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1

03.02.08 ( )

,
...,

..

-2014

...4
............................5
..............7
1.
................11
1.1

.................11

1.2

- ...............16

1.3 .........26
1.4 ..........38
1.5

..........................61

2. ...........62
2.1 ..........................62
2.2 .........74
2.3

, .......81
2.4 .........................95
3. ..96
3.1 ..98
3.2 .........108
3.3 .123
3.3.1
........................123

3.3.2 ...131
3.3.3 ..136
3.4 ....................137
4. ...................139
4.1 ................... 139
4.2 ,
...141
4.3 144
4.3.1 - .......148
4.3.2 ...148
4.4 ..............158
4.5 .163
4.6 - ..164
4.7 .............168
...........169

............170
...........183


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. 3- - , , , , 2012; VI - .. , , , 2012; - , 60- : , , 2013; VIII - Nauka i inowacja 2012. Geografia i geologia, chemia i chemiczne technologie, Przemysl, 2012; VII
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11

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12

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1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6 - ; 7 -
.
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[5].

13

3 - -5:
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 -
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6 - ; 7 -
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. . ,
[5].
, [6].

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1-; 2- ; 3 - ; 4- ; 5- ;
6- ; 7 -
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14

.
, ,
[7].

5 - -5000 [7]:
1- ; 2-; 3,4- ; 5,6-
; 7- ; I,II .
, , :
, . [5].

( 5%). , , , [4].
6 .

6 - :
1 - ; 2- ; 3- ; 4- ; 5 - ; 6 - ;
7-
- . ,
[8], 7.

15

7 - :
I - ; II- ; III - ; - ; 2- ;
3 ; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6

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[9]
10 [10].

10 - [10]:
1-; 2- ; 3- ; 4- ; 5 ; 6- ; 7- ; 8 ; 9- ; 10-
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16

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17

[11].
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18

( , , )[15].
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() ().

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: , , , , , . . : , , . 60-75 %, 400-900 2/.
(/3, /).
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(, )[15].
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1-2 5-6 /; 1,5-2 4-5 .
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19

, 2,5-2,7
0,25-1 .
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.

, 15 %. 2.04.02-84.

20

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2700 - 2800 / 0,7 /(2) 10
, (18 - 20) 10 /(2)
6 . , . 90 . 1000
/ 500 / .
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100 / . 5-25 /.
1,2 ,
5-8 . ,
70%
0,5-2,0 . 150 .
, 7 / 70 / ( 3 /) 5 ( 4-9 /) -4 -

21

70 . 25 / 200 . 10-15
/ 25-30 0 = 60 / 90-130 - 0 = 25 /. , ,
1,5 , 35 /3 0 = 25 /.
60-70 /
, 10-20 /3 .
,
,
.
d=4...2 2-1 0,5-8
(. 17).
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, . -4
.
-
.
[17].

17 - -4

22

[17]: 1 - = 5 /; 2 - = 10 /; 3 - = 15 /; 1-3 - 0 = 25 /; 4 - = 10
/ C0 = 35 /; 5 - = 10 / C0 = 45 /.
, 8 /, 10-15 /, . 60 50 .
-4, 30 /, 15-20 /,
10-15 /. - 65-85%, 5
60-65%.
20 , 1,0-1,5 . , -4, 15 /(2) 5 [17].
, ,

.
c [18] 0,8-2 .
, , . . . 2
, :
8-12 , - 6
- 2874-82.

23


,
-

0,5
1,2
0,7-0,8
1,8-2
0,7
1,6
0,8-1
1,6-1,8
0,8
2
1-1,2
1,5-1,7
0,5
1,2
0,7-0,8
1,8-2
0,7
1,6
0,8-1
1,6-1,8
0,8
2
1-1,2
1,5-1,7

0,7-0,8
1,3-1,5
1,8-2
0,7-0,8
1,3-1,5
1,8-2

, /

5-6
6-7,5
6-8
7-9,5
8-10
10-12
6-7
7-9
7-9,5
8,5-11,5
9,5-12
12-14

: 1. , 5,

. 2. [18].
[19] Cu(II) .
, , . ,
( 4,5, Cu(II) 115 /).
2 , 25 , Cu(II) 100 /, 5 /. Cu(II) 52,6 /.
[20]
, . , , 20000 /, ; 5000
/, ; 300-500 /, ,
;
.
5 /.
[21] . 90%.

24

[22] , /22 80% 100 /;


22 4 ; 6,5 .
[23] / iO2 Fe0 ( 24)
. - .
Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
[24] , 40 / (72% ); 18, 800 /. 30 . 3,5 26
/ Cd 96% .
Cd2+ , () Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. [25] pH,
. , pH 5, Cd2+ 19 /, 700 /, 3,8 / 240
6,71 /. ,
.
[26] : 1. pH.
(II) =2, =7-8. 2.
, , ,
, .

. ,
. [27]
. . , . . , u Ag 100% , 10 , 100 . .

25


.
Corynebacterium glutamicum . . glutamicum
. [28]
.
70% (124 /). 0,1 / HCI 3 .
7 (),
. [29]
, , , () 20 , . , , 3, - .
, . ,
, . 3 - .
3 -

2

,

3 , ,
, . .

26

1.3 .


.
-
[30].
() 15-30% - ,
, .
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7-10%,
15 /, 5-10 /
. , ,
, .
, , -
.
, ,
. ,
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.
- 20-30%.
, .
,
.
. Carnegie Mellon
University NETL,
. 2009 . -

27

(acid mine drainage - AMD) , ,


.
.
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AMD
,
[31].
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[32].
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.
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. ;
0,05 - 10 /, () - 25 /; - 0,5-2 /; -
- 25 /, - 50 /; - 7 /.
.
.
( 500-1000 /)
-

28

, .
.
. , .
, -
. , ,
.
20 - 40 000 /,
5-20 (30 /, 200 /, H2S 300 /).
, , , , .
1975 .
.
[32].

, .
, ( ). .
.

[10].
[33] Maxoline Navy RM
TiO2 . H2O2. : TiO2 1 /; H2O2 1,5 /; 3,5. , Na2CO3 NaCl .
99,9%
90 .
60% 90 75% 240 .
[34] , . , , , ,

29

, .
, 12 92%,
86,6%.
,
, , , .
.. .
- . . ,
. ., 5-50
, 0,25-30 /, 6-14 /. ,
[35].
( = 254 ) -
Escherichia coli,. 1-2 /3 -1,6 /3 , -.
(2
/3) 7 /2, 4,82 /2 37,12 10,99.
- . ( ) , , .

- 5 /2.
, 10,99
4,82 /2.
( 6,4 8,0 /2
0,9 0,1 % ), ,
. - 8 /2
- 99,9%.

