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F I N I S H I N G AN D P O L I S H I N G O F R E S T O R AT I O N S

CONTENTS:

1. INTRODUCTION & DEFINITIONS.


2. OBJECTIVES.
3. HEALTH HAZARDS.
4. FINISHING & POLISHING INSTRUMENTS.
5. ABRASIVE MATERIALS.
6. FINISHING & POLISHING OF AMALGAM RESTORATIONS.
7. FINISHING &POLISHING OF COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS.
8. FINISHING & POLISHING OF GIC RESTORATIONS.
9. FINISHING & POLISHING OF DIRECT GOLD RESTORATIONS.
10. FINISHING & POLISHING OF CAST GOLDRESTORATIONS.
11.FINISHING OF NON-PRECIOUS ALLOY RESTORATIONS.
12. FINISHING & POLISHING OF PORCELAIN RESTORATIONS.

INTRODUCTION:
The main objective of an operative dentist is to restore individual teeth to its
form and functions along with imparting pleasing esthetics as well
as to maintain periodontal tissues in good esteem.
Rough surfaces invite microbial flora to flourish. Light reflected by these
surfaces may not be even and uniform. The process of making the surface
smooth so as to enable them to reflect light evenly is known as Finishing &
Polishing.

DEFINITIONS:
Finishing

- Removal of surface irregularities.

Polishing

- Creation of surface layer, which can reflect light


as good as enamel.

Finishing

- Transformation of an object from a rough to a


refined form.

Polishing

- The Production of shiny mirror like surface,


which reflects light similar to enamel.

Finishing

- A process whereby substrate particles are


removed by the action of cutting or grinding.

Polishing

- The most refined process & acts on an


extremely thin region of the substrate surfaces.

Polishing is the process in which the polishing materials do not cut, but
fills fine scratches to produce a perfectly smooth surface. During polishing, highly
stressed microcrystalline layer is formed on the surface called as Beilby layer.
This layer, composed of non-oriented crystals on the restoration, is 20-40 A0 thick.

It is believed that because of the rapid movement of the polishing


agent the top layer of the material gets heated up causing it to flow & fill the
scratches.

OBJECTIVES OF FINISHING & POLISHING:


To obtain adequate adaptation and continuity of restoration.
Promotes oral health.
Smooth surface decrease tarnish and corrosion.
Oral function enhanced.
Minimize wear on adjacent teeth.
Esthetically pleasing.

Health Hazards:
Production of aerosol:
An Aerosol is a dispersion of fine solid or liquid particles in air.
Hazardous to dentists & patients.
These are sources for chronic & infectious disease of lungs, eyes &
skin.
Causes Cross contamination.
Silicosis or Grinders disease.
Aerosol production minimized by:
Adequate ventilation.
Self-protection.
Use of rubber dam.
Use of infection control procedures & high vacuum suction.
Production of vapour:
Mercury vapour, sealants, acrylic resin & composite vapour particles
may be inhaled leading to alveolar irritation & tissue reactions.
To Minimize Vapour:
Using low speed.
Intermittent pressure.
Pulpal Reactions:
To prevent excessive heat.
Use of cup brushes.
Use of intermittent polishing at slow speed.
FINISHING & POLISHING INSTRUMENTS:

Finishing & Polishing devices: (Steven Jefferies, DCNA)

Cutting Instruments Tungsten


carbides.

Bonded Abrasives
Elastic binders right
binders. (i.e. diamond
white stones)

Abrasive finishing & polishing


devices

Coated abrasives
Aluminium oxide silicon
oxide, quartz

Loose abrasives,
Aluminium oxide, Ultra
fine diamonds.

Finishing Burs:
Finishing Burs generally made up of Stainless steel (or) Tungsten
carbide.
12-40 fluted carbide burs are usually recommended for finishing
Burs are available in difference sizes & shapes such as, straight
fissure, tapering, flame shaped, rounded, wheel etc.

Diamond instruments and pastes:


Diamond instrument is a transparent material composed of carbon.
It is available commercially in the forms of bonded abrasive rotary
instruments, metal backed abrasive strips & polishing pastes.

