander of the ground forces and must then
informs the crews of the other aerial firefighting The 3rd stage includes the additional measures to be
means about the general situation of fire and the taken, when the meteorological conditions are very
objectives of their mission. dangerous (predicted fire danger rating is 4 or 5). These
- Maintain communication with all forces in the measures are:
territory, in order for the operations to be effective - The personnel is placed in general alert
and safe. - Operational officers patrol constantly in their region
- Provide information on the development of fire, as of responsibility
well as confidential information to the commander of - The air patrols/monitoring becomes more intensive
the firefighting forces, as well as to the GFS Chief. and longer in terms of time duration.
- To acts and command so that all the firefighting - Fire patrols in the forest become more intensive.
operations are safe. - Certain forest roads may be closed or firetrucks
positioned at critical points (entrances to the forest)
record

Type of aerial means Role


Amphibious Firefighting planes CL-415, CL-215 Initial attack and mass attack to the fire front
Heavy type helicopters (MI-26, Erickson S-64, KAMOV-32) Initial attack and mass attack to the fire front
Co-ordination Helicopters Immediate transport of the GFS Chief or Deputy
Chiefs and commissioned staff, undertaking co-
ordination of large fires
C-130 plane with MAFFS system Retardant drops
Transport Helicopters Transport of firefighting forces

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In a recent change (May 2003) CNEFF was


1.3 IN PORTUGAL substituted by a Forest Protection Nucleus, but its role
and activity is not yet established.
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.3 Fire prevision
The Summer of 2003 turned to be one of the worst
fire seasons in Portugal both in terms of burned area, 1.3.3.1 Fire danger estimation
with a total of 450 000 hectares and in terms of
The Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IM) is
accidents with a total of 20 persons that died among
the Institution in charge of the Fire Danger evaluation.
civilians and fire fighters. As a consequence of these
This entity depends from the Ministry of Science and
events the fire management structure is being
Higher Education.
reformulated and it is very difficult at present to give a
correct picture of the attributes of each entity involved. The information provided by the IM through its
In face of this situation we will consider the Fire Analysis and weather forecast Centre (Centro de
Management Structure that was implemented in the last Análise e previsão do tempo) includes the following
years. daily general information:
- Meteorological observations from the national
1.3.2 Fire prevention station network
In Portugal fire prevention activities are a - Weather charts
responsibility of the Forestry Service (DGF- Direcção - National and regional weather forecast bulletins
Geral das Florestas - General Direction of Forestry). - Satellite imagery
This entity depends from the Ministry of Agriculture. - Wind field forecast for the next 24 hours with 3 hours
intervals.
The General Direction of Forestry is organised by
Agricultural Regions that manage the public forest (5% As specific information, the IM computes and
of the total) and supervise all forest activities in the delivers:
Country. - The forest fire danger index for about 60
meteorological stations. Since 1998, the IM
Other institutions involved in fire prevention activities information related with fire danger indices has been
are: based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index
- - The National Association of Municipalities System, computed between 15th May and 15th
(Associação Nacional de Municipios Portugueses) October. From Autumn 2002 on, the FWI index is
that coordinates the activities of the Mayors and are being computed along the whole year.
responsible for promoting the infra-structures for fire - Charts with forest fire risk classes by regions. These
prevention (roads, fire-breaks, water sources, watch- classes are computed as a function of FWI and also
towers) and to support the logistics of fire take in consideration the number of fires and burned
suppression activities in their areas. areas in each region in last years.
- - The Cellulose and Paper Pulp Industries that - Charts with the forecast of forest fire danger indices
globally own 10% of the National afforested area. tendency
Until the last year the prevention activities were - Weather bulletin for 48 hours forecast, specific for
coordinated by a National Committee - The National fire prevention (on a daily routine basis from June to
Specialised Commission in Forest Fires (CNEFF- September).
Comissão Nacional Especializada em Incêndios
The IM is in permanent contact with the SNBPC
Florestais) - Where representatives of the different through a daily briefing by Video Conference with the
institutions involved and the forest owners were Operational Centre. During the summer months a
present. CNEFF attributions were namely: technician from the IM is appointed to work in the
- The implementation of national, regional or SNBPC at full time.
municipal integrated plans of fire prevention linking
the efforts of the different organisms. 1.3.4 Fire detection
- These plans could involve the total area of a council
The general direction of forestry (dgf) is the main
or even two or more councils.
institution responsible for the fire detection. The fire
- Consisted mainly in the creation of a network of
detection system comprehends a network of manual
forest roads and water sources, fuelbreaks and fuel
operated fire detection towers that are in
reduction specially near the roads and settlements,
communication with the operational centre of the SNBC
the creation of a network of airfields, landing spots
(fire brigade national service and civil protection). DGF
for helicopter operation and infrastructures to
also has terrestrial mobile patrols acting 24 hours per
support these aerial means.
day.
- The implementation of national prevention
campaigns for the general population through the For the last three years DGF supported a pilot
mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, program with automatic detection systems in Coimbra
fire prevention posters and education campaigns for district in co-operation with the fire brigade service and
the students residents in rural areas. ADAI.
- Support to the Fire Research through the National
Science Foundation (FCT) and also directly.

