405
Multilevel Inverter
power
I.
INTRODUCTION
406
isolated DC power supply requirement for each of its stages of two phase voltages. For example, the potential between
which on the other hand makes it attractive for use in phase A and B is VAB, which can be computed from:
applications related to renewable or alternate energy sources
(1)
that can offer readily available DC output. Various literatures
VAB = VAN VBN
in recent years have reported the utilization of the singlephase
and threephase CHMI in both static and drive applications. where,
However, detail analysis on the performance of the threephase
VAB is the line voltage
in
CHMI particular has not been clearly revealed.
VAN is the voltage of phase A with respect to neutral point N
Thus this paper presents some of the features of a threeVBN is the voltage of phase B with respect to neutral point N
phase CHMI that are identified in terms of various
III. MULTICARRIER SINUSOIDAL PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
performance parameters based on the results of a simulation
(MSPWM) TECHNIQUE
study. The following section briefly describes the threephase
CHMI circuit configuration and the different types of multi A. Basic principle
carrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation (MSPWM)
techniques. Then, the results of the simulation study are
The principle of MSPWM is to use several triangular
presented and analyzed before highlighting the main features carrier signals with only one modulation signal per phase. For
of the threephase CHMI as the conclusion of the paper.
an mlevel inverter, (m1) triangular carriers of the same
frequency fc and amplitude Ac, are disposed so that the bands
II. THREEPHASE CHMI CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION
they occupy are contiguous. The zero reference is placed in the
For a threephase system, the output of three identical middle of the carrier set. The modulation signal is a sinusoidal
structure of singlephase CHMI can be connected in either wye of frequency fm and amplitude Am. At every instant each carrier
or delta configuration. Fig. 1 illustrates the schematic diagram signal is compared with the reference modulation signal. Each
comparison switches the device on if the reference signal is
of a wyeconnected mlevel CHMI with separate DC sources.
than the triangular carrier assigned to that level.
greater
For a threephase 5level CHMI, two Hbridge cells with
the device switches off [1].
Otherwise,
eight switches are needed per phase. Thus a total of six HFor
a
threephase 5level CHMI, four carrier waveforms
bridge cells involving 24 power switches are required for this
circuit configuration. This means that twelve pairs of gating are needed and compared at every one time to a set of three
signals have to be generated to be fed to the switches. For each reference waveforms, each 1200 phase shifted apart [5]. Fig. 2
Hbridge cell, the switchings are designed in such a way that shows the MSPWM technique for a threephase 5level CHMI.
only one pair of switches operate at the carrier frequency while,
the other pair operates at the reference frequency, thus having
two highfrequency switches and two lowfrequency switches.
~~~~~~vc
V4
V.~~~~~~~~~~~~V
Tk
K2
92
Am
0 1
0.002 0.004 0006 0008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.022
Time
Am
N'A C
(2)
407
where,
N' (m 1)
2
(3)
where,
fm
(4)
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show the waveforms of the line voltage for
a threephase 5level CHMI, employing the PD scheme with
ma = 0.8 and mf= 39 and mf= 60 respectively.
1 200
300
where,
fc is the frequency of the carrier signal
fm is the frequency of the modulating signal
The third parameter is the displacement angle between the
modulating signal and the first positive triangular carrier
signals. In this work, a zero displacement angle is applied.
B. Category and disposition methods
In general, the MSPWM technique can be categorized into
Carrier Disposition (CD), Phase Shifted (PS) and hybrid (H)
methods [7]. With the CD method, the reference waveform is
sampled through a number of carrier waveforms displaced by
contiguous increments of the reference waveform amplitude
whereas for PS method, multiple carriers are phase shifted
accordingly. On the other hand, H method is a combination of
these two methods. In this work, the CD method will be
employed to obtain the gating signals for the CHMI switches.
With the CD method, three alternative carrier disposition
schemes are available, namely Phase Disposition (PD), Phase
Opposition Disposition (POD) and Alternative Phase
Opposition Disposition (APOD) [6].