Diamond abrasives are preferably used on ceramic & composite


materials.
Brushes :
Brushes can be used either alone (or) in combination with abrasive
particles.
Most of the brushes have synthetic bristles.
Various types of brushes are available which may be screwed into an
extension inserted into a hand piece (or) attached to a mandrel.
Cloth :
Cloth carried on a metal wheel may be used for final polishing with or
without polishing medium.
Felt :
Felt is used to attain luster for metallic restorations usually with a
polishing agent.
It is available in different shapes of wheels, cone & cylinders.
Rotary Rubber instruments:
Rubber ended rotary are commonly used for polishing procedures.
They can be obtained in various shapes of cups, wheel & cones.

Coated discs and Strips :


Strips used for finishing proximal areas.
Abrasive Materials
Chalk (white)

Composed of
Calcium carbonate.

Uses
Polish enamel, gold foil
amalgam & plastic materials.

Pumice
Pumice slurry
Pumice paste

Obtained by crushing pumice Polish enamel, gold foil


stone, porous volcanic rock.
amalgam & plastic materials
& Acrylic resins.

Corundum (white)

Aluminium oxide.

Grinding metal alloy.

Emery (Grayish black)

Aluminium oxide & Iron.

Finishing
metal
plastic materials.

Garnet

Silica or Aluminium , Cobalt, Grinding metal alloys, plastic


Iron, Magnesium .
materials.

Sand

Silica

Tripoli Grey, Red.

Obtained
by
crushing Polishing metal alloys plastic
sandstone bonded to paper material.
with glue.
Derived
from
siliceous
sedimentary rock.

Kieselguhr .

Derived from Diatonus


plants.

Cuttle fish bone (white


powder).

Crushing internal shell of Polishing metal & amalgam


Mediterranean Marine Mollusc margins.

To
remove
Investment
materials from base metal
alloys.

Quartz (colourless).

Fine abrasive.

Finish metal alloys.

Zirconium silicate (offwhite mineral.)

Component for prophy lactic


paste.

Silicon carbide &


carborundum .

Finishing sand & coke at


2000o C.

(Green blue black colour)


abrasive.

Different systems used for finishing & polishing:


Abrasive Used
Aluminium Oxide

alloys,

Trade Name
Soflex XT disc
Coarse
Medium

Manufacturer
3M

Fine
Superfine
Aluminium oxide

Shofu super snap discs


Medium
Fine
Ultra fine

Shofu dental co

Silicon carbide

Moores x & xx disc

E.C. Moore co
Shofu dental co

Rubber wheels & points Composite


Alumina pastes

Enhance finishing
polishing strips.

& LD caulk dents ply

Alumina porcelain
paste.

Howe Neos system

Howe neos dental

Rubber abrasive points


& cups

Porcelain laminate
polishing kit

Shofu dental co

Diamond polishing
paste

Porcelain
system

polishing Brassler

Sequential Use of Abrasives: (Jefferies)


The finishing and polishing of dental restoratives uses three basic procedural
steps based on the sequential application of progressively finer grits of abrasive
medium in various types of devices.
Gross reduction, contouring, and margination. This step involves use of abrasive
elements of the coated or bonded verity with abrasive particles on the order of
100 or larger to permit the efficient removal of restorative materials, usually with
minimal removal of adjacent south tooth structure. Carbide tungsten finishing burs
can also be used.
Intermediate abrasive finishing. This step involves the removal of severe
scratches and surface defects created by the initial procedure of gross reduction,
contouring, and margination. Some removal of restorative material and contouring

is also accomplished in this step. Abrasive devices used for intermediate finishing
usually contain abrasive particles much less than 100 but greater than 15 to 20.
Final abrasive polishing. This final step in finishing of dental restoratives is
designed to impart an enamel-like luster to the surface of the restored tooth.
Coated abrasive discs, rubber polishing devices, or loose abrasive polishing
pastes applied with appropriate devices are the usual method to produce high
luster or surface reflectivity on dental restoratives. Abrasive particles used in
polishing devices and loose abrasive pastes range from less than 20 to 0.3 for
extra-fine, alumina-based composite polishing pastes.

