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Material substitution

We will cover
 Basic criteria for selection of materials
 Selection of materials based on material classes/ structural category
and thickness
 Substitute materials
 Acceptance of materials certified by other Classification Societies

Material Properties
Selection of materials:


STRENGTH
 Yield strength
 Tensile strength

DUCTILITY
 Elongation
 Reduction of area

TOUGHNESS
 Impact properties

WELDABILITY
 Carbon equivalent (Ceq)
 Susceptibility to formation of imperfections

CORROSION RESISTANCE

Substitute materials
IACS Recommendation No. 47
4.2. Equivalency of material grades
4.2.1 Assessment of equivalency between material grades should at least include
the following aspects;
- heat treatment/delivery condition
- chemical composition
- mechanical properties
- tolerances
4.2.2 When assessing the equivalence between grades of normal or higher
strength hull structural steels up to and including grade E40 in thickness
limited to 50 mm, the general requirements in Table 4.1 apply.
4.2.3 Guidance on selection of steel grades to certain recognised standards
equivalent to hull structural steel grades specified in Classification
Societies rules is given in Table 4.2

Substitute materials
Table 4.1 Minimum extent and requirements to assessment of equivalency between
normal or higher strength hull structural steel grades

Material Properties
Table 4.2 IACS Recommendation No. 47
Steel grades according to IACS UR W11*

Grade

A
B
D
E
A 27
D 27
E 27
A 32
D 32
E 32
F 32
A 36
D 36
E 36
F 36
A 40
D 40
E 40
F 40

Yield
stress
ReH
min.
N/mm

Tensile
strength
Rm
min.
N/mm

Elongation
A5
min.
%

235

400 - 520

22

265

400 - 530

22

315

440 - 590

22

355

490 - 620

21

390

510 - 650

20

Comparable steel grades

Average impact
energy
Temp.
J, min.
C
+20
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
-60
0
-20
-40
-60
0
-20
-40
-60

L
27
27
27

T
20
20
20

27

20

31

22

34

24

31

22

ISO
630-80
4950/2/3
1981

EN

ASTM

JIS

EN 10025
EN 10113

A 131

G 3106

Fe 360B
Fe 360C
Fe 360D
Fe 430C
Fe 430D
Fe 510C
Fe 510D
E355E
E390CC
E390DD
E390E
-

S235JRG2
S235J0
S235J2G3
S275NL/ML
S275J0G3
S275N/M
S275NL/ML
S355N/M
S355N/M
S355NL/ML
S420N/M
S420N/M
S420NL/ML
-

A
B
D
E
AH32
DH32
EH32
AH36
DH36
EH36
(A633Gr.E)
(A633Gr.E)
-

SM41B
SM41B
(SM41C)
SM50B
(SM50C)
SM53B
(SM53C)
(SM58)
-

Material Properties
S TEEL GRADES ACCORDING TO IACS UR W11*

DNV
Grades
NVA
NVB
NVD
NVE
NV A27S
NV D27S
NV E27S
NV A32
NV D32
NV E32
NV F32
NV A36
NV D36
NV E36
NV F36
NV A40
NV D40
NV E40
NV F40

Yield
stress
R eH
min.
N/mm

Tensile
strength
Rm
min.
N/mm

Elongation
A5
min.
%

235

400 - 520

22

265

400 - 530

22

315

440 - 590

22

355

490 - 620

21

390

510 - 650

20

Equivalent grades
Other Classification Societies

Average impact
energy
Temp.
C
+20
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
-60
0
-20
-40
-60
0
-20
-40
-60

