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HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

CHAPTER 09

CONCRETING

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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

9.1 Introduction
Concrete is an artificial stone that is made by casting in place in plastic condition a mixture of
cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water. The hardening occurs due to a chemical
reaction between the cement and the water. Concrete is used for the construction of
foundation, slab, beams, columns etcat site. It has very good compressive strength but very
weak in tension. Concrete this design to provide following requirements
1. Strength
2. Durability
3. Protection against fire
4. Thermal and sound insulation

Concrete is composite material consisting cement, aggregates,


water and admixtures. The concrete should possess the strength, durability,
impermeability and resistance to abrasion required for the proposed structure. It
should be free of such defects as cracking, honeycombing, undue shrinkage etc.
The concrete should be of good quality and should be produced with careful
control over the batching of materials, water cement ratio etc. Necessary care
and attention should be given to the design and preparation of formwork.
In its fresh state, concrete should
Be composed of accurately batched proportion
Have the required W/C ratio
Be well mixed
Not segregate during transportation and placing
Be fully compacted
Be provided with specified finish.
The quality of concrete depends on,
Quality of cement
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

Type of aggregate
The grading of aggregate
Mixing method and mixing time of concrete
Method of transportation
Curing

These quantities are depended on the material selected the proportion in which they are
mixed, the method of mixing, placing, transportation and compaction.
9.2 MATERIALS OF CONCRETE
9.2.1 Cement

Cement is a material with adhesive and cohesive properties


which make it capable of bonding mineral fragments. There are many types
of cements, ordinary Portland cement, rapid hardening Portland cement, low
heat Portland cement, sulfate resisting cement, white cement and pigments.
Generally ordinary Portland cement is widely used.

9.2.2 Aggregates
Aggregate is commonly considered inert filler, which accounts for 60 to 80 percent of the volume
and 70 to 85 percent of the weight of concrete. Although aggregates are most commonly known to
be inert filler in concrete, the different properties of aggregates have a great impact on the strength,
durability, workability, and economy of concrete.
Aggregates are classified in to two types, coarse and fine aggregates. Aggregates smaller than
5mm are known as fine aggregates while lager than 5mm are know as coarse aggregates. Sand is used
as fine aggregates and crushed metal is used as coarse aggregates widely in Sri Lanka. Usually river
sand is used as fine aggregates. Generally " metal is used as coarse aggregate for normal concrete
mix.1 " metal used for mass concrete. Metal used for concrete is to be free from clay or any other
foreign matters. Because other wise it can be affect to the bonding.

9.2.3 Water
All water using for mixing concrete mortar grout shall be perfectly fresh, clean and free
from acid, salt and all impurities, which may adversely effected the setting, hardening and
durability of the concrete. This requirement is usually satisfied by using water which is
suitable for drinking.Water is used to effect the chemical action in cement,
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

which is known a hydration. Therefore the water/cement ratio is a most


important factor when concrete qualities are concern because it affects the
setting, Harding and strength of cement. Normally water /cement ratios are
in the range of 0.4 to 0.6. Water also acts as a lubricant for the cement and
the aggregates in the compaction of the concrete.
9.2.4 Admixtures
An admixture is a chemical product that is added to concrete mix during mixing or
during an additional mixing operation prior to the placing of concrete, for the purpose of achieving
a specific modification. There are water-reducing, retarding, accelerating admixtures.

Accelerating Admixtures
Their function is primarily to accelerate the early strength development of concrete
that is hardening although they may also coincidentally accelerate the setting of concrete.
Retarding admixtures
A delay in the setting of the cement paste can be achieved by the addition of a
retarding admixture.

9.3 MIXING OF CONCRETE


Concrete must be thoroughly mixed until a uniform color is attained. In our site we
used ready mixed concrete except in some instances where a small quantity was required.
9.3.1 Hand mixing

In small jobs of concrete was mixed by hand. The ingredients were


first assembled on a water tight-mixing platform. First of all in hand mixing
work, the required amount of sand was spread out on the flat surface. The
proper number of bags of cement was spread out on top, and the two materials
were turned together until a uniform color is obtained. The required volume of
coarse aggregate wetted, measured, and spread in a layer on top of the cement
and sand mixer. All the materials were again mixed and depression was formed
in the centre of the heap. Finally, the required amount of water was added and
mixed until the all materials are thoroughly mixed.
9.3 .2 Ready mixed
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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

Instead of mixing in site, concrete is delivered from a central plant (called batching
plant), it is referred to as ready mixed or pre mixed concrete. This type of concrete is extensively
used as it offers numerous advantages in comparison with other methods.

Close quality control of batching which reduces the variability of the desired
properties of hardened concrete

Use on congested sites where there is little space for a mixing plant and aggregate
stockpiles.

Use agitator trucks to ensure care in transportation, thus preventing segregation


and mentally work ability.