FINISHING & POLISHING OF AMALGAM RESTORATIONS: (Vimal Sikri)


Important step in ultimate clinical success of the restorations.
This step is often neglected by number of dentists.
Use of finishing & polishing gives so many advantages.
Decreases

Plaque

accumulation

and

incidence

of

gingival

inflammation as well as secondary caries.


Proper shaping of contours and occlusion.
Provides better marginal adaptations.
Minimizes tarnish and corrosion.
Removes flash and overhangs as well as decreases enamel
overhangs.
Venz (1982) showed that Vickers hardness of surface of amalgam
improved from 75 to 80 after polishing & also addition strength increased.

Procedure:
The cavity is slightly overfilled during amalgam condensation. The mercury
rich layer of the last increment removed during carving.

Burnishing should be done both prior & after carving to smooth the surface
to prepare restorations for finishing & polishing.
Polishing of amalgam restoration not attempted within 24 hours following
insertion since crystallization is not complete.
1st Appointment:
The patient is cautioned that heavy biting force should not be applied
to the filling for a period for 7-8 hours after insertion.
Establish occlusal contacts.
2nd Appointment:
After 24 hrs, restoration is rough due to heterogeneous structure of
amalgam on setting.
Finishing begun with use of steel finishing burs to trim over extension
& excess margins.
High point in amalgam appears as shiny area, which is decreased by
carborandum stones on sharp finishing burs.
For proximoocclusal restoration finishing begins with cervical,
buccal, lingual, proximal and occlusal margins.
Gingival over hangs decreased by Finishing Burs, BP Knives,
Periodontal files or Gold foil knives.
Final finish obtained by abrasives in descending grades.

Final polish or metallic lustre obtained by applications of tin oxide,


zinc oxide, chalk, pumice, extra fine silex etc, carried with a soft
rotating brush or rubber cup.
During polishing, the restoration should be kept moist and only low
rotational speeds with light intermittent pressure to avoid any
overheating.
Nitkin and Gold berg (1979) have indicated that some high copper
alloy can be polished 15-30 minutes after condensation.
Lyon et al (1985) and Yi et al (1985) compared the surface properties
of amalgams that had been polished 8 minutes after insertion, with
those polished after a conventional interval of 24 hrs.
Vries et al (1987) evaluated the surface produced by different
polishing techniques. Amongst the techniques they employed the
smooth surface obtained by finishing burs, brownie mini points & 2
grade of greenie mini points.
Hazards:
Production of aerosol.
High temperature may damage pulp, bring mercury to surface &
produce mercury vapour.
FINISHING & POLISHING OF COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS:
Finishing & polishing is one of the most important stages of the
procedure because it creates a physiologic contour which renders the
restoration surface and margins are less likely to accumulate plaque,
increases wear and discoloration resistance of the composite,
improves tolerance of periodontal tissues to these restorations, and
provides the composite with an appearance that closely matches the
tooth structures.

Ideally, finishing and polishing should be performed a few days after


the placement to obtain a better marginal seal as a function of
hygroscopic expansion of the resin. This is particularly important
when there is no enamel on one of the margins is causes the heat
generated during finishing and polishing procedures might break the
resin-tooth bond in this critical area. Since it is hard to avoid excess
material during insertion and rough texture at the margins, finishing
and

polishing

are

usually

conducted

during

the

placement

appointment. (Esthetics)
The appropriate instruments and materials for polishing of every type
of composite should be available and used in a logical sequence.
The surface smoothness varies with the types of composite resin,
owing to the nature of filler particles. (Vimal Sikri)
(a)

Conventional composites:
Conventional composites have greatest difficulty in achieving smooth
surface because of the difference in hardness of organic & inorganic
phases.

(b)

Hybrid Composites:
Hybrid composite can be polished to a semigloss but the surface is
somewhat hydrophobic which makes it quite unpleasant for the
patient.

