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M. Rokhis Khomarudin, Parvati, and Suwarsono
Utilization Center for Remote Sensing
Indonesia is a country located in ring of fire, Area of frequent disasters. A
disaster when viewed from the negative side, the perception that we see is as
something harmful, destructive, and resulting in casualties the soul is very large.
However, if we refer to as a resource, Then disaster is research resources that are
not owned by other countries. Disasters will be a part Indonesia makes excel in
the field of research and development of disaster. Obviously, research and
development is aimed at reduce the impact and risks of disaster inflicted. This
will make Indonesia more powerful and people are already familiar with disaster.
disaster risk seriring will decrease with increasing the capacity of communities in
cope with the disaster.
Natural disasters is an event naturally which raises serious consequences
for humans, like lesions -injury or loss of life, damage to property (such as houses
and buildings), damage to infrastructure (such as roads, bridges and irrigation
canals), musnahnya land cultivation (Such as agricultural land). Natural disasters
are grouped into natural disasters of meteorological, geological natural disasters,
and natural disasters from space. Natural disasters of meteorological related to
weather and climate. Geological disasters related with geologic processes, namely
-a process that comes from the earth's surface (exogenous) or below the earth's
surface (Endogenous) involving rock material constituent. Geological processes
are working to establish and forming the earth's surface. Disaster from space
space (extra-territorial) was a disaster due to objects falling from the sky
(asteroids) are up to the earth's surface as a result of disruption or disaster Sun
According to the National Agency for Combating Disaster (2014), noted
that the frequent disasters tradi is a disaster meteorology such as floods and

droughts, because almost every year in several Indonesian regions hit by the
disaster. However, from the records, the disaster at lethal and cause fatalities are
geological disasters. BNPB notes that the impact geological disasters most that
cause More than 200,000 people died is result the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh
in 2004. Additionally, disaster tsunami Pangandaran year 2006, eruption of Mount
Merapi in 2010, and tsunami Mentawai 2010 too is the result of a disaster
geological causing huge casualties. Unlike disaster meteorology, Geological
disasters more difficult to predict.
However determination of hazard and risk areas can be done if the data
spasialnya adequate. Likewise, the damage and the impact of geological disasters
can be mapped properly. The data can be used both for determining the area of
danger and risk, and also damage the disaster is remote sensing. Article This will
show you an example utilization of remote sensing for detection the danger area,
the risks and damage caused geological disasters.

Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an
object, area or phenomenon through the analysis of data obtained with a device
without direct contact with the object, area or phenomenon being studied
(Lillesand and Kiefer, 1979). There are four basic components of remote sensing
systems, namely the target, an energy source, transmission path, and sensors. The
components in this system work together to measure and record information about
the target without touching the object. The energy source which illuminates or
radiate electromagnetic energy at the target is absolutely necessary. Energy
interacting with the target and also functions as a medium for transmitting
information from the target to the sensor. Sensor is a device that collects and
records the electromagnetic radiation.
The data recorded by the sensors is then delivered to the receiving station
and processed into a format that is ready for use, including in the form of images.
This image is then interpreted to extract information about the target. The process
of interpretation can be done visually or digital / automatic with the aid of a

computer and image processing software. According to Sutanto (1992), with the
help of remote sensing image, the object of an area and symptoms in the earth's
surface can be described by the shape and location of the object that is similar to
the form and its location on the earth's surface, a relatively complete, covering a
vast area, and permanent.
Satellite remote sensing has several characteristics, which include sensor
systems, resolution, wide sweep and orbital systems. There are two sensor
in sensing which optical sensors and radar sensors. The thing that distinguishes
these two sensors is the energy system recorded by satellite sensors. If the optical
sensor (passive) object by recording the reflection of sunlight, radar sensors
(active) received backscattering (backscatter) of objects whose origin energy from
radar satellites. There are four resolutions that are often used in explaining the
remote sensing data. The spatial resolution, temporal, radiometric and spectral.
Spatial resolution is a measure of the earth's surface which is described in one
pixel satellite imagery, temporal resolution is satellite frequency to photograph a
same area, and a radiometric resolution determines how well a system to be able
to distinguish its intensity. Usually indicated by the unit 'bits', such as 8 bit, 10 bit,
and others. Spectral resolution indicates the number of channels or a channel
owned by the satellite, which showed a certain spectral range on each channel.
The width of the surface of the earth that can be recorded by satellite, usually
depending on the altitude of the satellite's orbit from the Earth's surface, the
higher the location of the satellite, the wider the earth's surface that can be
recorded. There are several systems known in the orbit remote sensing, namely,
polar orbit, equatorial orbit, and the orbit fixed (geostationary). Polar orbit is a
satellite trajectory from pole to pole on the Earth and the equatorial orbit is a
satellite trajectory parallel to the equator. Orbiting geostationary orbit is fixed,
usually has a height of 35,800 km.
Along with the development of technology, satellite imagery grown very
rapidly from a very low spatial resolution up to very high. Application also
evolved from a weather application, mapping natural resources, to the urban