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Other entities involved in fire detection are: 1.3.5.1 Vigilance and Alert Division
- the nature conservation institute (ICN),
- the national association of portuguese municipalities Creation of a system that will enhance a prompt alert
and warning to the populations integrating the different
(ANMP) and
risk detection services.
- cellulose and paper pulp industries.
These entities have their own network of Requirements assessment and promotion of
watchtowers and they also have terrestrial and heli apermanent dialog between operational and scientific
transported mobile patrols. The icn has automatic institutions with the main goal of obtaining database
detection systems in some protected areas. information, prediction products and accompaniment of
all situations.
The activity of forest fire detection that until now was
affected to the forestry service is now one of the Promotion of the permanent accompaniment and
missions of the recently created nucleus for the prediction of all risk situations. Surveillance
protection of forestry that belongs to the fire brigade reinforcement of critical situations.
and civil protection national service.
1.3.5.2 Emergency Planning Division
1.3.5 Fire fighting activities
Elaboration of National emergency plans with the
Fire fighting activities are a responsibility of the necessary intervention actions scheduling.
Serviço Nacional de Bombeiros e Protecção Civil
(SNBPC) [National Service of Fire Brigade and Civil Support to the municipalities and districts’
Specialised Committees for Forest Fires (CEFF’s -
Protection] that depends from the Ministry of Internal
Comissões Especializadas de Fogos Florestais) in the
Administration (MAI).
elaboration of the emergency plans, promoting the co-
This Service was modified recently and it is the operation between those geographically adjacents.
result of the merging of two different Services (Civil
Protection Service and Fire Brigade Service) that had Analyse districtal and municipal CEFF’s proposals of
complementary roles in the management of risks emergency plans for approval.
namely forest fires. Plans elaboration and incorporating elements
regarding the compatibility of all actions and available
The previously referred CNEFF - National
Commission Specialised on Forest Fires Activities means in order to decrease the number of forest fires
(Comissão Nacional Especializada de Fogos Florestais and burned area without prejudice of specific
was replaced by a Forest Protection Nucleus, but its competencies of involved departments.
role and activity is not yet established. Guarantee the connection between the different
entities with responsibilities on forest fires domain.
In each district there is an Emergency Operation Co-
ordination Centre, directed by a District Co-ordinator. Increase the scientific investigation directed to forest
These Centres work in connection with a National fires and their consequences, supporting with available
Operations Co-ordination Centre based near Lisbon. means the programs they approved.
Fire suppression activities are carried out by Fire Elaborate contingency plans of forest fires with a set
Brigade Corporations. The large majority of these of rules to adopt in order to minimise their impacts.
Corporations are composed by volunteers. Almost all
cities have their Fire Brigade Unit that is sponsored by a Support the initiatives and efforts that aim to forest
private association that is supported by the population fires prevention and suppression.
and by the Government through the SNBPC. Fire The DSPP has the responsibility to fully support the
fighters are not paid but their employers are other Divisions.
compensated by the loss of work power when they are
engaged in action. During Summer each Corporation 1.3.5.3 Fire Safety Division
has at least one unit on permanent duty for immediate This Division is in charge of proposing legislative
intervention. The personnel involved in these Groups rules, perform studies, issue statements, analyse
receive a payment for the time they dedicate to this criteria, establish and elaborate inspection plans on the
duty. scope of fire safety. It must also issue statements about
There are also some Professional Fire fighters rules and legislation on fire safety subject.
Corporations. These exist normally in the District Define, in articulation with the CNOS analysis
capitals. They are generally sponsored by the criteria for the studies, projects and security plans
respective municipality. Although they are equipped against fires, to disseminate by the fire brigade
mainly for urban fires they have great experience in associations, districtal co-ordination centres and
fighting forest fires as well. municipalities.
In the SNBPC there are the following Divisions at a Promote the elaboration of technical notes and other
National level with the corresponding functions: type of documents for application on study case,
projects and security plans making their actualisation
whenever necessary.

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Propose a decision following the statements issued 1.4 IN SPAIN


by the distrital co-ordinators whenever they are
superiorly requested. 1.4.1 Introduction
Spain is divided in 17 Administrative Autonomies
Pronounce about studies, projects and security
and the Regional authorities are in charge of forest fire
plans against fires on different types of facilities.
protection in their territories since 1985, supported by
Support the elaboration of security inspection plans the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Dirección General de
against fires. Conservación de la Naturaleza (MMA-DGCONA),
through special agreements at regional level.
Propose legislative rules and formulate regulation
proposals in the scope of security and prevention The responsibilities of the DGCONA are the
against fires. management of airborne resources (airplanes and
helicopters), normalisation of equipment and material in
1.3.5.4 Prevention and Protection Service all Spain, and functions related to insurances.
This Division elaborates and promote studies on
The DGCONA shares responsibilities with the
natural and technologic risks and in this way try to
regional Governments on the coordination of forest fire
identify when possible accidents may occur and
fighting means, particularly airborne and
anticipate their consequences.
communications means, statistics, and coordination of
The following Institutions are all prepared for the funding.
initial attack:
Furthermore, it is in charge of forest fire evaluation
- General Direction of Forestry (DGF)Nature
in close relation with the prevention and fighting
Conservation Institute (ICN)National Association of
activities. Currently, GPS equipment is used for fast and
Municipalities, and
precise evaluation and quantification of surfaces
- the Cellulose and Paper Pulp Industries In their
affected by heavy fires. The obtained data are dumped
respective areas of competency they have vehicles with
to data base computer systems and incorporated to the
brigades equipped for an initial attack.The Armed
GIS (Arc Info System).
Forces , in some special conditions can collaborate with
the fire brigades in the fire fighting actions. The DGCONA also manages National Parks and
other special sites. The national office also has
significant responsibilities on the restoration funding the
Plans of the Regional Governments.
The civil protection Spanish Plan for forest fire
emergency, defines a set of procedures and rules for
forest fire emergency response when the national
interest is involved and to reinforce the Plans of the
Regional Governments. This plan defines: the
organisation of the information systems (national data
base, national risk maps, meteorological and risk
predictions, information on potential risks, resources
data bases), the national structure for forest fire fighting,
the allocation of national resources to regional or local
plans, and the operational plan depending on the forest
fire risk levels.
However, the structures of the forest fire fighting
plans in the Spanish regions are different. The Regional
Governments have now the main responsibilities in
forest fire fighting in Spain. More than 20.000 people
are involved in prevention and suppression activities in
all Spain. Furthermore significant resources are being
devoted to theses activities. From the point of view of
the structure of the information system, the report
concentrates in Andalusia. This region has about the
18% of the total surface in Spain and the 20% of
population.