J, min.
LR

ABS

GL

BV

NK

L
27
27
27

T
20
20
20

A
B
D
E

A
B
D
E

GL-A
GL-B
GL-D
GL-E

A
B
D
E

KA
KB
KD
KE

27

20

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

AH 32
DH 32
EH 32
FH 32
AH 36
DH 36
EH 36
FH 36
AH 40
DH 40
EH 40
FH 40

AH 32
DH 32
EH 32
FH 32
AH 36
DH 36
EH 36
FH 36
AH 40
DH 40
EH 40
FH 40

GL-A 32
GL-D 32
GL-E 32
GL-F 32
GL-A 36
GL-D 36
GL-E 36
GL-F 36
GL-A 40
GL-D 40
GL-E 40
GL-F 40

AH 32
DH 32
EH 32
FH 32
AH 36
DH 36
EH 36
FH 36
AH 40
DH 40
EH 40
FH 40

KA32
KD32
KE32
KF32
KA36
KD36
KE36
KF36
KA40
KD40
KE40
KF40

31

22

34

24

31

22

Material Properties
Part 2

Chapter 2

Sec. 1

Rolled Steel for Structural


Applications

Sec. 2

Rolled Steel for Boilers, Pressure


Vessels and Special Applications

Sec. 3

Clad Steel Plates

Sec. 4

Steel Pipes

Sec. 5

Steel Forgings

Sec. 6

Bars for Chain Cables

Sec. 7

Steel Castings

Sec. 8

Iron Castings

Sec. 9

Aluminium Alloys

Sec. 10 Copper Alloy Castings


Sec. 11 Non-ferrous Tubes

Rolled steel for structural application


Impact testing

Tensile properties

Strength
Designation

Test temp., oC

Designation

Minimum yield
strength, N/mm2

NS

A
B
D
E

0
-20
-40

NA

235

HS

A
D
E
F

0
-20
-40
-60

NV
27, 32, 36, 40

265, 315, 355,


390

EHS

A
D
E
F

0
-20
-40
-60

NV
420, 460, 500,
550, 620, 690

420, 460, 500,


550, 620, 690

Material Properties
Table B2 Application of the material classes
Secondary

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5

Bottom plating including keel plate.


Strength deck plating, excluding that belonging to the Special category.
Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck excluding hatch coamings.
Uppermost strake in longitudinal bulkhead.
Vertical strake (hatch side girder) and uppermost strake in top wing tank.

C1
C2
C3
C4

Sheer strake at strength deck. 1), 8)


Stringer plate in strength deck. 1), 8)
Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead. 2), 8)
Strength deck plating at outboard corners of cargo hatch openings in container carriers and
other ships with similar hatch opening configuration. 3)
Strength deck plating at corners of cargo hatch openings in bulk carriers, ore carriers,
combination carriers and other ships with similar hatch opening configuration. 4)
Bilge strake. 5), 6), 8)
Longitudinal hatch coamings of length greater than 0.15 L. 7)
End brackets and deck house transition of longitudinal cargo hatch coamings. 7)

Special

A1 Longitudinal bulkhead weather, other than that belonging to the Primary or Special category.
A3 Side plating. strakes, other than that belonging to the Primary category.

Primary

Structural member

Within 0.4L
amidships

Outside 0.4L
amidships

II

III

IV

III
(II outside
0.6 L
amidships)

A2 Deck plating exposed to

C5
C6
C7
C8

Material Properties

0.4 L

Material Properties
Rules Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2:
Table B1 Material classes
Thickness in mm

Class
I

II

III

IV

t 15

A/AH

A/AH

A/AH

A/AH

15 < t 20

A/AH

A/AH

A/AH

B/AH

20 < t 25

A/AH

A/AH

B/AH

D/DH

25 < t 30

A/AH

A/AH

D/DH

D/DH

30 < t 35

A/AH

B/AH

D/DH

E/EH

35 < t 40

A/AH

B/AH

D/DH

E/EH

40 < t 50*)

B/AH

D/DH

E/EH

E/EH

*) Plating of Class III or IV and with a thickness between 50 mm < t < 150 mm, shall be of
grade E/EH. For other cases, D/DH (according to Class II) will be minimum quality for
thicknesses above 50 mm

Buzz group

Replacement of material in side shell

Buzz group
During block inspection, a one meter long crack was found in the side shell
approximately amidships that requires replacement of one steel plate. The
crack was propagating from the weld into the plate material.
The original plate is of grade NV A36 with a thickness of 19 mm.
This grade is not available at the yard on short notice, but plates of grade
S235J2G3 and ASTM A131 Grade A are available in different thicknesses.
- What do you do?
- Can any of the above grades be accepted in lieu of NV A36?