(c)

Microfilled composite material:


Microfilled composite material can be undoubtedly polished to the
highest gloss and are considered to be esthetically best amongst all
composites.
Surface finish attained with the use of Plastic Matrix band
Composite restoration classified as - Direct restoration,
Indirect restoration
The procedures for finishing and polishing of 2 types restoration are

described separately.
Direct composite restorations:
Excess composite scraped using scalpel or sharp gold knife.
Stainless steel instrument should be avoided.
Inaccessible areas and occlusal areas : Alpine stone, 12-30 fluted
carbide burs and diamond points.
Accessible and convex areas : Aluminium oxide, cuttle fish or silicon
dioxide, coated discs

& strips used in descending grade of their

abrasiveness.
Gross reduction by coarse discs.
Smooth surface texture and refined marginal adaptation by Finer
discs.
Lubricant vaseline or petroleum jelly should be used as a lubricant
with these discs and strips.
The strips are used in to and fro motion.
Facial areas :
Flame shaped carbide-finishing burs.
Final Finish:
Rubber polishing point & Aluminium oxide polishing paste.
Remove excess with:
Sand paper disc
Sof-lex disc
Pop on discs

Lingual areas:

Round 12- bladed carbide finishing bur at medium speed with


intermittent pressure.

Proximal & embrasure areas :


Remove excess with Sharp gold finishing knife.
Finishing is started with No.4 Round bur at slow speeds (10002000rpm) with an air coolant.
A thin gold knife or scalpel is used to complete the contour & form the
embrasure.
Strips are used with short strokes rather than rapid lengthy strokes in
the embrasures.
Final finishing & contouring - Abrasive strips have two different types
of abrasives.
a. Medium grit is Zirconium silicate.
b. Fine grit is Aluminium oxide.
Different widths of strips available

Narrow Contouring

Wide - Flatten proximal areas


Final Lustre obtained by Pumice, silica, alumina, tin oxide, silicon
carbide, Zirconium silicate etc.
After final polishing thin layer of glaze applied to improve surface
smoothness.
New material (Fortify, Bisco) functionally act as a surface penetrating
agent. This type decreases wear resistance.

Surface Roughness ( m) of Composites After Using Finishing


Diamonds and Burs : (Direct esthetic restorative materials)
Instrumentation

Surface Roughness ( m)

12-Fluted Bur
Diamond SF-1
30Fluted bur
Diamond SF-2
Diamond SF-3
No57 fissure bur

2.0
1.4
0.85
0.80
0.60
0.60

Modified from Herrgott AML, Ziemiecki TL, Dennison JB: J Am Dent Assoc
119:729, 1989.
Surface Roughness ( m) of Composites Finished with Various Disks
and Polishing Pastes.
Fine Particle
Composite
0.13

Hybrid
Composite
0.12

Microfilled
Composite
0.09

Coarse disk

1.96

2.00

1.87

Medium disk

0.61

0.59

0.71

Fine disk

0.33

0.26

0.25

x x Fina disk

0.17

0.14

0.16

Superfine fisk
Polishing paste
Sof-Lex fine
Moore x x-fine

0.12

0.06

0.10

0.33

0.26

0.25

0.17

0.15

0.16

Command Lustre paste

0.14

0.09

0.13

Sof-lex superfine

0.12

0.06

0.10

Prisma Gloss

0.11

0.03

0.09

Surface Treatment
Mylar Strip Disks

Modified from Herrgott AML, Ziemiecki TL, Dennison JB: J Am Dent Asoc
119:729, 1989.

Indirect composite restorations:

The use of Indirect composite in restoring teeth has become


increasingly popular because of their improved physical properties
and ability to achieve better contacts and contours compared to a
direct composite restoration.
Chairside finishing procedures:
At the stage of restoration, excessive pressure should not be applied
while seating due to high fragility of composite material.
Adjust proximal contour and contour abrasive discs in a descending
order.
After adjusting, occlusion should be checked once the restoration has
been cemented.
The resin cements are usually used as cementing medium.
Prevent flow of excess cement clear plastic strips secured with wedges
are used to prevent flow of excess cement into the gingival embrasures.
After cementation, margins checked with an explorer tip.
Remove excess

Fine grit diamond instruments are used to

remove excess cement.