All the carrier signals as shown in Fig. 2 are in phase for the
PD scheme. With the POD scheme, the carrier signals above
the zero reference value are in phase. The carrier waveforms
below the zero value are also in phase, but they are 1800 phase
shifted from those above zero. The APOD scheme on the other
hand, requires each of the carrier signals to be phase shifted
1800 alternately from its adjacent carrier [6]. Although in this
work all three alternative carrier disposition schemes were
applied to the threephase CHMI, this paper emphasis more on
the results based on the PD scheme in comparison to other
schemes and the conventional threephase bridge inverter
employing SPWM technique.
IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
The threephase 5level MSMI is simulated using
MATLAB/Simulink. In the simulation study, it is assumed that
the DC voltage input to each module is E = 400V, the output
400

I

400
.I:
c
0 02
400
400
800
002
voltage
408
800
400
&
40
800



1r
.S_
 1200
1600
Number of levels
Ma
9
>0.9
7
0.6  0.8
5
0.3  0.5
3
<0.3
0.
.,
I
Il.
I
400
5 600
1 00

H18 002
0)
m
.2
0
2)
r
.2
CbC:
002
200

n
I
T
n
I
60
70

10
20
..l
30
mlii l
40
Harmonic
50
80
400
0
0W008
0601
Time (s)
0602
409
1u0u0
. e
0lG
Fund6mental
26
60 Hz) = 1:108 56
1 600
10
20
30
40
Harmonic
ii
5f0
.i
60
70
80
Fig.
1 400
1 200 1
000
8003 Ph
400
CHMI
k
200
3 Ph
Inverter
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
LID


su
66
26
.
can
harmonics
remains
nearly
the
same,
only
the
distance
between
410
THD for PD. APOD. POD. mf 60
35
30
25
20
10
PD
APOD
P~ OD
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.7
Modtilatiokn IidIex,
0.9
1.1
i a
Fig. 14. Line voltage THD for three different carrier disposition
schemes
THD for 5level CHMI, PD, mf = 39
so
45
VI. REFERENCES
....
35
[1]
30
20Phs
15
10
Voltage
[2]
Voltage
[3]
5 o~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~L~in e
0.4
0.5
0.6
008
Modtitioi lIndex nia
0.7
0.9
1.1
[4]
Fig. 15. THD performance for phase voltage and line voltage of a 5level CHMI with PD scheme when ma varies
THD, Fundamental Output= 1108 V,
ma =
0.8
[5]
[6]
80
[7]
70
60
50
THID
{%
40
3phase CHMI
30
[8]
line voltage
3~~~~~~~~~~~~phase
&
inverter
10
line
35
40
45
50
60
55
65
voltage
70
Modulation Ratio,11
when
same
mf varies
V. CONCLUSIONS
From the simulation study conducted, several distinct
features of the threephase 5level CHMI with PD scheme
from the aspect of line voltage can be identified. The line
voltage is able to synthesize more levels compared to the
phase voltage, thus resembling a more desirable sinusoidal
waveform. Besides that, the line voltage yields better spectral
performance, hence reducing the need of an output filter. The
threephase CHMI is also able to produce line voltages with
125131, 2002.
[11] B. P. McGrath and D. G. Holmes, "Multicarrier PWM Strategies for
Multilevel Inverters." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,
Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 858867, 2002.
[12] J. Lai and F. Z. Peng ,"Multilevel Converters  A New Breed of Power
Converters." IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No.
3, pp. 509517, 1996.
[13] N. A. Azli and A. H. M. Yatim, "Modular Structured Multilevel Inverter
(MSMI) for High Power AC Power Supply Applications", Proc. of IEEE
International Symposium on Industrial Electronics pp. 728733, 2001.
[14] P. M. Bhagwat and V. R. Stefanovic, " Generalized Structure of a
Multilevel
PWM Inverter." IEEE Transactions on Industry
Applications, Vol.19, No 6, pp. 10571069, Nov/Dec 1983
[15] A. Nabae, A., Takahashi,I. and H. Akagi, "A Neutral Point Clamped
PWM Inverter." IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 17,
No. 5, pp. 518523, 1981