30

,
( ) - .
, .
,
1-2 1,6 /3 [36].
, () . [37]

() , 0,5-1 , 5-7 , -.
,
, 0,042 -1 (0,025 -1 ), .
[38]
, 1 2, 1
, 2 . ,
. 0,1 /. 78%, 1 , 2.
[39] ( ) .
- (
2 ). , , -, .
[40] ,
. ,
.
,
.

31

[41] , , , , , , ,
.
..
[42] - (). , , ,
, .
[43]
. , 22
. , 1 60 , 0,175 22 0,3 /. 95% .
[44] (), () () 40 /
, (), 50 /. ,
90%,
20 /, .
[45] SE. , , . , (I) (II). 75 /.;
155 /; 8-10; 30 83% 94% . I, II SE ,
, I II, ; .
[46] ,
, () ()
. ,
25,33 /, , .
60%.

32

[47] , 36000 /, ,
()2 FeS4,
. , SBR, 1,1
0,6 3/2 . , SBR,
60-70 80-85%.
[48] p . , .
[49]
. , Ochrobactrum ( . -8612)
, . 72 . : 98, 95, 90, 50%. ".
[50] -7
(), 250 / .
, (Fe2+ 10 /, 22 125 /, 60 ), , , SBR, 1 .
,
, ( ) .
, , , -. [51]
2 , ,
8 , . pH 3,
, ,
, 97-99%,
90%.

33

[52] , , NH4+- N 224,80 /; 1247,9 / 1700 / ,


99,6%, 98,2% 95% .
[53]
, , (I), , . , (I)
, , . , 18 120 , 6,73 1,16 / , 80%, .
[54] () . (), , .
, .
,
. ,
( 85%),
270 36 270 . 2,5% .
[55] , ,
. 2 ,
, . , , pH ,
22. , , 43, 34 61% ( 22).
[56]
.
10 % iO2 90 % . pH, . .

34

[57] , , , , , . ,
0,01 0,04 /,
/ .
Fe2+ Fe3+, . , - ,
. , .
[58] . , u
, Ni. .
, , , .
(Na2 ).
,
.
[59] .
, , , , , .
, , , , , , Na2S NaHS, .

,
, . , pH .
.
- . . [60] , pH 6,7 35 / , ,
88,2%; 71,5%, 90,5% 93,7% ,
, .
[61]
; , , -

35

. , ,
, .
.
pH. [62]
,
91%.
~4%.
[63], , , , . - ( , 0.1 /).
, Al2O3 0.01 /.
, .
[64] Cr(VI) ,
, , , . ,
0,24 99,68%, 0,14 59,3% , , .
[65] r(III) (). , , 1 0,1
NaOH, 2, 0,2 l2 5% . pH 3-6, 20-150 /, 1-3 /, 15-180 .
pH,
, 2 pH 5, 81%,
70%.
[66] ,
-03, . ,
-03 250 / -

36

(92%),
.
[67] , . , , ,
.
.
[68] -
. , -
-, . ,
.
(III) . [69] ,
H2SO4 u 83,5% 85% . 86,8
85,5% 30 .
[70]
() , .
pH ,
, , , , ,
. .
, .
, .
, . ,

37

. [71]
.
4 , , .
4

1
2
3
4
- -
60-75 %




,

, ,

38

1.4
- ,
, . , , - .
-, ,
.
-
.
.
. ,
, -
- , , . -
, , ,
, .

, -

,
[72].
: ,
; ;
; ; ;
.
: ; ;
, . [73].

39

[74] . , 200, 300 500 750 1450 .


20
. 1,5-5 ,
,
. , .
[75] . -41. , - . , . -, ,
, .
.
- .
.
[76, 77].
[76] . , . 2-3 .
.
[77] , , , , . . , ,
.
[78] , . ,

40

. , . 210 .
, - 80 %, - 18,5
% - 1,5 %. , 50-70%,
0,3-0,5 . . 150 250 /.
[79] - . , ,
,
. , .
,
, .
[80], , , c ,
,

15-30 .
pH 1,1-1,5 ,
.

[81],
, 0,06 /, 2%.

[82-84]: ,
45 , ,
, .
[82] , , ,
,

41

, .
- , ,
.
[83] , ,

, , ,
, 5,0-6,9, , ,
4,3-5,0. -

.
[84] .
, - .
.
7,8 8,5 3,5 6,0. . , .
,
- [72].
[72] , , , , , 1 8 , , ,
: , , 1 8 , . .
[83], 6560 /. , 70 . 42 , - . -

42

80 2, - 2,4
/, - 84,8 %, - 1,0 /
.
[75],
, .
(7,5 - 15): 1.
[84]
, .
, .

, . (
) , , [85].
, . ,
, . : , , .
; , .
, ,
, -40, - -40 -41. , , [85].

, , .
, .
,
- .
.3. ,

43

. , . . . ,
. 30 - 40 (0,5 - 0,65 ) [9].
[86] , ,
560 3, . , , Fe(OH)3.

FAU ( ), ,
10 1700 10 FAU.
[87] , , . , . -50, , ,
, .
: , ,
. . ,
poxo .
, , , .
, ( )
. .. .. [88]:
() , -

44

, , , (. . 12).

12 -
- :
(-) Zn |ZnS4 aq: CuS4 aq | Cu (+).
- . , .
, . , ; u2+ .
, . , - . (+) (
) (-) - ( ):
(+)u2++2
(-)Zn

Cu

()

Zn2+ + 2e.

()

- () ():
Cu2+ + Zn

Cu+Zn2+

()

:
CuS4aq + Zn

Cu + ZnS4aq.

()

45


z - ,
zF [88].


, [89 - 112].
[89]
1,5 . , . , pH 3 45% ( ) 70% ( ) 2,5 /. 25 /
.
[10]
. , ,
, , - .
,
, , , .
[90] ,
,
,
/ 480 80 , , . 4,15-20,1 / 90
2-12 /, .
[91] 0,2 / NaCl, 0,1 /
Na2SO4, 0,1 / , 6,4; 30
15 /2 . , , , NaCl.
[92] (), 7 / ( 1500 / 10-12) -

46

Fe(0) 1/2, Fe(0) Fe(II), -,


98,7% . ( 89,5%), 3,19.
[93] : ,

. , . .
[94] () , , -.
, TiO2,
1,5 . 15 /, 8 3 0,85 /, , , .
[95]
, () . 1000 3/,
, , , . , 30
/2 .. , 3,2 ,
.
[96]
.
, . ,
, . 0,5 /2 , 99 %,
, 62 %.
[97]
, 16

47

361 / 281 /. , NaCl, , , , 5 20 .