Inter proximal -

Flame shaped diamond.

Occlusal

Oval or cylindrical shape diamond.

Finishing with diamond instrument followed by 30 fluted carbide burs for


smooth finish.
Abrasive strips for interproximal areas.
Hazards :
Aerosol production.
High temperature also damages pulp & produce monomer vapours.
Fracture of filler particles.
Voids exposed during finishing procedures lodges unsightly strains.

Edges of discs tend to scratch surfaces.


Composites lodged in oral soft tissues finishing & polishing lead to
chronic inflammation of tissues.
FINISHING & POLISHING OF GLASS IONOMER RESTORATIONS
The ideal surface finish for glass ionomer cements is produced by matrix
strips and hand or rotary instruments.
Standardization of any one procedure for finishing GIC is difficult since
the handling characteristics as well as finishing procedures varies with
each brand of GIC.
Preferable time for finishing and polishing restoration is after 24 hours so
that setting reaction is not disturbed.
After 24 hours materials reach ionic equilibrium with the oral
environment.
Pearson (1983) has recommended finishing to be delayed for at least 6
minutes to prevent excess desiccation of the surface.
Procedure :
Gross finishing is done immediately after strip is removed.
Surface coated with protective layer.
A sharpened gold finishing knife is used to shape surface.
To remove excess :
Trimmed restoration again coated with varnish or petroleum jelly.
Rotary instruments at slow speed to remove excess margins.
Hand instruments:
It is believed that manual cutting instruments that may lead to staining &
recurrent caries.

Tear the material at margins causing marginal breakdown & guttering


(Knibbs & pearson - 1984, wool ford - 1988).
Restoration is given the final finish at a subsequent appointment. The
final contours and embrasures are produced with 12-fluted carbide
finishing burs. Margin finishing are finished by using - 3/8 inch fine
cuttle fish discs or Aluminum oxide discs.
Wood forl (1988) observed that Soflex discs with Vaseline produced the
smoothest surface.
Lubricant such as Cocca Butter or Petroleum jelly should be used along
with finishing and polishing instruments.
Air coolant may be used.

Poly acrylic gel has been used for polishing GIC restorations. Auj yap et al
investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements
(RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different
finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and
lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were
restored with, Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to
manufacturers instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing
was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly
divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b)
Super-Snap system (SS); (c) One Gloss (OG) and (d) Composite Points (CS).
The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was
eight. The mean surface roughness (mm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH)
axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's
tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV
ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and
0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis
were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SS<OG & SS<CS; RaH-SS, CS<RC, OG;

Photac-Fil: RaV- SS, CS<OG; RaH-SS<RC, OG & CS<RC (where < indicates
significantly greater Ra values). Significant differences in RaV and RaH values
were observed when Fuji II LC was finished with RC. The use of carbides'(RC)
and one-step rubber abrasive system (OG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is
not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS)
systems should be used instead.

Hazards :
Production of aerosol.
Excess temperature, dehydration & moisture contamination may
damage restoration.
Marginal defects due to sharp hand instruments.

FINISHING & POLISHING OF DIRECT GOLD RESTOATIONS:


Finishing of a gold foil restoration is important as it improves marginal seal
and also contour metal. Contouring the metal and improving the marginal
seal are the main goals acquired through finishing. Finishing also improves
the qualities of pure gold
Procedure:

1st Step:
Burnishing is the 1st step in finishing a gold restoration. For the occlusal
surfaces, a spartely burnisher is moved with considerable pressure from
the metal to the tooth surface.
2nd step:
The next step is giving optimum contours by use of morse scaler, jones
knife or cleoid- discoid carver on the occlusal surface.
3rd Step:

