Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 42

Faculty

of
Engineering

Physics

I (MP107)

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

Authors : Hugh D. Young ,


Roger A. Freedman

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

Homework & Tutorials


Exam #1
10%
Exam #2
10%

10%

Laboratory (attendance & final exam) 20%

Final

Exam

50%

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

Chapter 11

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

A Rigid body
is defined as a body on which the distance between two
points never changes whatever be the force applied on
it. (deformation is neglected)

Perfect Elastic body


A material body which completely recovers its original
size and shape upon removal of deforming forces.

Perfect Plastic body


A material body that does not recover its original shape
or size at all even after removal of the deforming forces
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

It is the ability of a body to resist a


deformation or stress and to return to its
original size and shape when the stress
(applied force per unit area) is removed.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

11.4 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Moduli

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

Real materials are not


truly rigid. They are
elastic and do deform to
some extent.

We shall introduce
concepts such as stress
and strain to understand
the deformation of real
bodies.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

We will study the relationship between forces and the


deformations they cause.

Stress is the force per unit area and


strain is the fractional deformation due to the
stress.
Elastic modulus is stress divided by strain.

The proportionality of stress and strain is called


Hookes law.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

All objects are deformable.


It is possible to change the shape or the size of
an object (or both) by applying external forces.

As these changes take place, internal forces in


the object resist the deformation.
The deformation of solids can be discussed in
terms of the concepts of stress and strain.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

10

Stress is a quantity that is proportional to the force


causing a deformation
Stress
is the external force acting on an object per unit
cross-sectional area.

= /

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

11

2. A diver under
Bulk stress

1.Tensile stress

The Figure shows three


types of stress

3.Shear stress
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

12

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

13

= /
The result of stress is strain
Strain is a measure of the degree of
deformation
Strain describes the resulting deformation

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

14

When the stress and strain are small enough,


It is found that, stress is directly proportional to
strain
We call the
proportionality constant the elastic modulus.

The elastic modulus depends on the material being


deformed and on the nature of the deformation.
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

15

When the stress and strainare small enough,


It is found that, stress is directly
proportionaltostrain
= /

Hookes Law

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

16

Elastic Moduli

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

17

Consider 3 types of deformation and define an


elastic modulus for each:
1. Youngs modulus
which measures the resistance of a solid to a
change in its length.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

18

Tensile and Compressive Stress and


Strain

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

19

Tensile Stress and


Strain

Compressive Stress and


Strain

Consider 3 types of deformation and define an


elastic modulus for each:
1. Youngs modulus
which measures the resistance of a solid to a
change in its length.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

22

: an external
forceapplied perpendicular
to the cross section area.

We apply forces of
equalmagnitude
but opposite
directions at the ends
(this ensures that the
object has no
tendency to move left
or right).
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

23

An object is in tension
The net force on the
object is zero, but the
object deforms.

The object attains an


equilibrium in which its
length
>
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

24

in which the external


force is exactly
balanced by internal
forces. (Fext = Fint ).
In such a situation, the
object is stressed.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

25

Definitions:
The tensile stressis the
ratio of the magnitude
of the external force
to the crosssectional area A.
Tensile Stress =

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

26

Tensile Stress =
The SI unit of stress is
=
Stressproduces strain

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

27

Stressproduces strain

The tensile strainin this


case is defined as the
ratio of the change in
length to the original
length .
Tensile strain = /

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

28

Tensile strain = /

: change in length
: original length .
Strain is dimensionless
It has no units

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

29

Tensile Stress =
Tensile strain = /

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

30

The unit of Youngs


modulus is

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

31

is

is

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

33

When the forces on


the ends of a bar are
pushes rather than
pulls, the bar is in
compression and the
stress is a
compressive stress.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

34

The compressive
strain is defined in the
same way as the tensile
strain, but
has the opposite
direction.
Youngs modulus
has the same value
for both tensile and
compressivestresses.
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

35

Bodies can experience


both tensile and
compressive stresses at
the same time.
As an example, a
horizontal beam
supported at each end
under its own weight.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

36

When you stretch a wire, it gets thinner as well as


longer.
When Hookes law holds, the fractional decrease
in radiusis proportional to the tensile strain.
If ris the original radius and ris the change in
radius , then

,
where the minus sign reminds us that width
decreases when length increases.
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

37

,
where the minus sign reminds us that width
decreases when length increases.
The dimensionless constant () is different for
different materials and is called Poissons ratio

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

38

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

39

Q11.5
Two rods are made of
the same kind of steel
and have the same
diameter.

length L

length 2L

A force of magnitude F is applied to the end of each rod.


Compared to the rod of length L, the rod of length 2L has
A. more stress and more strain.
B. the same stress and more strain.

C. the same stress and less strain.


D. less stress and less strain.
E. the same stress and the same strain.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

40

Two rods are made of


the same kind of steel.
The longer rod has a
greater diameter.

length L

length 2L

A force of magnitude F is applied to the end of each rod.


Compared to the rod of length L, the rod of length 2L has
A. more stress and more strain.
B. the same stress and more strain.

C. the same stress and less strain.


D. less stress and less strain.
E. the same stress and the same strain.

Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

41

With all my best wishes for


You
Dr . Mayssa Amin
Dr. Mayssa Amin

10/2/2016

42