90% 180 , .
[98] C.I. Acid Red3R , . ; 98,3% 7 . , , .
[99] , Levafrix Blue CA (I), Levafrix Red CA (II) Levafrix yellow CA (III), NaCl.
: 6,7 /2; 5,9 /2; 5,4 /2 NaCl 3,1 /; 2,5
/; 2,8 / I, II III .
[100], , . , ,
22 .. , 200 800 /2, 6-8 .
[101] , , , 84% 64% , =3;
Fe/C=6; 150 ./. 120 . .
[102]
19 () 25 /. 1 2, 1
Ti-Pt/-PbO2-Fe, F, 2 . 1 2 , 50 /2 , 1
.

48

[103] BR29
, .
; Na2SO4;
; .

( 99%). , 97,2% 91 % 1 /2.
.
[104]
. , ,
. ,
.
[105] () , , , , , . , , ,
.
, .
[106] , ( ), .
- , ,
( ). , , , , ,
. , ,
.
[107]
,
/ (). , , , , , -

49

. 8 3,5 66,4%,
/ ,
.
[108] 1,0
0,01 /2 180
. -
(2-, 2-, 2, ), , , .
[109] (), ,
. , , ,
,
. , 3 10
8-10 5 .
[110]
, .
[111]
(), () (). ,
, ()
, 75%. , , -,
-, 22 Fe2+.
[112]: ( ), ;
;
( ), .

50

()
, .
, , -
. ,
,
, .
. -,
. ( ),
[113].
, , [114]:
(),
().

( ), ,
10 /.
.
25 /.


50 ./,
100 /, (, , , , ) 100 /, 30
/, 300 /,
50 / [114].

51

[117]
.
, ,
,
, , , . :
, .
[118] , . , , ,
,
, , , ,
1-2,2 1-3
, , ,
15. , . : , .
[119] , , - ,
. , . , .
.

52

[120], () ,

. 1.000
/, 100 2, .
, , , ,
l()3, . , pH 2-5
350 25 NTU.
[121], (), . , ,
, ,
. ,
3 10 8-10 .
5.
.
, . .
.
, ( ), .
,
,
,
, . ()
, () - . ,
, , ,
. - - .
, . .
:
2+ + 2

2 .

53

z+ xH2O + ze = [Me] + x20.


, , ,
. [122].

. , .
.
: , . .
; ; ; ; .

13 1 (1) 1 (2) j.
,
, .
[122].
.
N j (
13) . . 200-300 /2, 1020 , 0,03-0,05 /. -

54

3-12 , :
1 2,9, 1 12. 1
3,58 Fe2(S4)3, 1
- 6,33 Al2(SO4)3. 14 .

14 - [122]:
1 - ; 2 - (); 3 -
; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6 - ; 7 - .
. . (. 15) , , . 3 5
, .
3 , ,
, . 5 . 3 5 4, .

3 5 . 3, 4.
3 5 , .
5 , , , .

55

5 - -
, /


0,6
.
0,68
.
1,1
.

, /

0,05
0,01
0,0008
0,001
0,05
0,05
0,0017
0,001
0,05
0,01
0,0009
0,001

- . 5
/. , . 24 ,
. . 5.

15 [10]:
1- ; 2- ; 3- ;
4- ; 5- ; 6- ;
7- ; 8- ; 9- .
,
, . , [10].
() [10] - .
, - . , ,
15...200 [123], .. , .
,
, ( )

56

. ,
.
, .
,
:
- , ;
-
;
-
;
- , - ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ,
;
- -
;
-
( , - ):
- ;
- [10].
, , , [124].
(.15) 8,
1 7,
2 5. 3 . 6 4
. 6
.

57

16 [124]:
1 - ; 2- ;3 - ; 4-6 ;
7 - ; 8 - ; 9 - .
,
, (
) .
, ,
. , .
, . , :
.
6 .
6

( )

2

,
, ;

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58

6
3
4
,

,

2
,
,
,

, ,

. [125].
6 , : ( ),
, .
,
. ,

, .

59

7 [7]

.

.


- -


, /
,
- . .
, /3
.
%
,
-
/3
, ,
,
3
6
3
6
10-2800
.
2-2540
-

0,04

5
0,001
0,01
0,04
0,01
0,01
0,05
0,0016

0,01

/
7
0,1
0,5
0,1
0,1
0,3
0,01

2
0,03-1170
2-350,0
1,0-75,0
0,1-35,8
0,03-12,7
3,2-165,0

3
20,0
6,0
2,5
1,1
10-4
3,7

4
0,003
0,06
0,1-28,0
0,004
0,1-127

0,03-4,0

0,1-30,0

0,05-8,8

-3

8
.
.
.
280
.
1270

0,03

0,05

0,01
0,1-2,4
0,03-0,11
0,02-30,0
0,01-0,14
1,0-10
0,1-10
10,0
0,2-19,0

10
0,0050,03
10-4-10-5
0,08
0,01
0,35
1,9
3,2
0,3
0,03-1,51

0,7
0,02-0,18
60,0
51-4107
2,0-120,0
6,0-2054
810-3-8000

.
35
.
1,8
20535
12
53333

0,05
0,05
0,0005
2,0
0,2
0,03

14
.
300
265000

0,14

2,0-32,0

80000

0,25

128

30,0
0,01-10,0
0,1-20,0
0,001-0,6
0,001
10-3-9,8
0,001
0,5
0,015-0,69
3,4
0,02-12,7
0,0001
10-8
10-7
0,1
0,28
0,005-6,0
0,1

0,02
0,68
0,03-10
10-3
0,01
10-3
10-3
10-5
10-3
0,1
10-4-0,05
10-5
-

0,001
84,0
29,0
0,01
2,0
0,002
0,01-1,3
0,3-15,0
0,0001
10-7
8,7
0,01
0,0002

.
0,02
-0,0001
0,1
0,2
10,0
0,15
0,0004
( 6+)
0,1
0,001
0,66
0,66
0,05
1,0
1,0
.
.
-

.
84000
44
40
1,3
15

0,03
1,0
0,05
.
.
-

.
84
40

60

, 50 , , Fe, Ni, V, Al, Na, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ba, Si, Cr, Sn,
Pb, Hg, K, Mo, Sr, Co, Be, Li, Ru, Ag, Bi, Cd, U, Ra, La, Ge, Nd, Th, Au, Sb, As, Zn, P, Cl, Br, I
., [7].
7
- [7].
, .
.
, , , ,
[1]. - ,
, ,
, , ()
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , , ( -1154 / 2
- 495 / 2). / 42,8 %, .
, , [1]. 50-200 /.
2006 . 6 / 20 / , 6 10 / 10 20 /; , , 87,6% [1].
- , , (- )
. , , 10-20 2/,
.

61

,
2007
132, 4 -, 98 30
[1].
:
- 132 ;
-
;
- , ,

, .
1.5 .
1. , .
2. - : ,
, . .
3. :
,
.
4. : ( ), , .
, . ,

,
.