Removing excess by abrasive strips and discs. The disk should be small
, 3/8, , inch in diameter to prevent any damage to the gingival
tissue.
4th Step:
Excess gold in gingival area of the restoration is removed using contra
angle bevel of wedelstedt chisel in a gentle shaving motion.
5th Step:
After the surface has been smoothened burnishing is repeated once
again on all the margins.
6th Step:
Polishing with Tin oxide, Extra fine silex applied with rubber cups gives the
restoration a high metallic luster & satin finish.
FINISHING & POLISHING OF CAST GOLD RESTORATIONS:
Initial Finishing of gold inlay is carried out on the die and most of the
finishing is completed within the laboratory.
The casting is separated from the investment and cleaned using steam
at pressure.
It is critical to examine casting carefully for any defects.
Nodules (or) blebs if present are removed carefully with chisels, discs or
small burs.
The casting is then pickled in 15% HCL & neutralized in Sodium
bicarbonate.
After all these procedure has been carried out, trial seating of casting on
the die is allowed.
Procedure:

Preliminary finishing includes an adjustment of contours and the


refinement of margins.
An obvious extension of casting on margins removed with small
cylindrical point and remaining thinned with fine discs.
Occlusal surface is finished using abrasive stones and discs. In an order
of descending abrasiveness followed.
Proximal surface is Contoured lightly with a inch 5/8 carborandum
disc by smoothening with fine cuttle paper discs.
The occlusion is checked with an articulating paper.
Final finishing done with a rubber polishing wheels in accessible areas.
Entire occlusal surface is burnished lightly with a steel wire brush.
Polishing done with No.11 Robinson bristle brush & Tripoli.
Now the inlay /onlay tried in cavity and final adjustments are performed.
Then temporary restoration is removed completely.
Proper isolation with cotton rolls is done.
With only little finger pressure then inlay is seated in cavity into the
prepared cavity.
Proximal contacts adjusted by bonded rubber abrasives.
After seating, occlusion is checked.
The next step is to check the marginal relationships under a magnifying
glass by running a probe across the metal surface.
Final smoothening performed with reshaped fine grit stones and finished
with fine waterproof discs.
FINISHING & POLISHING OF NON-PRECIOUS ALLOY
RESTORATIONS:
The most commonly used non precious alloy are Chrome cobalt,
Nickel Chromium.

Difficulties during their use are mainly because of two reasons - finishing
very high hardness and resistant to abrasion.
Procedure :
Casting is separated from the investment and cleaned under steam.
Trimming of edges with a fine flexible wheels .
Finishing process Electrolyte Polishing is commonly used as a part of
finishing process.
It is a method used to clean metallic surfaces and to smooth the surface
irregularities.
Principle :
Electrolyte polishing works on the principle of reverse electroplating in
which the restoration acts as the anode.
The Electrolyte is usually a mixture of

Sulphuric acid

Phosphoric acid
Glycerine
Water
A current density of 0.5 - 1.0 amps/mm2 at voltage of 4-10v is passed for
a few minutes at room temperature.
The anode i.e. the restoration ionizes and is depleted of a very small
amount of alloy more readily on the rough surfaces than the smooth
surfaces.
These first products of electrolysis are collected in the hollows of rough
metal surface.
The prominences are gradually dissolved and a smooth surface results.
Advantages :
Reduces time and effort for mechanical finishing.

Clear metallic surfaces and to smooth surface irregularities.


Hazards:
Production of aerosol.
Beryllium fumes are carcinogenic.
Safety standard for beryllium dust is 2 mg/m3 of air for 8 hours a day.
Allergy to nickel has been shown to be 5-10 times higher for females
than males.
Safety standard for nickel is 15 mg/m3 of air for 40 hours a week.

FINISHING & POLISHING OF PORCELAIN RESTORATION:


Ceramics are presently in vogue.
The key features of dental ceramics are:
a. Excellent bio compatibility
b. Stable colour
c. Life like translucency.
d. High Abrasive resin
There are 3 methods of fabrication currently available for inlays and
onlays.
Conventional filling on a refractory die using firing porcelain.
Milling from a preformed ceramic block using machinable ceramic.
Casting by the lost wax technique using castable & pressable ceramic.