spatial planning. Techniques / methods is growing rapidly from pixel-based

classification techniques, object-based subpixel up. This development is also
supported by the development of data processing technology easier for users to
analyze satellite imagery obtained. Until now, there is capable of recording images
with a spatial resolution of up to 0.3 meters (World View image 3). By using this
image, the object of man who was walking can be observed easily.
In principle, any objects and natural phenomena are in space the earth's
surface can be detected from satellite imagery. Thus, natural disasters, object of
affected and accompanying phenomena can be recorded by satellites passing over
it. The ability of satellite imagery to detect it is highly dependent on the
resolution, both spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal. As explained before,
geological disasters related to geological processes, namely the processes derived
from the earth's surface (exogenous) or below the earth's surface (endogenous)
involving rock material constituent. Where Indonesia is located on the tectonic
plates meeting among key reason why Indonesia is prone to geological disasters.
Geological disasters frequently hit Indonesia region include volcanic eruptions,
land movements (landslides), the earthquake and tsunami.
a. Volcano eruption
Volcano is an entity on the earth's surface that is formed naturally, occupying
an area and show symptoms of the unique and specific (volcanism). Eruption is a
discharge event magma from the earth. The eruption can be divided into two,
namely the eruption Eruption (Explosive Eruption) and Non-eruption eruption
(Non-explosive Eruption). Type of eruption occurs is influenced by many factors
such as the viscosity of the magma, gas content in the magma, the influence of
ground water and the depth of magma (magma chamber). Extrusive products as a
result of volcanic eruptions, which often leads to disaster, will be recorded by the

satellite sensors, both optical and radar. Associated with volcanic eruptions,
remote sensing image can be used to detect:

Distribution of the eruption of smoke spread in the atmosphere,

Pyroclastic deposits,

Distribution of lava,

Distribution of cold lava,

Deformation crater.

The above information is indispensable, especially in the emergency response

phase of the disaster. In addition, from remote sensing images can be obtained
also information on the conditions of land cover, land forms, the flow pattern,
constituent rock types (lithology) and the geological structure. This information is
the input data for the analysis of hazard-prone areas, disaster vulnerability and for
disaster risk analysis.

Figure 1. Genesis G.Sangeang Fire erupted in East Nusa Tenggara on May 31, 2014
recorded by satellites Terra and Aqua MODIS. (Image taken from the website:

G.Sangeangapi eruption in East Nusa Tenggara on May 31, 2014 recorded by

satellites Terra and Aqua MODIS are shown in Figure 1. From the image, it can
detect the direction and distribution of smoke is generated (looked brown). This
disaster has been disrupting air transport (plane) leading to and coming from
Bima, Kupang and Darwin. Figure 2 shows the eruption of the same events that
were recorded in more detail than the Landsat-8.

Figure 2. Genesis G.Sangeang Fire erupted in East Nusa Tenggara recorded by the
satellite Landsat-8 dated June 1, 2014. (Image taken from the website:

In the preparedness phase, indispensable information hazard-prone areas,

disaster vulnerability and disaster risk analysis. In to meet the needs of this
information, remote sensing image data plays an important role. Figure 3 shows
the Landsat-7 ETM + and -SRTM DEM (Digital Elevation Model -Shuttle Radar
Topography Mission) that can be used to find out before the eruption such as land
cover, morphology, as well as disaster-prone areas. Understanding the character of
the eruption G. Sangeang Api which is explosive, morphology stratovolcanic
which occupies a whole island, as well as traces of the previous eruption, it can be
obtained the understanding that if the eruption, the evacuation of the population
out of the island need to be done in case of signs of increased volcanic activities.