62

2.
2.1

: , , , , , , , ,
[10].
: . , , . .
, , , , .
(, ,
), , , , , . .

( 8) [10].
8 -








( )


HCI
2 2
. ,
NaCI
Fe2+ Fe3+,Cr3+ 6+
CN- CN
.
.
.
.

- -
.
: , , , , , [10].

63

- , ,
. pH >10.
- .
. , .
- () , , . .
-- () ,
, ,
.
-- () ,
, .
-- () ,
, [10].
- , , ( 17). ( 17) , .
=10,3 .
.
[10].

, ( 17). , , . .
, . [10].

64

17 - :
(), (),
():
1- ; 2- ; 3-; 4-;
5-
- () . , , , ,
, .
, - [10].
p=1...3. (
17), . , , .
[10].
. , .. .

65

:
-

- ;

- ;

- ;

[10].

-
[126]
, . ,
, .
Fe(III)
.
,
. Fe(III) ,
- ,
. (III) - -
Na(K)Fe3(S04)2(OH)6, . , , .
, , - , .
-
, , ,
[127].
[127] , .
, .
, .
,
.

66

600 /
10...80 /2, 4,2 9.
9 - [127]
,

0,5 4,6 7,2 12,8 18,2 21,8 25,0

, /

20

10

0,5

0,1

:
- - 95,5 %, 83%;
- - 99,5%[127].
.
.

, ,
, . , , .
, - [128].
, 1,
2 ( 18), 510 10-20:90-80% , 3,
, . ,
- 4, .
5 . 3.
1 6,
7 , , - 8 , 9,
10, 11, 12 13,
14 , .
5 15.

67

16 ,
[128].
, ,
, .
.
.

18 - [128]:

68

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - -; 5 - ; 6 ; 7 - ; 8 - ; 9 - ;
10 - ; 11 - ; 12 - ; 13 - ;
14 - ; 15 - ; 16 - ; 17 - .
,
:
50-40%, 50-60%.

10[128].
10 -

,

, /

72

79

36

31

101

137

41

39

12

128

160

47

42

16

152

170

49

45

20

160

190

50

47

10 , 2-4 .

11[128].
11 -
, /

323

, /

58-62

, /

1021

, /

63

, %

20-25

, /

0,28

11 81 %, 94 %.

69


. [129], ,
19.

19 -
1, 2 3, 4, 5,6 7,8 . 2 , 3 . 9.
. 10. 7 8.
.
, -
.
, , ,
, , [130].

70

20 1-4 [131].

20
21 1-4 [129] .

21
. ( 18) 1, 2 3, 4, 5,6 7,8 . 2 , 3
. 9. -

71

. 10. 7 8[131].
. ( 19) .
5 6 ,
2 3 .
, 2,
- 3. 2 3
. - . , , .
9 ,
.
7 8,
, [132].
1.
1) , 19
5 /.
2) , .
3) , 1,3 /.
4) 70 .
5) .
6) .
7) .
2.
1) NaCl 1 50 /.
2) .
150 /, 550 /, 1000 /.

72

3) 1 15 /
, 19.
4), , 19, 5 / NaCl 1, 5, 10, 50 /, , [130] (NaCl).
5) [130], ,
.
6) ,
, 19, [130],
.
7)
.
8) .
3.
1) 0,7 /.
2) 5 /
( 19).
3), , 19, 5 / NaCl 1, 5, 10, 50 /, , [130] (NaCl).
4) ,
19, ,
.
5) ,
, 19, [130],
.
6) .
,
.
7) .

73

4.
1) NaCl 1 50 /.
2) ,
800 .
1000 /.
3) 5 /
, 19.
4), , 19, NaCl 1, 5, 10, 50 / 5 /, , [130] (NaCl).
5) ,
19, ,
.
6) ,
, 19, [130],
. .
7) .

74

2.2 .
1.
1,3 / . ( ), . 22[132].

22 ,

75

, 80% , , 50% , [132].


1,3 /
. NaOH (
) pH=8 CH3COOH ( ) pH=4.
23.

23 -

22 23 , NaOH
, , CH3COOH.
, , :
- ,

76

. - [133]:
, . , .
2.

1-15 /. 24[132] 25.

24 0,15 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl

77

, %

100

95
90
85
80
75

1
2
3
4

, /

1
5
10
50

, %
( V=1
/)
93,3
86,6
95
97,3

, %
( V=5
/)
98
92
95
97,3

, %
( V=10
/)
96
87,3
90
80,7

, %
( V=15
/)
95
86,6
89,3
80

25 1,
5, 10, 15 / NaCl 1, 5, 10 ,50 /
24 25 ,
5 / 1 50 /, 1 5 / .
. . .
14 26[132].

78

26 0,55 / 1 50 / NaCl
26 ,
, 5 /
87,4% 1 /, 60 % 50 /.
1 50 /
NaCl. 27[129].

27 1 / 1 50 / NaCl

27 , 99,9%, 0,5 % 1 / 15 /.
3.
0,7 /. 28[131].

79

28
1 / NaCl 1 / 0,7 /
28 ,
1 5 / - 84-87% 33%
15 /.
4.
1 /. 28.
28 , 1 5 / - 90-93% 37%
15 /.
, 1,35 90 .
70 2 . [132]:
, /3
U , ;
I , ;
t - , ;
W , 3.
= 1,359010-31,17/210-3 = 71 /3.

80

, 20, 21. , , 12[132].


12 -

(. 18)

NaCl,
/

1
5
10

1
5
10
15
1
5
10
15
1
5
10
15
1
5
10
15
5
5
5

0,90
0,18
0,09
0,06
3,24
0,64
0,32
0,21
6,35
1,27
0,63
0,42
71,0
12,2
2,43
1,21
-

0,18
0,64
1,27

50

12,2

(. 18)

(. 18)

10

(. 18)

50

[130]

,
/

, %


() ,
/3

50,0
87,4
78,1
0
61,0
60,0
42,1
0
0
0
15,0
20,0

99,9
99,9
99,9
99,4
99,9
99,9
99,9
99,9
99,5
99,9
99,9

87,0
84,0
34,5
33,2
81,8
71,4
41,2
0
7,0
13,0

93,6
90,1
37,1
35,7
87,3
76,0
48,5
0
1,0
4,0

20,0

99,9

14,0

5,0

93,3
98,0
96,0
95,0
86,6
92,0
87,3
86,6
95,0
95,0
90,0
89,3
97,3
97,3
80,7
80,0
28,6
33,3
33,3
0

12 ,
. , . ,
,
,
99,9%.

81

1-4, 22-28
12 .
1. ,
.
.
2. .
99,9 %. (90-98%), .. . (42-87%).
3. (, ). 1-5 /
90 84 % .
4. , , .
2.3 ,
,
, ,
:

, ( ,
, ) , ( );

,
.
;

, ;

, .