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The Regional Government of Andalusia has the 1.4.2 INFOCA Plan in Andalusia
INFOCA (INcendios FOrestales en la Comunidad
Autónoma de Andalucía) Plan. The office which has the In the following, several characteristics and data of
the INFOCA Plan in Andalusia are summarised:
main responsibility is the “Servicio de Prevención de
Incendios y Restauración Forestal” of the “Dirección There is a network of 231 monitoring fixed positions.
General del Medio Ambiente”. However, the local The terrestrial monitoring becomes from permanent
authorities are also involved under the co-ordination of observation posts, located in high points where a large
this office. forest area can be observed and therefore to detect
possible fires in that area. In general all surveillance
The INFOCA Plan is co-ordinated from the Regional
and monitoring positions are operative from 1st June to
Operation Centre (COR) in the highest level of the
15th October and depending on the fire risk, some
Regional Structure. This Plan is based on the
settings can be operative outside this period.
administrative organisation of Andalusia. Thus, there
are also 8 Province Operation Centre (COP). One of The Automatic fire detection and monitoring is made
them is embedded in the COR. These centres form the by the BOSQUE system by means of the use of infrared
second level in the structure hierarchy. and visual cameras being supervised the operation
from a remote or Monitoring centre, that is connected
The third level is configured by the Forest Centres
via radio with the different observatories. In the console
(CEDEFO). There are 17 Centres. The responsibilities
of the monitoring centre there is a digitized map of the
of the CEDEFOs are: Forest fire surveillance, detection
zone with the relevant data of the area covered by the
and suppression; accommodation of personnel and
system. The system can detect a fire of 10 m² in an
equipment, forest fire evaluation, personnel training,
area of approximately 190,800 hectares. In Andalusia
volunteers co-ordination, co-ordination of local
there are six "BOSQUE" systems installed. Four of
authorities and dissemination activities.
them consist of 2 observatories and other two have 3
In addition the Plan INFOCA counted with the and 5 observatories respectively. This surveillance is
participation of the Autonomic Police, as well as the completed with the one made by the human means
Local Authorities, Civil Guard and the citizens, in established for this aim.
general, who can warn of a fire through the
emergencies telephone number. The ground mobile surveillance and monitoring is
carried out by a patrol of 2/4 people, following routes
It should be noted that according to this plan defined by
previously established in the forest areas. In incipient
the Regional Andalusia Government, the co-ordination
fires, they should react very quickly to avoid the fire
of the local authorities for forest fire fighting correspond
propagation.
to the forest fire management persons leading the
INFOCA. That is different from other Spanish regions. The aerial monitoring is made from a surveillance
The suppression system defines the following elements: co-ordination airplane, in which in addition to the pilot
- Meeting points. These points are used for personnel there is a technician of air operations. This technician
transportation using helicopters. should have experience on the terrain under
- Advanced Command Post. The field office defines consideration, on the vegetation and fuel models, as
an operation plan by using communications, and well as on the prediction of the fire behaviour. The
meteorological information. airplane should be equipped with: GPS, a radio
- Waiting Areas with forest fire resources frequency link, and cartographic information.
- Camps for long duration fires
- Operation Execution Section consisting of waiting The INFOCA Plan has a radio communication
network. The frequencies that are used are of the VHF
areas control unit, terrestrial operation unit, and
type, in low band (68/88 Mhz.), to avoid interferences in
aerial operation unit.
the communications. There are base stations, mobile
- Planning Section. This section consists of
equipment, portable equipment, fixed and mobile
Resources unit, Supervision unit, Specialist unit
repeaters, and radio frequency link equipments.
(meteo, fire predictions, terrain analysis).
- Logistic Section. The section includes services The aerial communication bands are used for the
(radio communications) and general support communication and management of aerial means.
(supplies, camps management, emergency groups). These bands are, exclusively, used for the coordination
of the aerial means during fires. There are 5
Furthermore, the INFOCA Plan considers
frequencies to this aim. Andalusia is divided, in relation
Emergency Action Groups related to risk situations
to the frequencies, in two zones, Eastern (Almeria,
for people or non forest goods. These groups are:
Granada, Jaén and Malaga) and the western one
- • Surveillance, detection and suppression groups.
(Cadiz, Cordova, Huelva and Seville). In each zone
- • Security forces: Coordinated by the COP director.
there exist two frequencies, a main and secondary one,
- • Sanitary groups.
and there is a common emergency frequency to both
- • Logistic groups.
zones.
The coordination airplanes have two transmitters of
aerial bands plus a portable one for emergency in case
of failure of communications of the airplane.