(I) RESTORATION FORMED BY FIRING PORCELAIN:


The desired finish on the fired ceramic restoration is obtained preferably
by glazing and to a smaller extent by polishing.

A glazed surface of porcelain is comparatively much stronger than the


unglazed porcelain.
Any adjustments makes the surface rough and may lead to loss glaze
layer, there by reducing the strength of restoration.
Haywood et al, 1988, Elkaraski et al, 1993 have shown comparable
strengths between highly glazed surface and unglazed surface with the
use of polishing systems like soflex discs, shofu porcelain laminate
polishing kit etc.
Glazing the surface is also known to reduce flaws and eliminate crack
propagation.
Glazing, is of 2 types Auto Glazing, or Over glazing.
Auto glazing is a process in which a smooth surface is obtained without
the use of an additional glaze.
Suggested time & temperature variation for auto glaze (Esthetics
dentistry)
Group I
Matte
B1-C2
90 0c
No hold polish

Group II
Semigloss
D3-A3.5
910C
30 Sec hold polish

Group III
Glossy
B4-C4
920 C
1 Min hold polish

Over glazing is the application of an external glaze layer over the


surface of the completed body of porcelain.
The fabricated ceramic restoration is separated from the die and
cleaned of any investment with a coarse tooth brush (or) sand paper.
Metallic instruments should be avoided, as they leave gray marks on the
restoration.
The restoration then seated on the master die for any final adjustment
and finishing.
Chairside finishing and Polishing:

Before the ceramic inlay /onlay is cemented into the cavity, the cavity
side of the restoration is etched.
After etching, etched surface treated with a silanating agent to improve
its bond with the cementing medium.
A dual cure composite is preferred as luting.
After all adjustments have been made repolishing done in all those
areas where the glaze has been damaged.
Haywood et al (1988) have recommended the following sequence to
attain a smooth finish comparable to a glazed surface.
Use of fine grit diamonds.
30- Fluted carbide finishing burs.
Rubber abrasive points and cups.
Diamond polishing pastes applied with a bristle brush.

(II). RESTORATIONS FORMED BY MILLING CERAMIC BLOCKS:


Computers widely used in the fabrication of ceramic inlays and onlays.
The commercially available utilizers with the CAD-CAM technology is
the CERAC system and the CELAY system.
The CERAC unit utilizes a CAD-CAM device to digitize and
electronically store the cavity parameters and then a computerized
milling device to shape the restoration from a ceramic block.
The CELAY uses Proinlay made of composite as a template. The
Proinlay is then manually traced with a styles. This styles fixed to a
turbine which mills the inlay out of ceramic block.
The proinly may be fabricated directly in the oral cavity or indirectly in
the dental laboratory.

The milled restoration is adjusted on the occlusal surface using coarse


to medium of fine diamond instruments with air water spray as coolant.
The dentist needs to polish these surfaces to a high gloss with soflex
discs impregnated with diamond particles.
Chairside finishing and Polishing :
Mylar strips and wedges which were inserted prior to cementation are
removed.
Any excess composite in proximal embrasures removed with finishing
diamonds and polishing strips.
The final occlusal adjustments if needed are done with rotary diamond
followed by 30 fluted carbide-finishing burs.
Areas of adjustment are repolished using flexible polishing discs (soflex,
3M) and diamond polishing pastes.
(III). RESTORATIONS FORMED BY CASTING CERAMIC :
The fabrication restoration is finished and polished on the master die.
After all the adjustments have been made the colorant shades are
applied on the exterior surfaces and baked.
The restoration is cemented into cavity and chair side finishing &
polishing is carried out.
Hazards :
Production of aerosol.
Damage to glaze layer decreases the strength of restoration.
Excess glazing lead to complete loss of anatomy.
Loss of external stains may occur during finishing of castable ceramic
restorations.

Excessive heat may damage the pulp or tooth tissue.