82

.
, .
,

( ) , , , ,
. 13 ( 19), 5
/,
, . .
13 -

1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9

,
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10
1
5
10


, ,

m
4,17
3,63
5,03
3,07
5,57
4,70
6,06
13,19
5,76
9,03
5,59
7,11
5,56
14,10
5,23
12,47
5,06
7,43
5,79
15,27
6,41
13,11
6,99
11,04
4,99
16,11
5,51
14,84
6,37
11,40
5,19
17,51
5,56
15,41
6,00
12,29
5,44
22,27
5,73
18,59
6,09
16,90
6,11
26,54
6,50
21,60
6,60
17,23
6,20
27,90
6,83
25,06
7,06
19,60


, ,

m
16,87
27,91
18,23
29,54
18,60
24,93
18,10
34,27
18,81
47,14
17,99
44,29
17,16
57,00
17,64
77,86
16,99
65,50
18,20
71,00
18,40
95,43
17,81
75,57
16,64
91,57
17,27
60,71
16,41
55,86
16,59
63,71
16,86
64,86
16,53
82,29
17,39
90,29
17,64
75,14
17,11
59,14
16,29
92,14
16,87
94,29
16,19
97,57

83


. 33 %, ,
. , 10 %, ,
. , , 13.
.
.
1 , 5 ,
10 .
. . 14-16,
.
14 - 1 ( )

(n),
.
(n), .
( U ), B
( I ), mA
( J )

( U ),
B


( I ), mA

(
J)

1
0,523

0,9563

0,735

-0,6223

0,274

-0,383

15 - 5 ( )

(n),
.
(n), .
( U ), B
( I ), mA
( J )

( U ),
B


( I ), mA

(
J)

1
0,716

0,974

0,7628

-0,679

-0,287

-0,510

84

16 - 10 ( )
( U ),
B

(n),
.
(n), .
( U ), B
( I ), mA
( J )


( I ), mA

(
J)

1
0,680

0,972

0,728

-0,785

-0,417

-0,683

14-16
,
. 17 29-31 -

I, A

I=kn.
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

y = 3,2926x
R2 = 0,831
0

10

, Al

29 - (
) 1
30
25

I, A

20
15
10

y = 2,8285x

R2 = 0,8953

0
0

10

, Al

30 - (
) 5

85

25

I, A

20
15
10

y = 2,2488x

R2 = 0,8753

0
0

10

, Al

31 - (
) 10
17 -
( )


1
5
10

I=3,29n
I=2,83n
I=2,25n

0,831
0,895
0,875

17 ,
. 1 3,3 m, 10
2,25 m.
14-16 ,
(0,52<rUn<0,72).
. 32-34 .

U, B

86

7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3

y = 0,1243x + 4,8786
R = 0,2731

10

, Al

32 - , ,

U, B

(-) 1

8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3

y = 0,1595x + 5,0421
R = 0,5123

10

33 - , ,

U, B

(-) 5

8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3

y = 0,1676x + 5,3079
R = 0,4623

10

34 - , ,
(-) 10

87


. , , 0,65,
.
( 3, . 3.3), , ,
. ,
, .
,
(-

J, /2

35-37).
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

y = -0,2646x + 5,1541
R = 0,3873

10

, Al

35 - (-)

J, /2

1
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0

y = -0,1718x + 4,0475
R = 0,4614

10

, Al

36 - (-)
5

J, /2

88

5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0

y = -0,2558x + 3,9851
R = 0,6167

10

, Al

37 - (-)
10
, 35-37, , 1-2 . ,
. , , .
.
, , .
:

I a0 a1n a2 l ,
I , ,
n ,
l .
:

I 6,72 2, 249n 0,618l .


38.

89

30

I, mA

25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15
20

25

30

38 -
R2=0,924. , , , 92,4 % .
0,999.
8 %, .
.
18-20
.
18 - 1 ( )

(n),
.
(n), .
( U ), B
( I ), mA
( J )

( U ),
B


( I ), mA

(
J)

1
-0,454

0,886

-0,344

-0,849

0,169

-0,643

90

19 - 5 ( )

(n),
.
(n), .
( U ), B
( I ), mA
( J )

( U ),
B


( I ), mA

(
J)

1
-0,767

0,671

-0,365

-0,907

0,757

-0,378

20 - 10 ( )

(n),
.
(n), .
( U ), B
( I ), mA
( J )

( U ),
B


( I ), mA

(
J)

1
-0,821

0,789

-0,759

-0,914

0,765

-0,538

, . 1 , ,
, , .
5 10 ,
, , .
39-47 .

91
19

19
18

18

U, B

U, B

18

y = -0,2243x + 18,726
R = 0,5877

19

y = -0,1303x + 17,74
R = 0,206

17

18

17

17

16

17
0

3 4 5 6 7 8

39 -

3 4 5 6 7 8

40 -

U, B

19
19
18
18
17
17
16

y = -0,2861x + 18,491
R = 0,6732

41 - 10
, ,
,
, .
(, )
.
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

42 -

1

y = 6,1844x + 40,292
R = 0,4502

I, A

I, A

120
100 y = 9,1713x + 24,717
R = 0,7858
80
60
40
20
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 4 5 6 7 8

43 -

5

92
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

I, A

y = 7,3027x + 30,281
R = 0,6227

3 4 5 6 7

44 - 10
42-44 , . ,
, . . ,

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

y = -1,9112x + 25,494
R = 0,7205
J, /2

J, /2

. 30 100 mA.

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

y = -2,9241x + 31,708
R = 0,8221

45 -

1
30

46 -

5

y = -2,258x + 26,827
R = 0,8354

25
J, /2

20
15
10
5
0
0

47 - 10

93

21-23 , .
21 - ( )

U=0,13n+17,74

0,206

5
10

U=0,22n+18,73
U=0,29n+18,49

0,588
0,673

, %

2,2
2,3

22 -
( )

1
5
10

, %

I=9,17n+24,72
I=6,18n+40,29
I=7,30n+30,28

0,786
0,450
0,623

15,62
22,2
21,2

23 - ( )

1
5
10

, %

J=1,91n+25,49
J=2,92n+31,71
J=2,26n+26,83

0,721
0,822
0,835

13,6
18,2
14,6

. , R2>0,562. , .
E. 2 %, , 2 5 % - , 5 10 % . -

94

10 %, .
22 23 ,
.
, 5 10 ( 21) ,
.
. ,
, .
,
, .
.
1. , ,
.
2. .
.
3.
,

(), (, , ) ( -
). 7 %.
4. , ,
.
5.
.

95

2.4 .
1. ,
.
.
NaOH , ,
CH3COOH. , :
- ,
. -:
, . , .
2.
. 99,9 %. (90-98%), ..
. (42-87%).
3. (, ). 1-5 /
90 84 % .
4. , , .
5. ,
, (), (, , ) ( - ).
7 %.