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Therefore, there is a communication network that FOREST FIRE B.


facilitates the fast transmission of the information B.1 COP Activation
between the different Operative Centres and Centres of - B.1.1 Inform authorities.
Forest Defence with the elements that compose the - B.1.2 Intervention of suppression helicopters and
system of monitoring and detection, as well as with the specialists.
different terrestrial and aerial means that participate in - B.1.3 Intervention of CEDEFO forest mobile units
the extinction. with pumps.
- B.1.4 Intervention of units in the local plan.
1.4.3 Emergency management system in the
- B.1.5 Intervention of first aid groups.
INFOCA Plan.
- B.1.6 Intervention of aeroplanes.
The Plan considers the following fire categories - B.1.7 Intervention of volunteers.
- B.1.8 Activation of heavy Machines.
A: Incipient Fire. - B.1.9 Activation of the second specialist brigade.
Lineal Intensity of Fire front (I)< 40 Kcal/m/sec.
B.2 Information to the COR.
Flames height (h) < 0.5 m.
FOREST FIRE C.
B: Low danger forest fire. C.1 COP Intervention
40<I<80 Kcal/m/sec.
- C.1.1 Inform authorities
0.5<h<1 m.
- C.1.2 Intervention of more than one CEDEFO
C: Medium danger forest fire. specialist brigade.
80<I<400 Kcal/m/sec. - C.1.3 Intervention of resources activated in B.
1<h<2.5 m. - C.1.4 Settle the advanced command post (PAIF).
- C.1.5 Meteorological and Communication Mobile
D: High danger forest fire. Unit.
400<I<800 Kcal/m/sec. - C.1.6 Intervention of aeroplanes.
2.5<h<3.5 m. C.2 Organisation of third level attack.
E: Extreme danger forest fire. - C.2.1 Settle the Operation Sections.
I>800 Kcal/m/sec. - C.2.2 Settle the Planning Section.
h>3.5 - C.2.3 Settle the Logistic Section.
C.3 Supervision of the COP technical Director.
Based on this classification there is a Forest Fire C.4 Activation of the COR.
Emergency Management System (SMEIF) to provide - Activation of regional aerial resources
a response depending on the potential risk levels. - Activation of resources in other provinces
The fire category is an important parameter in the - Activation of regional co-ordination.
Plan. The determination of this parameter can be done FOREST FIRE D.
by estimating the flame properties and using D.1 Intervention of the COP Technical Director in the
information processing techniques to compute the lineal PAIF.
intensity of fire front and flame heights. - D.1.1 Inform authorities.
The following Detection, Intervention and - D.1.2 PAIF Organisation.
Information activities are considered in the INFOCA - D.1.3 Advanced Forest Fire Advanced Mobile
Plan: Unit (UNASIF).
- D.1.4 Intervention of the Province INFOCA
1.4.3.1 LEVELS 0 AND 1. Director.
FOREST FIRE A. - D.1.5 COR resources.
A.1 Detection. - D.1.6 Activation of Resources not included in
- A.1.1 Communication to CEDEFO and Local INFOCA.
authorities. - D.1.7 Activation of the Regional Committee.
- A.1.2 Classification and potential risk analysis. - D.1.8 Intervention of the COR Director in the
- A.1.3 Evaluation of required forces. PAIF.
A.2 Intervention (Attack System). FOREST FIRE E.
- A.2.1 Intervention of patrol. E.1 Intervention of the INFOCA Operational Director.
- A.2.2 Dispatch helicopters with specialists. E.2 Intervention of Resources not included in
- A.2.3 Dispatch CEDEFO mobile units with INFOCA.
pumps. E.3 Activation of the Emergency Direction
- A.2.4 Activation of First Aid group. Committee.
- A.2.5 Activation of units in the local plan.
- A.2.5 Alert the local plan managers. 1.4.3.2 LEVELS 2 AND 3.
A3. Inform the COP. EMERGENCY PHASES
A. Pre-emergency Phase. Correspond to level 1
above.
B. Forest Fire levels 2&3: Emergency structure
activation, National intervention considered.

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1.5 IN FINLAND In the Rescue Act there is so called everyman’s duty