Figure 3. Landsat-7 ETM + and -SRTM DEM (Digital Elevation Model -Shuttle Radar
Topography Mission) describes the condition of the area before the eruption. (Image
taken from the website:

Information deformation of the lava dome and the crater is very important
to know to determine changes in the dome and the crater shape due to the
eruption. That understanding is required to determine the pattern and character of
the eruption and its importance to predict the next eruption. Citra SAR (Synthetic
Aperture Radar) is very reliable required for this analysis. Figure 4 shows the
TerraSAR-X image of Kelud Volcano lava dome that showed the destruction of an
explosive eruption.

Figure 4. The collapse of the lava dome GN. Kelud due to explosive eruption
observed from the image of Terra-SAR-X. (Image taken from the

Landslides are a type of mass movement of soil or rock, or a mixture of both,
down or off the slopes as a result of disruption of the stability of soil or rock slope
composing the (BAKORNAS PB 2007). Basically, the cause of the occurrence of
landslides is the force of gravity. Factors that influence the occurrence of
landslides is geology, land use, topography and seismicity. Terdapat six types of
landslides, namely: transition avalanche, avalanche rotation, movement of blocks,
debris of rocks, soil creep, and the flow of material destruction. Type landslide

debris flow material synonymous with the term "flood", ie flooding accompanied
by avalanches.
Analysis of landslide-prone areas, landslide vulnerability assessment and risk
analysis of landslides can be done with the support of remote sensing data.
In this case, the input information can be obtained from the analysis of citra.
Informasion include: land cover, morphology, soil, geology, as well as rainfall.
In the process of emergency response, in many cases, precipitation results
avalanches and impact damage could be clearly observed from satellite images.
Figure 5 shows the results of observations of the landslide in the village of
Cikangkareng Cibinong District of Cianjur Regency. IKONOS imagery is used
which has a spatial resolution of up to 1 meter. In the image shown avalanche
conditions before and after the avalanche. The resolution can be seen on an area
exposed to avalanches, how many houses were destroyed stricken avalanche of
material, how long the road is cut off, and the area of cropland destroyed. From
this information can also be expected the number of human victims who may be
affected by avalanches, which is predicted from number of houses destroyed. One
other important information is knowable potential landslide will occur, which is
indicated by the opening of "candidate" avalanche (in the image symbolized the
direction of the arrow). Thus, information from these images are very useful
addition to supporting disaster mitigation efforts, also for preparation of
reconstruction and rehabilitation program for the next disaster preparedness

Figure 5. A landslide in Ds. Cianjur Cikangkareng observed from IKONOS imagery.

c. Earthquake and Tsunami

Earthquakes are caused by the earth shake collisions between tectonic plates,
active faults, volcanic activity or rock debris. The earthquake is an event that
causes the release of energy dislocation (shift) in the interior of the Earth suddenly
The cause of the earthquake can be derived from the movement of tectonic
processes-leather / tectonic plates, fault activity on the Earth's surface, the
movement] geomorphology locally, volcanic activity, or a nuclear explosion.
Tsunami interpreted as sea waves with long periods caused by an impulsive
disturbance of the seabed. The impulsive disorders can be a tectonic earthquake,
volcanic eruption or landslide (BAKORNAS PB 2007). The earthquake and
tsunami have started since the famous events in Aceh, December 26, 2004,
catastrophic terrifying.
Until this, the remote sensing data has not been able to be used to detect
earthquakes and tsunamis parameters such as time of the incident, the location of
the epicenter on the surface (the epicenter), the depth of the earthquake source, the
power / magnitude of the earthquake, as well as the intensity of earthquakes.
However, remote sensing image is very useful to determine the impact of the
earthquake and tsunami, the damage caused. In addition, remote sensing data
strongly support the analysis of hazards, vulnerability and risk of tsunami.

Figure 6. The impact of the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh, December 26, 2004 was
observed from IKONOS imagery. The left image is pre-disaster conditions and the right is
after a disaster

Figure 7. Impact of the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh, December 26, 2004 was
observed from Quickbird image. The left image is pre-disaster conditions (June 3, 2004
recording) and the right is after a disaster (December 28, 2004 recording).

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