96

3. .
.
, 10 -3 10-1 . . , , , ,
( ,
.)[134].
, . Na+ ,+, 2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, 32- ,
32-, . + -, . ,
, 3+.
, + . .
.
, . - , [135].
, , ,
, .
.
.
:
(
V - ;
=

- ;

R - R= 8,31
F - ;
Z - ;

97

- , =293;
- , =0,1 ;
- ;
, - ( 24); j - , /2;
U - , .
24 - .

1
b
Zn
Sb
l
Sn
Sn
Cd
u
u
F
F

Aq
Aq

Ni
W
Ti
Hq
u

, 2/

0,

2
1,34
1,26
0,93
0,85
0,93
0,93
1,14
0,87
0,87
0,72
0,72
0,66
0,58
0,58
0,62
0,62
0,59
0,56
1,55
1,41
0,7

3
0,1
0,12
0,1
0,09
0,2
0,2
0,21
0,13
0,13
0,12
0,12
0,11
0,08
0,08
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,14
0,12
0,11

4
1,69
-0,76
0,24
-1,66
-0,14
0,15
-0,6
1,8
0,52
-0,44
-0,04
-0,2
0,8
2
-0,28
1,8
-0,25
0,26
-1,63
0,85
1,69

5
4
2
3
3
2
4
2
3
1
2
3
3
1
2
2
3
2
6
2
2
1

, (I)
. 48
[135]
( 1), ( 2), ( 3).

98

48 - :
1 - ; 2 - ; 3-
3.1 .
1, () .

.
:
,
,
.

.
.
,
, 50...60 % [136].
, , , , , , , .
,
; , ;

99

; . .
80...90 %,
. , - 1 200 /.

3000... 5000 / 2000... 3000 /.
,
.
100
[136].
()
. , .
- (), , ,
- . 0,01 1000 [136].
, [137]. ,
20 %.
90 % 5
0,1 2 1
0,1 2.

25 [137].

100

25 -
, 2

,
/

0,1

0,1
0,35

6,5 2,0

5
15

10
15

0,35
0,6

2,0
35,0 3,6

30
40

30
40

0,6

3,6

50

50

, 0,5 /.
25
. ,
,
.
[137].
, , , . .
. ,
, [137].
,
,
, , .

( , , ),
.

101

.
. . ,
, () ,
[137].
, , ,
.
, . , , .
,
, . 70 %
10 . . , [137].
, 100 , . . .

. , .
. , . [137].
10 .
[138]. ,
, - .

,

102

, . , . . .
- , .
.
, [139].
. , .
.
, ,
, . , [139].
, . ,
. ,
, , .
()
.
, [139].
- . .. [140]. . 26 [141].

103

26 - (), (, ) ()


, /3

5... 30

50... 100

20...40

50...60

0,5... 2,0
100...

50...100

150

10...15

30...40

30...40

100...120

0,1...0,2

0,3...0,4

3...5

7...10

92...95

92...96

92...96

98...99

95...98

90...95

85...90

70...80

,
, ,
%

, %

, %:

90...95
85...90
60...80
50...70

. , , .
26 , ,
.
,
.
, , 92...95 %,
50...100 , .

, [124] , -

104

, , .
1

. [135].
.

49 -

49.
2, 3, 4.
5, 6.
7[135].
, .
. ,
. , , ,
[135].
[135]:
1) 49.
2) 4.
3) 5.

105

4) ,
.
, . .
5), "-" 4 -
, . . .
6) 4 1 . .
7) .. 4...6 4-
2. . .10 . ;
8) , , :
;
j=

(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)

V - , /;
V - , 3;
- , ;
S - , 2;
j - , /2;
- , / 3;
U - , .
9) V = f(j),

= f(j).

10) (I) .
11) ..2...10 .
12) [135].
2.

. . . [135].

106


50. 1
2 3.
4, 5.
6.

. , ,
[135].

50 -
:
(3.1)
- , /3;
0- , /3;
k - , I/;
t - , .
(3.1) :
( )

( )

. (3.2)

, ,
, , - .

[135]:

107

(3.3)
- , ;

V - , 3;
Q - , 3/.
[135]:
1. 50;
2. 3. .
3. ,
100...300 /2 .
:
, I - , A; j - , /2; S - , 2.
4.
0,5 /3;
1 /3.
5. 1.
6. 4 . , . .
7. 2 5 .
8. .
9.

( )

). (3.2)

k.
10. [135]:

- , %; 0 - , /3; I - , ;

- , ; t - , ;

V - , 3.
11. .. 3-10
, .
[135].

108

3.2 .
1.
, , ,
, [142-144], 4.
[142],
(1-200) /.
, , , , , ,
, 51 54[145].
, :
- , 3/ [141].
51 NaCl 1 200 /.

51 - 1, 5, 10, 50, 200


/ NaCl .
51 , , , 200 / 50 /
.

109

52 NaCl 1 200 /.

52 - 1, 5, 10, 50, 200 /


NaCl .
52 ,
, 50 / .
53 NaCl 1 200 /.

53 - 1, 5, 10, 50, 200


/ NaCl .
53 , , 50 / .

110

54 NaCl 1 200 /.

54 - 1, 5, 10, 50, 200


/ NaCl .
54 ,
. 50 / , 1 /
.
51-54 , , 5 13 . .
, 10 , 27. ,
1 / .
5 200 / .

111

27 - 10 , ,

V, /

,
/

0,07

0,07

0,05

0,08

0,28

0,25

0,20

0,40

0,30

0,29

10

0,80

0,30

0,80

0,38

0,42

50

1,4

2,20

2,0

0,83

1,19

200

1,6

2,60

5,50

1,00

: * -
2.
, 1 3 .
1
55-58. 28 , , , ,
10 NaCl 1, 5, 10, 50, 200 / [145].
28 - 10
, ,
,

,
/

/3

72

50

97

42

23

40

32

58

10

13

27

24

70

50

22

17

82

200

17

13

87

28 , , , . ,
1 /. 5 200 / .

112

55 .

55
55 , .
56 .

56
56 ,
.

113

57 .

57
57 , .
58 .

58

114

58 ,
.
.
,
. ,
, , , [145].
, ,
[145].
1 :
1. 51-54 ,
, 5 13 . ,
10-12 . 10 , 12 . .
2. , 10 , 24. , 1-2,5 / . 5 200 / .
3. 55-58, ,
1 2,5 /
, 2,5 200 / .
4. 55-58
, ,
10-12 .
5. , ,
. ,
. , 1 /. 5 200 / ( 28).

