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update07.02.04

..

1989


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:..,.X.
,1989.

ISBN50202724344

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SUMMARY
In the book the civilization is examined as the sociocultural system related to a specific level of social development. Formation of class
relationsaswellasthestatefoundationisthatlevelwithdifferentstepsforthefirstcivilizations.Theyrepresenttheepochalphenomenonthat
havebeenpromotedontheprosceniumoftheOldandNewWorldsattheendoftheprimitiveages.Combinationofhighproductedandlarge
scaleagriculturewithspecializedcraftsweretypicalforthetechnologicalsideofproduction.Bothcreationoftheelitesubcultureandagreat
numberofculturalinnovationsallowstatingthattheculturalrevolutiontookplaceintheageswherethefirstcivilizationswereformated.Their
typeisstrictlyinterpretedinanumberofancientcultureseachofthemhasitsdistinguishedunrepeatabletraitsinthetechnologicalsideof
production,inideology,insocialpsychologyinaestheticalcanons.Anumberofancientcivilizationsknowninaconsiderableextentthanksto
archaeologicaldiscoveriesarecharacterisedinthebookfromtheabovementionedpositions.Studyofprocessesofculturalgenesisaccording
to archaeological data has become the basis for methodological analyses. Culturological reconstructions occupy the determine place in
procedureofscientificanalysisfollowingthearchaeologicialsystematization(fig.2).Typologyoftheancientculturesisanimportantelement
inanalyseswheretheepochal,regionalandlocalculturaltypesarenotable(fig.1,45).Mechanismofculturalchangingisconnectedwiththe
dialecticalinteractionoftraditionsandinnovations(fig.3).Thelattersareoftenemergedfromcombinationsoftraditionalelementscomposed
inanewunusualway(fig.4).Afterpassingthroughstereotypizationstagetheinnovationitselfappearsasanelementoftraditionalculture.
Among aspects of cultural development one should mark out the spontaneous and the stimulated transformation (fig. 6). Culturological
approachallowstostudysuchimportantphenomenonasthemodeoflifeaccuratelyrespondedtobothepochalandsocialchanges.Aspecial
attentionisgiventotheculturalprogress,complicationoftheconcretehistoricaldevelopmentwhentheregressanddisintegrationtrendsas
well as reverting of societies to a lower level of development are possible. Civilization rises to the early agricultural epoch. In this respect

creationofastablesystemofconsummationproducts,startofdevelopmentofagreatnumberofspecializedmanufacturesandformationofa
newmodeoflifewiththerichworldofthingsappearedtheprimordialphenomena.TheearlyagriculturalsiteChatalHuiik(fig.7)revealsthis
andachievementsinart.Althoughwithgeneralregularitiesinthisperiodoneshouldnoticealsoaconsiderablevarietybothincultureandin
agriculturalsystem.Notalltheearlyagriculturalsystemandboundwiththemeconomicalstructureshavebeenfoundasperspectiveonesina
like manner from the further progress point of view. Broad archaeological investigations throw better light on all the real difficult roads in
processofhistoricaldevelopment.
256