to act which means that anyone who notices or learns
1.5.1 Basic information of Finland that a fire has broken out or another accident has
Total area of Finland is 338,145 km2. Forest covers occurred or is threatening and who cannot immediately
68 % of total area, i.e. 26 million hectares. extinguish the fire or prevent the danger is liable without
delay to notify those in danger thereof, make an
Finland belongs to Boreal forest area. About 62 % emergency call (i.e. call to 112) and start rescue
of forest land is privately owned, 25 % by the state, 8 %
activities within his abilities.
by the companies and 5 % by the others.
(After 2 years there will be 14 new emergency
Finland is a sparsely populated country , with a total response centres in operational use in Finland with
number of inhabitants of 5,2 million people, i.e. 17 modern technology. These centres will be combined
inhabitants per km2 of land. centres that will take care of rescue, police, ambulance
and social emergency calls)
Fire season is in average 3 – 4 months long . The
main Forest Fire season is from June to August. If it is necessary to save a human life or to prevent
Usually fires start in May and they may continue another accident, the leader of rescue activities have
sometimes up to September. the right to order any person who is at the scene of the
fire or accident or in its vicinity and is capable of work
1.5.2 Responsibilities of the main forest fire and not hindered by a valid cause, to assist in the
authorities in Finland rescue activities. If the situation cannot be controlled in
Municipal fire brigades are responsible for forest fire another manner, the rescue authority, in a
suppression in their own area. There are 446 corresponding situation, have the right to order people
municipalities in Finland and only 60 of them have who are capable of work and are staying in the
professional fire brigade. All the rest have volunteer or municipality to arrive at the scene of the fire or accident
part time fire brigade. Forest fires forms approximately without delay and to assist in the rescue activities. The
2 – 3 % of all the accidents where the fire brigades are task may be refused only for a valid reason. A person
alarmed annually. ordered to assist in rescue activities may not leave the
scene of the fire or accident before the leader of the
The State Provincial Office (5 provinces) is rescue activities has given him permission thereto.
responsible for arranging efficient forest-fire lookout in
scarcely populated areas. 1.5.4 Forest fire detection and monitoring
The Finnish Meteorological Institute counts so called Until 1970’s the main system for forest fire
forest fire index in different regions every day. The monitoring in Finland was lookout towers. There were
scale of index is from 1,0 to 6,0. When the forest fire approximately 150 towers in use at that time. In
index reach the value 4,0 Meteorological Institute the1970’s air patrolling was taken into use and in the
ensures that forest fire warning is given to a particular end of 1970’s the whole Finland was covered. It is
region. People are informed about the forest fire obvious that lookout towers were not necessary any
warning through media i.e. TV, radio, internet, more.
newspapers an so on.
1.5.4.1 Air patrolling
The Forest and Park Service is liable to provide the Air patrolling is the main forest fire monitoring
rescue authorities with expert assistance in the fighting method in Finland. The provincial governments are
of forest fires and to make, at its own initiative, responsible for organising air patrolling according to
preparations for the prevention and fighting of forest instructions by the Ministry of the Interior. Today there
fires on State land in its management in co-operation are altogether 26 air patrolling routes in Finland.
with the rescue authorities Provincial governments make agreements on patrolling
1.5.3 Legislation and role of civilians flights with local air clubs or air companies. Air patrolling
starts when the forest fire warning is issued or
A campfire or another open fire may not be made in whenever it seems to be necessary e.g. after thunder
a forest or in its vicinity if the circumstances due to a dry storms. Patrolling aircrafts are equipped with radios so
spell, wind or another reason are such that the danger that they can report fires either emergency response
of a forest fire is evident especially during the forest fire centre or directly to the local fire chief.
warning. An open fire may not be made on the land of
another without permission unless there is a compelling
need thereto. Controlled burning may take place on
forest land even during a dry spell by observing special
care under the supervision of a forestry professional.

D-09-01 15
EUFIRELAB

Fires are located using co-ordinates or map names. 1.5.4.3 Detection cameras
In addition fire patrolling aircrafts evaluate how large the
fire is and guide the response units to the site. Exact As an experiment there is one visual camera in use
for forest fire monitoring in South-West Finland. The
fire location, quick evaluation of the fire size and
camera can detect approximately 30 km around. The
guidance of the response units to the detected fire
information of this camera is delivered to a local fire
ensure that the burned area remains small. About 10 -
brigade.
15 percent of forest fires are detected from airplanes. In
addition to fire detection all detected smokes are 1.5.4.4 Civilians
reported to the emergency response centres. Hundreds
of smokes are reported every year and most of them 70 – 80 percent of the fires are detected and
reported by individual people. It is quite logical because
are ignited without a permit (agriculture, litter or some
humans cause most of the forest fires themselves.
other reason). This is why air patrolling also have a very
Usually these fires are not set on purpose but because
important preventive effect in Finland. Today more and
of negligence so that people don’t realise that a forest
more fire brigades as well as emergency response
centres use the GIS-based systems in Finland. In the fire might occur. Number of reports are given also by
near future in the whole Finland fires will be located by civil- and military aircrafts.
using GIS-based systems. 1.5.5 Fire risk assessment support in web-sites.
1.5.4.2 Satellite monitoring Online Forest Fire Risk assessment is available on
web-site of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is
Ministry of the Interior, VTT (The Technical
Research Centre of Finland) and The Finnish updated regularly. Web-side can be used by rescue and
Meteorological Institute have developed the High- other authorities. This application gives output as
resolution ( NOAA-AVHRR ) satellite-based system for follows:
forest fire monitoring. This system is the only system in - - Forest fire index by counties. ( actual and + , - 24
the world that is near real time detection system. This hours )
system can detect a forest fire less than 30 minutes - - Lighting ( - 6 hours )
after satellite image. It also actually works in Finnish - - Detected fires by satellite ( actual 12 hours, and
conditions because the temperature of the surface is two weeks )
- - Heavy rains falls ( radar imagine )
not as hot as in the Mediterranean countries i.e. the
- - Forecast ( rain, temperature, wind + 24 hours )
false alarm rates can be kept low. The system covers
- - Relative humidity
whole Scandinavia, Russian Karelia and Baltic region.
After the observation the system sends automatically 1.5.6 Summary
fax alert to the closest emergency response centre
according the co-ordinates of the satellite image. Even though legislation is quite strict humans cause
Theoretical minimum detectable fire size is in optimal 60 to 70 % of the forest fires. A number of fire chiefs
circumstances 0,1 hectares. However, in practice the agree that air patrolling have been effective tool to
system detects fires that are larger than 3 hectares. reduce the damage caused by forest fires in the last
Location accuracy is about 1 kilometre and the false decades in Finland. Last six years there have been
alarm rate is less than 10 %. Satellite Monitoring approximately 1020 forest fires, where have burned
Systems is used as one part of monitoring system that 480 hectares annually in Finland. Average burned area
detects fires also in the night time. It also gives useful was in the 1950’s 11 hectares, in the 1960’s 3 hectares
information about fires behind our national borders. This and in the 1970’s about 1,3 hectares. In the 1980’s
system was introduced in 1993 for the first time and it onwards average burned area could have been kept
was developed further in the project (FFOPERAT) under 1,0 hectare per fire annually and actually in the
which was funded by ESA in 1998-2000. 1990’s it has been only 0,6 hectares.