9.4 Placing and Compaction of Concrete


The concrete should be placed in its final position rapidly so that it is not too stiff to work.
Water should not be added after concrete has left the mixture. A heap of concrete, which will have to
be moved to some other part of the form, should not be allowed to accumulate in one place. Normally
concrete was placed in even layers and each of layers was compacted before the next layer was
placed. Each layer was placed before the previous layer has got set. But for the slab it was placed as
single layer.
Compaction of concrete is the process adopted to expel the entrapped air from the concrete. If
the air is not removed fully the concrete loses its strength considerably. Compaction can be manual or
mechanical compaction. The internal vibrator or poker was used in our site, which is the
Most common type of vibrator. This is a vibrating tube at the end of a flexible drive. Pokers
vary in size, usually from 25mm to 75mm in diameter. A poker vibrator should not be dragged
through the concrete, nor used to help heaps of concrete to spread out. It should placed vertically in
the concrete, held in position until air bubbles cease to come to the surface, then slowly with drawn so
that concrete can flow into the space previously occupied by the poker. This should be repeated at
about 0.5m centers. The concrete should be placed in layers never more than 600mm thick, and the
vibrator should be lowered at least 100mm in to layer beneath
Over-vibration is to be guarded against, but it is not as common as under-vibration. External
formwork vibrators are occasionally used, but their usefulness is limited by the heavy formwork
needed to resist the stresses and shaking they produce. But this method is very useful when it is
difficult or impossible to insert an internal vibrator.
For the small quantities hand compaction was used. Hand compaction was carried out by
either rodding or hammering. Rodding was adopted for vertical sections and hammering was for
massive plain concrete works by using wooden or steel hammers.

9.4 .1 Placing of concrete


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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

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The method of placing concrete is very important and needs proper planning and
careful study if the structure to be concreted is to be durable, strong and having a good
appearance. All formwork should be check clean and oiled before concrete is placed on it.
Place the concrete as soon as possible in uniform layers placing height should be less than
4ft.
9.4 .2 Compaction of concrete

VIBRATION OF CONCRETE
The progress of compacting concrete by vibration consists essentially of
the elimination of entrapped air and forcing the particles in to a closer
configuration.
MANUALLY VIBRATING
USING HAMMER
This was done in places where vibrator cant insert such as floor concrete. This
concrete was compacted by ramping. Pushing up and down a rammer on the
concrete did ramping. Wide wood piece was used to make the rammer.
USING A STEEL ROD
Steel rode uses when compacting at the thinner areas where vibrators or
rammers cant be inserting. This method is very effective and efficient in small
concreting like manhole construction.
Compaction by vibrator
Best and quickest method was vibration. Of several types of vibrators, this is
perhaps the most common one. It is consists of porker, housing eccentric shaft
driven through a flexible drive from a motor. The poker is immersed in concrete
and thus applies approximately harmonic forces to it; hence, the alternative
names of Poker vibrator or immersion vibrator.
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

The correct method of insetting Poker to the concrete as follows;

Compaction process consolidates fresh concrete with in the formwork and around
reinforcement. Compaction is necessary to remove entrapped air which is present in concrete
after it is mixed.

Start compacting
at bottom of the
slope.

Concrete tends to
pull apart when
compaction
started at the top
of slope

Correct
Incorrect

Figure3 .2 Handling the Poker

9.5 Properties of fresh concrete :


The characteristic of fresh concrete which effect full compaction is workability.
Workability :

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES


INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

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The main characteristics of the workability are,


1. Consistency

The firmness of the form of substance or the ease with


which it can flow.

2. Mobility

The ease with which a mix can flow in to and


completely fill the formwork or mould.

3. compatibility -

The ease with which a given mix can be fully


compacted all the tapped air being removed.

9.6 Defects in concrete


Plastic Shrinkage cracks - Before concrete setting there were cracks on the slab when
concreting daytime. Rapid evaporation of water from the surface due to high concrete
temperature is the reason for that. So start curing as soon as possible.
Honey Combing after concreting aggregates can be shown without cement slurry. Those
are the honeycomb. Columns are vulnerable to honeycombing especially on the edges.
Reasons for honeycomb
Reconstruction of honey combs
Hack & remove the week concrete to expose sound concrete surface. Surface should be
cleaned by water to obtain dust free surface. If it is a large one get quality officers approval.
Barra emulsion slurry is used as a bonding agent. Apply BARA EMULSION at that place
(Barra emulsion 57 D) & repair the honeycomb white cement with
masterfow 98.
If it is a large honeycomb we have to use construction grout also.

9.7 CHECKS BEFORE CONCRETING


The following checks must be done before placing the concrete.
The dimension of the formwork
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

Check the all beam and slab reinforcement details


Cover blocks have been placed at necessary places
Formwork is clean and dust free
Formwork is properly supported and there is no possibility of leakage.
The levels of formwork, reinforcement
Construction joints whether properly chipped or not.
Electrical conduits and other service lines
Clean the surface of slab and beams formwork by removing dust by directly using a compressor
Wet the slab formwork using water just before concreting
Prepare poker vibrators for compaction.