Material Properties
Table 4.2 IACS Recommendation No. 47
Steel grades according to IACS UR W11*

Grade

A
B
D
E
A 27
D 27
E 27
A 32
D 32
E 32
F 32
A 36
D 36
E 36
F 36
A 40
D 40
E 40
F 40

Yield
stress
ReH
min.
N/mm

Tensile
strength
Rm
min.
N/mm

Elongation
A5
min.
%

235

400 - 520

22

265

400 - 530

22

315

440 - 590

22

355

490 - 620

21

390

510 - 650

20

Comparable steel grades

Average impact
energy
Temp.
J, min.
C
+20
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
-60
0
-20
-40
-60
0
-20
-40
-60

L
27
27
27

T
20
20
20

27

20

31

22

34

24

31

22

ISO
630-80
4950/2/3
1981

EN

ASTM

JIS

EN 10025
EN 10113

A 131

G 3106

Fe 360B
Fe 360C
Fe 360D
Fe 430C
Fe 430D
Fe 510C
Fe 510D
E355E
E390CC
E390DD
E390E
-

S235JRG2
S235J0
S235J2G3
S275NL/ML
S275J0G3
S275N/M
S275NL/ML
S355N/M
S355N/M
S355NL/ML
S420N/M
S420N/M
S420NL/ML
-

A
B
D
E
AH32
DH32
EH32
AH36
DH36
EH36
(A633Gr.E)
(A633Gr.E)
-

SM41B
SM41B
(SM41C)
SM50B
(SM50C)
SM53B
(SM53C)
(SM58)
-

Material Properties
Table B2 Application of the material classes

Secondary

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5

Bottom plating including keel plate.


Strength deck plating, excluding that belonging to the Special category.
Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck excluding hatch coamings.
Uppermost strake in longitudinal bulkhead.
Vertical strake (hatch side girder) and uppermost strake in top wing tank.

C1
C2
C3
C4

Sheer strake at strength deck. 1), 8)


Stringer plate in strength deck. 1), 8)
Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead. 2), 8)
Strength deck plating at outboard corners of cargo hatch openings in container carriers and
other ships with similar hatch opening configuration. 3)
Strength deck plating at corners of cargo hatch openings in bulk carriers, ore carriers,
combination carriers and other ships with similar hatch opening configuration. 4)
Bilge strake. 5), 6), 8)
Longitudinal hatch coamings of length greater than 0.15 L. 7)
End brackets and deck house transition of longitudinal cargo hatch coamings. 7)

Special

A1 Longitudinal bulkhead weather, other than that belonging to the Primary or Special category.
A3 Side plating. strakes, other than that belonging to the Primary category.

Primary

Structural member

Within 0.4L
amidships

Outside 0.4L
amidships

II

III

IV

III
(II outside
0.6 L
amidships)

A2 Deck plating exposed to

C5
C6
C7
C8

Material Properties
Rules Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2:
from Table B2

Table B1 Material classes


Thickness in
mm

t=19 mm

Class
I

II

III

IV

t 15

A/AH

A/AH

A/AH

A/AH

15 < t 20

A/AH

A/AH

A/AH

B/AH

20 < t 25

A/AH

A/AH

B/AH

D/DH

25 < t 30

A/AH

A/AH

D/DH

D/DH

30 < t 35

A/AH

B/AH

D/DH

E/EH

35 < t 40

A/AH

B/AH

D/DH

E/EH

40 < t 50*)

B/AH

D/DH

E/EH

E/EH

*) Plating of Class III or IV and with a thickness between 50 mm < t < 150
mm, shall be of grade E/EH. For other cases, D/DH (according to Class II)
will be minimum quality for thicknesses above 50 mm

Material Properties
Guidelines with respect to acceptance of materials certified
by other Classification Societies for newbuildings:


Acceptance of materials with insufficient documentation or


incorrect inspection documents will be handled on a case by
case basis.

We may accept a limited amount of materials certified by other


Classification Societies from the yard stock on a case by case
basis.

DNV do not accept materials from stockists that is certified by


other classification societies or certification bodies.

Buzz group


Can cast steel No. 1 be replaced by cast steel No. 2


or vice versa?

Cast steel No.1: TS min. 410 MPa, YS min. 235 MPa, Charpy 27J at 0oC
C 0.19%, Mn 1.35%
Cast steel No.2: TS min. 480 MPa, YS min. 275 MPa, Charpy 45J at +20oC
C 0.29%, Mn 1.20%

Material Properties