D-09-01 16
EUFIRELAB

Figure 1-3: Forest Fire warning in TV,(North slippery, snow and South part forest fire warning)

Figure 1-5: Forest fire prevention “Strategy” in Finland

Figure 1-4: Air patrolling routes in Finland

D-09-01 17
EUFIRELAB

2 REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESOURCES


USED FOR THE CONTROL AND SUPPRESSION OF FOREST FIRES

CCGC : High capacity tanker :


2.1 IN FRANCE
- Water tank : 14 000 litres
2.1.1 The trucks - Resupplying vehicle only
- No heavy attack equipment (cannon)
VLRTT: All-roads Liaison Vehicle - Limited off-road capacity , no self-protection
- 4*4 Vehicle of 5 places
equipment
- equiped with two leakage masks
- GPS PCMTT : all-roads mobile command post
- 4x4 van
CCFL : Forest fire light tanker - Sector CP on important intervention
- 600 litre water capacity - Has to intervene systematically if a field CP is
CCFM : Forest fire medium tanker positioned on scene
- Water capacity : 3500 litres
DATT : All-road vehicle reel :
- Wetting agent capacity : 100 litres - 110 mm rated diameter capacity : 1600 m up to
- Self-protection, roll-over bar, respirable air, excess 1800 m
pressure - 70 mm rated diameter capacity : 800 m
CCFS : S forest fire tanker - 1 water or foam cannon
- Water tank : 10 000 litres
Hydraulic equipment of the CCF vehicles are :
- Wetting agent tank : 400 litres
- Emulsion tank : 600 litres
- Cannon 3000 litres / minute
- Respirable air, self-protection

Figure 2-1: Hydraulic equipment

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2.1.3 The helicopters


2.1.2 The planes
Commands helicopters missions are :
2.1.2.1 Surveillance planes - Reconnaissance.
Surveillance planes are in charge of : - Guidance of the ground fighting means
- surveillance, - Transport fire fighters and equipment.
- planes guidance, - Security ensuring
- planes co-ordination. - Objectives marking for the planes
2.1.2.2 Water bombers Water bombers helicopters missions are :
- Growing fires attack
Water bombers are in charge of : - Non accessible (or with difficulty) fires attack
- patrols,
- Vulnerable areas protection
- water patrols,
- Drowning of the edges and fire resumptions
- fire fighting.
How to choose a dropping area
Canadairs CL 415 - Area with a minimum diameter of 30 meters
- Capacity:6130 litres in 4 water tanks. - Homogeneous flat and hard surface
- Number of Drops: 1,2 or 4 times. - Maximum banking of 10%
- Average speed: ≈ 168 knot. - Non dusty ground or sprayed
- Scooping duration: 12 seconds on a minimum water - No obstacle
surface of 1200 meters - No object which could fly
- Dropping height: ≈ 30 meters.
- Dropping width: ≈ 60 meters.
- Type of attack: direct.
Tracker CF 2S
- Capacity:3500 litres in 4 water tanks.
- Average speed: ≈ 163 knot.
- Type of filling: on the ground.
- Dropping height: ≈ 45 meters.
- Dropping width: ≈ 50 meters.
- Type of attack: indirect.
Fokker F 27
- Capacity:6400 litres in 8 water tanks
- Average speed: ≈ 217 knot.
- Type of filling: on the ground.
- Dropping height: ≈ 30 meters.
- Dropping width: ≈ 70 meters.
- Type of attack: indirect.
2.1.2.3 Planes integration into the fighting tactics
- Integration into aerial/ground radio frequency
(channel 18, 23 or 35)
- Define the dropping objectives in collaboration with
the crew
- Announce dangers on the area
- Give planes permission to drop after ensuring the
security of fire fighters
- !Priority to the planes!

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2.2 IN GREECE 2.2.2 Aerial fire fighting means


2.2.1 The trucks Greece uses both public (national) and private aerial
means. By 1992, the aerial means included about 13
As mentioned earlier there is a fleet of more than Canadair CL-215 amphibious water bombers, 3 MAFFS
1100 firetrucks in the hands of the GFS today. Some of
systems loaded on Air-Force C-130 transport planes for
them (UNIMOG with 5 person cabin and 1300 litres
delivery of fire retardants, and 24 PZL-M18 Dromader
water payload) belong to the first firetrucks bought by
single-engine planes with a payload of 1500 litres. All of
the Greek Forest Service in the beginning of the 1970s.
them were operated by the Air-Force on behalf of the
Two hundred light 4WD semi-trucks (Dodge Dakota)
Ministry of Agriculture.
were bought for the first time in 1993. One hundred
more Nissan 4WD semi-trucks were added in the In the summer of 1993, for the first time ten private
beginning of the 2000s. helicopters were contracted. This was the first
introduction of helicopters for crew transport and
Types of forest fire trucks Water firefighting. In the following years political decisions
Capacity forced the Forest Service to work with a small number
of Army helicopters including 4 CHINOOK CH-47D and
Iveco Ff135 E23 Wr 2 500
6 Bell UH-1H “Huey”. The number of CL-215 reached
Renault Camiva Ccf 4000 Type 3 000
15 in 1997, after loss of one and purchase of three
Steyr 2 500
second-hand planes.
Steyr 10 000
Steyr 12 000 At the end of the disastrous 1998, with the GFS
Magirus Deutz 12 000 having the responsibility of forest firefighting, the funds
Unimog Mercedes 4wd 1 000 devoted to aerial firefighting started increasing sharply.
Unimog Mercedes 4wd 1 300 First, ten new Canadair CL-415 were ordered
Unimog Mercedes 4wd – U1750l 1 750 immediately. Second, contracted helicopter use was
Unimog Mercedes 4wd – U2150l 2 500 permitted. In the following years, the ten new Canadairs
Iveco Tlf 24/120-5 12 000 were gradually delivered and the number and capacities
Mercedes Átego 1 500 of contracted helicopters kept increasing. In 2003, the
Dodge Dakota 4WD 600 aerial fleet consisted of:
Nissan Terrano 4WD 600