115

2.
[146] , ,
.
[143]
[144]. 46-53 26-28.
27 , , , , 10 NaCl 1, 5, 10, 50, 200 /.
27, , 1 /
1 /,
, ,
. 5, 10, 50, 200 /.
29 ,
, , , 10
NaCl 1, 5, 10, 50, 200 /.
29 - 10
, ,
,

, /3

0,72

0,22

0,97

0,42

0,23

0,75

0,32

0,58

10

0,13

0,96

0,24

0,7

50

0,08

0,97

0,17

0,82

200

0,04

0,13

0,87

29 , 1 / [143]. 1 /.
5, 10, 50, 200 /.
, , , 1, 5, 10, 50 / -

116

0,5 / 5962.
59 ,
0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.

59 ,

0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.
59 , . 50
/ ( ..)
- - .
60 ,

0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl. 10,
,
,
.
, [146], : 1 / NaCl - 76,5%; 5 / NaCl - 82,1%; 10 / NaCl - 84,4%; 50
/ NaCl - 90,9 %.

117

60 , 0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.


60 , , 6 .
61 ,

0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50/ NaCl.

61 , -

118

0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.


61 ,
. [144],
, , , 2,5-200 /
/ .
62 ,

0,5 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.

62 ,
1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.
62 , .

119

10 50 /
. 10 / 82,7% 80% 50 /. ,
90% 5 /.
63 , 1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.
10,
, 1, 5, 10, 50 /,
.

63 ,

1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.
63 ,
, 55%,
1 /.
5 50 /
84 94% .

120

64 ,
1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.

64 ,
1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.
64 ,
,
5 /. [143], ,
, , 1 2,5 / / .
65 ,
1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.

121

65 ,

1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.
65 ,
.

10 50 /. ,
10 /.
66 ,
1 / 1, 5, 10, 50/ NaCl.

66 ,
1 / 1, 5, 10, 50 / NaCl.

122

66 ,
91-93% 5 /, , 10
/ .
27 28 58-65,
- 30[146].
30 - , , , [146].


V, /
, /3
, % *
/
. ., %
/ . .
V, /
, /3
. , %
/
. ., %
/ . .
V, /
, /3
. , %
/
. ., %
/ . .
V, /
, /3
. , %
/
. ., %
/ . .
*

, /
1

10

50

0,07
7,2
64,3
0,1119
61,2
0,1176
0,05
9,7
73,7
0,1316
54,1
0,1792
0,29
1,5
85
0,018
74
0,02
0,08
4,2
76,5
0,0549
80
0,0525

0,25
2,3
72,5
0,032
71,8
0,032
0,4
3,2
76,7
0,042
81,2
0,039
0,19
7,5
90,7
0,083
87
0,086
0,3
5,8
82,1
0,071
88,2
0,066

0,8
1,3
74,3
0,0175
83,9
0,0155
0,8
2,4
84,2
0,0285
90
0,0266
0,23
9,6
82,7
0,116
93,1
0,103
0,38
7,0
84,4
0,0829
85,2
0,0821

1,4
0,8
89,1
0,009
81,9
0,0098
2
1,7
90,9
0,0187
94,7
0,018
1,19
8,7
80
0,096
90,7
0,096
0,83
8,2
90,9
0,0902
92,8
0,0883

30,
.
- [146].

123

,
1 %.
, .
, .
2 :
1) 1 / , .
, ,
, , .
2) 5, 10, 50 / ,
5 /,
, 1 % .
3) 5, 10, 50 / , .
3.3
3.3.1
.
. ,
, , .
c .
: , . -

124

.
:

, /;
U , , ;
S , 2;

I , ;
J , /2,

1 3 , /3;
V , 3/.
31-35 ,
.
31 - (r)

U
J

1
-0,025
0,793
-0,308
0,725

1
0,3659
0,440
0,374

1
-0,131
0,983

1
-0,178

32 -

U
J

1,000
0,003
0,768
0,002
0,617

1,000
0,419
0,477
0,531

1,000
0,241
0,966

1,000
-0,014

1,000

33 -

U
J

1,000
-0,057
0,777
-0,509
0,741

1,000
0,396
0,640
0,351

1,000
-0,215
0,984

1,000
-0,290

1,000

125

34 -

U
J

1,000
-0,004
0,706
0,327
0,738

1,000
0,507
0,875
0,509

1,000
0,798
0,981

1,000
0,761

1,000

35 -

U
J

1,000
-0,042
0,754
0,219
0,695

1,000
0,435
0,884
0,484

1,000
0,614
0,964

1,000
0,559

1,000


. 31-35 ,
( ) (V) (J) (rVJ>0,9), .. .
: .
(rJ>0,7).
. ,
.
, (0,35<rVU<0,5). [145] ,
5 12 .

(rMU<0,1), , .
:
. , , , , , -

126

V=f(J, M) .
. , . 35 67-71

V=kJ.

10,0
y = 0,0005x

V, 3/

8,0

R2 = 0,962

6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

J, A/

67 -

2,5

V, 3/

2,0
y = 0,0002x

1,5

R2 = 0,918

1,0
0,5
0,0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

J, A/

68 -

127

3,5
3,0
V, 3/

2,5
2,0

y = 0,0004x

1,5

R2 = 0,944

1,0
0,5
0,0
0,00

2000,00

4000,00

6000,00

8000,00

10000,00

J, A/

69 -

1,4
1,2
V, 3/

1,0
0,8

y = 0,0001x

0,6

R2 = 0,904

0,4
0,2
0,0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

J, A/

70 -

V, 3/


9,0
8,0
7,0
6,0
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
0,00

y = 0,0006x
R2 = 0,929

2000,00

4000,00

6000,00

8000,00 10000,00 12000,00

J, A/

71 -

128

36 -



V=0,0005J
V=0,0002J
V=0,0004J
V=0,0001J
V=0,0006J

0,962
0,918
0,944
0,904
0,929

36 ,
.
, . , 10 / 2
5 3/,
2 3/.
36 , . ,
90 % .

: .
.
,
:
J=aMU2,
.
37 72-76.

129

14000
12000
J, /2

10000
8000

y = 1,724x

6000

R2 = 0,982

4000
2000
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

MU2

72 -
12000

J, /2

10000
8000

y = 1,305x

6000

R2 = 0,987

4000
2000
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

MU

73 -
10000,00

J, /2

8000,00
6000,00

y = 1,215x

4000,00

R2 = 0,973

2000,00
0,00
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

MU

74 -

130

12000

J, /2

10000
8000

y = 1,408x

6000

R2 = 0,920

4000
2000
0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

MU

75 -
14000,00
12000,00
J, /2

10000,00
8000,00

y = 2,022x

6000,00

R2 = 0,914

4000,00
2000,00
0,00
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

MU2

76 -
37 -



J=1,724MU2
J=1,305MU2
J=1,215MU2
J=1,408MU2
J=2,022MU2

0,982
0,987
0,973
0,920
0,914

0,99 ( )
, 90 %, .

