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# Faculty

of
Engineering

Physics

I (MP107)

10/2/2016

## Authors : Hugh D. Young ,

Roger A. Freedman

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Exam #1
10%
Exam #2
10%

10%

Final

Exam

50%

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Chapter 11

## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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A Rigid body
is defined as a body on which the distance between two
points never changes whatever be the force applied on
it. (deformation is neglected)

## Perfect Elastic body

A material body which completely recovers its original
size and shape upon removal of deforming forces.

## Perfect Plastic body

A material body that does not recover its original shape
or size at all even after removal of the deforming forces
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## It is the ability of a body to resist a

original size and shape when the stress
(applied force per unit area) is removed.

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## Real materials are not

truly rigid. They are
elastic and do deform to
some extent.

We shall introduce
concepts such as stress
and strain to understand
the deformation of real
bodies.

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## We will study the relationship between forces and the

deformations they cause.

## Stress is the force per unit area and

strain is the fractional deformation due to the
stress.
Elastic modulus is stress divided by strain.

Hookes law.

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## All objects are deformable.

It is possible to change the shape or the size of
an object (or both) by applying external forces.

## As these changes take place, internal forces in

the object resist the deformation.
The deformation of solids can be discussed in
terms of the concepts of stress and strain.

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## Stress is a quantity that is proportional to the force

causing a deformation
Stress
is the external force acting on an object per unit
cross-sectional area.

= /

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2. A diver under
Bulk stress

1.Tensile stress

types of stress

3.Shear stress
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## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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= /
The result of stress is strain
Strain is a measure of the degree of
deformation
Strain describes the resulting deformation

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## When the stress and strain are small enough,

It is found that, stress is directly proportional to
strain
We call the
proportionality constant the elastic modulus.

## The elastic modulus depends on the material being

deformed and on the nature of the deformation.
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## When the stress and strainare small enough,

It is found that, stress is directly
proportionaltostrain
= /

Hookes Law

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Elastic Moduli

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## Consider 3 types of deformation and define an

elastic modulus for each:
1. Youngs modulus
which measures the resistance of a solid to a
change in its length.

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Strain

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Strain

Strain

## Consider 3 types of deformation and define an

elastic modulus for each:
1. Youngs modulus
which measures the resistance of a solid to a
change in its length.

## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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: an external
forceapplied perpendicular
to the cross section area.

We apply forces of
equalmagnitude
but opposite
directions at the ends
(this ensures that the
object has no
tendency to move left
or right).
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An object is in tension
The net force on the
object is zero, but the
object deforms.

## The object attains an

equilibrium in which its
length
>
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## in which the external

force is exactly
balanced by internal
forces. (Fext = Fint ).
In such a situation, the
object is stressed.

## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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Definitions:
The tensile stressis the
ratio of the magnitude
of the external force
to the crosssectional area A.
Tensile Stress =

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Tensile Stress =
The SI unit of stress is
=
Stressproduces strain

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Stressproduces strain

## The tensile strainin this

case is defined as the
ratio of the change in
length to the original
length .
Tensile strain = /

## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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Tensile strain = /

: change in length
: original length .
Strain is dimensionless
It has no units

## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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Tensile Stress =
Tensile strain = /

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modulus is

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is

is

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## When the forces on

the ends of a bar are
pushes rather than
pulls, the bar is in
compression and the
stress is a
compressive stress.

## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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The compressive
strain is defined in the
same way as the tensile
strain, but
has the opposite
direction.
Youngs modulus
has the same value
for both tensile and
compressivestresses.
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## Bodies can experience

both tensile and
compressive stresses at
the same time.
As an example, a
horizontal beam
supported at each end
under its own weight.

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## When you stretch a wire, it gets thinner as well as

longer.
When Hookes law holds, the fractional decrease
in radiusis proportional to the tensile strain.
If ris the original radius and ris the change in

,
where the minus sign reminds us that width
decreases when length increases.
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,
where the minus sign reminds us that width
decreases when length increases.
The dimensionless constant () is different for
different materials and is called Poissons ratio

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## Dr. Mayssa Amin

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Q11.5
the same kind of steel
and have the same
diameter.

length L

length 2L

## A force of magnitude F is applied to the end of each rod.

Compared to the rod of length L, the rod of length 2L has
A. more stress and more strain.
B. the same stress and more strain.

## C. the same stress and less strain.

D. less stress and less strain.
E. the same stress and the same strain.

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## Two rods are made of

the same kind of steel.
The longer rod has a
greater diameter.

length L

length 2L

## A force of magnitude F is applied to the end of each rod.

Compared to the rod of length L, the rod of length 2L has
A. more stress and more strain.
B. the same stress and more strain.

## C. the same stress and less strain.

D. less stress and less strain.
E. the same stress and the same strain.

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You
Dr . Mayssa Amin
Dr. Mayssa Amin

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