7.8 Transporting of Concrete


Usually concrete has to be transported both horizontally and vertically. In most of times we used
ready mixed concrete and when a large volume is to be concreted we used a lorry mounted pump.
When concreting small volumes, wheelbarrows and iron pans were used
Every building job has its appropriate method of transporting the concrete. Normally it depends on the
size of the job the nature of the site the distance between the mixer and the point of placing.
Concrete pump is extremely efficient machine for concreting. Before placing the concrete to
pump, mixture of grout made by mixing fine sand and cement is fed and it helps easy pumping work.
The concrete fed to the pump, moves through pipes to the desired location
The advantages of moving large volumes of concrete by using a pump and pipe line are
Concrete is transported from point of supply to placing position is one continuous
operation.
Less time consuming and the labor requirement is also low.
No segregation of mix is experienced with pumping and a more consistent placing
and compaction is obtained, requiring less vibration.

The transport of concrete is an essential item in the process of


concrete construction. Various methods were available for transporting
concrete, ranging from wheelbarrows to pumps.
.

WHEEL BARROWS

Wheelbarrows were used for the handing small quantities of


concrete, over short distance and also especially useful in areas inaccessible to
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

other equipment. Awheelbarrow can take a comfortable load of about 0.03 m3


of concrete.

BUCKET
The uses of buckets are incorporated with tower cranes. It was
common method for transported the concrete vertically as well as horizontally.
The discharge of concrete from bucket was usually controlled manually. In our
site we used bucket some times.

READY MIX TRUCK

Ready mixed concrete trucks now supply more then 50% of the
concrete used in the construction industry. This is specially designed truck
mixer. Which is basically a mobile mixing drum mounted on a lorry chassis.
Fully mixed concrete is agitated by drum revolving at 1 to 2 r.p.m on arrival
increasing the drums revolution to between 10 &15 r.p.m finally mixes the mix
for a few minutes before being discharged. Truck mixer capacities vary in the
range of 3m3 6m3

PUMPING

Large quantities of concrete can be transported by means


of pumping through pipelines over quick large distance to locations, which are
not easily accessible, by other means. One of the main advantages of pumping
is that concrete can be moved both horizontally & vertically. Before discharge
the concrete to the pump car 1: 2 cement grout was added to it and pumped it
through the pipeline. This process prevents the concrete stick to the pipe inside
surface.
Then concrete was discharged in to the pump car hopper.
The hopper an agitator to remix the concrete before pumped. The pipes were
100 mm internal diameter & 3m in length According to our requirement
removing rigid pipes shortened pipeline. These removed pipes were cleaned
immediately.

9.9 Curing
Cement and the water are the chemically reactive material in the concrete. The water content of fresh
concrete is more than enough for hydration of the cement. However, an appreciable amount of water
is lost by evaporation or other. The objective of curing is to prevent or replace the loss of necessary
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

moisture during the early relatively rapid stage of hydration. The usual procedure for accomplishing
this is to keep the exposed surface continuously moist by different methods.
After 24 hours of concreting, the surface will be cured by flooding with water of minimum
25mm depth or by covering with wet absorbent materials. When the concrete is hardened, a lot of
chemical reaction occurs. Otherwise there may be temperature differences between edges. This causes
crack on the concrete surfaces. To overcome this problem curing is done.
There are several methods of curing,
Covering the surface with wet gunny bags.
Sprinkling water
Ponding
Curing improves the following qualities of concrete
1. Weather resisting qualities of the concrete.
2. Durability and permeability of the concrete.
3. Reduce the shrinkage.

9.9.1Covering the Surface with Gunny bags

Specially, in this method was used to curing the vertical surfaces


like columns.In this method surface to be cured is covered with wet gunny bags, which are
wetted periodically. This uses the only satisfactory method of curing vertical and sloping
surfaces. During curing, surface of concrete should not be allowed to dry. Normally curing
must done at least 3 days. Mostly this method is used for columns, star cases and also for
slabs.
9.9.2Sprinkling Water Method.
This method requires larger amount of water. In this method water is sprinkled on the
concrete at suitable intervals. For long areas of concrete this method is used in several places and
keeping the water sprinkling.

9.9.3 Ponding Method

This is the best method of curing horizontal surface such as floors, roof slabs etc. In this method the
area is divided into small rectangular portions with the help of sand or clay bunds. Lastly water is
filled into these portions for the period of curing.
Though this method is very good it is difficult to clean the cured surface from clay. Because the
clay is a very cohesive material and hard to remove when it is dried

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES


INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE

HITACHI PLANT TECHNOLOGIES (PVT) LTD

BASIC INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING SCIENCES


INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, KATUNAYAKE