131

3.3.2


: .
, .
( , , )
38-41.
38 -

(), %

(), %
(), /
C
(V),
3/2
/ /3


(), /


(V), 3/2

/
/3

1
0,598

0,839

0,926

-0,934

-0,752

-0,577

39 -

(), %

(), %
(), /
C
(V),
3/2
/ /3


(), /


(V), 3/2

/
/3

1
0,661

0,791

0,979

-0,980

-0,679

-0,541

132

40 -

(), %

(), %
(), /
C
(V),
3/2
/ /3


(), /


(V), 3/2

/
/3

1
0,494

0,291

0,975

0,993

0,277

0,482

41 -

(), %

(), %
(), /
C
(V),
3/2
/ /3


(), /


(V), 3/2

/
/3

1
0,825

0,915

0,965

0,791

0,894

0,776

38-41 ,
. ,
,
.
.
.
.
, .
,
.

133

. , .
:

a0 a1V ,
V 3/ ,
0, 1 .
77 .
, 77, ,
. . .
0,1 3/
, 1,5 %.

, %

100
95
90

85
80

y = 15,61x + 80,35

75

R2 = 0,838

70
65

y = 14,85x + 69,16

60

R2 = 0,688

55

50
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

V, /

y = 14,61x + 65,50
R2 = 0,704

77 -
.
2
,
( 78-80).

134

, %

100
90
80
70

y = -26,7x2 + 53,9x + 58,5


R2 = 0,99

60
50
0

0,5

1,5

V, 3/

78 -
2

, %

110
100
90
80

y = -24,4x2 + 69,7x + 52,7

70

R2 = 0,97

60
50
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

V, 3/

79 -
2 -

, %

100
90
80
y = -14,6x2 + 29,6x + 78,2

70

R2 = 0,87

60
50
0

0,5

1,5

V, 3/

80 -

135

78-80 R2 ,
. R2=0,99,
99
%, 97 %.
,
.


( 42).
42 -

, %
85,8
99,5
93,2


, 3/
1,01
1,47
1,01

, 99,5
% 1,47 3/
. ,

, 1,01 3/ ( ).
: ( , ) , .
,
, , /. , , , 85
% 1,01 3/ ( 38).
, ,

136

1 3 ,
, [144].
( 39, 42) , ,
99,5 % 1,47 3/ ( ), 13 . , , .
3.3.3

f (M ,U , J ,V , C ) ,

M , /; U , ; J ,

/2; V , 3/; ,
.
, ,
,
:
f (V );

V f ( J );
J f ( M , U ).

43 , .
43 -


58, 72 55, 44V 18, 77V 2 ;

V 0, 0005 J ;
J 1.724MU 2 .

58,5 53,9V 26, 7V 2 ;

V 0, 0002 J ;
J 1,305MU 2 .

78, 2 29, 6 14, 6V 2 ;

V 0, 0001J ;
J 1, 408MU 2 .

137

,

. .
,
.
3.4 .
1. 38-41 ,
, 5 13 . ,
10-12 . 10 , 12 . .
2. , 10 , 21. , 1-2,5 / . 5 200 / .
3. 40-43, ,
1 2,5 /
, 2,5 200 / .
4. 40-43
, ,
10-12 .
5. , ,
. ,
. , 1 /. 5 200 / ( 29).

138

6.
.
7. 5, 10, 50 / ,
5 /,
, 1 % .
8. 5, 10, 50 / , .
9. ,
, , ,

.
.
10. , /.
, , , 85 %
1,01 3/
.
11.
.

139

4.

4.1

.
,
.

( 44).
44

, /

80-100

10-20

6-7

100

25

2,5

. [7].
.
. ( 45) - .
45 - [147].

, . ()

,
(

.)


2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

13,5 13,5

15

11

13

18

9,7

10

6,5

1,8

11,5

8,3

22,5
13

8,5

7,5

4,5

2,8

3,5

10

12,5

1,5

16

. [147].

140


. , ,
, .
, ( 46) [148].
46
, /

12 30

5,1

4,3

1,24

. [1].
, .
.
, , , ,
[1]. - ,
, ,
, , ()
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , , ( -1154 / 2
- 495 / 2). / 42,8 %, .
, , [1]. 50-200 /.

141

2006 . 6 / 20 / , 6 10 / 10 20 /; , , 87,6% [1].


- , , (- )
. , , 10-20 2/,
.
,
2007
132, 4 -, 98 30
[1].
4.2 ,

:
- 132 ;
-
;
- ,
,

30 . ,
.
, ,
81 [148].

142

81 ,
1 ; 2 ; 3
; 4- ; 5 ; 6 - ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10
. 1, ,
. , - , . ,
. 10-12 .

2, ,
- - , , 2-5 .
: ,

, . 8.
3, 4 , , 9 2
6.

143

, 1, 7,
8. 10 .
6 , 2-5 ,
5. , . , , , , , , , .
5.
47.
47 ,


700

2,8

15

0,05

0,43

0,047

0,62

0,001

,

[148].
.
1.
- .
2. , .

144

4.3
[149]
.
[150], . , , , ,
. , .
.

[151].
, , - , , , , ,
. , , , .
. , [149].
.
[149]
.

, .
,
, , , , , , , , ,
; ,
, -

145

, 2-5 .
82
.

82 -

1,
2 , - 3, 4 ,
5, 6, 7 , 8,
9. , 1, 3, 10 11. 1 2
12, - 13. 14, 15, 16.
.
1, .
2, , ,
. . .
, .

146

-
. 3 . , .
.
, .
, , . - - .

4 . 5, , - - ,
, 2-5 .
: , - ,

. 8.
5, 6 , , 2 9 5.
2 1 12
- 13.
, 1 3,
10, 11. 16 .
9 , 2-5 ,
7. , . , , , , -

147

, , , .
5.
. [151] [149]. : -1160
/; - 360 /; - 930 /; 105 /; - 47 /; 15 /; 0,05 /; 10 /; 0,7 /; 2500 /.
48.
48

/
1
1

/
0,5
0,075

/
2
2
/
3
3

/
0,3
0,1

5
5

/
10
0,01

/
0,17
0,1

/
0,5
0,014

/
0,17
0,1
- /
0,55
0,3
-

,%
0
85,0
0
0
66,7
0
99,9
42,1
97,3
41,2
48,5

, [149]
, , , , , , . .
, , , , , , , , .

148

4.3.1 - .
,
- .
,
0,3...0,5 0,1 [150].
, 6...9% ,
. , .

. [150]:
C1=C0/(1+Kt); C3=C0/(1+Kt/3)3; Cn=C0/(1+Kt/n)n,
C1, 2, Cn - , ;
0 - ;
Kt - , Kt=6,6;
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