InMesopotamiaarealchainofsubsequentstagesisleadingfromtheearlyagriculturalcomplexes(fig.14)totheSumeriancivilization(fig.
19)whichcanbetreatedasastandardmodelforaregionalculturaltype.Bothspontaneoustransformationandcreationofculturalinnovations
through mutation are fully represented here. In the Northern Syria the progress paces are slacken (fig. 24). At a certain stage the high
developedcentresinfluencedtheincreasingroleofstimulatedtransformation.InPalestinewiththeavailableculturalraisingintheepochof
archaicagriculturists(Jerikho)subsequentevolutionbecameslacken,culturechangedintoprovincialone(fig.25)andusedMesopotamianand
Egyptian standards. In Asia Minor the early farmers cultural success was more impressionable than that in Palestine (fig. 26). Irregular
characterofcultureresultedindevelopedmilitaryfunctionaswellastheroleofmilitaryleaders(fig.28)intheIIImil..Mesopotamian
standardsalsoplaytheleadingpartasitwasintheNorthernSyriaatitsformationstage.
IntheearlyfarmersepochIranisrepresentedwithanumberofbrilliantcomplexesnotyieldingthoseinMesopotamia(fig.31,32).Thenone
can observe the uneven rate of growth. In southernwest regions the protoelam civilization is formed. There equally with the initial local
stratumMesopotamianculturalstandardswereofimportantenough.Creationoftheprotourbanoftheearlyurbancultureintherestofthe
territorytakesplaceintheIIImil..(fig.34).DesintegrationofthoseancientcivilizedcentresisoverinthemiddleoftheIImil.. ,
whereclassrelationsandstatesystemwereoflesssignificance,beingprecipitatedinthewestthroughthemilitaryandpoliticalinteraction
withthestatesintheWestAsia.
MaterialsofthemeridionalMiddleAsiaindicateofthespontaneoustransformationaccordingtotheSumerianstandardsbutalittleslackerfor
the limited natural resources (fig. 36). At times one can state the stimulated impact of the Iranian and Mesopotamian cultural standards.
DiscoveredregionalAltyndepecivilization(fig.38)maycharacterisetheearlyurbanorganismbeingdevelopedinanaturalwayonthebasis
ofcommunitivestructions.Bothcollapsinganddesintegrationofthecentreofimpulsivedevelopmentsimultaneouswiththesameprocessin
Iran made it trasferred to the east in Margiana and in Bactria. Irregular cultural development is also typical for Hindustan. Culture of the
archaic farmers (fig. 46) close to the Middleasian Jeitun evolves rather rapidly in the high developed system, that bears the strongly
pronounced features of cultural peculiarity. To all appearances the spontaneous transformation type prevails here. Harappian civilization
belongedtotheancienteasternregionaltypehasratherdistinctivetraitsinsphereofurbanamenitiesandinthatofmilitaryfunctionthatwas
poorlydeveloped.BroadstableliesbothincultureandintradewithMesopotamiaaswellaswithfarnortherncentresincludingtheAltyn
Depecivilizationaretypicalforit.
AsoriginesofancientChineseagriculturistsstayuncleargeneralculturalaspectofthatperiodkeepsmuchoriginality(fig.54).Spontaneous
type of transformation prevails here.Adopted metallurgy could be there only as the technological import less influenced the local cultural
aspect.OneshouldstatetheIndynastystandardsimpackedgreatlythecentresbeyondthenuclearzoneofthecivilization.
WiththechronologicalgapavailablebetweenthefirstcivilizationsoftheOldWorldandtheancientcultureofPeruandthatofMesoamerica
thelattersareobviouslyappropriatedtothesameepochaltype.Theircreationandprogressconfirmsignificanceofthefirstcivilizationsperiod
asthediachronousphenomenonwiththedefinitestagesofthemankindhistory.Theinitialstratumoftheearlyagriculturalepochisaccurately
revealed in the New World. Complex economy which combined agriculture and marine resources (fig. 59) indicates of the considerable
culturalachievementsinthelittoralregionsofPeru.Mochika
257

(fig.64)andOlmek(fig.65)civilizationsthoughbeingretardedintheformativestagecreatedinitialculturalstandardsandpatternsfortheir
regions.SocioculturalsystemofthePostOlmekMesoamericawiththecommonfeatures,determinedaccordingwiththeepochalandregional
culturaltype,hadmuchpeculiaritiesineachcivilization.Studyofancientculturesindialecticunityofgeneralandseparatetraitsisthemost
perspectivewayinanalysisofthehistoricalpast.

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JNESJournalofNearEasternStudies.Chicago.
JRASJournalofRoyalAsiaticSociety.London.
MDPMmoiresdelaDlgationenPerse.Paris.
MSUMan,SettlementandUrbanism.London.
OIPOrientalInstitutePublications.Chicago,
PEQPalestineExplorationQuarterly.London.
RARevued'Assyriologieetd'ArcheologieOriental.Paris.
RIARadiocarbonandIndianArchaeology.Bombay.
SAASouthAsianArchaeology.
SAOCStudiesinAncientOrientalCivilization.TheOrientalInstituteUniversityofChicago.
ZAZeitschriftfurAssyriologieundVorderasiatischeArchaologie.Berlin.

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:(Fort/Da)slavaaa@yandex.ru||yanko_slava@yahoo.com||http://yanko.lib.ru||
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:(Fort/Da)slavaaa@lenta.ru||yanko_slava@yahoo.com||http://yanko.lib.ru||
Icq#75088656||:http://yanko.lib.ru/gum.html||

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update07.02.04