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ESPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE

TISSUES

OSSEOUS
BONE
TISSUE

Bone Tissue
A rigid form of connective tissue with calcified
extracellular components
Solid matrix

Bone Tissue
Composition:
1. bone cells
2. collagen fibers
3. solid matrix

Bone Tissue
General Characteristics:
1. solid, hard and brittle ground substance
which is apparently homogeneous
2. abundant osteocytes with cytoplasmic
processes
3. vascular

Bone Tissue
Functions:
1. internal support of the body
2. attachment of muscles and tendons essential
for locomotion
3. protection of vital organs of the body
4. storage site of calcium and other inorganic
substances of the body
5. site for blood forming tissue
6. homeostasis

Bone Tissue
Chemical Composition of Bone Matrix:
A. Organic Matrix
1. collagen - 95%
2. amorphous ground substance 5%
*glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with proteins

Bone Tissue
B. Inorganic salts
50% of the dry weight of bone matrix
1. Calcium in great quantity
2. Phosphorous in great quantity
3. Bicarbonate
4. Citrate
5. Magnesium
6. Potassium
7. Sodium
Note: Ca + P = HYDROXYAPATITE crystals
[Ca (PO)]. Ca (OH)

Types of Bone Cells


types

types of bone cells

Osteoprogenitor Cells
Osteogenic Cells
Relatively undifferentiated cells with
osteogenic property
Have pale-staining oval or elongated nuclei
Have an inconspicuous acidophilic or faintly
basophilic cytoplasm

Osteoprogenitor cells
Found on the
* free bony surfaces
* endosteum
* periosteum
* lining the haversian canals
* Epiphyseal plate of growing bones
Undergo division, transforming into
osteoblasts or unite to form osteoclasts

osteoblasts

Young bone forming cells


Responsible for formation of bone matrix
Found on the surfaces of developing bone
Arranged during the active in an epitheloid
layer of cuboidal or low columnar cells
connected to each other by slender short
processes.

osteoblasts
Nucleus are often at the end of the cells
farthest from the bony surface
Cytoplasm is intensely basophilic due to its
large content of ribonucleoprotein with well
developed golgi complex.

osteocytes
Mature bone cells
Principal cells of fully formed bone
Enclosed in lacunae within the calcified
ground substance
Cell bodies are flattened according to the
lenticular lacuna that it occupies

osteocytes
Have slender, numerous processes extending
into canaliculi in the surrounding matrix
Cytoplasm has less affinity to basic dye
the golgi bodies are less conspicuous
Play an active role in the release of calcium
from bone to blood
Participate in the homeostatic regulation of
calcium concentration in body fluids

osteoclasts
Are the bone destroying cells
Are giant cells and may
contain as many as 50
nuclei, appear rather
foamy, and have a
ruffled border, particularly
at the surface of the bone
Are active agents in bone resorption
Frequently found in shallow concavities of bone
surface, referred to as Howships Lacunae.

osteoclasts

osteoclasts

osteoclast

osteoclast

osteoclast

Bone Remodelling

bone remodelling

Summary: Bone Cells

unite

osteoclast

Matrix Chem. Composition


Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): chondroitin
sulfate, keratin sulfate, hyaluronic acid
Glycoprotiens: sialoprotein and osteocalcin,
both strongly bind calcium
Collagen fibers: Type I collagen fibers
(resistant to dilute acid and relatively insoluble
to solvents that are used to extract other
collagen types)

Types of Bone / Osseous Tissue


Based on macroscopic morphology
1. cancellous bone / spongy bone / substancia
spongiosa
2. compact bone / substancia compacta

compact and spongy osseous tissue

Spongy Bone
Simple and less
organized
architecture
Composed of
anastomosing
bone trabeculae
or spicules
Shows a meshwork pattern with numerous small
cavities lined with endosteum containing bone marrow
Absence of haversian system / osteon.

Compact Bone

Organized architecture
Appears more solid with fewer cavities
Shows regular arrangement of lamellae
Presence of haversian system / osteon

Cross-section of bone

Bone..microscopic
Cross-section

bone
Osteon

bone

bone

Bone growth and development


Intramembranous Ossification

intramembranous ossification

intramembranous ossification

Endochondral Ossification

Endochondral ossification

endochondral ossification

endochondral ossification

endochondral ossification

endochondral ossification