Type Category Number Ownership


Canadair CL- Amphibian water bomber with 6130 litre capacity 10 Public
415
Canadair CL- Amphibian water bomber with 5500 litre capacity 14 Public
215
PZL-M-18 Agricultural, single engine, fixed-wing air-tanker. 20 Public
Dromader Recently upgraded to about 2000 litre capacity.
C-130 with Military transport plane with dedicated 12000 litre Up to 3 can be made Public
MAFFS firefighting system for retardant delivery available
(3 MAFFS systems)
GRUMMAN Agricultural bi-plane with 700 liter payload 6 Public
Erickson S-64 Firefighting helicopter with 9000 liter capacity 3 Contracted
“AirCrane”
MIL MI-26 Transport helicopter used for firefighting, with 15000 4 Contracted
litre capacity
MIL MI-14 Transport helicopter tested for firefighting for the first 1 Contracted
time in Greece
Kamov Ka-32 T Transport helicopter used for firefighting, with 15000 3 Contracted
litre capacity
BK 117 Twin-engine helicopter used for reconnaissance 2 Public

The main base of the Canadair water bombers is at The aerial means in the country have become
the Elefsis military airport near Athens. The PZL aircraft among the strongest in the world when compared to the
are based at the smaller airport of Tatoi, also near size of the country. This is justified, in part, by the
Athens. During the fire season these and the contracted topography and the distribution of the country, and
aerial means are dispersed at bases around Greece, especially the large number of islands. It is not possible
including the islands of the Aegean and Ionian seas, in to maintain a very strong ground firefighting force on
order to minimise intervention time. each of the islands, while there is very high fire potential
on those islands that are covered by pine forests.

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3 REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT FIRE FIGHTING TACTICS

3.1 IN FRANCE
3.1.1 Introduction
According to the fire evolution, the difficulties encountered, there are various possible tactics. These tactics can
be classified in two categories : offensives tactics and defensives tactics.
Offensives tactics
- Front Attack
- Attack on the flank
- Breakthrough on the flank
- Long distance fire hose set up
Defensives Tactics
- Vulnerable areas protection
- Self-protection
- Fire stopping line
3.1.2 Offensive Manœuvre
Four LDV 250 fire hoses set up
Two LDV 250 fire hoses set up
Long distance fire hose set up
One LDV 250 fire hose set up over 200 metres, 20/7 fire hose support by lining
3.1.2.1 Four LDV 250 fire hoses set up
This type of manoeuvre is used for growing fires attack.
Done simultaneously with four Fire vehicles, It allows to make a massive attack. Two tactics are possible:
- Attack by lining. The covered distance is about 350 meters.
- Front attack for small fires. The covered distance is about 100 meters.

Figure 3-1

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3.1.2.2 Two LDV 250 fire hoses set up


This type of manoeuvre is used for growing fires attack. Two Fire vehicles set up the two LDV 250 fire hoses
and two other Fire vehicle supply the previous one with water.
Then it is possible to:
- Attack by lining
- Drowning of the edges

Figure 3-2

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3.1.2.3 Long distance fire hose set up (from 200 to 700 metres)
Used for small fires or stilled ones, in uneven or inaccessible areas, this manoeuvre requires a long time to be
done. It must be compatible with the estimated fire behaviour.
The main conditions are:
- Fire hoses set up less than 700 meters
- The difference in height must be 150 meters maximum
- Set up of two 20/7 fire hoses or one LDV 250 fire hose

Figure 3-3

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3.1.2.4 One LDV 250 fire hose set up over 200 metres, 20/7 fire hoses support by lining
Used for growing fires, rising from the rear of the fire to the fire front, this manoeuvre allows a quick advance of
the fire fighters, and use :
- one LDV 250 fire hose to reduce the flames
- 20/7 fire hoses to perfect the extinction of the fire, the drowning of the edges, and protect the rear
It can also be use for :
- Attack on the flank with protection of the fire hose set up
- Breakthrough the flank
- Drowning of the edges
However, the manoeuvre requires a long time to be done and remain until the complete extinction of the edges.

Figure 3-4

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3.1.3 Defensives Manoeuvres


- Vulnerable areas protection
- Self-protection
- Fire stopping line set up
- Fire stopping line set up with large capacity vehicles
3.1.3.1 Vulnerable areas protection
The group leader adapts the manoeuvre according to the type of vulnerable area (houses, radio relay station,
gas station, industry, etc …), and according to the situation.
Nevertheless, there are actions to do, whatever the vulnerable area is :
- partial or complete evacuation of people
- confinement in a safe place
- check of the floors, and roofs condition
- doors and shutter closing
- search for places with risks, sources of energy
- available water places
3.1.3.2 Self-protection
Particularly risky, this manoeuvre is done only if the fallback is impossible, roads are cut off, vehicles are
immobilised.
The principle is based on a packed parking of the vehicles, in a precise way, and a specific hydraulic system.
The objective is to set up fire hoses (two peacock hoses making water curtains, and one water cannon) facing up
to the fire front and self-protecting the vehicles.

Figure 3-5

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3.1.3.3 Fire stopping line set up


This manoeuvre is done facing up to the fire front. It must be done in an open area in order to allow an
immediate evacuation of the vehicles in case of failure. According to the fire extent, there are one or more groups
of vehicles.
The fire stopping line set up is :
- vehicles are on the same side of the track
- they are parked every 20 meters
- each Fire vehicle set up a LDV 250 fire hose, fire front side
- fire hoses set up are less than 40 meters
- each Fire vehicle set up a LDT fire hose on the other side, for self protection
- the fire hoses opens order is given by the group leader
According to the situation, the group leader keep the initiative of the manoeuvre adaptation.

Figure 3-6

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3.1.3.4 Fire stopping line set up with large capacity vehicles


This is the same manoeuvre as previously, but with largest capacity of water.
The fire stopping line set up with large capacity vehicles is :
- vehicles are on the same side of the track
- they are parked every 50 meters
- each Fire vehicle set up a water cannon (1000 litres per minutes), fire front side
- the fire hoses opens order is given by the group leader

Figure 3-7

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4 REVIEW OF FIRE FIGHTER TRAINING PROGRAMS

4.1 IN FRANCE
4.1.1 Introduction
The French fire fighter training program comprises 5 levels related to a position and a responsibility on the
scene :
The fire fighters can apply for these training courses, as far as they have pass the fire fighter initial training
during which they got practice of how to use the whole equipment available in the SDIS (fire and relief local
services) such as hoses, radios, fire-hose nozzle, trucks. The training covers a period of 120 hours for the
volunteers and 4 months for the professionals.
Fire Fighter Ranking Table

Low ranking Non-commissioned Officer Officer Field Officer


Corporal Chief warrant Captain Colonel
Corporal Warrant Lt-Major Lt-Colonel
FF first class Staff sergeant Sergeant-major Commandant
FF second class Sergeant

Figure 4-1: Distribution of the Professional Fire fighters and the Volunteers
among the 15 departments of the Entente :

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4.2 IN GREECE
4.1.2 Standard1 : FDF1 (Forest fires)
As the GFS is relatively new in the forest firefighting
It is the first training course for the forest fire special world, it has not developed yet a good and solid forest
field. It is organised by the fire fighter home department.
firefighting training program. In the 1999-2001 period all
Any person involved in a forest fire fighting should, its officers had a one-week long introductory course on
at least, had passed this course. It represents a 40 hour forest fires, including such topics as fire behaviour, fire
training (theory and practice). At the closing of the danger rating, fire meteorology, firefighting tactics, and
training course, the personnel is able to utilise all the safety. Also many additional seminars have been
equipment available for forest fire suppression purpose, organised on specific topics, forest fire cause
able to ensure his own safety and the others’ safety. He investigation being one of them. These seminars are
has also got notions of topography (being able to read a attended by a limited number of officers (30-40 people
map, to locate on a map, to maintain safety zone close each).
at hand, to identify the fire prevention management…).
Currently, the program of the Fire Academy, where
He obtains so the title of team member during the forest
officers are educated, includes only one course under
fires. The second class fire fighters can apply for this
the name “Forest fire suppression” in which apart from
training course.
basic knowledge on forest ecology and fire behaviour,
4.1.3 Standard2 : FDF2 extensive review of forest fire legislation is been taught.
It represents a 40 hour training (theory and practice). At the firefighting station level, the only training
It is organised by the fire fighter home department. It is program that has to do with forest fire suppression is a
open to everyone starting form the corporal rank. At the number of days during which the personnel of each
closing of the training, the personnel is able to lead the station has to attend short lectures from a station
team of a forest fire truck, to use the radios, to assign officer. In the last summer season’s (2003) monthly
work task to the aerial resources on scene… Thus, he training program, there were four relevant topics that
obtains the title of chief of equipment. had to do with forest fires.
4.1.4 Standard3 : FDF3 The topics were as follows:
- Main causes of forest fires.
This training is provided only at the CIFSC in - Safety rules for personnel and equipment during fire
Valabre (Civil Security Interregional Training Centre). It
suppression.
represents a two week training, one week for the theory
- Use of fire truck’s equipment in forest fires.
at the Valabre centre, and one week for practising in a
- Fire truck maintenance.
department. It is open to everyone starting from the
sergeant rank. At the closing of the training course, the
personnel is able to lead a forest fire group (4 trucks).
Thus, he obtains the title of chief of group.
4.1.5 Standard4 :FDF4
This training is provided only at the CIFSC in
Valabre (Civil Security Interregional Training Centre). It
represents a two week training. It is open to everyone
starting from the first officer rank (major).
At the closing of the training course, the personnel is
able to lead a column (4 groups). Thus, he obtains the
title of head of sector.
4.1.6 Standard5 : FDF5
This training is provided only at the CIFSC in
Valabre (Civil Security Interregional Training Centre). It
represents a two week theoretical training. It is open to
everyone starting from the high rank officer
(commandant).
At the closing of the training course, the personnel is
able to lead a site (chief of site). Thus, he obtains the
title of chief of site. He is the relief commandant during
large scale fires.

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